Science.gov

Sample records for chain transfer agents

  1. RAFT microemulsion polymerization with surface-active chain transfer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hedok, Ibrahim Adnan

    The work described in this dissertation focuses on enhancing the polymer nanoparticle synthesis using RAFT (reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer) in microemulsion polymerization in order to achieve predetermined molecular weight with narrow molecular weight polydispersity. The hypothesis is that the use of an amphiphilic chain transfer agent (surface-active CTA) will confine the CTA to the surface of the particle and thermodynamically favor partitioning of the CTA between micelles and particles throughout the polymerization. Thus, the CTA diffusion from micelles to polymer particles would be minimized and the breadth of the CTA per particle distribution would remain low. We report the successful improved synthesis of poly(butyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(styrene) nanoparticles using the RAFT microemulsion polymerization with surface-active CTA. The polymerization kinetics, polymer characteristics and latex size experimental data are presented. The data analysis indicates that the CTA remains partitioned between the micelles and particles by the end of the polymerization, as expected. We also report the synthesis of well-defined core/shell poly(styrene)/poly(butyl acrylate) nanoparticle, having polydispersity index value of 1.1, using semi-continuous microemulsion polymerization with the surface-active CTA. The surface-active CTA restricts the polymerization growth to the surface of the particle, which facilitates the formation of a shell block co-polymers with each subsequent second monomer addition instead of discrete homopolymers. This synthesis method can be used to create a wide range of core/shell polymer nanoparticles with well-defined morphology, given the right feeding conditions.

  2. Z-Group ketone chain transfer agents for RAFT polymer nanoparticle modification via hydrazone conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Saibal; Xia, Xin; Maiseiyeu, Andrei; Mihai, Georgeta; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    A ketal-containing trithiocarbonyl compound has been synthesized and characterized as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in Reversible Addition Fragmentation Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The ketal functionality does not interfere with RAFT polymerization of acrylate monomers, which proceeds as previously reported to yield macro-CTA polymers and block co-polymers. Post-polymerization ketal cleavage revealed ketone functionality at the polar terminus of an amphiphilic block co-polymer. Hydrazone-formation was facile in both organic solution as well as in aqueous buffer where polymer nanoparticle assemblies were formed, indicating a conjugation/end-functionalization yield of 40–50%. Conjugation was verified with fluorescein, biotin and Gd-DOTA derivatives, and though the trithiocarbonate linkage is hydrolytically labile, we observed stable conjugation for several days at pH 7.4. and 37°C. As expected, streptavidin binding to biotinylated polymer micelles was observed, and size-change based relaxivity increases were observed when Gd-DOTA hydrazide was conjugated to polymer micelles. Cell-uptake of fluorescently labeled polymer micelles was also readily tracked by FACS and fluorescence microscopy. These polymer derivatives demonstrate a range of potential theranostic/biotechnological applications for this conveniently accessible keto-CTA, which include ligand-based nanoparticle targeting and fluorescent/MR nanoparticle contrast agents. PMID:23148126

  3. Facile Fabrication of Water Dispersible Latex Particles with Homogeneous or Chain-Segregated Surface from RAFT Polymerization Using a Mixture of Two Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Hong, Liangzhi; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Water dispersible latex particles with randomly mixed shells or chain segregated surface are synthesized from one-pot reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer heterogeneous polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) using a mixture of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) and poly(2,3-bis(succinyloxy)propyl methacrylate) (PBSPMA) macromolecular chain transfer agents. In methanol, the two in situ synthesized PGMA-b-PBzMA and PBSPMA-b-PBzMA diblock copolymers coaggregate into spherical micelles, which contain PBzMA core and discrete PGMA and PBSPMA nanodomains on the shell. In contrast, in water-methanol mixture (V/V = 9/1), latex particles with homogeneous distribution of PGMA and PBSPMA polymer chains on the shell are obtained. The reasons leading to formation of latex particles with homogenous or chain-segregated surface are discussed, and polymerization kinetics and physical state of PBSPMA in methanol and water-methanol mixtures are ascribed. These polymeric micelles with patterned functional group on the surface are potentially important for application in supracolloidal hierarchical assemblies and catalysis.

  4. Facile Fabrication of Water Dispersible Latex Particles with Homogeneous or Chain-Segregated Surface from RAFT Polymerization Using a Mixture of Two Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Hong, Liangzhi; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Water dispersible latex particles with randomly mixed shells or chain segregated surface are synthesized from one-pot reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer heterogeneous polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) using a mixture of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) and poly(2,3-bis(succinyloxy)propyl methacrylate) (PBSPMA) macromolecular chain transfer agents. In methanol, the two in situ synthesized PGMA-b-PBzMA and PBSPMA-b-PBzMA diblock copolymers coaggregate into spherical micelles, which contain PBzMA core and discrete PGMA and PBSPMA nanodomains on the shell. In contrast, in water-methanol mixture (V/V = 9/1), latex particles with homogeneous distribution of PGMA and PBSPMA polymer chains on the shell are obtained. The reasons leading to formation of latex particles with homogenous or chain-segregated surface are discussed, and polymerization kinetics and physical state of PBSPMA in methanol and water-methanol mixtures are ascribed. These polymeric micelles with patterned functional group on the surface are potentially important for application in supracolloidal hierarchical assemblies and catalysis. PMID:26954075

  5. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization in microemulsion.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Jennifer M

    2012-04-21

    This tutorial review first details the uncontrolled microemulsion polymerization mechanism, and the RAFT polymerization mechanism to provide the necessary background for examining the RAFT microemulsion polymerization mechanism. The effect of the chain transfer agent per micelle ratio and the chain transfer agent aqueous solubility on the RAFT microemulsion polymerization kinetics, polymer molecular weight and polydispersity, and polymer nanoparticle size are discussed with a focus on oil-in-water microemulsions. Modeling of RAFT microemulsion polymerization kinetics and the resulting final polymer molecular weight are presented to assist with the analysis of observed experimental trends. Lastly, the current significance of RAFT microemulsion polymerization and the future directions are discussed. PMID:22246214

  6. Irreversible heavy chain transfer to chondroitin.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L; Calabro, Anthony

    2014-10-17

    We have recently demonstrated that the transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-α-inhibitor, via the enzyme TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6), to hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides is an irreversible event in which subsequent swapping of HCs between HA molecules does not occur. We now describe our results of HC transfer experiments to chondroitin sulfate A, chemically desulfated chondroitin, chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin, unsulfated heparosan, heparan sulfate, and alginate. Of these potential HC acceptors, only chemically desulfated chondroitin and chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin were HC acceptors. The kinetics of HC transfer to chondroitin was similar to HA. At earlier time points, HCs were more widely distributed among the different sizes of chondroitin chains. As time progressed, the HCs migrated to lower molecular weight chains of chondroitin. Our interpretation is that TSG-6 swaps the HCs from the larger, reversible sites on chondroitin chains, which function as HC acceptors, onto smaller chondroitin chains, which function as irreversible HC acceptors. HCs transferred to smaller chondroitin chains were unable to be swapped off the smaller chondroitin chains and transferred to HA. HCs transferred to high molecular weight HA were unable to be swapped onto chondroitin. We also present data that although chondroitin was a HC acceptor, HA was the preferred acceptor when chondroitin and HA were in the same reaction mixture.

  7. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  8. 12 CFR 341.3 - Registration as securities transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration as securities transfer agent. 341... OF GENERAL POLICY REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES TRANSFER AGENTS § 341.3 Registration as securities... functions of a transfer agent as described in § 341.2(a) with respect to qualifying securities...

  9. 12 CFR 341.3 - Registration as securities transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Registration as securities transfer agent. 341... OF GENERAL POLICY REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES TRANSFER AGENTS § 341.3 Registration as securities... functions of a transfer agent as described in § 341.2(a) with respect to qualifying securities...

  10. 12 CFR 341.3 - Registration as securities transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration as securities transfer agent. 341... OF GENERAL POLICY REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES TRANSFER AGENTS § 341.3 Registration as securities... functions of a transfer agent as described in § 341.2(a) with respect to qualifying securities...

  11. Bacterial Electron Transfer Chains Primed by Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wessels, H J C T; de Almeida, N M; Kartal, B; Keltjens, J T

    2016-01-01

    Electron transport phosphorylation is the central mechanism for most prokaryotic species to harvest energy released in the respiration of their substrates as ATP. Microorganisms have evolved incredible variations on this principle, most of these we perhaps do not know, considering that only a fraction of the microbial richness is known. Besides these variations, microbial species may show substantial versatility in using respiratory systems. In connection herewith, regulatory mechanisms control the expression of these respiratory enzyme systems and their assembly at the translational and posttranslational levels, to optimally accommodate changes in the supply of their energy substrates. Here, we present an overview of methods and techniques from the field of proteomics to explore bacterial electron transfer chains and their regulation at levels ranging from the whole organism down to the Ångstrom scales of protein structures. From the survey of the literature on this subject, it is concluded that proteomics, indeed, has substantially contributed to our comprehending of bacterial respiratory mechanisms, often in elegant combinations with genetic and biochemical approaches. However, we also note that advanced proteomics offers a wealth of opportunities, which have not been exploited at all, or at best underexploited in hypothesis-driving and hypothesis-driven research on bacterial bioenergetics. Examples obtained from the related area of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation research, where the application of advanced proteomics is more common, may illustrate these opportunities. PMID:27134025

  12. 11 CFR 102.6 - Transfers of funds; collecting agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Except as provided in 11 CFR 102.6(b), organizations or committees making transfers under 11 CFR 102.6(a... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of funds; collecting agents. 102.6... RECORDKEEPING BY POLITICAL COMMITTEES (2 U.S.C. 433) § 102.6 Transfers of funds; collecting agents....

  13. Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins: 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Bryan D; Cartagena, Debora; McClee, Vondguraus; Gangadharan, Denise; Weyant, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Select Agent Program, which is composed of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Select Agents and Toxins and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Agricultural Select Agent Services, regulates entities that possess, use, or transfer biological select agents and toxins in the United States and must preapprove all transfers within or into the US. The requirement to preapprove transfers allows the Federal Select Agent Program to monitor and track shipments to receive alerts of theft, loss, or release during shipment, thereby protecting public health and safety. As part of the program, the Division of Select Agents and Toxins regulates biological select agents and toxins that have been identified by the US government as posing a severe threat to public health and safety. The division analyzed 4,402 transfers that occurred between March 2003 and December 2013 to identify frequently transferred biological select agents and toxins and the types of entities involved in transfers. During the study period, 1 package was lost during shipment and it was determined not to pose a threat to public health. The Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated the loss and concluded that the package was most likely damaged by the commercial carrier and discarded. Further, there were no reports of theft or release associated with biological select agents and toxins shipments. This report represents the first in-depth review of biological select agent and toxin transfers that were approved by the Division of Select Agents and Toxins.

  14. Coherent-state transfer via highly mixed quantum spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellaro, Paola; Viola, Lorenza; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2011-03-15

    Spin chains have been proposed as quantum wires in many quantum-information processing architectures. Coherent transmission of quantum information in spin chains over short distances is enabled by their internal dynamics, which drives the transport of single-spin excitations in perfectly polarized chains. Given the practical challenge of preparing the chain in a pure state, we propose to use a chain that is initially in the maximally mixed state. We compare the transport properties of pure and mixed-state chains and find similarities that enable the experimental study of pure-state transfer via mixed-state chains. We also demonstrate protocols for the perfect transfer of quantum information in these chains. Remarkably, mixed-state chains allow the use of Hamiltonians that do not preserve the total number of single-spin excitations and are more readily obtainable from the naturally occurring magnetic dipolar interaction. We discuss experimental implementations using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and defect centers in diamond.

  15. 76 FR 16843 - Order Cancelling Registrations of Certain Transfer Agents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ....C. 78q-1(c)(4)(B). \\2\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63211 (Oct. 29, 2010), 75 FR 68012. For... Services) 8405926 GTI Corporate Transfer Agents LLC 8406151 Guarantee Services CORP 8406145 HOLA...

  16. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  17. Chain elongation analog of resveratrol as potent cancer chemoprevention agent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Hai-Xia; Xin, Long-Zuo; Ge, Li-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is identified as a natural cancer chemoprevention agent. There has been a lot of interest in designing and developing resveratrol analogs with cancer chemoprevention activity superior to that of parent molecule and exploring their action mechanism in the past several decades. In this study, we have synthesized resveratrol analogs of compounds A-C via conjugated chain elongation based on isoprene unit retention strategy. Remarkably, cytotoxic activity analysis results indicated that compound B possesses the best proliferation inhibition activity for NCI-H460 cells in all the test compounds. Intriguingly, compound B displayed a higher cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) compared to normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). Afterward, flow cytometry analysis showed that compound B would induce cell apoptosis. We further researched the action mechanism. When NCI-H460 cells were incubated by compound B for 6 or 9 h, respectively, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was enhanced obviously. With elevation of intracellular ROS level, flow cytometry measurement verified mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, which was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. More interestingly, compound B increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, compound B arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. These are all to provide useful information for designing resveratrol-based chemoprevention agent and understanding the action mechanism. PMID:27160168

  18. Qubit teleportation and transfer across antiferromagnetic spin chains.

    PubMed

    Campos Venuti, L; Degli Esposti Boschi, C; Roncaglia, M

    2007-08-10

    We explore the capability of spin-1/2 chains to act as quantum channels for both teleportation and transfer of qubits. Exploiting the emergence of long-distance entanglement in low-dimensional systems [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 247206 (2006)10.1103/Phys.Rev.Lett.96, 247206(2006)], here we show how to obtain high communication fidelities between distant parties. An investigation of protocols of teleportation and state transfer is presented, in the realistic situation where temperature is included. Basing our setup on antiferromagnetic rotationally invariant systems, both protocols are represented by pure depolarizing channels. We propose a scheme where channel fidelity close to 1 can be achieved on very long chains at moderately small temperature.

  19. State of research: environmental pathways and food chain transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, B E

    1984-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of biologically active components of petroleum, synthetic fuel oils, certain metal elements and pesticides provide valuable generic information needed for predicting the long-term fate of buried waste constituents and their likelihood of entering food chains. Components of such complex mixtures partition between solid and solution phases, influencing their mobility, volatility and susceptibility to microbial transformation. Estimating health hazards from indirect exposures to organic chemicals involves an ecosystem's approach to understanding the unique behavior of complex mixtures. Metabolism by microbial organisms fundamentally alters these complex mixtures as they move through food chains. Pathway modeling of organic chemicals must consider the nature and magnitude of food chain transfers to predict biological risk where metabolites may become more toxic than the parent compound. To obtain predictions, major areas are identified where data acquisition is essential to extend our radiological modeling experience to the field of organic chemical contamination. PMID:6428875

  20. Alkoxyamine-cyanoborane adducts: efficient cyanoborane transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Márquez, José M; Martínez-Castro, Elisa; Gabrielli, Serena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Angulo, Manuel; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández-Bolaños, José G

    2011-05-21

    We report the synthesis of the hitherto unknown zwitterionic alkoxyamino cyanoboranes by reduction of O-alkyloximes with sodium cyanoborohydride; unprecedented cyanoboronated N-alkoxyformamidines were also isolated as by-products. Boronated alkoxyamines were found to be efficient cyanoborane transfer agents towards more basic amines, including aminosugars; they were also successfully transformed into neoglycoconjugates by the neoglycorandomization reaction with reducing sugars.

  1. Optimization of excitation transfer in a spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Vladimir I.; Guseva, Irina S.; Fesko, Oles V.

    2016-06-01

    A revised formulation of the problem of fastest transfer of the excitation in a spin chain is considered on the base of Shrödinger equation which Hamiltonian depends linearly on control. It is taken into account that the excitation of the first or last spin means that it has greatest amplitude equal to the chain invariant whereas its phase is undefined and can be considered as an additional control variable. The role of this additional control is analyzed via transformation of the original problem with unbounded linear control to the regular derived problem known from the theory of degenerate problems [1, 2], in the same way as in [2]. The overall procedure is demonstrated in computational experiments with the use of visual examples.

  2. Anderson localisation in spin chains for perfect state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronke, Rebecca; Estarellas, Marta P.; D'Amico, Irene; Spiller, Timothy P.; Miyadera, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    Anderson localisation is an important phenomenon arising in many areas of physics, and here we explore it in the context of quantum information devices. Finite dimensional spin chains have been demonstrated to be important devices for quantum information transport, and in particular can be engineered to allow for "perfect state transfer" (PST). Here we present extensive investigations of disordered PST spin chains, demonstrating spatial localisation and transport retardation effects, and relate these effects to conventional Anderson localisation. We provide thresholds for Anderson localisation in these finite quantum information systems for both the spatial and the transport domains. Finally, we consider the effect of disorder on the eigenstates and energy spectrum of our Hamiltonian, where results support our conclusions on the presence of Anderson localisation.

  3. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41 CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images.

  4. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-16 - Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of securities because of a merger or acquisition by another transfer agent, shall send written notice... issuer of securities because of a merger or acquisition of another transfer agent, shall send written... services resulting from the merger or acquisition of another transfer agent, shall include the full...

  5. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Sowby, M.

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.

  6. 'Green' reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsarilar, Mona; Perrier, Sébastien

    2010-10-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization has revolutionized the field of polymer synthesis as a versatile tool for the production of complex polymeric architectures. As for all chemical processes, research and development in RAFT have to focus on the design and application of chemical products and processes that have a minimum environmental impact, and follow the principles of 'green' chemistry. In this Review, we summarize some of the green features of the RAFT process, and review the recent advances in the production of degradable polymers obtained from RAFT polymerization. Its use to modify biodegradable and renewable inorganic and organic materials to yield more functional products with enhanced applications is also covered. RAFT is a promising candidate for answering both the increasing need of modern society to employ highly functional polymeric materials and the global requirements for developing sustainable chemicals and processes.

  7. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  8. Poly(vinyl ester) Block Copolymers Synthesized by Reversible Addition−Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerizations

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, Corinne E.; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    2009-07-31

    Homopolymerizations and block copolymerizations of vinyl acetate (VAc), vinyl pivalate (VPv), and vinyl benzoate (VBz) by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization have been studied. Polymerizations of VAc initiated with 2,2{prime}-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) at 60 C using two different xanthate RAFT agents C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(=S)SR (R = -CH(CH{sub 3})CO{sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (1) and -CH(CH{sub 3})O{sub 2}CC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} (2)) were examined to elucidate the dependence of the polydispersities of the resulting polymers on the RAFT agent leaving group R. RAFT agent 2, in which the leaving R-group mimics a growing vinyl ester polymer chain, consistently yields poly(vinyl acetates) having broader polydispersities than those synthesized using 1 (M{sub n} = 3.6-14 kg/mol and M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.15-1.33). While VPv exhibits similar controlled polymerization behavior to VAc, RAFT homopolymerizations of VBz mediated by 1 indicate this electron-deficient vinyl ester requires higher temperatures to effect controlled polymerizations to yield polymers having M{sub n} = 4-14 kg/mol and M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.29-1.53. Chain extension reactions from xanthate-terminated vinyl ester homopolymers with VAc, VPv, and VBz proceed with variable efficiencies to furnish block copolymers that microphase separate in the melt state as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  9. Preparation of polystyrene brush film by radical chain-transfer polymerization and micromechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Miao; An, Yanqing; Liu, Jianxi; Yan, Fengyuan

    2008-12-01

    A radical chain-transfer polymerization technique has been applied to graft-polymerize brushes of polystyrene (PSt) on single-crystal silicon substrates. 3-Mercapto-propyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), as a chain-transfer agent for grafting, was immobilized on the silicon surface by a self-assembling process. The structure and morphology of the graft-functionalized silicon surfaces were characterized by the means of contact-angle measurement, ellipsometric thickness measurement, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanotribological and micromechanical properties of the as-prepared polymer brush films were investigated by frictional force microscopy (FFM), force-volume analysis and scratch test. The results indicate that the friction properties of the grafted polymer films can be improved significantly by the treatment of toluene, and the chemically bonded polystyrene film exhibits superior scratch resistance behavior compared with the spin-coated polystyrene film. The resultant polystyrene brush film is expected to develop as a potential lubrication coating for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  10. Robust and reliable transfer of a qubit state through an XY spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Ming; Allen Bishop, C.; Byrd, Mark S.; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian

    2009-08-01

    We present several protocols for reliable quantum state transfer through an XY spin chain. Among these is a simple two-spin encoding that achieves a remarkably high-fidelity transfer for an arbitrary quantum state. The fidelity of the transfer also decreases slowly with increasing chain length. Furthermore, the reliability can be increased by taking advantage of a local memory and/or confirming transfer using a second spin chain. The simplicity and high fidelity of the encoding makes this a candidate for near-future experiments including a test of the quantum speed limit.

  11. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain.

    PubMed

    Blakkolb, B; Logan, C; Jandura, L; Okon, A; Anderson, M; Katz, I; Aveni, G; Brown, K; Chung, S; Ferraro, N; Limonadi, D; Melko, J; Mennella, J; Yavrouian, A

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm(2) on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm(2) on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  12. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakkolb, B.; Logan, C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A.; Anderson, M.; Katz, I.; Aveni, G.; Brown, K.; Chung, S.; Ferraro, N.; Limonadi, D.; Melko, J.; Mennella, J.; Yavrouian, A.

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm2 on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm2 on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  13. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain.

    PubMed

    Blakkolb, B; Logan, C; Jandura, L; Okon, A; Anderson, M; Katz, I; Aveni, G; Brown, K; Chung, S; Ferraro, N; Limonadi, D; Melko, J; Mennella, J; Yavrouian, A

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm(2) on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm(2) on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  14. All possible coupling schemes in XY spin chains for perfect state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yaoxiong; Shuang Feng; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-07-15

    We investigate quantum state transfer in XY spin chains and propose a recursive procedure to construct the nonuniform couplings within these chains of arbitrary length in order to achieve perfect state transfer. We show that this method is capable of finding all possible coupling schemes for perfect state transfer. These schemes, without external control fields, involve analytically identified engineered couplings without the need for dynamical control. The analytical solutions provide all information for coupling design.

  15. NHC-manganese(i) complexes as carbene transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Javier; Berros, Angela; Perandones, Bernabé F; Vivanco, Marilín

    2009-09-21

    Tautomerization of coordinated azoles to their corresponding N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been carried out by reaction of complexes fac-[Mn(L)(CO)(3)(dppe)](+) (L = N-phenylimidazole) and fac-[Mn(L)(CO)(3)(bipy)](+) (L = N-methylbenzimidazole, benzoxazole, benzothiazole) with KO(t)Bu and subsequent protonation of the azolyl intermediates with NH(4)PF(6). Several NHC-manganese(i) complexes bearing an N-H residue of general formula fac-[Mn(NHC)(CO)(3)(dppe)](+) and fac-[Mn(NHC)(CO)(3)(bipy)](+) have been tested as carbene transfer agents to the gold fragments [Au(L)](+) (L = PPh(3), CNPh, CNXylyl), allowing isolation or spectroscopic detection of various Mn(i)/Au(i) heterometallic intermediates containing azolyl bridging ligands, which liberate the gold(i) carbene complexes [Au(NHC)(L)](+) by means of acid hydrolysis. By contrast, when using the silver(i) fragment [Ag(PPh(3))](+) as carbene acceptor no transmetallation process occurred but instead inverse tautomerization of the NHC to the corresponding imidazole ligand was observed.

  16. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-17 - Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... search for lost securityholders. 240.17Ad-17 Section 240.17Ad-17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-17 Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders. (a)(1) Every..., each recordkeeping transfer agent shall conduct two data base searches using at least one...

  17. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-17 - Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... search for lost securityholders. 240.17Ad-17 Section 240.17Ad-17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-17 Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders. (a)(1) Every..., each recordkeeping transfer agent shall conduct two data base searches using at least one...

  18. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-17 - Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... search for lost securityholders. 240.17Ad-17 Section 240.17Ad-17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-17 Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders. (a)(1) Every..., each recordkeeping transfer agent shall conduct two data base searches using at least one...

  19. A Demand-Driven Approach for a Multi-Agent System in Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, Yevgeniya; Fasli, Maria

    This paper presents the architecture of a multi-agent decision support system for Supply Chain Management (SCM) which has been designed to compete in the TAC SCM game. The behaviour of the system is demand-driven and the agents plan, predict, and react dynamically to changes in the market. The main strength of the system lies in the ability of the Demand agent to predict customer winning bid prices - the highest prices the agent can offer customers and still obtain their orders. This paper investigates the effect of the ability to predict customer order prices on the overall performance of the system. Four strategies are proposed and compared for predicting such prices. The experimental results reveal which strategies are better and show that there is a correlation between the accuracy of the models' predictions and the overall system performance: the more accurate the prediction of customer order prices, the higher the profit.

  20. An Analysis on Distribution of Cooperative Profit in Supply Chain Based on Multi-Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaofeng; Geng, Hilin

    The problem about the distribution of profit in supply chain cooperation has been widespreadly concerned in recent years. This paper formulates an evolutionary game model of the profit distribution in supply chain. Using the Multi-Agent Simulation technology, we analyze the influences of the profit distribution to the level of cooperation and average individual income. The results show that it's only the profit disribution coefficient in the vicinity of 0.5, the ratio of cooperation can keep relatively high level, and the changes of average individual income caused by cost-benefit ratio are smaller than by knowledge spillover revenue.

  1. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  2. Quantum error correction for state transfer in noisy spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Can robustness against experimental imperfections and noise be embedded into a quantum simulation? In this paper, we report on a special case in which this is possible. A spin chain can be engineered such that, in the absence of imperfections and noise, an unknown quantum state is transported from one end of the chain to the other, due only to the intrinsic dynamics of the system. We show that an encoding into a standard error-correcting code (a Calderbank-Shor-Steane code) can be embedded into this simulation task such that a modified error-correction procedure on readout can recover from sufficiently low rates of noise during transport.

  3. Surface modification of carbon nanotubes via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Liu, Meiying; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qingsong; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a novel strategy for surface modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization. First, pristine CNTs were functionalized with polydopamine (PDA), which is formed via self-polymerization of dopamine in alkaline conditions. These PDA functionalized CNTs can be further reacted with amino-terminated polymers (named as PDMC), which was synthesized through chain transfer free radical polymerization using cysteamine hydrochloride as chain transfer agent and methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride as the monomer. PDMC perfectly conjugated with CNT-PDA was ascertained by a series of characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dispersibility of obtained CNT nanocomposites (named as CNT-PDA-PDMC) was further examined. Results showed that the dispersibility of CNT-PDA-PDMC in aqueous and organic solutions was obviously enhanced. Apart from PDMC, many other amino-terminated polymers can also be used to functionalization of CNTs via similar strategy. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a general strategy for fabrication various polymer nanocomposites.

  4. Energy Transfers in Coupled Ordered Granular Chains with No Precompression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakakis, Alexander; Hasan, Arif M.; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Manevitch, Leonid I.

    2013-03-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled one-dimensional granular chains mounted on elastic foundations. No dissipative effects, such as plasticity or dry friction effects are taken into account in our analysis. Assuming no pre-compression between beads, the dynamics of the system under consideration is strongly nonlinear and, in an acoustic analogy they can be viewed as `sonic vacua'. Sources of strong nonlinearity in these systems are nonlinearizable Hertzian interactions between adjacent beads in compression, and also possible separations between beads in the absence of compressive forces leading to bead collisions. We find that demonstrate that in weakly coupled granular chains there can occur strong energy exchanges in the form of nonlinear beat phenomena of spatially periodic traveling waves, stationary breathers or propagating breathers. We employ analytical techniques to study these dynamical phenomena. This work was supported by MURI grant US ARO W911NF-09-1-0436. Dr. David Stepp is the grant monitor.

  5. Transferring information through a mixed-five-spin chain channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Movahhedian, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    We initially introduce one-dimensional mixed-five-spin chain with Ising-XY model which includes mixture of spins-1/2 and spins-1. Here, it is considered that nearest spins (1,1/2) have Ising-type interaction and nearest spins (1/2,1/2) have both XY-type and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions together. Nearest spins (1,1) have XX Heisenberg interaction. This system is in the vicinity of an external homogeneous magnetic field B in thermal equilibrium state. We promote the quantum information transmitting protocol verified for a normal spin chain with simple model (refer to Rossini D, Giovannetti V and Fazio R 2007 Int. J. Quantum Infor. 5 439) (widely in reference: Giovannetti V and Fazio R 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 032314) by means of considering the suggested mixed-five-spin chain as a quantum communication channel for transmitting both qubits and qutrits ideally. Hence, we investigate some useful quantities such as quantum capacity and quantum information transmission rate for the system. Finally, we conclude that, when the DM interaction between spins (1/2,1/2) increases the system is a more ideal channel for transmitting information.

  6. Spin Chains and Electron Transfer at Stepped Silicon Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aulbach, J; Erwin, S C; Claessen, R; Schäfer, J

    2016-04-13

    High-index surfaces of silicon with adsorbed gold can reconstruct to form highly ordered linear step arrays. These steps take the form of a narrow strip of graphitic silicon. In some cases--specifically, for Si(553)-Au and Si(557)-Au--a large fraction of the silicon atoms at the exposed edge of this strip are known to be spin-polarized and charge-ordered along the edge. The periodicity of this charge ordering is always commensurate with the structural periodicity along the step edge and hence leads to highly ordered arrays of local magnetic moments that can be regarded as "spin chains." Here, we demonstrate theoretically as well as experimentally that the closely related Si(775)-Au surface has--despite its very similar overall structure--zero spin polarization at its step edge. Using a combination of density-functional theory and scanning tunneling microscopy, we propose an electron-counting model that accounts for these differences. The model also predicts that unintentional defects and intentional dopants can create local spin moments at Si(hhk)-Au step edges. We analyze in detail one of these predictions and verify it experimentally. This finding opens the door to using techniques of surface chemistry and atom manipulation to create and control silicon spin chains.

  7. Spin Chains and Electron Transfer at Stepped Silicon Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aulbach, J; Erwin, S C; Claessen, R; Schäfer, J

    2016-04-13

    High-index surfaces of silicon with adsorbed gold can reconstruct to form highly ordered linear step arrays. These steps take the form of a narrow strip of graphitic silicon. In some cases--specifically, for Si(553)-Au and Si(557)-Au--a large fraction of the silicon atoms at the exposed edge of this strip are known to be spin-polarized and charge-ordered along the edge. The periodicity of this charge ordering is always commensurate with the structural periodicity along the step edge and hence leads to highly ordered arrays of local magnetic moments that can be regarded as "spin chains." Here, we demonstrate theoretically as well as experimentally that the closely related Si(775)-Au surface has--despite its very similar overall structure--zero spin polarization at its step edge. Using a combination of density-functional theory and scanning tunneling microscopy, we propose an electron-counting model that accounts for these differences. The model also predicts that unintentional defects and intentional dopants can create local spin moments at Si(hhk)-Au step edges. We analyze in detail one of these predictions and verify it experimentally. This finding opens the door to using techniques of surface chemistry and atom manipulation to create and control silicon spin chains. PMID:26974012

  8. Long-range doublon transfer in a dimer chain induced by topology and ac fields.

    PubMed

    Bello, M; Creffield, C E; Platero, G

    2016-03-02

    The controlled transfer of particles from one site of a spatial lattice to another is essential for many tasks in quantum information processing and quantum communication. In this work we study how to induce long-range transfer between the two ends of a dimer chain, by coupling states that are localized just on the chain's end-points. This has the appealing feature that the transfer occurs only between the end-points - the particle does not pass through the intermediate sites-making the transfer less susceptible to decoherence. We first show how a repulsively bound-pair of fermions, known as a doublon, can be transferred from one end of the chain to the other via topological edge states. We then show how non-topological surface states of the familiar Shockley or Tamm type can be used to produce a similar form of transfer under the action of a periodic driving potential. Finally we show that combining these effects can produce transfer by means of more exotic topological effects, in which the driving field can be used to switch the topological character of the edge states, as measured by the Zak phase. Our results demonstrate how to induce long range transfer of strongly correlated particles by tuning both topology and driving.

  9. Recyclable polystyrene-supported siloxane-transfer agent for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh H; Smith, Amos B

    2014-04-01

    The rational design, synthesis, and validation of a significantly improved insoluble polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent has been achieved that permits efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The cross-linked polystyrene support facilitates product purification with excellent siloxane recycling. Drawbacks of a previous polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent, relating to reaction efficiency and polymer stability after repeated cycles, have been addressed.

  10. Recyclable Polystyrene-Supported Siloxane-Transfer Agent for Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational design, synthesis, and validation of a significantly improved insoluble polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent has been achieved that permits efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The cross-linked polystyrene support facilitates product purification with excellent siloxane recycling. Drawbacks of a previous polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent, relating to reaction efficiency and polymer stability after repeated cycles, have been addressed. PMID:24661113

  11. Bacteriophage-like Particles Associated with the Gene Transfer Agent of Methanococcus Voltale PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Eiserling, F.; Pushkin, A.; Gingery, M.

    1999-01-01

    The methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococus voltae (strain PS) is known to produce a filterable, DNase resistant agent (called VTA, for voltae transfer agent), which carries very small fragments (4,400 base pairs) of bacterial DNA and is able to transduce bacterial genes between derivatives of the strain.

  12. [Identification of the causative agents of glanders and melioidosis by polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, G A; Antonov, V A; Zamaraev, V S; Iliukhin, V I

    2003-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei are causative agents of glanders and melioidosis, respectively, i.e. severe and fatal infection diseases of man and animal. The computer-based analysis of the 23S rRNA gene sites was used for selecting the primers. Two pairs of primers were chosen for the identification of B. mallei and Bpseudomallei. DNAs from 48 B. pseudomallei and 15 strains of B. mallei, unlike from other geterological bacteria, were positively amplified. Therefore, the method of polymerase chain reaction can be used in laboratory diagnosis of glanders and melioidosis.

  13. Kinetics of electron transfer through the respiratory chain.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qusheng; Bethke, Craig M

    2002-01-01

    We show that the rate at which electrons pass through the respiratory chain in mitochondria and respiring prokaryotic cells is described by the product of three terms, one describing electron donation, one acceptance, and a third, the thermodynamic drive. We apply the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics in the context of the chemiosmotic model of proton translocation and energy conservation. This approach leads to a closed-form expression that predicts steady-state electron flux as a function of chemical conditions and the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane or prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane. The rate expression, derived considering reverse and forward electron flow, is the first to account for both thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the respiration rate. The expression can be simplified under specific conditions to give rate laws of various forms familiar in cellular physiology and microbial ecology. The expression explains the nonlinear dependence of flux on electrical potential gradient, its hyperbolic dependence on substrate concentration, and the inhibiting effects of reaction products. It provides a theoretical basis for investigating life under unusual conditions, such as microbial respiration in alkaline waters. PMID:12324402

  14. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated.

  15. Long-range doublon transfer in a dimer chain induced by topology and ac fields

    PubMed Central

    Bello, M.; Creffield, C. E.; Platero, G.

    2016-01-01

    The controlled transfer of particles from one site of a spatial lattice to another is essential for many tasks in quantum information processing and quantum communication. In this work we study how to induce long-range transfer between the two ends of a dimer chain, by coupling states that are localized just on the chain’s end-points. This has the appealing feature that the transfer occurs only between the end-points – the particle does not pass through the intermediate sites–making the transfer less susceptible to decoherence. We first show how a repulsively bound-pair of fermions, known as a doublon, can be transferred from one end of the chain to the other via topological edge states. We then show how non-topological surface states of the familiar Shockley or Tamm type can be used to produce a similar form of transfer under the action of a periodic driving potential. Finally we show that combining these effects can produce transfer by means of more exotic topological effects, in which the driving field can be used to switch the topological character of the edge states, as measured by the Zak phase. Our results demonstrate how to induce long range transfer of strongly correlated particles by tuning both topology and driving. PMID:26932406

  16. Using Business Process Specification and Agent to Integrate a Scenario Driven Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyunbo; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jeong, Hanil; Jones, Albert

    2004-07-01

    In today's increasingly competitive global market, most enterprises place high priority on reducing order-fulfillment costs, minimizing time-to-market, and maximizing product quality. The desire of businesses to achieve these goals has seen a shift from a make-to-stock paradigm to a make-to-order paradigm. The success of this new paradigm requires robust and efficient supply chain integration and the ability to operate in the business-to-business (B2B) environment. Recent internet-based approaches have enabled instantaneous and secure information sharing among trading partners (i.e., customers, manufacturers, and suppliers). In this paper, we present a framework that enables both integration and B2B operations. This framework uses pre-defined business process specifications (BPS) and agent technologies. The BPS, which specifies a message choreography among the trading partners, is modeled using a modified Unified Modeling Language (UML). The behavior of the enterprise applications within each trading partner -- how they respond to external events specified in the BPS -- is modeled using Petri-nets and implemented as a collection of agents. The concepts and models proposed in this paper should provide the starting point for the formulation of a structured approach to B2B supply chain integration and implementation.

  17. Proton transfer via a transient linear water-molecule chain in a membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    Freier, Erik; Wolf, Steffen; Gerwert, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution protein ground-state structures of proton pumps and channels have revealed internal protein-bound water molecules. Their possible active involvement in protein function has recently come into focus. An illustration of the formation of a protonated protein-bound water cluster that is actively involved in proton transfer was described for the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) [Garczarek F, Gerwert K (2006) Nature 439:109–112]. Here we show through a combination of time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations that three protein-bound water molecules are rearranged by a protein conformational change that resulted in a transient Grotthuss-type proton-transfer chain extending through a hydrophobic protein region of bR. This transient linear water chain facilitates proton transfer at an intermediate conformation only, thereby directing proton transfer within the protein. The rearrangement of protein-bound water molecules that we describe, from inactive positions in the ground state to an active chain in an intermediate state, appears to be energetically favored relative to transient incorporation of water molecules from the bulk. Our discovery provides insight into proton-transfer mechanisms through hydrophobic core regions of ubiquitous membrane spanning proteins such as G-protein coupled receptors or cytochrome C oxidases. PMID:21709261

  18. Screening models to predict food-chain transfer of environmental toxicants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.

    1989-03-31

    The objectives of the research effort were to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef, eggs, and poultry meat of six radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either undetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides were isotopes of Tc, Mo, Te, Ba, Zr, and Nb. In addition, /sup 131/I was used in experiments with hens to determine egg and poultry meat transfer coefficients. The new information on transfer coefficients obtained during this project indicates that, in some cases, lower values are appropriate and that those currently in use may provide an overestimate of the risks to man from the animal food chain. The objective of the second phase of this research was to provide information to clarify the physiological parameters that control transfer of radionuclides to animal food products. The data from the first phase has been published but this data has not appeared in the literature and thus is presented here in some detail. 10 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Chaining direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2010-09-28

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for chaining DMA data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO buffer for the origin DMA engine, a RGET data descriptor specifying a DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node and a second RGET data descriptor on the origin node, the second RGET data descriptor specifying a target RGET data descriptor on the target node, the target RGET data descriptor specifying an additional DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node; creating, by the origin DMA engine, an RGET packet in dependence upon the RGET data descriptor, the RGET packet containing the DMA transfer operation data descriptor and the second RGET data descriptor; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine to a target DMA engine on the target node, the RGET packet.

  20. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; Liu, Ying; Heberle, Frederick A.; Katsaras, John; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.

  1. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; Liu, Ying; Heberle, Frederick A.; Katsaras, John; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlationmore » spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.« less

  2. Identification of fungemia agents using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Souza, E S; S Junior, R M; Talhari, S; Souza, J V B

    2010-08-01

    Prompt and specific identification of fungemia agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the following fungemia agents: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, and Histoplasma capsulatum using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). More specifically: a) to evaluate 3 different amplification regions, b) to investigate 3 different restriction enzymes, and c) to use the best PCR/RFLP procedure to indentify 60 fungemia agents from a culture collection. All 3 pairs of primers (ITS1/ITS4, NL4/ITS5 and Primer1/Primer2) were able to amplify DNA from the reference strains. However, the size of these PCR products did not permit the identification of all the species studied. Three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, Ddel and Bfal. Among the combinations of pairs of primers and restriction enzymes, only one (primer pair NL4/ITS5 and restriction enzyme Ddel) produced a specific RFLP pattern for each microorganism studied. Sixty cultures of fungemia agents (selected from the culture collection of Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas--FMTAM) were correctly identified by PCR/RFLP using the prime pair NL4/ITS5 and Ddel. We conclude that the method proved to be both simple and reproducible, and may offer potential advantages over phenotyping methods.

  3. Identification of fungemia agents using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Souza, E S; S Junior, R M; Talhari, S; Souza, J V B

    2010-08-01

    Prompt and specific identification of fungemia agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the following fungemia agents: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, and Histoplasma capsulatum using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). More specifically: a) to evaluate 3 different amplification regions, b) to investigate 3 different restriction enzymes, and c) to use the best PCR/RFLP procedure to indentify 60 fungemia agents from a culture collection. All 3 pairs of primers (ITS1/ITS4, NL4/ITS5 and Primer1/Primer2) were able to amplify DNA from the reference strains. However, the size of these PCR products did not permit the identification of all the species studied. Three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, Ddel and Bfal. Among the combinations of pairs of primers and restriction enzymes, only one (primer pair NL4/ITS5 and restriction enzyme Ddel) produced a specific RFLP pattern for each microorganism studied. Sixty cultures of fungemia agents (selected from the culture collection of Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas--FMTAM) were correctly identified by PCR/RFLP using the prime pair NL4/ITS5 and Ddel. We conclude that the method proved to be both simple and reproducible, and may offer potential advantages over phenotyping methods. PMID:20640387

  4. Study on the performance of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Binbin; Zeng, Zhong; Ren, Qinyu; Chen, Yang; Liang, Mei; Zou, Huawei

    2016-09-01

    A series of block type polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCs) with different molecular architectures were synthesized with macromonomer butenyl alkylene polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene ether (BAPP) and acrylic acid (AA) by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were applied to investigate the PCs' molecular structure. The dispersion capacity of the PCs in cement were also measured, and the results showed that the polycarboxylic dispersing agents prepared by this method were suitable for portlant cement. It was found that the PCs could affect the hydration process, which was performed through retarding the generation of ettringite in the hydrated product. Our studies with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compressive strength measurement of hydrated production were all supporting this conclusion.

  5. Medium-chain sugar amphiphiles: a new family of healthy vegetable oil structuring agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swapnil R; Hwang, Hyeondo; Huang, Qingrong; John, George

    2013-12-11

    Vegetable oils are frequently structured to enhance their organoleptic and mechanical properties. This is usually achieved by increasing the net amount of saturated and/or trans fatty acids in the oil. With the risk of coronary heart diseases associated with these fatty acids, the food industry is looking for better alternatives. In this context, the medium-chain dialkanoates of low-calorie sugars (sugar alcohol dioctanoates) are investigated as a healthy alternative structuring agent. Precursors of sugar amphiphiles, being FDA-approved GRAS materials, exhibited high cell viability at a concentration ~50 μg/mL. They readily formed nanoscale multilayered structures in an oil matrix to form a coherent network at low concentrations (1-3 wt %/v), which immobilized a wide range of oils (canola, soybean, and grapeseed oils). The structuring efficiency of sugar amphiphiles was computed in terms of mechanical, thermal, and structural properties and found to be a function of its type and concentration.

  6. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua Zakaria, Sarani; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  7. Dissemination of CERN's Technology Transfer: Added Value from Regional Transfer Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Technologies developed at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, are disseminated via a network of external technology transfer officers. Each of CERN's 20 member states has appointed at least one technology transfer officer to help establish links with CERN. This network has been in place since 2001 and early experiences indicate…

  8. Tunable self-assembled spin chains of strongly interacting cold atoms for demonstration of reliable quantum state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly perfect state transfer.

  9. Electrode assemblies composed of redox cascades from microbial respiratory electron transfer chains

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Andrew J.; Marritt, Sophie; Bradley, Justin; Shi, Liang; McMillan, Duncan G.; Jeuken, Lars J.; Richardson, David; Butt, Julea N.

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer chains are dependent on vectorial electron transfer through a series of redox proteins. Examples include electron transfer from NapC to NapAB nitrate reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans and from CymA to Fcc3 (flavocytochrome c3) fumarate reductase in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. In the present article, we demonstrate that graphite electrodes can serve as surfaces for the stepwise adsorption of NapC and NapAB, and the stepwise adsorption of CymA and Fcc3. Aspects of the catalytic properties of these assemblies are different from those of NapAB and Fcc3 adsorbed in isolation. We propose that this is due to the formation of NapC-NapAB and of CymA-Fcc3 complexes that are capable of supporting vectorial electron transfer.

  10. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assigned existing employees, has hired new employees, or has engaged third parties to provide assistance in... becomes effective. New transfer agents whose registration with the Commission becomes effective...

  11. Universal scheme for finite-probability perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states through spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; An, Nguyen Ba; Xia, Yun-Jie; Kim, Jaewan

    2014-12-15

    In combination with the theories of open system and quantum recovering measurement, we propose a quantum state transfer scheme using spin chains by performing two sequential operations: a projective measurement on the spins of ‘environment’ followed by suitably designed quantum recovering measurements on the spins of interest. The scheme allows perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states through multiple parallel spin chains with finite probability. Our scheme is universal in the sense that it is state-independent and applicable to any model possessing spin–spin interactions. We also present possible methods to implement the required measurements taking into account the current experimental technologies. As applications, we consider two typical models for which the probabilities of perfect state transfer are found to be reasonably high at optimally chosen moments during the time evolution. - Highlights: • Scheme that can achieve perfect quantum state transfer is devised. • The scheme is state-independent and applicable to any spin-interaction models. • The scheme allows perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states. • Applications to two typical models are considered in detail.

  12. Transfer of Metals in Food Chain: An Example with Copper and Lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2012-12-01

    Present study investigated the possible transfer of metals in the food chain (from soil to edible plants). The experiment was done with lettuce Lactuca sativa grown in different types of soil contaminated with copper (Cu2+) in various concentrations, with or without addition of humic substances. The highest content of copper was detected in lettuce samples grown in soils with lower levels of organic matter, thus indicating the importance of soil organics in metal transfer routes and accumulation rates in plants. It was found that copper accumulation in lettuce grown in contaminated soils can be significantly reduced by the addition of humic substances.

  13. Polymer-supported siloxane transfer agents for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh H; Smith, Amos B

    2013-08-16

    The design, synthesis, and validation of a ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) polymer supporting siloxane transfer agents have been achieved that permit efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The solubility properties of the polymer facilitate not only product purification but also polymer recycling without significant loss of cross-coupling activity.

  14. Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Manohar; Shea, Lonnie D.; Snurr, Randall Q.

    2009-01-01

    Problems requiring numerical solutions of differential equations or the use of agent-based modeling are presented for use in a course on mass transfer. These problems were solved using the popular technical computing language MATLABTM. Students were introduced to MATLAB via a problem with an analytical solution. A more complex problem to which no…

  15. 76 FR 78215 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Services (HHS) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (76 FR 61206... of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (76 FR 61206) requesting public comment on (1... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and...

  16. 77 FR 71702 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... correcting a final rule that appeared in the Federal Register on October 5, 2012 (77 FR 61084). The document... INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2012-24389, published on October 5, 2012 (77 FR 61084) appearing on pages 61086 and... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and...

  17. BASE-CATALYZED DESTRUCTION OF PCBS-NEW DONORS, NEW TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrogen transfer agents and catalysts to improve the base-catalyzed decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The reaction proceeded only in the presence of base, but the rate of PCB disappearance increased with increasing amount of hydrogen ...

  18. Mucus altering agents as adjuncts for nonviral gene transfer to airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, S; Kitson, C; Farley, R; Steel, R; Marriott, C; Parkins, D A; Scarpa, M; Wainwright, B; Evans, M J; Colledge, W H; Geddes, D M; Alton, E W

    2001-09-01

    Nonviral vectors have been shown to be a safe and valid alternative to recombinant viruses for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF). Nevertheless, gene transfer efficiency needs to be increased before clinical efficacy is likely in man. One barrier to increased efficacy is normal airway mucus. Using an ex vivo model of sheep tracheal epithelium, we show that this barrier can, in part, be overcome by treatment with the mucolytic agents, Nacystelyn or N-acetylcysteine using either a cationic lipid or a cationic polymer as the gene transfer agent. Further, in vivo application of either Nacystelyn or the anticholinergic glycopyrrolate, both clinically used agents, resulted in increased reporter gene expression in the mouse lung, but no significant correction of the bioelectric defect in CF null mice. These results, whilst unlikely to be sufficient in themselves to achieve clinically relevant gene therapy, may be a further useful step in the attainment of this goal.

  19. Evaluation of the potential for trophic transfer of roxithromycin along an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Zhang, Zhenghua

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a new class of environmental pollutants in recent years. But data about their potential for transfer and biomagnification in aquatic food chains are still lacking. In this study, bioaccumulation of the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) was determined in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea Daphnia magna and the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 48 h of exposure, S. obliquus accumulated ROX from media, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 74.6, 46.3, and 24.5 l kg(-1) at nominal exposure concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 μg l(-1), respectively. After 48 h of feeding ROX-contaminated algae, D. magna was able to accumulate ROX in all three concentration treatments, but biomagnification did not occur at this trophic level, as biomagnification factors (BMFs) varied from 0.21 to 0.29 in different concentration treatments were well below one. In tissues (muscle, gill, liver, and bile) of C. auratus fed with contaminated daphnia for 8 days, no biomagnification was observed. However, this species did accumulate a certain degree of ROX through food chain transfer, and the tissue burden was greatest in the liver > muscle > gill and lowest in the bile. This work suggests that the trophic transfer should be a matter of concern for ecological risk assessments of pharmaceutical substances in aquatic food webs.

  20. Palladium(II)-catalyzed copolymerization of styrenes with carbon monoxide: mechanism of chain propagation and chain transfer.

    PubMed

    Rix, Francis C; Rachita, Michael J; Wagner, Mark I; Brookhart, Maurice; Milani, Barbara; Barborak, James C

    2009-11-01

    A mechanistic interpretation of the [(1,10-phenanthroline)Pd(CH(3))(CH(3)CN)](+)[BArF](-) (1a) and [(2,2'-bipyridine)Pd(CH(3))(CH(3)CN)](+)[BArF](-) (1b) (BArF = 3,5-(CF(3))(2)-C(6)H(3)) catalyzed perfectly alternating copolymerization of styrenes with CO is reported. The copolymerization in CH(2)Cl(2) or chlorobenzene has been found to be first order in styrene and inverse first order in CO concentrations. The microscopic steps involved in the catalytic cycle have been studied via low temperature NMR techniques. Palladium alkyl chelate complex [(2,2'-bipyridine)Pd(CHArCH(2)C(O)CH(3)](+)[BArF](-) (5b sigma) and [(2,2'-bipyridine)Pd(eta(3)-CH(CH(2)C(O)CH(3))Ar)](+)[BArF](-) (5b pi), existing in equilibrium, were prepared. Treatment of 5b sigma,pi with (13)CO followed by 4-tert-butylstyrene at -78 degrees C allowed for (13)C NMR monitoring of the alternating chain growth of a series of palladium acyl carbonyl complexes. The acyl carbonyl species, representing the catalyst resting state, is in equilibrium with a palladium acyl styrene complex. The equilibrium constant, K(4), measured between [(phen)Pd(CO)(C(O)CH(3)](+)[BArF](-) (3a) and [(phen)Pd(C(O)CH(3))-(C(6)H(5)C=CH(2))](+)[BArF](-) (8a), was determined to be 2.84 +/- 2.8 x 10(-7) at -66 degrees C. The barrier to migratory insertion in 8a was determined (DeltaG(double dagger) (-66 degrees C) = 15.6 +/- 0.1 kcal mol(-1)). From the experimentally determined kinetic and thermodynamic data for the copolymerization of styrene with CO a mechanistic model has been constructed. The ability of this model to predict catalyst turnover frequency (TOF) was used as a test of its validity. A series of para-substituted styrenes, p-XC(6)H(4)CH=CH(2) (X = -OCH(3), -CH(3), -H, -Cl), were copolymerized with CO. A Hammett treatment of TOF for the series showed that electron-donating groups increase the rate of copolymerization (rho p = -0.8). The ratio of chain transfer to chain propagation was found to increase with styrene

  1. Electron transfer between glucose oxidase and electrodes via redox mediators bound with flexible chains to the enzyme surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Adam; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ohara, Timothy J.; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig

    1991-01-01

    Electrical communication between redox centers of glucose oxidase and vitreous carbon electrodes is established through binding to oligosaccharides, at the periphery of the enzyme, ferrocene functions pendant on flexible chains. Communication is effective when the chains are long (greater than 10 bonds), but when the chains are short (less than 5 bonds). When attached to long flexible chains the peripherally bound relays penetrate the enzyme to a sufficient depth to reduce the electron transfer distances between a redox center of the enzyme and the relay and between the relay and electrode, thereby increasing the rate of electron transfer.

  2. Revealing various coupling of electron transfer and proton pumping in mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhou, Qiangjun; Pang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yingzhi; Rao, Zihe

    2013-08-01

    Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy from food and supplies energy for life processes. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is the final and most important step for cellular respiration and is located on the inner membrane of mitochondrion and comprises four large trans-membrane protein complexes (respiratory chain Complexes I, II, III and IV) as well as ubiquinone between Complexes I/II and III and cytochrome c between Complexes III and IV. The function of mitochondrial respiratory chain is biological oxidation by transferring electrons from NADH and succinate to oxygen and then generating proton gradient across the inner membrane. Such proton gradient is utilized by ATP synthase (ATPase, also called as Complex V) to produce energy molecules ATP. Structural studies of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complexes are important to understand the mechanism of electron transfer and the redox-coupled proton translocation across the inner membrane. Here, according to the time line, we reviewed the great achievements on structural studies of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in the past twenty years as well as the recent research progresses on the structures of mitochondrial respiratory supra-complexes.

  3. A quantitative structure activity/dose response relationship for contact allergic potential of alkyl group transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D W; Basketter, D A

    1990-11-01

    As part of the investigation of structure activity relationships in contact allergy, it has been shown that methyl transfer agents are capable of acting as skin sensitizers. This work has now been extended to a more general examination of alkyl transfer reactions. The modified single injection adjuvant test has been used to investigate the sensitization potential of C12, C16 and unsaturated C18 alkyl transfer agents. Dose responses to challenge and the patterns of cross-reactivity between these materials and methyl transfer agents have been studied. All alkyl transfer agents examined were potent sensitizers in the guinea pig. There was evidence of mutual cross-reactivity between all alkyl transfer agents examined (including methyl transfer agents). Analysis of the data in terms of a modified relative alkylation index showed evidence of an overload effect. The sensitization data has been accurately modelled using a mathematical equation. These results emphasize the possibilities for relating physicochemical parameters and skin sensitization potential. Further studies with alkyl transfer agents are in progress of amplify the observations and conclusions presented in this report. No in vitro model is available for the prediction of skin sensitization potential. Therefore an approach based on a model using physicochemical criteria is the most likely route to a reduced requirement for animal testing. PMID:1965716

  4. Grafting of molecularly imprinted polymers from the surface of silica gel particles via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: a selective sorbent for theophylline.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yang, Huang-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2009-07-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were grafted successfully from the surface of silica gel particles via surface initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using RAFT agent functionalized silica gel as the chain transfer agent. The intrinsic characteristics of the controlled/living polymerization mechanism of RAFT allowed for the effective control of the grafting process. Thus the grafting copolymerization of methacrylic acid and divinyl benzene in the presence of template theophylline led to thin MIP film coating silica gel (MIP-Silica). The thickness of MIP film prepared in this study is about 1.98 nm, which was calculated from the nitrogen sorption analysis results. Measured binding kinetics for theophylline to the MIP-Silica and MIPs prepared by conventional bulk polymerization demonstrated that MIP-Silica had improved mass-transfer properties. In addition, the theophylline-imprinted MIP-Silica was used as the sorbent in solid-phase extraction to determine theophylline in blood serum with satisfactory recovery higher than 90%. Nonspecific adsorption of interfering compounds can be eliminated by a simple elution with acetonitrile, without sacrificing the selective binding of theophylline.

  5. Discovering Abstract Concepts to Aid Cross-Map Transfer for a Learning Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpson, Cédric; Corruble, Vincent

    The capacity to apply knowledge in a context different than the one in which it was learned has become crucial within the area of autonomous agents. This paper specifically addresses the issue of transfer of knowledge acquired through online learning in partially observable environments. We investigate the discovery of relevant abstract concepts which help the transfer of knowledge in the context of an environment characterized by its 2D geographical configuration. The architecture proposed is tested in a simple grid-world environment where two agents duel each other. Results show that an agent’s performances are improved through learning, including when it is tested on a map it has not yet seen.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of mixed-spin chains in magnetic field by the transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H. H.; Yao, K. L.; Liu, Z. L.

    2006-10-01

    Motivated by recent experimental synthesis of molecule-based ferrimagnetics, we have investigated the thermodynamic properties of one-dimensional antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic mixed spin- {1}/{2} lozenge chain in external magnetic fields at low temperature, using the transfer matrix method. The magnetization and the specific heat of the spin system have been evaluated numerically from the free energy. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field at low temperature shows step-like plateau characterized by three critical magnetic fields, which reflects the competing effect of magnetic interactions and thermal fluctuations. The double-peak structure in the curves of the specific heat is also found, which comes from the huge variation of the long-range order parameters. Our results show that the thermodynamic properties of the mixed spin- {1}/{2} molecule-based ferrimagnetics are very analogous to the behaviors of the spin-1 and spin- {1}/{2} mixed antiferromagentic chain.

  7. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  8. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a "metabolic transistor" approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The "metabolic transistor" strategy was applied to control electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount.

  9. Carrier transfer in vertically stacked quantum ring-quantum dot chains

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Yu. I. Dorogan, V. G.; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.; Lopes-Oliveira, V.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Teodoro, M. D.; Marques, G. E.; Souza, L. D. de; Wu, J.; Wang, Z. M.; Tarasov, G. G.; Marega, E.

    2015-04-21

    The interplay between structural properties and charge transfer in self-assembled quantum ring (QR) chains grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) superlattice template is analyzed and characterized. The QDs and QRs are vertically stacked and laterally coupled as well as aligned within each layer due to the strain field distributions that governs the ordering. The strong interdot coupling influences the carrier transfer both along as well as between chains in the ring layer and dot template structures. A qualitative contrast between different dynamic models has been developed. By combining temperature and excitation intensity effects, the tuning of the photoluminescence gain for either the QR or the QD mode is attained. The information obtained here about relaxation parameters, energy scheme, interlayer and interdot coupling resulting in creation of 1D structures is very important for the usage of such specific QR–QD systems for applied purposes such as lasing, detection, and energy-harvesting technology of future solar panels.

  10. Carrier transfer in vertically stacked quantum ring-quantum dot chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Yu. I.; Lopes-Oliveira, V.; de Souza, L. D.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Teodoro, M. D.; Dorogan, V. G.; Benamara, M.; Wu, J.; Tarasov, G. G.; Marega, E.; Wang, Z. M.; Marques, G. E.; Salamo, G. J.

    2015-04-01

    The interplay between structural properties and charge transfer in self-assembled quantum ring (QR) chains grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) superlattice template is analyzed and characterized. The QDs and QRs are vertically stacked and laterally coupled as well as aligned within each layer due to the strain field distributions that governs the ordering. The strong interdot coupling influences the carrier transfer both along as well as between chains in the ring layer and dot template structures. A qualitative contrast between different dynamic models has been developed. By combining temperature and excitation intensity effects, the tuning of the photoluminescence gain for either the QR or the QD mode is attained. The information obtained here about relaxation parameters, energy scheme, interlayer and interdot coupling resulting in creation of 1D structures is very important for the usage of such specific QR-QD systems for applied purposes such as lasing, detection, and energy-harvesting technology of future solar panels.

  11. Evidence of three-level trophic transfer of quantum dots in an aquatic food chain by using bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the three-level trophic transfer of quantum dots (QDs) within the aquatic food chain. Using bioimaging, we observed QD transfer from protozoa (Astasia longa) to zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) to fish (Danio rerio). Bioimaging is an effective tool that can improve our understanding of the delivery of nanomaterials in vivo. Measurement with an intravital multiphoton laser scanning microscope visually proved the transfer of QDs from the first to the second and the second to the third levels. As QDs may be passed from lower organisms to humans via the food chain, our findings have implications for the safety of their use.

  12. Evidence of three-level trophic transfer of quantum dots in an aquatic food chain by using bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the three-level trophic transfer of quantum dots (QDs) within the aquatic food chain. Using bioimaging, we observed QD transfer from protozoa (Astasia longa) to zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) to fish (Danio rerio). Bioimaging is an effective tool that can improve our understanding of the delivery of nanomaterials in vivo. Measurement with an intravital multiphoton laser scanning microscope visually proved the transfer of QDs from the first to the second and the second to the third levels. As QDs may be passed from lower organisms to humans via the food chain, our findings have implications for the safety of their use. PMID:25119416

  13. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients. PMID:24877122

  14. Impairment of electron transfer chain induced by acute carnosine administration in skeletal muscle of young rats.

    PubMed

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I-III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I-III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients. PMID:24877122

  15. Effect of feeding selectivity on the transfer of methylmercury through experimental marine food chains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jingxian; Chen, Jieru; Wei, Jie; Zhao, Wen; Liu, Qing; Sun, Huiling

    2013-08-01

    The present study established an experimental marine food chain of three levels (microalgae → zooplankton → fish) to investigate the effect of feeding selectivity on the transfer of methylmercury (MeHg) through the food chain. Total Hg concentrations in Chlorella sp., Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana exposed to 1 μg L(-1) MeHg for three days were 27.91, 32.74 and 40.03 μg g(-1) respectively and were significantly different (p < 0.05) between species. Moina mongolica and Artemia sp. primarily selected Chlorella sp. as the sole diet, though the Artemia sp. partly grazed on I. galbana as well. Harpacticus uniremis, however, preferred to graze N. closterium and I. galbana and avoided Chlorella sp. The varying concentration of Hg in the microalgae species as well as the selectivity of zooplankton to the algal diet resulted in varying Hg accumulation in three zooplankton species (M. mongolica < Artemia sp. < H. uniremis with total Hg concentrations of 0.14, 0.66 and 0.82 μg g(-1), respectively). Scophthalmus maximus and Paralichthys olivaceus mainly preyed on H. uniremis and partly on M. mongolica, while Fugu rubripes primarily preyed on M. mongolica and secondarily on Artemia sp. Thus, similar reasoning as above could explain the significant difference in Hg accumulation in the fish (S. maximus > P. olivaceus > F. rubripes with total Hg concentrations of 0.0042, 0.0031 and 0.0020 μg g(-1), respectively). These investigations suggested feeding selectivity plays a key role in the transfer of MeHg along marine food chains. PMID:23702096

  16. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturated Fatty acids to the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Demmelmair, Hans; Parrilla, J J; Koletzko, Berthold; Larqué, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during gestation and development of cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is the maternal circulation. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labeled fatty acids have shown preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts, and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized for lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA-synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes involved in lipolysis, modifying the rate of placental transfer, and metabolism. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge of the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process. PMID:22303352

  17. Simulation of radioactive cesium transfer in the southern Fukushima coastal biota using a dynamic food chain transfer model.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki

    2013-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident occurred on 11 March 2011. The accident introduced (137)Cs into the coastal waters which was subsequently transferred to the local coastal biota thereby elevating the concentration of this radionuclide in coastal organisms. In this study, the radioactive cesium levels in coastal biota from the southern Fukushima area were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. The simulation derived the possible maximum radioactive cesium levels in organisms, indicating that the maximum (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, benthic fish and predator fish occurred during late April, late May and late July, respectively in the studied area where the source was mainly the direct leakage of (137)Cs effluent from the 1F NPP. The delay of a (137)Cs increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer of (137)Cs introduced to the ecosystem from the initial contamination of the seawater. The model also provided the degree of radionuclide depuration in organisms, and it demonstrated the latest start of the decontamination phase in benthic fish. The ecological half-lives, derived both from model simulation and observation, were 1-4 months in invertebrates, and 2-9 months in plankton feeding fish and coastal predator fish from the studied area. In contrast, it was not possible to similarly calculate these parameters in benthic fish because of an unidentified additional radionuclide source which was deduced from the biological compartment model. To adequately reconstruct the in-situ depuration of radiocesium in benthic fish in the natural ecosystem, a contamination source associated with the bottom sediments is necessary.

  18. Unifying mechanism for anticancer agents involving electron transfer and oxidative stress: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence supports involvement of electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) in the mechanism of many anticancer drugs. The common ET functionalities, usually present in the drug metabolites, are quinones (or precursors), metal complexes (or complexors), aromatic nitro compounds (or reduced hydroxylamine and nitroso derivatives), and conjugated imines (or iminium species). The ET agents function catalytically in redox cycling with formation of ROS from oxygen. Electrochemical data add support to the mechanistic viewpoint. The generated metabolites generally possess reduction potentials amenable to ET in vivo, thus giving rise to ROS. The resulting OS is a participant in destruction of the cancer cell. It is important to recognize that drug action is often multipronged. The various modes of action are summarized. Most research has been devoted to development of new and improved chemotherapeutic agents. The need for more attention to measures for cancer prevention is addressed. One of the most promising involves use of antioxidants.

  19. Comparative analysis of using natural and radiogenic lead as heat-transfer agent in fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laas, R. A.; Gizbrekht, R. V.; Komarov, P. A.; Nesterov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    Fast reactors with lead coolant have several advantages over analogues. Performance can be further improved by replacement of natural composition lead with radiogenic one. Thus, two main issues need to be addressed: induced radioactivity in coolant and efficient neutron multiplication factor in the core will be changed and need to be estimated. To address these issues analysis of the scheme of the nuclear transformations in the lead heat-transfer agent in the process of radiation was carried out. Induced radioactivity of radiogenic and natural lead has been studied. It is shown that replacement of lead affects multiplication factor in a certain way. Application of radiogenic lead can significantly affect reactor operation.

  20. The Potential of Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization as Safe Nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Shuo; Luo, Kui; Hu, Jiani; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers have been presented as nanoscale drug/gene delivery systems and imaging probes, and the well-defined HPMA copolymers prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization promote their to clinical trials, as the significant enhanced anticancer efficacy. The biosafety is another issue associated with the carriers. In this study, we prepared the linear and branched HPMA copolymers labeled with Cy5.5 via RAFT polymerization and click chemistry, and their potential biosafety was studied. The linear copolymer was prepared via RAFT polymerization mediated by the ends-functionalized peptide chain transfer agent (peptide2CTA), resulting in well-defined and block linear HPMA copolymer with molecular weight (MW) of 98 kDa. Additionally, the branched HPMA copolymer was also prepared via RAFT polymerization. Followed by Cy5.5 labeling, the two copolymers showed negative zeta potential and their accumulation into tumor was studied by in vivo optical fluorescence imaging in the nude mice with breast tumors. The biosafety studies on in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility studies, including hemolysis tests, plasma coagulation and thromboelastography assay were carried out well, demonstrating that the linear HPMA copolymer-Cy5.5 with MW around 100 kDa and biodegradable moiety in the main chain might be utilized as safe nanoscale carrier. PMID:27427626

  1. Dental plaque microcosm response to bonding agents containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates with different chain lengths and charge densities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Antibacterial bonding agents are promising to combat bacteria and caries at tooth-restoration margins. The objectives of this study were to incorporate new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) to bonding agent and determine the effects of alkyl chain length (CL) and quaternary amine charge density on dental plaque microcosm bacteria response for the first time. Methods Six QAMs were synthesized with CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 18. Each QAM was incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP). To determine the charge density effect, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM, CL = 16) was mixed into SBMP at mass fraction = 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%. Charge density was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Dental plaque microcosm using saliva from ten donors was tested. Bacteria were inoculated on resins. Early-attachment was tested at 4 hours. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacteria early-attachment. Microcosm biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent increased with DMAHDM content. Bacteria early-attachment decreased with increasing charge density. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by 4 log. The killing effect was similarly-strong against total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. Conclusions Increasing alkyl chain length and charge density of bonding agent was shown for the first time to decrease microcosm bacteria attachment and reduce biofilm CFU by 4 orders of magnitude. Novel antibacterial resins with tailored chain length and charge density are promising for wide applications in bonding, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit biofilms and caries. PMID:23948394

  2. Functional and Evolutionary Characterization of a Gene Transfer Agent's Multilocus "Genome".

    PubMed

    Hynes, Alexander P; Shakya, Migun; Mercer, Ryan G; Grüll, Marc P; Bown, Luke; Davidson, Fraser; Steffen, Ekaterina; Matchem, Heidi; Peach, Mandy E; Berger, Tim; Grebe, Katherine; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Lang, Andrew S

    2016-10-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are phage-like particles that can package and transfer a random piece of the producing cell's genome, but are unable to transfer all the genes required for their own production. As such, GTAs represent an evolutionary conundrum: are they selfish genetic elements propagating through an unknown mechanism, defective viruses, or viral structures "repurposed" by cells for gene exchange, as their name implies? In Rhodobacter capsulatus, production of the R. capsulatus GTA (RcGTA) particles is associated with a cluster of genes resembling a small prophage. Utilizing transcriptomic, genetic and biochemical approaches, we report that the RcGTA "genome" consists of at least 24 genes distributed across five distinct loci. We demonstrate that, of these additional loci, two are involved in cell recognition and binding and one in the production and maturation of RcGTA particles. The five RcGTA "genome" loci are widespread within Rhodobacterales, but not all loci have the same evolutionary histories. Specifically, two of the loci have been subject to frequent, probably virus-mediated, gene transfer events. We argue that it is unlikely that RcGTA is a selfish genetic element. Instead, our findings are compatible with the scenario that RcGTA is a virus-derived element maintained by the producing organism due to a selective advantage of within-population gene exchange. The modularity of the RcGTA "genome" is presumably a result of selection on the host organism to retain GTA functionality. PMID:27343288

  3. Particle-size dependent accumulation and trophic transfer of cerium oxide through a terrestrial food chain.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Joseph; De la Torre Roche, Roberto; Xing, Baoshan; Newman, Lee A; Ma, Xingmao; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge; White, Jason C

    2014-11-18

    The accumulation and trophic transfer of nanoparticle (NP) or bulk CeO2 through a terrestrial food chain was evaluated. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) was planted in soil with 0 or 1228 μg/g bulk or NP CeO2. After 28 d, zucchini tissue Ce content was determined by ICP-MS. Leaf tissue from each treatment was used to feed crickets (Acheta domesticus). After 14 d, crickets were analyzed for Ce content or were fed to wolf spiders (family Lycosidae). NP CeO2 significantly suppressed flower mass relative to control and bulk treatments. The Ce content of zucchini was significantly greater when exposure was in the NP form. The flowers, leaves, stems, and roots of zucchini exposed to bulk CeO2 contained 93.3, 707, 331, and 119,000 ng/g, respectively; NP-exposed plants contained 153, 1510, 479, and 567 000 ng/g, respectively. Crickets fed NP CeO2-exposed zucchini leaves contained significantly more Ce (33.6 ng/g) than did control or bulk-exposed insects (15.0-15.2 ng/g). Feces from control, bulk, and NP-exposed crickets contained Ce at 248, 393, and 1010 ng/g, respectively. Spiders that consumed crickets from control or bulk treatments contained nonquantifiable Ce; NP-exposed spiders contained Ce at 5.49 ng/g. These findings show that NP CeO2 accumulates in zucchini at greater levels than equivalent bulk materials and that this greater NP intake results in trophic transfer and possible food chain contamination. PMID:25340623

  4. Side chain effects in reactions of the potassium-tyrosine charge transfer complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Meneses, G.; Ingólfsson, O.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2016-10-01

    Fragmentation of transient negative ions of tyrosine formed through electron transfer in collisions with neutral potassium atoms is presented in the collision energy range from 30 to 75 eV. At low collision energies the dominating side chain channel observed corresponds to the cleavage of the bond from the para-position of the phenyl ring to the β-C of the remaining moiety, but cleavage of the Cαsbnd Cβ bond is also observed. Further fragments are formed through cleavage of the Cα bond to the carbonyl group, through decomposition of the carboxyl group or through significant decomposition of the backbone. The dehydrogenated molecular anion is also observed with appreciable intensity. These results are discussed in the context of earlier studies on dissociative electron attachment to tyrosine and other amino acids, as well as within the role of the side chain in electron induced decomposition of this aromatic amino acid. Stabilization of the temporary molecular anion in the transient collision complex is discussed and we argue that this may have significant influence on the branching ratios observed.

  5. Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in plants and their transfer to human food chain.

    PubMed

    Dudka, S; Miller, W P

    1999-07-01

    Contaminated soils can be a source for crop plants of such elements like As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The excessive transfer of As, Cu, Ni, and Zn to the food chain is controlled by a "soil-plant barrier"; however, for some elements, including Cd, the soil-plant barrier fails. The level of Cd ingested by average person in USA is about 12 micrograms/day, which is relatively low comparing to Risk Reference Dose (70 micrograms Cd/day) established by USEPA. Food of plant origin is a main source of Cd intake by modern society. Fish and shellfish may be a dominant dietary sources of Hg for some human populations. About half of human Pb intake is through food, of which more than half originates from plants. Dietary intake of Cd and Pb may be increased by application of sludges on cropland with already high levels of these metals. Soils amended with sludges in the USA will be permitted (by USEPA-503 regulations) to accumulate Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Se, and Zn to levels from 10 to 100 times the present baseline concentrations. These levels are very permissive by international standards. Because of the limited supply of toxicity data obtained from metals applied in sewage sludge, predictions as to the new regulations will protect crop plants from metal toxicities, and food chain from contamination, are difficult to make.

  6. Evaluation of food chain transfer of the antibiotic oxytetracycline and human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Boonsaner, Maliwan; Hawker, Darryl W

    2013-10-01

    There has been recent concern regarding the possibility of antibiotics entering the aquatic food chain and impacting human consumers. This work reports experimental results of the bioconcentration of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) by the Asian watermeal plant (Wolffia globosa Hartog & Plas) and bioaccumulation of OTC in watermeal and water by the seven-striped carp (Probarbus jullieni). They show, for the first time, the extent to which OTC is able to transfer from water to plant to fish and enter the food chain. The mean bioconcentration factor (dry weight basis) with watermeal was 1.28 × 10(3) L kg(-1). Separate experiments were undertaken to characterize accumulation of OTC by carp from water and watermeal. These showed the latter pathway to be dominant under the conditions employed. The bioconcentration and biomagnification factors for these processes were 1.75 L kg(-1) and 2 × 10(-4) kg g(-1) respectively. Using an aqueous concentration range of 0.34-3.0 μg L(-1), hazard quotients for human consumption of contaminated fish of 1.3 × 10(-2) to 1.15 × 10(-1) were derived.

  7. Detection of nerve agents using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Joachim M

    2013-01-01

    The chemical warfare agents (CWA) Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin and Tabun were characterised by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTRMS). It was found that PTRMS is a suitable technique to detect nerve agents highly sensitively, highly selectively and in near real-time. Methods were found to suppress molecule fragmentation which is significant under PTRMS hollow cathode ionisation conditions. In this context, the drift voltage (as one of the most important system parameters) was varied and ammonia was introduced as an additional chemical reagent gas. Auxiliary chemicals such as ammonia affect ionisation processes and are quite common in context with detectors for CWAs based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). With both, variation of drift voltage and ammonia as the reagent gas, fragmentation can be suppressed effectively. Suppression of fragmentation is crucial particularly concerning the implementation of an algorithm for automated agent identification in field applications. On the other hand, appearance of particular fragments might deliver additional information. Degradation and rearrangement products of nerve agents are not distinctive for the particular agent but for the chemical class they belong to. It was found that switching between ammonia doped and ordinary water ionisation chemistry can easily be performed within a few seconds. Making use of this effect it is possible to switch between fragment and molecular ion peak spectra. Thus, targeted fragmentation can be used to confirm identification based only on single peak detection. PTRMS turned out to be a promising technique for future CWA detectors. In terms of sensitivity, response time and selectivity (or confidence of identification, respectively) PTRMS performs as a bridging technique between IMS and GC-MS.

  8. Detection of nerve agents using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Joachim M

    2013-01-01

    The chemical warfare agents (CWA) Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin and Tabun were characterised by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTRMS). It was found that PTRMS is a suitable technique to detect nerve agents highly sensitively, highly selectively and in near real-time. Methods were found to suppress molecule fragmentation which is significant under PTRMS hollow cathode ionisation conditions. In this context, the drift voltage (as one of the most important system parameters) was varied and ammonia was introduced as an additional chemical reagent gas. Auxiliary chemicals such as ammonia affect ionisation processes and are quite common in context with detectors for CWAs based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). With both, variation of drift voltage and ammonia as the reagent gas, fragmentation can be suppressed effectively. Suppression of fragmentation is crucial particularly concerning the implementation of an algorithm for automated agent identification in field applications. On the other hand, appearance of particular fragments might deliver additional information. Degradation and rearrangement products of nerve agents are not distinctive for the particular agent but for the chemical class they belong to. It was found that switching between ammonia doped and ordinary water ionisation chemistry can easily be performed within a few seconds. Making use of this effect it is possible to switch between fragment and molecular ion peak spectra. Thus, targeted fragmentation can be used to confirm identification based only on single peak detection. PTRMS turned out to be a promising technique for future CWA detectors. In terms of sensitivity, response time and selectivity (or confidence of identification, respectively) PTRMS performs as a bridging technique between IMS and GC-MS. PMID:24308198

  9. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long

  10. Interhead fluorescence energy transfer between probes attached to translationally equivalent sites on the regulatory light chains of scallop myosin.

    PubMed

    Chantler, P D; Tao, T

    1986-11-01

    Interhead fluorescence energy transfer studies between probes located at translationally equivalent sites on the two heads of scallop myosin indicates that the distance between such sites is no less than 50 A. Regulatory light chains, possessing either one (Mercenaria, chicken gizzard) or two (Loligo, rabbit skeletal) sulfhydryl groups, were modified either with 1,5-IAEDANS (N'-iodoacetyl-N'-(1-sulfo-5-n-naphthyl)ethylenediamine), as energy transfer donor, or with IAF (5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein) or DABMI (4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4'-maleimide), as energy transfer acceptor. The sulfhydryl groups on these light chains are located at different positions within the regulatory light-chain primary sequence; this enables one to probe a variety of locations, with respect to regulatory light-chain topology, on each myosin head. These independently modified regulatory light chains were added back to desensitized scallop myosin under a variety of conditions, including biphasic re-addition, the aim being to maximize the number of interhead energy transfer couples present. The efficiency of energy transfer was determined on the same samples by both steady-state and time-decay techniques. Results obtained by these two techniques were in good agreement with each other and indicated that the efficiency of energy transfer did not exceed 20% in any of the hybrids studied. Transfer efficiencies were invariant, irrespective of the presence or absence of MgATP, calcium or actin, either separately or in combination. Results using heavy meromyosin at low ionic strength were identical. It is shown that these results, in conjunction with the results of recent crosslinking studies performed on comparable myosin hybrids, may place certain restrictions on the configurations of the two heads of myosin.

  11. The Fragments of the Photosynthetic Electron Transfer Chain in Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Krasnovsky, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    In this paper the recent research from our laboratory is reviewed. Short fragments of the photochemical electron transfer chain of photosynthesis were reproduced in aqueous detergent solutions or in organic solvents. The function of photosystem I is reproduced in a ternary system of chlorophylls, electron donors (dienols, sulfhydryl compounds, hydrazine, etc.), and electron acceptors (viologens, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide [NAD], flavines, etc.). Chlorophyll-photosensitized reduction of viologens in some cases is activated by oxygen at the expense of active reductants formed during the photosensitized oxidation of an initial electron donor (thiourea). Chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidoreduction of cytochromes is activated by flavines, viologens, vitamin K derivatives, and some other redox systems (cofactors of cyclic photophosphorylation). The primary mechanism of the reactions studied depends on the reversible chlorophyll photooxidoreduction. In binary systems, chlorophyll (monomeric or aggregated) and electron donor or electron acceptor, reversible photoreduction or photooxidation is observed. Irreversible bacteriochlorophyll oxidation leads to the formation of chlorophyll and protochlorophyll analogues; irreversible protochlorophyll photoreduction results in chlorophyll-like pigment appearance. The photodisaggregation of chlorophyll was observed. The models of photosystem II studied were the photochemical oxygen evolution in aqueous solutions of electron acceptors (ferric compounds, quinone), photosensitized in the near UV part of the spectrum by inorganic semiconductors (tungsten, titanium, and zinc oxides). All reactions described are based on electron (hydrogen) transfer photosensitized by pigment system. PMID:4338745

  12. The fragments of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain in model systems.

    PubMed

    Krasnovsky, A A

    1972-07-01

    In this paper the recent research from our laboratory is reviewed. Short fragments of the photochemical electron transfer chain of photosynthesis were reproduced in aqueous detergent solutions or in organic solvents. The function of photosystem I is reproduced in a ternary system of chlorophylls, electron donors (dienols, sulfhydryl compounds, hydrazine, etc.), and electron acceptors (viologens, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide [NAD], flavines, etc.). Chlorophyll-photosensitized reduction of viologens in some cases is activated by oxygen at the expense of active reductants formed during the photosensitized oxidation of an initial electron donor (thiourea). Chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidoreduction of cytochromes is activated by flavines, viologens, vitamin K derivatives, and some other redox systems (cofactors of cyclic photophosphorylation). The primary mechanism of the reactions studied depends on the reversible chlorophyll photooxidoreduction. In binary systems, chlorophyll (monomeric or aggregated) and electron donor or electron acceptor, reversible photoreduction or photooxidation is observed. Irreversible bacteriochlorophyll oxidation leads to the formation of chlorophyll and protochlorophyll analogues; irreversible protochlorophyll photoreduction results in chlorophyll-like pigment appearance. The photodisaggregation of chlorophyll was observed. The models of photosystem II studied were the photochemical oxygen evolution in aqueous solutions of electron acceptors (ferric compounds, quinone), photosensitized in the near UV part of the spectrum by inorganic semiconductors (tungsten, titanium, and zinc oxides). All reactions described are based on electron (hydrogen) transfer photosensitized by pigment system.

  13. The role of solitons in charge and energy transfer in 1D molecular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivić , Zoran

    1998-03-01

    The idea that polarons and solitons could play the crucial role in the transport processes in biological structures, has been critically reexamined on the basis of the general theory of self-trapping phenomena. The criteria which enable one to determine conditions for the existence and stability of polarons and solitons and to determine their character, in dependence of the values of the basic physical parameters of the system, were formulated. Validity of the so-called Davydov's soliton model was discussed on the basis of these criteria. It was found that the original Davydov's proposal, based upon the idea of the soliton creation due to the single excitation (particle, vibron, etc.) self-trapping, cannot explain the intramolecular energy transfer in α-helix and acetanilide. However, Davydov theory is flexible enough to describe the single electron transfer in some systems (α-helix and acetanilide for example). In the many-particle systems, dressing effect, due to the quantum nature of phonons, may cause the creation of the bound states of the several excitons in the molecular chain. The possibility of creation of the soliton states of this type is discussed for the simple Fröhlich's one-dimensional model. The regions of the system parameter space where different mechanisms dominate the behaviour of such entities are characterized.

  14. Physical characteristics of lanthanide complexes that act as magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanrong; Sherry, A. Dean

    2003-02-01

    Rapid water exchange is normally considered a prerequisite for efficient Gd 3+-based MRI contrast agents. Yet recent measures of exchange rates in some Gd 3+ complexes have shown that water exchange can become limiting when such complexes are attached to larger macromolecular structures. A new class of lanthanide complexes that display unusually slow water exchange (bound water lifetimes ( τM298) > 10 μs) has recently been reported. This apparent disadvantage may be taken advantage of by switching the metal ion from gadolinium(III) to a lanthanide that shifts the bound water resonance substantially away from bulk water. Given appropriate water exchange kinetics, one can then alter the intensity of the bulk water signal by selective presaturation of this highly shifted, Ln3+-bound water resonance. This provides the basis of a new method to alter MR image contrast in tissue. We have synthesized a variety of DOTA-tetra(amide) ligands to evaluate as potential magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents and found that the bound water lifetimes in these complexes are sensitive to both ligand structure (a series of Eu 3+ complexes have τM298 values that range from 1 to 1300 μs) and the identity of the paramagnetic Ln3+ cation (from 3 to 800 μs for a single ligand). This demonstrates that it may be possible either to fine-tune the ligand structure or to select proper lanthanide cation to create an optimal MT agent for any clinical imaging field.

  15. [Transfer characteristics of cadmium in soil-vegetable-insect food chain].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ping; Zhuang, Ping; Li, Zhi-An; Xia, Han-Ping; Tai, Yi-Ping; Lu, Huan-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Taking two kinds of vegetables (Brassica rapa and Amaranthus mangostanus) and one insect species (Prodenia litura) as test materials, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the transfer characteristics of cadmium (Cd) in soil-vegetable-insect food chain and the distribution patters of different Cd chemical forms in the organs of the two vegetables. With the increasing concentration of applied Cd in soil, the biomass of the two vegetables decreased significantly, while the Cd concentration in the vegetables had a significant increase. The Cd concentration in the vegetable organs decreased in the order of stem > root > leaf for A. mangostanus, and of stem > leaf > root for B. rapa. The Cd concentration in P. litura larvae also increased with the increasing concentration of Cd in soil, and the maximum Cd concentration in the P. litura larvae on B. rapa and A. mangostanus was 36.7 and 46.3 mg x kg(-1), respectively. In the feces of the larvae on B. rapa and A. mangostanus, the Cd concentration was up to 190 and 229.8 mg x kg(-1), respectively, suggesting that the most part of Cd absorbed by P. litura larvae was excreted out of their bodies via feces. In the organs of the two vegetables, NaCl-extractable Cd was the dominant Cd form (> 70%), followed by d-H2O- and ethanol-extractable Cd, while the HAc-extractable Cd (insoluble cadmium phosphate), HCl-extractable Cd (insoluble cadmium oxalate), and residual Cd only had a very low concentration. Such a present pattern of different Cd forms in vegetable organs could be conducive to the Cd transfer in the food chain. P. litura could ease Cd poison by excreting large amount of absorbed Cd via feces, and effectively restrict the transfer of Cd to next trophic level. Since B. rapa and A. mangostanus could accumulate large amount of Cd in their biomass, the two vegetables were suggested not to be planted in highly Cd-contaminated soil.

  16. [Transfer characteristics of cadmium in soil-vegetable-insect food chain].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ping; Zhuang, Ping; Li, Zhi-An; Xia, Han-Ping; Tai, Yi-Ping; Lu, Huan-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Taking two kinds of vegetables (Brassica rapa and Amaranthus mangostanus) and one insect species (Prodenia litura) as test materials, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the transfer characteristics of cadmium (Cd) in soil-vegetable-insect food chain and the distribution patters of different Cd chemical forms in the organs of the two vegetables. With the increasing concentration of applied Cd in soil, the biomass of the two vegetables decreased significantly, while the Cd concentration in the vegetables had a significant increase. The Cd concentration in the vegetable organs decreased in the order of stem > root > leaf for A. mangostanus, and of stem > leaf > root for B. rapa. The Cd concentration in P. litura larvae also increased with the increasing concentration of Cd in soil, and the maximum Cd concentration in the P. litura larvae on B. rapa and A. mangostanus was 36.7 and 46.3 mg x kg(-1), respectively. In the feces of the larvae on B. rapa and A. mangostanus, the Cd concentration was up to 190 and 229.8 mg x kg(-1), respectively, suggesting that the most part of Cd absorbed by P. litura larvae was excreted out of their bodies via feces. In the organs of the two vegetables, NaCl-extractable Cd was the dominant Cd form (> 70%), followed by d-H2O- and ethanol-extractable Cd, while the HAc-extractable Cd (insoluble cadmium phosphate), HCl-extractable Cd (insoluble cadmium oxalate), and residual Cd only had a very low concentration. Such a present pattern of different Cd forms in vegetable organs could be conducive to the Cd transfer in the food chain. P. litura could ease Cd poison by excreting large amount of absorbed Cd via feces, and effectively restrict the transfer of Cd to next trophic level. Since B. rapa and A. mangostanus could accumulate large amount of Cd in their biomass, the two vegetables were suggested not to be planted in highly Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23431799

  17. Evaluating the trophic transfer of cadmium, polonium, and methylmercury in an estuarine food chain.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Teresa; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2008-05-01

    We examined the transfer of Cd, methylmercury (MeHg), and Po in an estuarine food chain (from phytoplankton to zooplankton [Daphnia pulex] to killifish [Fundulus heteroclitus] and, finally, to juvenile striped bass [Morone saxatilis]) to better understand both the extent to which these elements may biomagnify and the underlying mechanisms governing this biomagnification. Among the phytoplankton examined (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Chlamdomonas reinhardtii), metal uptake was rapid, and volume concentration factors for all metals reached values between 10(4) and 10(5). The resulting assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals in all animals were highest for MeHg, with values greater than 76%. The AEs of Cd were 21 to 33% in D. pulex, 1 to 16% in F. heteroclitus, and 38 to 56% in M. saxatilis. Polonium AEs were 69 to 87% in D. pulex, 25 to 41% in F. heteroclitus, and 9 to 21% in M. saxatilis. Loss rate constants (ke) of metals in D. pulex ranged from 0.04/d for MeHg to 0.39/d for Po; metal ke values for F. heteroclitus ranged from 0.01 to 0.02/d. Using a kinetic model, we showed that the trophic transfer factor, defined as the ratio of metal concentration in predatory animals to metal concentration in prey organisms, was greater than unity for all three metals in D. pulex feeding on phytoplankton, suggesting that these metals may be biomagnified at this trophic step. In killifish feeding on D. pulex, the trophic transfer factor was consistently greater than one for MeHg, consistently less than one for Cd, and from 0.1 to 1.4 for Po, suggesting that both MeHg and Po have the potential to biomagnify at this trophic step.

  18. Bond-length alternation and charge transfer in a linear carbon chain encapsulated within a single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusznyák, Á.; Zólyomi, V.; Kürti, J.; Yang, S.; Kertesz, M.

    2005-10-01

    The physical properties of a linear carbon chain encapsulated within single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated with density-functional theory using periodic boundary conditions. The dominant feature of an isolated carbon chain is the Peierls dimerization and the opening of a Peierls gap. The two weakly interacting subsystems (infinite carbon chain and nanotube) establish a common Fermi level, resulting in charge transfer (CT) which leads to a metallic combined system with a high density of states at the Fermi level. The rigid band model provides useful insights. Unusual physics arises from the effects of CT and chain-tube orbital hybridization which both tend to suppress the Peierls dimerization. Implications for the observed Raman spectrum of the chain-nanotube system are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of Isoprene Chain Extension from PEO Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents for the Preparation of Dual, Invertible Block Copolymer Nanoassemblies

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Jeremy W.; Cauët, Solène I.; Billings, Peter L.; Lin, Lily Yun; Zhu, Jiahua; Fidge, Christopher; Pochan, Darrin J.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Two RAFT-capable PEO macro-CTAs, 2 and 5 kDa, were prepared and used for the polymerization of isoprene which yielded well-defined block copolymers of varied lengths and compositions. GPC analysis of the PEO macro-CTAs and block copolymers showed remaining unreacted PEO macro-CTA. Mathematical deconvolution of the GPC chromatograms allowed for the estimation of the blocking efficiency, about 50% for the 5 kDa PEO macro-CTA and 64% for the 2 kDa CTA. Self assembly of the block copolymers in both water and decane was investigated and the resulting regular and inverse assemblies, respectively, were analyzed with DLS, AFM, and TEM to ascertain their dimensions and properties. Assembly of PEO-b-PIp block copolymers in aqueous solution resulted in well-defined micelles of varying sizes while the assembly in hydrophobic, organic solvent resulted in the formation of different morphologies including large aggregates and well-defined cylindrical and spherical structures. PMID:21399721

  20. Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Elin; Lindqvist, Dennis; Dahlgren, Henrik; Asplund, Lillemor; Lehtilä, Kari

    2016-02-01

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  1. QSAR Study and Molecular Design of Open-Chain Enaminones as Anticonvulsant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Garro Martinez, Juan C.; Duchowicz, Pablo R.; Estrada, Mario R.; Zamarbide, Graciela N.; Castro, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    Present work employs the QSAR formalism to predict the ED50 anticonvulsant activity of ringed-enaminones, in order to apply these relationships for the prediction of unknown open-chain compounds containing the same types of functional groups in their molecular structure. Two different modeling approaches are applied with the purpose of comparing the consistency of our results: (a) the search of molecular descriptors via multivariable linear regressions; and (b) the calculation of flexible descriptors with the CORAL (CORrelation And Logic) program. Among the results found, we propose some potent candidate open-chain enaminones having ED50 values lower than 10 mg·kg−1 for corresponding pharmacological studies. These compounds are classified as Class 1 and Class 2 according to the Anticonvulsant Selection Project. PMID:22272137

  2. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. PMID:25069536

  3. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-01

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  4. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-01

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel. PMID:26624525

  5. The horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes is enhanced by ionic liquid with different structure of varying alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Qian; Mao, Daqing; Cui, Yuxiao; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a global health concern. In our previous study, an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) had been proven to facilitate the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. However, enhanced alkyl group chain length or the substitution of alkyl groups with the cation ring corresponded with increased antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated how different structures of ILs with 4, 6, and 8 C atoms in the longer alkyl chain on the imidazolium cations facilitated the dissemination of ARGs. The promotion of plasmid RP4 transfer frequency decreased with [CnMIM][BF4] increasing the alkyl chain length from 4 carbon atoms to 8 carbon atoms on the imidazolium cations, which is observed with [BMIM][BF4] (n = 4, 5.9 fold) > HMIM][BF4] (n = 6, 2.2 fold) > [OMIM][BF4] (n = 8, 1.7 fold). This illustrates that [CnMIM][BF4] with increasing the alkyl chain length exert decreasing ability in facilitating plasmid RP4 horizontal transfer, which is possibly related to IL-structure dependent toxicity. The IL-structure dependent plasmid RP4 transfer frequency was attributable to bacterial cell membrane permeability weaken with increasing alkyl chain length of [CnMIM][PF4], which was evidenced by flow cytometry. In freshwater microcosm, [CnMIm][BF4] promoted the relative abundance of the sulI and intI genes for 4.6 folds, aphA and traF for 5.2 folds higher than the untreated groups, promoting the propagation of ARGs in the aquatic environment. This is the first report that ILs with different structure of varying alkyl chain length facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment, and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs.

  6. The horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes is enhanced by ionic liquid with different structure of varying alkyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Qian; Mao, Daqing; Cui, Yuxiao; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a global health concern. In our previous study, an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) had been proven to facilitate the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. However, enhanced alkyl group chain length or the substitution of alkyl groups with the cation ring corresponded with increased antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated how different structures of ILs with 4, 6, and 8 C atoms in the longer alkyl chain on the imidazolium cations facilitated the dissemination of ARGs. The promotion of plasmid RP4 transfer frequency decreased with [CnMIM][BF4] increasing the alkyl chain length from 4 carbon atoms to 8 carbon atoms on the imidazolium cations, which is observed with [BMIM][BF4] (n = 4, 5.9 fold) > HMIM][BF4] (n = 6, 2.2 fold) > [OMIM][BF4] (n = 8, 1.7 fold). This illustrates that [CnMIM][BF4] with increasing the alkyl chain length exert decreasing ability in facilitating plasmid RP4 horizontal transfer, which is possibly related to IL-structure dependent toxicity. The IL-structure dependent plasmid RP4 transfer frequency was attributable to bacterial cell membrane permeability weaken with increasing alkyl chain length of [CnMIM][PF4], which was evidenced by flow cytometry. In freshwater microcosm, [CnMIm][BF4] promoted the relative abundance of the sulI and intI genes for 4.6 folds, aphA and traF for 5.2 folds higher than the untreated groups, promoting the propagation of ARGs in the aquatic environment. This is the first report that ILs with different structure of varying alkyl chain length facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment, and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs. PMID:26379641

  7. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-11-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds.

  8. Origin of the red sites and energy transfer rates in single MEH-PPV chains at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Feist, Florian A; Zickler, Martin F; Basché, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Single poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) molecules dispersed in thin poly(methylmethacrylate) films have been investigated by fluorescence emission, excitation and time-resolved spectroscopy at 1.2 K. For the molecular weight studied (∼200 kDa) a bimodal distribution of emission maxima is observed. Based on a comparison of the spectroscopic properties of blue and red sites and on polarisation-resolved measurements, we argue in agreement with recent quantum-chemical calculations that the red subpopulation most probably does not arise from interchromophoric excitation delocalisation but is to be attributed to longer chromophoric units originating from ordered regions of a polymer chain, where due to constraints on the chain conformation larger conjugation lengths can be realised. In excitation spectra within the red spectral region we can identify multiple chromophoric units, among them chromophores without correspondence in the emission spectrum-donors of the intramolecular energy transfer. Zero-phonon lines of donor chromophores proved to be significantly broadened, indicating fast excited-state population decay due to energy transfer. Thus, a distribution of energy transfer times within MEH-PPV chains could be determined from donor zero-phonon line widths, with an average value of 3.9 ps. Our study represents the first direct measurement of energy transfer times in conjugated polymers, parameters that are crucial for the performance of many technical applications based on this class of material. PMID:21472962

  9. Transfer of mercury and methylmercury along macroinvertebrate food chains in a floodplain lake of the Beni River, Bolivian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Israel; Gibon, François-Marie; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Dominguez, Eduardo; Guimarães, Jean-Remy D; Roulet, Marc

    2010-07-15

    We have evaluated the mercury and methylmercury transfers to and within the macroinvertebrate communities of a floodplain lake of the Beni River basin, Bolivia, during three hydrological seasons and in two habitats (open water and vegetation belt). Using the stable isotopes delta(13)C and delta(15)N, six trophic chains were identified during a previous study. Four are based on only one source: seston, organic matter from the bottom sediment, periphyton and macrophytes. Two are based on mixed sources (seston and periphyton in one case, periphyton and macrophytes in the other). During sampling, we found only one taxon that had surface sediment organic matter as food source and very few taxa whose trophic source was constituted by macrophytes. The periphyton was the most important source during all seasons; it produced the longest chain, with three trophic positions. Whatever the season and trophic source, all collected macroinvertebrates contained methyl mercury and the latter was biomagnified in all trophic chains that we identified. The biomagnification of methylmercury through invertebrate trophic chains accurately reflected the existence and length of these chains. Biomagnification was virtually non-existent in the sediment-based chain, low and restricted to the dry season in the macrophyte-based chain. It was significant in the seston-based chain, but limited by the existence of only two trophic levels and restricted to the wet season. Finally, it was very effective in the periphyton-based chain, which offers the highest rate of contamination of the source but, above all, the largest number of trophic levels.

  10. Autonomous detection of aerosolized biological agents by multiplexed immunoassay with polymerase chain reaction confirmation.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; McBride, Mary T; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Henderer, Bruce D; Setlur, Ujwal S; Smith, Sally M; Gutierrez, Dora M; Metz, Thomas R; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S; Farrow, Stephen W; Colston, Bill W; Dzenitis, John M

    2005-01-01

    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody- and DNA-based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low. PMID:15623307

  11. In vivo visual evaluation of nanoparticle transfer in a three-species terrestrial food chain.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being used, and they present the risk of being introduced into food webs. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects of NPs in the aquatic and freshwater environments and their transfer to upper-level trophic organisms. However, information on the transfer and consequent effects of NPs on soil invertebrates is still limited. In this study, we assessed the transfer of quantum dots (QDs) through a three-species terrestrial food chain that consisted of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the collembolan Folsomia candida, and the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, as well as their biodistribution in vital organs using fluorescence analytical techniques. To visualize QD incorporation and biodistribution in F. candida, longitudinal and transversal sections were observed after short-term (3 d) and long-term (12 d) feeding with QD-treated yeast. QDs were located only in the intestine of F. candida and excreted within 1-2 d. QDs were also transferred to the pill bug by feeding, and remained in its intestine. This study showed the transfer of NPs through a model terrestrial food chain and indicated the potential hazards of released NPs for organisms at different trophic levels. PMID:26933900

  12. In vivo visual evaluation of nanoparticle transfer in a three-species terrestrial food chain.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being used, and they present the risk of being introduced into food webs. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects of NPs in the aquatic and freshwater environments and their transfer to upper-level trophic organisms. However, information on the transfer and consequent effects of NPs on soil invertebrates is still limited. In this study, we assessed the transfer of quantum dots (QDs) through a three-species terrestrial food chain that consisted of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the collembolan Folsomia candida, and the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, as well as their biodistribution in vital organs using fluorescence analytical techniques. To visualize QD incorporation and biodistribution in F. candida, longitudinal and transversal sections were observed after short-term (3 d) and long-term (12 d) feeding with QD-treated yeast. QDs were located only in the intestine of F. candida and excreted within 1-2 d. QDs were also transferred to the pill bug by feeding, and remained in its intestine. This study showed the transfer of NPs through a model terrestrial food chain and indicated the potential hazards of released NPs for organisms at different trophic levels.

  13. Identification of a Divided Genome for VSH-1, the Prophage-Like Gene Transfer Agent of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204 genome sequence revealed three VSH-1 tail genes hvp31, hvp60, and hvp37, in a 3.6 kb cluster. The location and transcription direction of these genes relative to the previously described VSH-1 16.3 kb gene operon indicate that the gene transfer agent VSH-1 has a ...

  14. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... approved and funded plans for preparing and testing its computer systems for Year 2000 Problems; (2) Whether the plans of the transfer agent exist in writing and address all mission critical computer systems... Year 2000 Problems, including the number and description of the material exceptions resulting from...

  15. 17 CFR 249b.101 - Form TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...))) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TA-W, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TA-W, notice of... TA-W, notice of withdrawal from registration as transfer agent. This form shall be used...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents. 240.17Ad-18 Section 240.17Ad-18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  17. 12 CFR 709.10 - Treatment by conservator or liquidating agent of financial assets transferred in connection with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment by conservator or liquidating agent of financial assets transferred in connection with a securitization or participation. 709.10 Section 709.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS...

  18. [Experimental study of vibrio parahaemolyticus (biotype 2) transfer from water and sediments to benthic marine food chain organisms].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M J; Clement, R

    1979-04-01

    Transfer of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (biotype 2) from sediments to water and from water to benthic marine organisms was studied experimentally using a streptomycin-resistant strain. Transmission by trophic pathways was also studied using reconstituted marine food chains (Mytilus edulis, Nereis diversicolor, Carcinus maenas, Scorpaena porcus, Mus musculus). Water colonization by sediments could be observed only at temperatures above 16 degrees C. Sediments could well constitute a disseminating reservoir for these germs, their cycle in water being dependent of the cycle followed in the sediments. Contamination of animal organisms is essentially effected by a direct mean, either water or sediments; transfer by trophic pathways being negligible. Infection of land consumers (mice) is linked quantitatively to the nature of the last marine organism of the food chain since bacteria can flourish in the digestive tract of certain animals (Carcinus maenas). PMID:487292

  19. Markov chain formalism for polarized light transfer in plane-parallel atmospheres, with numerical comparison to the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B; West, Robert A; Esposito, Larry W

    2011-01-17

    Building on the Markov chain formalism for scalar (intensity only) radiative transfer, this paper formulates the solution to polarized diffuse reflection from and transmission through a vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere. For verification, numerical results are compared to those obtained by the Monte Carlo method, showing deviations less than 1% when 90 streams are used to compute the radiation from two types of atmospheres, pure Rayleigh and Rayleigh plus aerosol, when they are divided into sublayers of optical thicknesses of less than 0.03.

  20. 75 FR 68012 - Notice of Intention To Cancel Registrations of Certain Transfer Agents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    .... Advest Transfer Services, Inc 8405855 AGN Associates & Stock Transfer Services, LLC 8406255 Amazon Natural Treasures.com , Inc 8405839 Beverly National Corporation 8505474 Capital Fund Services,...

  1. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205–279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics. PMID:27460944

  2. Genetic Diversity of Bacterial Communities and Gene Transfer Agents in Northern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments. PMID:25364820

  3. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205–279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics.

  4. Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.

  5. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205-279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics. PMID:27460944

  6. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205-279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics.

  7. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.

    2009-09-09

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.

  8. Polymer-grafted lignin surfactants prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-08-12

    Kraft lignin grafted with hydrophilic polymers has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and investigated for use as a surfactant. In this preliminary study, polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid) were grafted from a lignin RAFT macroinitiator at average initiator site densities estimated to be 2 per particle and 17 per particle. The target degrees of polymerization were 50 and 100, but analysis of cleaved polyacrylamide was consistent with a higher average molecular weight, suggesting not all sites were able to participate in the polymerization. All materials were readily soluble in water, and dynamic light scattering data indicate polymer-grafted lignin coexisted in isolated and aggregated forms in aqueous media. The characteristic size was 15-20 nm at low concentrations, and aggregation appeared to be a stronger function of degree of polymerization than graft density. These species were surface active, reducing the surface tension to as low as 60 dyn/cm at 1 mg/mL, and a greater decrease was observed than for polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles, suggesting that the lignin core was also surface active. While these lignin surfactants were soluble in water, they were not soluble in hexanes. Thus, it was unexpected that water-in-oil emulsions formed in all surfactant compositions and solvent ratios tested, with average droplet sizes of 10-20 μm. However, although polymer-grafted lignin has structural features similar to nanoparticles used in Pickering emulsions, its interfacial behavior was qualitatively different. While at air-water interfaces, the hydrophilic grafts promote effective reductions in surface tension, we hypothesize that the low grafting density in these lignin surfactants favors partitioning into the hexanes side of the oil-water interface because collapsed conformations of the polymer grafts improve interfacial coverage and reduce water-hexanes interactions. We propose that polymer-grafted lignin

  9. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, Yijing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-06-01

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis.

  10. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, YiJing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis. PMID:24954746

  11. The design, synthesis and validation of recoverable and readily reusable siloxane transfer agents for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Solorio, Dionicio; Hoye, Adam T; Nguyen, Minh H; Smith, Amos B

    2013-05-17

    The development of competent, recoverable and reusable 1-oxa-2-silacyclopentene (siloxane) transfer agents for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (CCRs) of organolithium reagents with aryl and alkenyl iodides has been achieved. Drawbacks of the first-generation siloxane-transfer agent (1), relating to facile recovery for potential recycling, have been addressed.

  12. Antiretroviral Agents Effectively Block HIV Replication after Cell-to-Cell Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Permanyer, Marc; Ballana, Ester; Ruiz, Alba; Badia, Roger; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Gonzalo, Encarna; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV has been proposed as a mechanism contributing to virus escape to the action of antiretrovirals and a mode of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. Here, cocultures of infected HIV-1 cells with primary CD4+ T cells or lymphoid cells were used to evaluate virus transmission and the effect of known antiretrovirals. Transfer of HIV antigen from infected to uninfected cells was resistant to the reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir, but was blocked by the attachment inhibitor IgGb12. However, quantitative measurement of viral DNA production demonstrated that all anti-HIV agents blocked virus replication with similar potency to cell-free virus infections. Cell-free and cell-associated infections were equally sensitive to inhibition of viral replication when HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in target cells was measured. However, detection of GFP by flow cytometry may incorrectly estimate the efficacy of antiretrovirals in cell-associated virus transmission, due to replication-independent Tat-mediated LTR transactivation as a consequence of cell-to-cell events that did not occur in short-term (48-h) cell-free virus infections. In conclusion, common markers of virus replication may not accurately correlate and measure infectivity or drug efficacy in cell-to-cell virus transmission. When accurately quantified, active drugs blocked proviral DNA and virus replication in cell-to-cell transmission, recapitulating the efficacy of antiretrovirals in cell-free virus infections and in vivo. PMID:22696642

  13. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-31

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a hotspot owing to the dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the MMIPs were obtained by the surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using Sudan I as the template. The resultant MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction. Benefiting from the controlled/living property of the RAFT strategy, the uniform MIP layer was successfully grafted on the surface of RAFT agent-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, favoring the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four Sudan dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV) from chili powder samples. The recoveries of the spiked samples in chili powder samples ranged from 74.1 to 93.3% with RSD lower than 6.4% and the relative standard uncertainty lower than 0.029. This work provided a good platform for the extraction and removal of Sudan dyes in complicated matrixes and demonstrated a bright future for the application of the well-constructed MMIPs in the field of solid-phase extraction. PMID:26077971

  14. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-31

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a hotspot owing to the dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the MMIPs were obtained by the surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using Sudan I as the template. The resultant MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction. Benefiting from the controlled/living property of the RAFT strategy, the uniform MIP layer was successfully grafted on the surface of RAFT agent-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, favoring the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four Sudan dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV) from chili powder samples. The recoveries of the spiked samples in chili powder samples ranged from 74.1 to 93.3% with RSD lower than 6.4% and the relative standard uncertainty lower than 0.029. This work provided a good platform for the extraction and removal of Sudan dyes in complicated matrixes and demonstrated a bright future for the application of the well-constructed MMIPs in the field of solid-phase extraction.

  15. Transfer and accumulation of metals in a soil-diet-wood mouse food chain along a metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Rogival, Damien; Scheirs, Jan; Blust, Ronny

    2007-01-01

    We studied the accumulation and transfer of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the compartments of a soil-diet-wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) food chain at five sites located along a metal pollution gradient. We observed a clear gradient in metal exposure at increasing distance from the smelter in all compartments of the food chain for the non-essential metals. The gradient was less clear or absent for the essential metals in acorn and mice target tissues. Regression analysis showed overall strong relationships within the soil-diet and diet-wood mouse compartments for the non-essential metals, while relationships for the essential metals were weak or absent. Total metal in soil appeared as a better predictor for the diet metal content than the available metal fraction. Our results suggest a more important transfer of non-essential elements through the food chain than essential elements, which is probably a consequence of homeostatic control of the latter group. PMID:16782248

  16. Photoinitiated electron transfer to selected physisorbed alkyl bromides: The effects of alkyl chain length on dissociation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, K.A.; Camillone, N. III; Osgood, R.M. Jr.

    1999-06-01

    We report the results of measurements of the cross section as a function of wavelength (351, 248, and 193 nm) for photoinitiated dissociative electron attachment to three normal alkyl bromides [CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n{minus}1}Br, n=1, 2, and 3] physisorbed on GaAs(110). Upon UV exposure, the molecules undergo C{endash}Br bond cleavage due to a substrate-mediated electron-transfer process. The cross sections for all three molecules increase monotonically with decreasing wavelength. Our results suggest a {approximately}1 eV higher threshold for dissociation of ethyl and propyl bromide than for methyl bromide. A simple model of the electron-transfer process is employed to estimate the peak per-electron cross section for dissociative attachment in the monolayer. We find that the cross sections for the physisorbed molecules are approximately five times smaller than those for gas-phase molecules, due to a reduction in the lifetime of the molecular anion in the vicinity of the surface. In addition, we also find an increase in cross section with chain length very similar to that observed in the gas phase; the gas-phase behavior has been explained by an increase in the anion lifetime with chain length. Our results suggest that while quenching of the molecular anion at the surface is important, it does not eliminate the progression of anion lifetime with chain length. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    SciTech Connect

    Gruttke, H.; Kratz, W.; Weigmann, G.; Haque, A.

    1988-06-01

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of (/sup 14/C)PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models.

  18. Approaching the Kinetic Inertness of Macrocyclic Gadolinium(III)-Based MRI Contrast Agents with Highly Rigid Open-Chain Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tircsó, Gyula; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Nagy, Viktória; Garda, Zoltán; Garai, Tamás; Kálmán, Ferenc Krisztián; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2016-01-18

    A highly rigid open-chain octadentate ligand (H4 cddadpa) containing a diaminocylohexane unit to replace the ethylenediamine bridge of 6,6'-[(ethane-1,2 diylbis{(carboxymethyl)azanediyl})bis(methylene)]dipicolinic acid (H4 octapa) was synthesized. This structural modification improves the thermodynamic stability of the Gd(3+) complex slightly (log KGdL =20.68 vs. 20.23 for [Gd(octapa)](-) ) while other MRI-relevant parameters remain unaffected (one coordinated water molecule; relaxivity r1 =5.73 mm(-1)  s(-1) at 20 MHz and 295 K). Kinetic inertness is improved by the rigidifying effect of the diaminocylohexane unit in the ligand skeleton (half-life of dissociation for physiological conditions is 6 orders of magnitude higher for [Gd(cddadpa)](-) (t1/2 =1.49×10(5)  h) than for [Gd(octapa)](-) . The kinetic inertness of this novel chelate is superior by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to non-macrocyclic MRI contrast agents approved for clinical use. PMID:26583317

  19. Food chain transfer of selenium in lentic and lotic habitats of a western Canadian watershed.

    PubMed

    Orr, Patricia L; Guiguer, Karin R; Russel, Cynthia K

    2006-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient, exhibiting a narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic concentrations. Egg-laying vertebrates at the top of aquatic food chains are most at risk in environments with elevated aqueous Se concentrations. The Elk River watershed in British Columbia, Canada receives effluents containing Se from five coal mine operations. This study tested three hypotheses that might account for higher Se concentrations in fish from lentic compared to lotic habitats in the watershed: (1) enhanced uptake by aquatic primary producers, (2) longer food chain length, or (3) greater food web accumulation through sediment-detrital pathways. Stable isotope and Se concentration data demonstrated that Se concentrations in aquatic primary producers and food chain lengths were comparable in lentic and lotic habitats. Enhanced formation of organoselenium and subsequent uptake and cycling via sediment detrital pathways likely account for higher fish tissue Se concentrations in lentic than in lotic areas.

  20. Food chain transfer of selenium in lentic and lotic habitats of a western Canadian watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, P.L.; Guiguer, K.R.; Russel, C.K.

    2006-02-15

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient, exhibiting a narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic concentrations. Egg-laying vertebrates at the top of aquatic food chains are most at risk in environments with elevated aqueous Se concentrations. The Elk River watershed in British Columbia, Canada receives effluents containing Se from five coal mine operations. This study tested three hypotheses that might account for higher Se concentrations in fish from lentic compared to lotic habitats in the watershed: (1) enhanced uptake by aquatic primary producers, (2) longer food chain length, or (3) greater food web accumulation through sediment-detrital pathways. Stable isotope and Se concentration data demonstrated that Se concentrations in aquatic primary producers and food chain lengths were comparable in lentic and lotic habitats. Enhanced formation of organoselenium and subsequent uptake and cycling via sediment detrital pathways likely account for higher fish tissue Se concentrations in lentic than in lotic areas.

  1. A QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC DILUTION EFFECTS IN PARAMAGNETIC CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SATURATION TRANSFER AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Whelton A.; Moore, Preston B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational study of the effect of chemical modifications of the meta and para substituents in the coordinating pendant arm of a modified 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N’, N″, N‴-tetraamide (DOTAM) ligand on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) signal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used techniques available. MRI has led to a new class of pharmaceuticals termed “imagining” or “contrast” agents. These agents usually work by incorporating lanthanide metals such as Gadolinium (Gd) and Europium (Eu). This allows the contrast agents to take advantage of the paramagnetic properties of the metals, which in turn enhances the signal detectable by MRI. The effect of simple electron-withdrawing (e.g., nitro) and electron-donating (e.g., methyl) substituents chemically attached to a modified chelate arm (pendant arm) is quantified by charge transfer interactions in the coordinated water-chelate system computed from quantum mechanics. This study attempts to reveal the origin of the substituent effect on the CEST signal and the electronic structure of the complex. We find that the extent of Charge Transfer (CT) depends on orbital orientations and overlaps. However, CT interactions occur simultaneously from all arms, which causes a dilution effect with respect to the pendant arm. PMID:25485283

  2. A QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC DILUTION EFFECTS IN PARAMAGNETIC CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SATURATION TRANSFER AGENTS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Whelton A; Moore, Preston B

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational study of the effect of chemical modifications of the meta and para substituents in the coordinating pendant arm of a modified 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N″, N‴-tetraamide (DOTAM) ligand on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) signal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used techniques available. MRI has led to a new class of pharmaceuticals termed "imagining" or "contrast" agents. These agents usually work by incorporating lanthanide metals such as Gadolinium (Gd) and Europium (Eu). This allows the contrast agents to take advantage of the paramagnetic properties of the metals, which in turn enhances the signal detectable by MRI. The effect of simple electron-withdrawing (e.g., nitro) and electron-donating (e.g., methyl) substituents chemically attached to a modified chelate arm (pendant arm) is quantified by charge transfer interactions in the coordinated water-chelate system computed from quantum mechanics. This study attempts to reveal the origin of the substituent effect on the CEST signal and the electronic structure of the complex. We find that the extent of Charge Transfer (CT) depends on orbital orientations and overlaps. However, CT interactions occur simultaneously from all arms, which causes a dilution effect with respect to the pendant arm. PMID:25485283

  3. Enhancing Chinese Agribusiness Supply Chains with Internet Technologies: A Transnational Knowledge Transfer Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; Bentley, Yongmei; Fu, Zetian; Zografos, Konstantinos; Bemeleit, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports research findings from a project funded by the European Commission. The research used case studies and surveys to identify gaps between Europe and China in the level of Internet adoption in fresh-produce supply chains. The project reveals barriers to Internet adoption in China in this industry, and employs a transnational…

  4. Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer reactions in fullerene-phenothiazine linked compounds: effects of magnetic field and spacer chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, Hiroaki; Noda, Masakazu; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tokudome, Hiromasa; Moribe, Shinya; Yamada, Sunao

    Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of two fullerene(C60)-phenothiazine(PH) linked compounds with different spacer chain length have been compared in benzonitrile (polar solvent) and in benzene (non-polar solvent). Transient absorption and fluorescence spectra indicated that photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer occurred in benzonitrile, but not in benzene. The results are due to solvent effect on energy levels of the photogenerated biradical. The driving forces for the electron transfer were determined by measuring the redox potentials of the C60 and PH moieties. Thermodynamic parameters for the electron transfer processes were evaluated and compared. In benzonitrile, the lifetime of the photogenerated biradical was very long, in spite of being around the top region in Marcus theory. The decay rate of the biradicals was retarded in the presence of magnetic fields. The decay rate constant decreased quickly with increasing the magnetic field and became constant above about 0.2 T. The magnetic field effects verified that the triplet biradical was generated by the intramolecular electron transfer from PH to the triplet excited state of C60 . The long lifetime is most probably ascribed to the spin multiplicities of the biradical.

  5. Possession, use, and transfer of select agents and toxins; biennial review. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    In accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has reviewed the list of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety and is republishing that list. As a result of our review, we have added Chapare virus, Lujo virus, and SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to the list of HHS select agents and toxins. We have also removed from the list of HHS and overlap select agents and toxins, or excluded from compliance with part 73, the agents and toxins described in the Executive Summary. Further, in accordance with Executive Order 13546, "Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States," HHS/CDC has designated those select agents and toxins that present the greatest risk of deliberate misuse with the most significant potential for mass casualties or devastating effects to the economy, critical infrastructure; or public confidence as "Tier 1" agents; established new security requirements for entities possessing Tier 1 agents, including the requirement to conduct pre-access assessments and on-going monitoring of personnel with access to Tier 1 agents and toxins; and made revisions to the regulations to clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, biosafety, and incident response. In a companion document published in this issue of the Federal Register, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has made parallel regulatory changes.

  6. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.

    PubMed

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G

    2011-09-30

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11β; flow cytometry studies showed that 11β exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11β inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11β blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11β enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11β, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11β, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death.

  7. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH2) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such zwitterion modified PP surface.

  8. Natural specific radioactivity in different soils. Transfer in the soil plant food chain.

    PubMed

    Spera, G; Cardone, F; Cherubini, G; Leandri, A

    2003-01-01

    In order to warrant customer's health we must pay attention to the quality of the environment and production processes; that means look all over alimentary chain. Media speak often about this topics, because of the interest of the public opinion regarding agribusiness; Nether the less much is know about soil radioactivity, but often scant attention is directed to the knowledge of the amount what remains in food and arrives to the man who is the last and main user of the product. As a consequence of that, we have done some originals studies concerning specific radioactivity in alimentary chain: soil-plant-food. These studies have been made in relation with geopedologic position of fields in volcanic, clayey, sandy soils of Latium. We have measured radioactive activity over some alimentary chains both annual (like turnip and garden cress) and pluriannual (such as vine). We made comparisons on the same soils studying the following natural markers: K40, Pb214, and Bi214; and Cs137, one of the main natural markers.

  9. Transfer of radionuclides from high polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chain in post Fukushima period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake and tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity into air and ocean. Around 80% of the radioactivity released due to the FDNPP accident in March-April 2011 was either directly discharged into the ocean or deposited onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere. A large amount of long-lived radionuclides (mainly Cs-137) were released into the environment. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean reached a maximum in mid-April of 2011, and then gradually decreased. From 2011 the concentration of Cs-137 in water essentially fell except the area around the FDNPP where leaks of contaminated water are continued. However, in the bottom sediment high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in the first months after the accident and slowly decreased with time. Therefore, it should be expected that a time delay is found of sediment-bound radionuclides in marine organisms. For the modeling of radionuclide transfer from highly polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms the dynamical food chain model BURN-POSEIDON (Heling et al, 2002; Maderich et al., 2014) was extended. In this model marine organisms are grouped into a limited number of classes based on their trophic level and type of species. These include: phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous), crustaceans, and molluscs for pelagic food chain and bottom sediment invertebrates, demersal fishes and bottom predators for benthic food chain and whole water column predators feeding by pelagial and benthic fishes. Bottom invertebrates consume organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as via food. In fishes where radioactivity is not homogeneously distributed over all tissues of the organism, it is assumed that radionuclide

  10. Transfer of Chernobyl fall-out caesium radioisotopes in the cow food chain.

    PubMed

    Belli, M; Drigo, A; Menegon, S; Menin, A; Nazzi, P; Sansone, U; Toppano, M

    1989-09-01

    From February to October 1987 samples of milk, grass and other components of the cow diet were regularly collected and analyzed for their radiocaesium contents in 26 sampling stations in a north-eastern region of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia). In this paper we report the feed-to-milk transfer factors for radiocaesium obtained in 13 farms of this region of Italy.

  11. Biomedical applications of polymers derived by reversible addition - fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT).

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Meagher, Laurence

    2015-08-30

    RAFT- mediated polymerization, providing control over polymer length and architecture as well as facilitating post polymerization modification of end groups, has been applied to virtually every facet of biomedical materials research. RAFT polymers have seen particularly extensive use in drug delivery research. Facile generation of functional and telechelic polymers permits straightforward conjugation to many therapeutic compounds while synthesis of amphiphilic block copolymers via RAFT allows for the generation of self-assembled structures capable of carrying therapeutic payloads. With the large and growing body of literature employing RAFT polymers as drug delivery aids and vehicles, concern over the potential toxicity of RAFT derived polymers has been raised. While literature exploring this complication is relatively limited, the emerging consensus may be summed up in three parts: toxicity of polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents is observed at high concentrations but not with polymers generated with trithiocarbonate RAFT agents; even for polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents, most reported applications call for concentrations well below the toxicity threshold; and RAFT end-groups may be easily removed via any of a variety of techniques that leave the polymer with no intrinsic toxicity attributable to the mechanism of polymerization. The low toxicity of RAFT-derived polymers and the ability to remove end groups via straightforward and scalable processes make RAFT technology a valuable tool for practically any application in which a polymer of defined molecular weight and architecture is desired.

  12. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide–spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms. PMID:21472585

  13. Plasmonics: Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain-arrays below the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brongersma, Mark; Hartman, John; Atwater, Harry

    2000-03-01

    Integrated optics faces the fundamental limitation that, for the guiding, modulation, and amplification of light, structures are needed that have dimensions comparable to the wavelength of light. Recently, it was theoretically shown that this problem can be circumvented by transporting electromagnetic energy along linear chains of closely spaced metal nanoparticles. This transport relies on the near-field electrodynamic interaction between metal particles that sets up coupled plasmon modes. We have modeled the transport properties of corners, T's, and switches that consist of chains of metal nanoparticles. It is shown that propagation is coherent and the group velocities can exceed saturated velocities of electrons in semiconductors ( ~ 105 m/s). High efficiency transmission of energy around sharp corners (bending radius << wavelength of visible light) is possible. The transmission is a strong function of the frequency and polarization direction of the plasmon mode. Finally, the operation of a plasmon switch is modeled in which plasmon waves can be switched. Suggestions are given for the choice of metal particle and host material. These "plasmonic devices" potentially are among the smallest structures with optical functionality.

  14. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-02-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide-spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms.

  15. The transfer and fate of Pb from sewage sludge amended soil in a multi-trophic food chain: a comparison with the labile elements Cd and Zn.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mudasir Irfan; Khan, Fareed Ahmad; Green, Iain D; Naikoo, Mohd Irfan

    2015-10-01

    The contamination of agroecosystems due to the presence of trace elements in commonly used agricultural materials is a serious issue. The most contaminated material is usually sewage sludge, and the sustainable use of this material within agriculture is a major concern. This study addresses a key issue in this respect, the fate of trace metals applied to soil in food chains. The work particularly addresses the transfer of Pb, which is an understudied element in this respect, and compares the transfer of Pb with two of the most labile metals, Cd and Zn. The transfer of these elements was determined from sludge-amended soils in a food chain consisting of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and a predatory beetle (Coccinella septempunctata). The soil was amended with sludge at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 % (w/w). Results showed that Cd was readily transferred through the food chain until the predator trophic level. Zn was the most readily transferred element in the lower trophic levels, but transfer to aphids was effectively restricted by the plant regulating shoot concentration. Pb had the lowest level of transfer from soil to shoot and exhibited particular retention in the roots. Nevertheless, Pb concentrations were significantly increased by sludge amendment in aphids, and Pb was increasingly transferred to ladybirds as levels increased. The potential for Pb to cause secondary toxicity to organisms in higher trophic levels may have therefore been underestimated.

  16. The transfer and fate of Pb from sewage sludge amended soil in a multi-trophic food chain: a comparison with the labile elements Cd and Zn.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mudasir Irfan; Khan, Fareed Ahmad; Green, Iain D; Naikoo, Mohd Irfan

    2015-10-01

    The contamination of agroecosystems due to the presence of trace elements in commonly used agricultural materials is a serious issue. The most contaminated material is usually sewage sludge, and the sustainable use of this material within agriculture is a major concern. This study addresses a key issue in this respect, the fate of trace metals applied to soil in food chains. The work particularly addresses the transfer of Pb, which is an understudied element in this respect, and compares the transfer of Pb with two of the most labile metals, Cd and Zn. The transfer of these elements was determined from sludge-amended soils in a food chain consisting of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and a predatory beetle (Coccinella septempunctata). The soil was amended with sludge at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 % (w/w). Results showed that Cd was readily transferred through the food chain until the predator trophic level. Zn was the most readily transferred element in the lower trophic levels, but transfer to aphids was effectively restricted by the plant regulating shoot concentration. Pb had the lowest level of transfer from soil to shoot and exhibited particular retention in the roots. Nevertheless, Pb concentrations were significantly increased by sludge amendment in aphids, and Pb was increasingly transferred to ladybirds as levels increased. The potential for Pb to cause secondary toxicity to organisms in higher trophic levels may have therefore been underestimated. PMID:26070738

  17. Toxic heritage: Maternal transfer of pyrethroid insecticides and sunscreen agents in dolphins from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mariana B; Feo, Maria Luisa; Corcellas, Cayo; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Marigo, Juliana; Flach, Leonardo; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2015-12-01

    Pyrethroids (PYR) and UV filters (UVF) were investigated in tissues of paired mother-fetus dolphins from Brazilian coast in order to investigate the possibility of maternal transfer of these emerging contaminants. Comparison of PYR and UVF concentrations in maternal and fetal blubber revealed Franciscana transferred efficiently both contaminants to fetuses (F/M > 1) and Guiana dolphin transferred efficiently PYR to fetuses (F/M > 1) different than UVF (F/M < 1). PYR and UVF concentrations in fetuses were the highest-ever reported in biota (up to 6640 and 11,530 ng/g lw, respectively). Muscle was the organ with the highest PYR and UVF concentrations (p < 0.001), suggesting that these two classes of emerging contaminants may have more affinity for proteins than for lipids. The high PYR and UVF concentrations found in fetuses demonstrate these compounds are efficiently transferred through placenta. This study is the first to report maternal transfer of pyrethroids and UV filters in marine mammals.

  18. 77 FR 61083 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) (75 FR 42363) on July 21, 2010 and a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (76 FR 61206) on October 3, 2011. The NPRM solicited comments regarding (1) the... adding the haemorrhagic fever virus Chapare, to the list of select agents (74 FR 41829). Chapare virus...

  19. 76 FR 61205 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Register on October 16, 2008 (73 FR 61363). The HHS select agents and toxins list is divided into two... ANPRM in the Federal Register (75 FR 42363) (July 21, 2010 ANPRM) inviting comments concerning potential... Academies, and comments received from professional societies and the public in response to the CDC...

  20. Uptake and transfer of14C-simetryne through the laboratory freshwater food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Lay, J. P.; Zhang, Yongyuan

    1989-03-01

    This paper deals with the bioconcentration of14C-simetryne from water by aquatic test organisms: green algae— Monoraphidium minutum, rotifers— Brachionus rubens, daphnids— Daphnia magna, and fish— Brachydanio rerio. The chemical was bioconcentrated rapidly in all test species during the first 48 hours of experiment. The BCF values (bioconcentration factor) from all uptake studies show that simetryne has higher accumulation in algae than in rotifers, daphnids and zebra fish. The logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient of simetryne measured as 2.06±0.05 was correlated with the BCFs in the organisms as based on the lipid contents. 14C-simetryne uptake via the food-chain amounted to only 22% to 42% of the bioconcentration from water. Clearance of14C-derived residues from fish was rapid with a half-life of 2.1 days.

  1. Transfer of eight phthalates through the milk chain--a case study.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2013-01-01

    This survey determined the levels of eight phthalates - i.e. dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) - in several Belgian milk and dairy products. Samples were obtained from various farms, a dairy factory and from different shops in order to investigate phthalate contamination "from farm to fork". At several stages in the milk chain, product contamination with phthalates - mostly DiBP, DnBP, BzBP and DEHP - was observed. At farm level, the mechanical milking process and the intake of phthalate containing feed by the cattle were found to be possible contamination sources. At industry and retail level, contact materials including packaging materials were additional contamination sources for phthalates in milk and dairy products.

  2. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 μg g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 μg g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 μg g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 μg g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 μg g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic. PMID:24201735

  3. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity of mercury to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1993-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in surface soil and biota at a contaminated terrestrial field site and were used to calculate transfer coefficients of mercury through various compartments of the ecosystem based on trophic relationships. Mercury concentrations in all compartments (soil, vegetation, invertebrates, and small mammals) were higher than mercury concentrations in corresponding samples at local reference sites. Nonetheless, mercury concentrations in biota did not exceed concentrations in the contaminated surface soil, which averaged 269 μg g(-1). Plant tissue concentrations of mercury were low (0.01 to 2.0 μg g(-1)) and yielded soil to plant transfer coefficients ranging from 3.7×10(-5) for seeds to 7.0×10(-3) for grass blades. Mercury concentrations in invertebrates ranged from 0.79 for harvestmen (Phalangida) to 15.5 μg g(-1) for undepurated earthworms (Oligochaeta). Mean food chain transfer coefficients for invertebrates were 0.88 for herbivores/omnivores and 2.35 for carnivores. Mean mercury concentrations in target tissue (kidney) were 1.16±1.16 μg g(-1) for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a granivore, and 38.8±24.6 μg g(-1) for the shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda), an insectivore. Transfer coefficients for diet to kidney were 0.75 and 4.40 for P. leucopus and B. brevicauda, respectively. A comparison of kidney mercury residues measured in this study with values from controlled laboratory feeding studies from the literature indicate that B. brevicauda but not P. leucopus may be ingesting mercury at levels that are nephrotoxic.

  4. Medium-chain fatty acid binding to albumin and transfer to phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Temperature-dependent (5-42{degree}C) {sup 13}C NMR spectra of albumin complexes with 90% isotopically substituted (1-{sup 13}C)octanoic or (1-{sup 13}C)decanoic acids showed a single peak at >30{degree}C but three peaks at lower temperatures. The chemical-shift differences result from different ionic and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions between amino acid side chains and the fatty acid carboxyl carbon. Rapid exchange of fatty acid among binding sites obscures these sites at temperatures >30{degree}C. Rate constants for exchange at 33{degree}C were 350 sec{sup {minus}1} for octanoate and 20 sec {sup {minus}1} for decanoate. Temperature-dependent data for octanoate showed an activation energy of 2 kcal/mol for exchange. Spectra of albumin complexes with the 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, had several narrow laurate carboxyl peaks at 35{degree}C, indicating longer lifetimes in the different binding sites. Fatty acid exchange between albumin and model membranes (phosphatidylcholine bilayers) occurred on a time scale comparable to that for exchange among albumin binding sites, following the order octanoate > decanoate > laurate. The equilibrium distribution of fatty acid between lipid bilayers and protein was measured directly from NMR spectra. Decreasing pH increased the relative affinity of fatty acid for the lipid bilayer. The results predict that the relative affinity of octanoic acid for albumin and membranes will be similar to that of long-chain fatty acids, but the rate of equilibration will be {approx} 10{sup 4} faster for octanoic acid.

  5. DNAzyme-based biosensor for Cu(2+) ion by combining hybridization chain reaction with fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Ling; Ou, Yidian; Wang, Zhenhua; Fu, Fengfu; Guo, Liangqia

    2016-08-01

    A novel signal amplification strategy based on Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme was developed for sensing Cu(2+) ion by combining hybridization chain reaction (HCR) with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. In the presence of Cu(2+) ion, the substrate strands of Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme immobilized on magnetic beads were specifically cleaved and released. The released strands initiated the HCR process of hairpin H1 and H2 labeled with FAM as the donor and TAMRA as the acceptor, respectively. Long nicked dsDNA structures were self-assembled to bring the donor and the acceptor in close proximity, resulting in a FRET process. The relative ratio of fluorescent intensities of the acceptor and donor was used to quantitatively detect Cu(2+) ion with a limit of detection of 0.5nmolL(-1). This proposed biosensor was applied to detect Cu(2+) ion in tap water with satisfactory results.

  6. Surface-imprinted magnetic particles for highly selective sulfonamides recognition prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xia; Pan, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liang; Wang, Sicen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using sulfamerazine as the template. With the controlled/living property of RAFT polymerization, the resulting MMIPs showed high selectivity for sulfonamides recognition. The MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The static and selectivity binding experiments demonstrated the desirable adsorption capacity and high selectivity of the MMIPs. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four sulfonamides from aqueous solution. The recoveries of the spiked pond water ranged from 61.2 to 94.1% with RSD lower than 6.5%. This work demonstrated a versatile approach for the preparation of well-constructed MMIPs for application in the field of solid-phase extraction. PMID:26637219

  7. A Small Molecule That Protects the Integrity of the Electron Transfer Chain Blocks the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xian; Li, Li; Ying, Zhengxin; Pan, Chenjie; Huang, Shaoqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Miaomiao; Yan, Bo; Li, Ming; Jiang, Hui; Chen, She; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-21

    In response to apoptotic stimuli, mitochondria in mammalian cells release cytochrome c and other apoptogenic proteins, leading to the subsequent activation of caspases and apoptotic cell death. This process is promoted by the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, such as Bim and Bax, which, respectively, initiate and execute cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Here we report the discovery of a small molecule that efficiently blocks Bim-induced apoptosis after Bax is activated on the mitochondria. The cellular target of this small molecule was identified to be the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) protein of complex II of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC). The molecule protects the integrity of the ETC and allows treated cells to continue to proliferate after apoptosis induction. Moreover, this molecule blocked dopaminergic neuron death and reversed Parkinson-like behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27447985

  8. Transfer of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb through the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain of northern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.; Sheard, J.W.; Swanson, S.

    1994-06-01

    Natural background activity and food chain transfer of the uranium decay products, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, were examined in the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain at two locations in the Northwest Territories of Canada. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities in lichens differed with species and location. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were markedly higher in caribou bone than in wolf bone. {sup 210}Po activities in liver, kidney, and muscle were similar in both species. Caribou fetuses had lower activities of {sup 210}Po but higher activities of {sup 210}Pb than maternal muscle and placenta, suggesting greater placental transport of {sup 210}Pb than {sup 210}Po. Concentration ratios (CR = Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in consumer/Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in its food source) and f{sub f} values (f{sub f} in d kg{sup {minus}1} = Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in muscle/Bq d{sup {minus}1} ingested) showed that wolves retain more {sup 210}Po and less {sup 210}Pb from their diet than do caribou. {sup 210}Po CRs averaged 0.38 for caribou/lichens, 0.26 for caribou/rumen contents, and 0.40 for wolves/caribou. {sup 210}Pb CRs averaged 0.36 for caribou/lichens, 0.57 for caribou/rumen contents, and 0.13 for wolves/caribou. 43 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Transfer of 210Po and 210Pb through the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain of northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P A; Sheard, J W; Swanson, S

    1994-06-01

    Natural background activity and food chain transfer of the uranium decay products, 210Po and 210Pb, were examined in the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain at two locations in the Northwest Territories of Canada. 210Po and 210Pb activities in lichens differed with species and location. Both 210Po and 210Pb were markedly higher in caribou bone than in wolf bone. 210Po activities in liver, kidney, and muscle were similar in both species. Caribou fetuses had lower activities of 210Po but higher activities of 210Pb than maternal muscle and placenta, suggesting greater placental transport of 210Pb than 210Po. Concentration ratios (CR = Bq kg-1 in consumer/Bq kg-1 in its food source) and ff values (ff in d kg-1 = Bq kg-1 in muscle/Bq d-1 ingested) showed that wolves retain more 210Po and less 210Pb from their diet than do caribou. 210Po CRs averaged 0.38 for caribou/lichens, 0.26 for caribou/rumen contents, and 0.40 for wolves/caribou. 210Pb CRs averaged 0.36 for caribou/lichens, 0.57 for caribou/rumen contents, and 0.13 for wolves/caribou.

  10. Unraveling the Interplay of Backbone Rigidity and Electron Rich Side-Chains on Electron Transfer in Peptides: The Realization of Tunable Molecular Wires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical studies are reported on a series of peptides constrained into either a 310-helix (1–6) or β-strand (7–9) conformation, with variable numbers of electron rich alkene containing side chains. Peptides (1 and 2) and (7 and 8) are further constrained into these geometries with a suitable side chain tether introduced by ring closing metathesis (RCM). Peptides 1, 4 and 5, each containing a single alkene side chain reveal a direct link between backbone rigidity and electron transfer, in isolation from any effects due to the electronic properties of the electron rich side-chains. Further studies on the linear peptides 3–6 confirm the ability of the alkene to facilitate electron transfer through the peptide. A comparison of the electrochemical data for the unsaturated tethered peptides (1 and 7) and saturated tethered peptides (2 and 8) reveals an interplay between backbone rigidity and effects arising from the electron rich alkene side-chains on electron transfer. Theoretical calculations on β-strand models analogous to 7, 8 and 9 provide further insights into the relative roles of backbone rigidity and electron rich side-chains on intramolecular electron transfer. Furthermore, electron population analysis confirms the role of the alkene as a “stepping stone” for electron transfer. These findings provide a new approach for fine-tuning the electronic properties of peptides by controlling backbone rigidity, and through the inclusion of electron rich side-chains. This allows for manipulation of energy barriers and hence conductance in peptides, a crucial step in the design and fabrication of molecular-based electronic devices. PMID:25122122

  11. Well-defined coinage metal transfer agents for the synthesis of NHC-based nickel, rhodium and palladium macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rhiann E; Storey, Caroline M; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-06-01

    With a view to use as carbene transfer agents, well-defined silver(i) and copper(i) complexes of a macrocyclic NHC-based pincer ligand, bearing a central lutidine donor and a dodecamethylene spacer [CNC-(CH2)12, 1], have been prepared. Although the silver adduct is characterised by X-ray diffraction as a dinuclear species anti-[Ag(μ-1)]2(2+), variable temperature measurements indicate dynamic structural interchange in solution involving fragmentation into mononuclear [Ag(1)](+) on the NMR time scale. In contrast, a mononuclear structure is evident in both solution and the solid-state for the analogous copper adduct partnered with the weakly coordinating [BAr(F)4](-) counter anion. A related copper derivative, bearing instead the more coordinating cuprous bromide dianion [Cu2Br4](2-), is notable for the adoption of an interesting tetranuclear assembly in the solid-state, featuring two cuprophilic interactions and two bridging NHC donors, but is not retained on dissolution. Coinage metal precursors [M(1)]n[BAr(F)4]n (M = Ag, n = 2; M = Cu, n = 1) both act as carbene transfer agents to afford palladium, rhodium and nickel complexes of 1 and the effectiveness of these precursors has been evaluated under equivalent reaction conditions. PMID:27157720

  12. Well-defined coinage metal transfer agents for the synthesis of NHC-based nickel, rhodium and palladium macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rhiann E; Storey, Caroline M; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-06-01

    With a view to use as carbene transfer agents, well-defined silver(i) and copper(i) complexes of a macrocyclic NHC-based pincer ligand, bearing a central lutidine donor and a dodecamethylene spacer [CNC-(CH2)12, 1], have been prepared. Although the silver adduct is characterised by X-ray diffraction as a dinuclear species anti-[Ag(μ-1)]2(2+), variable temperature measurements indicate dynamic structural interchange in solution involving fragmentation into mononuclear [Ag(1)](+) on the NMR time scale. In contrast, a mononuclear structure is evident in both solution and the solid-state for the analogous copper adduct partnered with the weakly coordinating [BAr(F)4](-) counter anion. A related copper derivative, bearing instead the more coordinating cuprous bromide dianion [Cu2Br4](2-), is notable for the adoption of an interesting tetranuclear assembly in the solid-state, featuring two cuprophilic interactions and two bridging NHC donors, but is not retained on dissolution. Coinage metal precursors [M(1)]n[BAr(F)4]n (M = Ag, n = 2; M = Cu, n = 1) both act as carbene transfer agents to afford palladium, rhodium and nickel complexes of 1 and the effectiveness of these precursors has been evaluated under equivalent reaction conditions.

  13. Early career: Templating of liquid crystal microstructures by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, Jennifer M.

    2014-12-31

    This research has shown that the microstructure of self-assembled copolymers can be decoupled from the polymer chemistry. The simplest polymer architecture, linear block copolymers, is valuable for a broad range of applications, including adhesives and coatings, medical devices, electronics and energy storage, because these block copolymers reproducibly self-assemble into microphase separated nanoscale domains. Unfortunately, the self-assembled microstructure is tuned by polymer composition, thus limiting the potential to simultaneously optimize chemical, mechanical, and transport properties for desired applications. To this end, much work was been put into manipulating block copolymer self-assembly independently of polymer composition. These efforts have included the use of additives or solvents to alter polymer chain conformation, the addition of a third monomer to produce ABC triblock terpolymers, architectures with mixed blocks, such as tapered/gradient polymers, and the synthesis of other nonlinear molecular architectures. This work has shown that the microstructures formed by linear ABC terpolymers can be altered by controlling the architecture of the polymer molecules at a constant monomer composition, so that the microstructure is tuned independently from the chemical properties.

  14. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  15. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  16. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

  17. Phospho-transfer networks and ATP homeostasis in response to an ineffective electron transport chain in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Appanna, V P; Alhasawi, A A; Auger, C; Thomas, S C; Appanna, V D

    2016-09-15

    Although oxidative stress is known to impede the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, the nutritionally-versatile microbe, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been shown to proliferate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrosative stress. In this study we demonstrate the phospho-transfer system that enables this organism to generate ATP was similar irrespective of the carbon source utilized. Despite the diminished activities of enzymes involved in the TCA cycle and in the electron transport chain (ETC), the ATP levels did not appear to be significantly affected in the stressed cells. Phospho-transfer networks mediated by acetate kinase (ACK), adenylate kinase (AK), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are involved in maintaining ATP homeostasis in the oxidatively-challenged cells. This phospho-relay machinery orchestrated by substrate-level phosphorylation is aided by the up-regulation in the activities of such enzymes like phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS). The enhanced production of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate further fuel the synthesis of ATP. Taken together, this metabolic reconfiguration enables the organism to fulfill its ATP need in an O2-independent manner by utilizing an intricate phospho-wire module aimed at maximizing the energy potential of PEP with the participation of AMP. PMID:27431058

  18. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    PubMed Central

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta. PMID:27030539

  19. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta.

  20. Effect of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on food-chain transfer of PCBs in Saginaw Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hoof, P.L. Van; Hsieh, J.L.; Eadie, B.J.; Lansing, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The recent invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has significantly impacted the water quality of the Great Lakes. Relatively little is known about the influence of zebra mussels on contaminant cycling, and transfer to higher trophic organisms. Due to its high filtering rate and ability to rapidly establish large populations, Dreissena could potentially alter the flow of energy through the food web. In addition, this species has demonstrated a large capacity for accumulating lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Thus, zebra mussels could contribute to enhanced contaminant biomagnification by serving as an additional food-chain link either through direct transfer (ingestion by fish or ducks), and/or indirectly by funneling contaminants out of the pelagic zone down to benthic invertebrates. In order to determine if zebra mussels are enhancing biomagnification of PCBs in a Saginaw Bay food web, two years of field collections of various components (water, sediment, algae, zooplankton, zebra mussel, zebra mussel feces, gammarid amphipods, fish) were analyzed for their PCB congener content. Trophic levels will be characterized using stable isotope ratios of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, whereas carbon sources will be identified using {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C ratios.

  1. Hydrogen-transferring pyrolysis of long-chain alkanes and thermal stability improvement of jet fuels by hydrogen donors

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Lai, W.C.; Schobert, H.H. . Fuel Science Program)

    1994-03-01

    Hydrogen-transferring pyrolysis refers to the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen donors. Relative to the pyrolysis of pure n-tetradecane (C[sub 14]H[sub 28]) at 450 C, adding 10 vol % of H-donor tetralin suppressed n-C[sub 14] conversion by 68 % after 12 min of residence time, by about 66% after 21 min, and by 37% after 30 min. The presence of tetralin not only inhibited the n-C[sub 14] decomposition, but also altered the product distribution. The decomposition and isomerization of primary radicals are strongly suppressed, leading to a much higher ratio of the 1-alkene to n-alkane with 12 carbon atoms and slightly higher alkene/alkane ratio for the other product groups. The overall reaction mechanism for the initial stage of hydrogen-transferring pyrolysis is characterized by a one-step [beta]-scission of secondary radical followed by H-abstraction of the resulting primary radical. Moreover, desirable effects of the H-donor are also observed even after 240 min at 450 C, especially for inhibiting solid deposition. The authors also examined the effect of tetralin addition on the deposit formation from a paraffinic jet fuel JP-8 which is rich in C[sub 9]-C[sub 16] long-chain alkanes, and an aromatic compound, n-butylbenzene. Adding 10 vol % tetralin to a JP-8 jet fuel, n-C[sub 14], and n-butylbenzene reduced the formation of deposits by 90% (from 3.1 to 0.3 wt %), 77 % (from 3.0 to 0.7 wt %), and 54 % (from 5.6 to 2.6 wt %), respectively. These results suggest that, by taking advantage of H-transferring pyrolysis, hydrocarbon jet fuels may be used at high operating temperatures with little or no solid deposition.

  2. FAD oxidizes the ERO1-PDI electron transfer chain: The role of membrane integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, Eszter; Nardai, Gabor; Mandl, Jozsef; Banhegyi, Gabor; Csermely, Peter . E-mail: csermely@puskin.sote.hu

    2005-12-16

    The molecular steps of the electron transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum from the secreted proteins during their oxidation are relatively unknown. We present here that flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a powerful oxidizer of the oxidoreductase system, Ero1 and PDI, besides the proteins of rat liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells. Inhibition of FAD transport hindered the action of FAD. Microsomal membrane integrity was mandatory for all FAD-related oxidation steps downstream of Ero1. The PDI inhibitor bacitracin could inhibit FAD-mediated oxidation of microsomal proteins and PDI, but did not hinder the FAD-driven oxidation of Ero1. Our data demonstrated that Ero1 can utilize FAD as an electron acceptor and that FAD-driven protein oxidation goes through the Ero1-PDI pathway and requires the integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our findings prompt further studies to elucidate the membrane-dependent steps of PDI oxidation and the role of FAD in redox folding.

  3. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively. PMID:18034720

  4. Correlation of chain length compatibility and surface properties of mixed foaming agents with fluid displacement efficiency and effective air mobility in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.K.; Bringham, W.E.; Shah, D.O.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of chain length compatibility and surface properties of mixed foaming agents on fluid displacement efficiency and effective air mobility in porous media were investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (C/sub 12/H/sub 25/SO/sub 4/Na) and various alkyl alcohols (e.g., C/sub 8/OH,C/sub 10/OH,C/sub 12/OH,C/sub 14/OH, and C/sub 16/OH) were used as mixed foaming agents. It was observed that the surface properties of surfactant solutions and flow behavior of foams through porous media were influenced by the chain length compatibility of the surfactant molecules. The increase in the length of porous media improved fluid displacement efficiency while breakthrough time per unit length decreased slightly with increase in the length of porous media. For mixed surfactant systems, a minimum in surface tension, a maximum in surface viscosity, a minimum in bubble size, a maximum in breakthrough time, a maximum in fluid displacement efficiency, and a minimum in effective air mobility were observed when the two components of the surfactant system had the same chain length. These results indicate that the surface properties of foaming solutions and molecular packing at interfaces exhibit a striking correlation with breakthrough time, fluid displacement efficiency, and effective air mobility in porous media.

  5. DNA transfer and cell killing in epidermoid cells by diagnostic ultrasound activation of contrast agent gas bodies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Song, Jianming

    2003-04-01

    DNA transfer by sonoporation and cell killing in monolayer cells were examined by contrast-aided low-power diagnostic ultrasound (US). Culture chambers with epidermoid cell monolayers were scanned at about 1 mm/s with a 1.5-MHz scan head aimed upward at the chamber in a 37 degrees C water bath. For DNA transfer tests, plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to the medium, and GFP expression was assessed by flow cytometry after 2 days. In separate tests, cell killing was determined immediately after treatment. GFP-positive cell counts were 0.4% (0.7% SD) for shams and 3.7% (1.2% SD) of cells for exposure at 2.3 MPa with 2% Optison contrast agent. The fraction of dead cells was 3.4% (1.7% SD) in shams and 28.6% (6.3% SD) in exposed chambers. Both effects increased for increasing Optison concentration and increasing peak rarefactional pressure amplitude. Contrast-aided diagnostic US has a potential therapeutic application for gene transfer, but a trade-off appears to exist with cell killing.

  6. Investigations in physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process assisted simultaneously by phase transfer agent and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar B; Chakma, Sankar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-05-01

    This paper attempts to discern the physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process simultaneously assisted by ultrasound and phase transfer agent (PTA). With different experimental protocols, an attempt is made to deduce individual beneficial effects of PTA and ultrasound on the oxidative desulfurization system, and also the synergy between the effects of PTA and ultrasound. Effect of PTA is more marked for mechanically stirred system due to mass transfer limitations, while intense emulsification due to ultrasound helps overcome the mass transfer limitations and reduces the extent of enhancement of oxidation by PTA. Despite application of PTA and ultrasound, the intrinsic factors and properties of the reactants such as polarity (and hence partition coefficient) and diffusivity have a crucial effect on the extent of oxidation. The intrinsic reactivity of the oxidant also plays a vital role, as seen from the extent of oxidation achieved with performic acid and peracetic acid. The interfacial transport of oxidant in the form of oxidant-PTA complex reduces the undesired consumption of oxidant by the reducing species formed during transient cavitation in organic medium, which helps effective utilization of oxidant towards desulfurization. PMID:25465876

  7. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  8. Purification and characterization of a stimulator of plasmin generation from the antiangiogenic agent Neovastat: identification as immunoglobulin kappa light chain.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Dominique; Provençal, Mathieu; Gendron, Sébastien; Ratel, David; Demeule, Michel; Gingras, Denis; Béliveau, Richard

    2004-11-15

    We have recently shown that Neovastat, an antiangiogenic extract from shark cartilage, stimulates the in vitro activation of plasminogen by facilitating the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-dependent conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. In this report, we describe the purification and characterization of the stimulatory molecules. Neovastat was subjected to a three-step purification procedure including gel filtration, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative SDS-PAGE. Two 28-kDa proteins with pIs of approximately 4.5 and 6.5 were purified to apparent homogeneity and identified as immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by N-terminal microsequencing. Ig light chains do not directly stimulate the activity of tPA or plasmin, suggesting a mechanism of action involving an interaction with plasminogen. Kinetic analysis showed that both Ig light chains accelerate the in vitro tPA-dependent conversion of plasminogen in plasmin by increasing the affinity of tPA for plasminogen by 32- and 38-fold (Km decrease from 456 nM to 12-14 nM). Shark Ig light chains also stimulated the degradation of fibrin by the tPA/plasminogen system in an in vitro assay. A direct interaction between Ig light chains and plasminogen (KA=4.0-5.5 x 10(7) M(-1); KD=18-25 nM) and with tPA (KA=2.8 x 10(7) M(-1); KD=36 nM) was demonstrated using real time binding measured by surface plasmon resonance. Ig light chain is the first molecule associated with the antiangiogenic activity of Neovastat to be purified and identified. PMID:15488468

  9. Controlling Electron Transfer between the Two Cofactor Chains of Photosystem I by the Redox State of One of Their Components

    PubMed Central

    Santabarbara, Stefano; Bullock, Bradford; Rappaport, Fabrice; Redding, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Two functional electron transfer (ET) chains, related by a pseudo-C2 symmetry, are present in the reaction center of photosystem I (PSI). Due to slight differences in the environment around the cofactors of the two branches, there are differences in both the kinetics of ET and the proportion of ET that occurs on the two branches. The strongest evidence that this is indeed the case relied on the observation that the oxidation rates of the reduced phylloquinone (PhQ) cofactor differ by an order of magnitude. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues involved in the respective PhQ-binding sites resulted in a specific alteration of the rates of semiquinone oxidation. Here, we show that the PsaA-F689N mutation results in an ∼100-fold decrease in the observed rate of PhQA− oxidation. This is the largest change of PhQA− oxidation kinetics observed so far for a single-point mutation, resulting in a lifetime that exceeds that of the terminal electron donor, P700+. This situation allows a second photochemical charge separation event to be initiated before PhQA− has decayed, thereby mimicking in PSI a situation that occurs in type II reaction centers. The results indicate that the presence of PhQA− does not impact the overall quantum yield and leads to an almost complete redistribution of the fractional utilization of the two functional ET chains, in favor of the one that does not bear the charged species. The evolutionary implications of these results are also briefly discussed. PMID:25809266

  10. Neutral-Type One-Dimensional Mixed-Valence Halogen-Bridged Platinum Chain Complexes with Large Charge-Transfer Band Gaps.

    PubMed

    Otake, Ken-ichi; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) electronic systems have attracted significant attention for a long time because of their various physical properties. Among 1D electronic systems, 1D halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition-metal complexes (the so-called MX chains) have been thoroughly studied owing to designable structures and electronic states. Here, we report the syntheses, structures, and electronic properties of three kinds of novel neutral MX-chain complexes. The crystal structures consist of 1D chains of Pt-X repeating units with (1R,2R)-(-)-diaminocychlohexane and CN(-) in-plane ligands. Because of the absence of a counteranion, the neutral MX chains have short interchain distances, so that strong interchain electronic interaction is expected. Resonance Raman spectra and diffuse-reflectance UV-vis spectra indicate that their electronic states are mixed-valence states (charge-density-wave state: Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···). In addition, the relationship between the intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) band gap and the degree of distortion of the 1D chain shows that the neutral MX chains have a larger IVCT band gap than that of cationic MX-chain complexes. These results provide new insight into the physical and electronic properties of 1D chain compounds. PMID:26901774

  11. Preparation and characterization of an imprinted monolith by atom transfer radical polymerization assisted by crowding agents.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lu; Zhao, Liang; Deng, Bang-Li; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    A method based on reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (R-ATRP) and molecular crowding has been used for design and synthesis of monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) capable of recognizing ibuprofen (IBU). 4-Vinylpyridine (4-VP) was used as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) was the crosslinking monomer. Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)-CuCl(2)-N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) was used as the initiating system. Compared with conventional radical polymerization-based IBU-MIPs, the imprinting effects of the obtained IBU-MIPs was enhanced, suggesting the merit of combination of reverse ATRP and molecular crowding. In addition, it was found that the polymerization time of the molecularly imprinted monolithic column, the amount of template, the degree of crosslinking, and the composition of mobile phase greatly affected retention of the template and the performance of molecular recognition.

  12. Optimal range for parvalbumin as relaxing agent in adult cardiac myocytes: gene transfer and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Coutu, Pierre; Metzger, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) has recently been shown to increase the relaxation rate when expressed in intact isolated cardiac myocytes via adenovirus gene transfer. We report here a combined experimental and mathematical modeling approach to determine the dose-response and the sarcomere length (SL) shortening-frequency relationship of PV in adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture. The dose-response was obtained experimentally by observing the PV-transduced myocytes at different time points after gene transfer. Calcium transients and unloaded mechanical contractions were measured. The results were as follows. At low estimated [PV] (approximately 0.01 mM), contractile parameters were unchanged; at intermediate [PV], relaxation rate of the mechanical contraction and the decay rate of the calcium transient increased with little effects on amplitude; and at high [PV] (approximately 0.1 mM), relaxation rate was further increased, but the amplitudes of the mechanical contraction and the calcium transient were diminished when compared with control myocytes. The SL shortening-frequency relationship exhibited a biphasic response to increasing stimulus frequency in controls (decrease in amplitude and re-lengthening time from 0.2 to 1.0 Hz followed by an increase in these parameters from 2.0 to 4.0 Hz). The effect of PV was to flatten this frequency response. This flattening effect was partly explained by a reduction in the variation in fractional binding of PV to calcium during beats at high frequency. In conclusion, experimental results and mathematical modeling indicate that there is an optimal PV range for which relaxation rate is increased with little effect on contractile amplitude and that PV effectiveness decreases as the stimulus frequency increases. PMID:11964244

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of a polydisulfide with Gd-DOTA monoamide side chains as a biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent for MR blood pool imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Xueming; Tan, Mingqian; Jesberger, Jack; Griswold, Mark; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular Gd(III) based contrast agents are effective for contrast enhanced blood pool and cancer MRI in preclinical studies. However, their clinical applications are impeded by potential safety concerns associated with slow excretion and prolonged retention of these agents in the body. To minimize the safety concerns of macromolecular Gd contrast agents, we have recently designed and developed biodegradable macromolecular Gd contrast agents based on polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes. In this study, we designed and synthesized a new generation of the polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes containing macrocyclic Gd(III) chelate, Gd-DOTA monoamide, to further improve the in vivo kinetic stability of the Gd(III) chelates of the contrast agents. (N6-Lysyl)lysine Gd-DOTA monoamide and 3-(2-carboxyethyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid copolymers (GODC) was synthesized by copolymerization of (N6-lysyl)lysine DOTA monoamide and dithiobis (succinimidylpropionate), followed by complexation with Gd(OAc)3. The GODC had an apparent molecular weight of 26.4 kDa and T1 relaxivity of 8.25 mM−1s−1 per Gd at 1.5 T. The polymer chains of GODC were readily cleaved by L-cysteine and the chelates had high kinetic stability against transmetallation in the presence of an endogenous metal ion Zn2+. In vivo MR study showed that GODC produced strong and prolonged contrast enhancement in the vasculature and tumor periphery of mice with breast tumor xenografts. GODC is a promising biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent with high kinetic stability for MR blood pool imaging. PMID:23606425

  14. Metal Ion-dependent Heavy Chain Transfer Activity of TSG-6 Mediates Assembly of the Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David C.; Birchenough, Holly L.; Ali, Tariq; Rugg, Marilyn S.; Waltho, Jon P.; Ievoli, Elena; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Enghild, Jan J.; Richter, Ralf P.; Salustri, Antonietta; Milner, Caroline M.; Day, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) has a critical role in the expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC), a process that is necessary for ovulation and fertilization in most mammals. Hyaluronan is organized into a cross-linked network by the cooperative action of three proteins, inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), pentraxin-3, and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), driving the expansion of the COC and providing the cumulus matrix with its required viscoelastic properties. Although it is known that matrix stabilization involves the TSG-6-mediated transfer of IαI heavy chains (HCs) onto hyaluronan (to form covalent HC·HA complexes that are cross-linked by pentraxin-3) and that this occurs via the formation of covalent HC·TSG-6 intermediates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have determined the tertiary structure of the CUB module from human TSG-6, identifying a calcium ion-binding site and chelating glutamic acid residue that mediate the formation of HC·TSG-6. This occurs via an initial metal ion-dependent, non-covalent, interaction between TSG-6 and HCs that also requires the presence of an HC-associated magnesium ion. In addition, we have found that the well characterized hyaluronan-binding site in the TSG-6 Link module is not used for recognition during transfer of HCs onto HA. Analysis of TSG-6 mutants (with impaired transferase and/or hyaluronan-binding functions) revealed that although the TSG-6-mediated formation of HC·HA complexes is essential for the expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, the hyaluronan-binding function of TSG-6 does not play a major role in the stabilization of the murine cumulus matrix. PMID:26468290

  15. Metal Ion-dependent Heavy Chain Transfer Activity of TSG-6 Mediates Assembly of the Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David C; Birchenough, Holly L; Ali, Tariq; Rugg, Marilyn S; Waltho, Jon P; Ievoli, Elena; Jowitt, Thomas A; Enghild, Jan J; Richter, Ralf P; Salustri, Antonietta; Milner, Caroline M; Day, Anthony J

    2015-11-27

    The matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) has a critical role in the expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC), a process that is necessary for ovulation and fertilization in most mammals. Hyaluronan is organized into a cross-linked network by the cooperative action of three proteins, inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), pentraxin-3, and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), driving the expansion of the COC and providing the cumulus matrix with its required viscoelastic properties. Although it is known that matrix stabilization involves the TSG-6-mediated transfer of IαI heavy chains (HCs) onto hyaluronan (to form covalent HC·HA complexes that are cross-linked by pentraxin-3) and that this occurs via the formation of covalent HC·TSG-6 intermediates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have determined the tertiary structure of the CUB module from human TSG-6, identifying a calcium ion-binding site and chelating glutamic acid residue that mediate the formation of HC·TSG-6. This occurs via an initial metal ion-dependent, non-covalent, interaction between TSG-6 and HCs that also requires the presence of an HC-associated magnesium ion. In addition, we have found that the well characterized hyaluronan-binding site in the TSG-6 Link module is not used for recognition during transfer of HCs onto HA. Analysis of TSG-6 mutants (with impaired transferase and/or hyaluronan-binding functions) revealed that although the TSG-6-mediated formation of HC·HA complexes is essential for the expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, the hyaluronan-binding function of TSG-6 does not play a major role in the stabilization of the murine cumulus matrix.

  16. [The use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of the agents of glanders and melioidosis using experimental infection].

    PubMed

    Altukhova, V V; Antonov, V A; Tkachenko, G A; Zinchenko, O V; Zamaraev, V S; Plekhanova, N G; Iliukhin, V I; Trofimov, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    Glanders and melioidosis are severe infectious diseases of people and animals. The causative agents of these infections refer to the potential agents of bioterrorism of group B. In this work the possibility of use of flagellin-based primers for the identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei and for diagnosis of experimental glanders and melioidosis was studied. The obtained results permit to make a conclusion that PCR using the developed primers may be recommended for the incorporation in the scheme of laboratory diagnosis of glanders and melioidosis both for the identification of clean cultures and in experimental clinical material.

  17. A Cu(II)2 Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Contrast Agent Enabled by Magnetic Exchange Coupling.

    PubMed

    Du, Kang; Harris, T David

    2016-06-29

    The ability of magnetic exchange coupling to enable observation of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) in transition metal ions with long electronic relaxation times (τs) is demonstrated. Metalation of the dinucleating, tetra(carboxamide) ligand HL with Cu(2+) in the presence of pyrophosphate (P2O7)(4-) affords the complex [LCu(II)2(P2O7)](-). Solution-phase variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data reveal weak ferromagnetic superexchange coupling between the two S = 1/2 Cu(II) centers, with a coupling constant of J = +2.69(5) cm(-1), to give an S = 1 ground state. This coupling results in a sharpened NMR line width relative to a GaCu analogue, indicative of a shortening of τs. Presaturation of the amide protons in the Cu2 complex at 37 °C leads to a 14% intensity decrease in the bulk water (1)H NMR signal through the CEST effect. Conversely, no CEST effect is observed in the GaCu complex. These results provide the first example of a Cu-based PARACEST magnetic resonance contrast agent and demonstrate the potential to expand the metal ion toolbox for PARACEST agents through introduction of magnetic exchange coupling. PMID:27276533

  18. EVALUATION OF WETTING AGENTS TO MITIGATE DUSTING WHEN TRANSFERRING DRY GLASS FORMER CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    TIMOTHY, JONES

    2005-02-07

    Plant design support for the US Department of Energy (DOE) River Protection Project (RPP) - Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) required pilot scale testing of the High Level Waste (HLW) glass former chemical (GFC) delivery system. A pilot facility was assembled at the Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) under the direction of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Tests were performed using a representative HLW GFC blend to determine the behavior of the dry chemicals when transported through a chute and discharged into the enclosed head space of an agitated tank. The use of chute purge air, injected upstream of the point where the GFCs were added to the chute, was investigated. The pilot scale testing showed purge air was effective in reducing GFC holdup in the chute and that when the GFCs were discharged into the tank head space, dusting was evident during all transport conditions. This dusting lead to additional bench scale and laboratory scale tests that showed the addition of wetting agents to HLW and Low Activity Waste (LAW) GFC blends effectively mitigated dusting at the bench and pilot scales.

  19. Study of fluorescence characteristics of the charge-transfer reaction of quinolone agents with bromanil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Xuan, Chun-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method was discussed for the determination of three antibacterial quinolone derivatives, ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) through charge-transfer complexation (CTC) with 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, TBBQ). The method was based on the reaction of these drugs as n-electron donors with the π-acceptor TBBQ. TBBQ was found to react with these drugs to produce a kind of yellow complexes and the fluorescence intensities of the complexes were enhanced by 29-36 times more than those of the corresponding monomers. UV-vis, 1H NMR and XPS techniques were used to study the complexes formed. The various experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity were studied and optimized. Under optimal reaction conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.021-2.42 μg mL -1, 0.017-2.63 μg mL -1 and 0.019-2.14 μg mL -1 for OFL, NOR and CIP, respectively. The methods developed were applied successfully to the determination of the subject drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms with good precision and accuracy compared to official and reported methods as revealed by t- and F-tests.

  20. Food chain transfer of cadmium and lead to cattle in a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiu; Long, Mei-Li; Zhu, Ming; Zhou, Qing-Zhen; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) are environmental pollutants. Environmental samples and bovine tissues were collected from the areas around a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China for Cd, Pb, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) analysis. Cd in soil (10 mg/kg) and feed (6.6 mg/kg) from the polluted areas was 10 times higher than the Chinese Standards, resulting in higher Cd in bovine kidney (38 mg/kg) and liver (2.5 mg/kg). Pb in feed (132 mg/kg) from the polluted area was much higher than unpolluted areas, causing higher Pb levels in bovine tissues. Environmental Zn was elevated, but bovine tissue Zn was normal. Cu in bovine liver decreased with increased Cd and Pb. Metals in drinking water and in bovine muscle were within the Standard range. Thus, in the areas of this lead-zinc smelter, the environment has been contaminated with Cd and Pb, which has been transferred to cattle through the food chain.

  1. Food chain transfer of cadmium and lead to cattle in a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiu; Long, Mei-Li; Zhu, Ming; Zhou, Qing-Zhen; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) are environmental pollutants. Environmental samples and bovine tissues were collected from the areas around a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China for Cd, Pb, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) analysis. Cd in soil (10 mg/kg) and feed (6.6 mg/kg) from the polluted areas was 10 times higher than the Chinese Standards, resulting in higher Cd in bovine kidney (38 mg/kg) and liver (2.5 mg/kg). Pb in feed (132 mg/kg) from the polluted area was much higher than unpolluted areas, causing higher Pb levels in bovine tissues. Environmental Zn was elevated, but bovine tissue Zn was normal. Cu in bovine liver decreased with increased Cd and Pb. Metals in drinking water and in bovine muscle were within the Standard range. Thus, in the areas of this lead-zinc smelter, the environment has been contaminated with Cd and Pb, which has been transferred to cattle through the food chain. PMID:19573961

  2. A hermetic self-sustained microbial solar cell based on Chlorella vulgaris and a versatile charge transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keliang; Zhou, Peijiang

    2015-10-01

    A hermetic noble-metal-free membrane-less microbial solar cell (MSC) is established. The substances decomposition and regeneration in this MSC are carried out only by Chlorella vulgaris simultaneously. The conversion of metabolism types of C. vulgaris is controlled only by illumination. By using a pleiotropic redox mediator and a cupric hexacyanoferrate modified cathode, a two-phase three-stage charge transfer chain is formed. Through this pathway, the one microorganism self-sustained system gets a long-term power output up to 0.04773 mW/cm2 at 0.423 V without any material exchange with external, which is 50 times higher than that obtained from the original system. Benefiting from this electron buffer system, the battery will achieve an electricity generation in both light and dark conditions. There is almost no consumption of any substrates throughout the stabilized process, and no more additions are required. This maintenance-free and extremely inexpensive reactor with a simple structure and a long service life demonstrates the possibility of combining the microbial, chemical and photo cells.

  3. Xanthohumol induces generation of reactive oxygen species and triggers apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chu, Wei; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Wei, Taotao

    2015-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a prenylflavonoid extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus). It possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers therapeutic benefits for treatment of metabolic syndromes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects remain to be elucidated, together with its cellular target. Here, we provide evidence that xanthohumol directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation, triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces apoptosis. In addition, we show that as a result of the inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xanthohumol exposure causes a rapid decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, we showed that xanthohumol up-regulates the glycolytic capacity in cells, and thus compensates cellular ATP generation. Dissection of the multiple steps of aerobic respiration by extracellular flux assays revealed that xanthohumol specifically inhibits the activity of mitochondrial complex I, but had little effect on that of complex II, III and IV. Inhibition of complex I by xanthohumol caused the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. We also found that isoxanthohumol, the structural isomer of xanthohumol, is inactive to cells, suggesting that the reactive 2-hydroxyl group of xanthohumol is crucial for its targeting to the mitochondrial complex I. Together, the remodeling of cell metabolism revealed here has therapeutic potential for the use of xanthohumol.

  4. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of a polydisulfide with Gd-DOTA monoamide side chains as a biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent for MR blood pool imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Xueming; Tan, Mingqian; Jesberger, Jack; Grisworld, Mark; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Macromolecular Gd(III)-based contrast agents are effective for contrast-enhanced blood pool and cancer MRI in preclinical studies. However, their clinical applications are impeded by potential safety concerns associated with slow excretion and prolonged retention of these agents in the body. To minimize the safety concerns of macromolecular Gd contrast agents, we have developed biodegradable macromolecular Gd contrast agents based on polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes. In this study, we designed and synthesized a new generation of the polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes containing a macrocyclic Gd(III) chelate, Gd-DOTA monoamide, to improve the in vivo kinetic inertness of the Gd(III) chelates. (N6-Lysyl)lysine-(Gd-DOTA) monoamide and 3-(2-carboxyethyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid copolymers (GODC) were synthesized by copolymerization of (N6-lysyl)lysine DOTA monoamide and dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate), followed by complexation with Gd(OAc)3. The GODC had an apparent molecular weight of 26.4 kDa and T1 relaxivity of 8.25 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd at 1.5 T. The polymer chains of GODC were readily cleaved by L-cysteine and the chelates had high kinetic stability against transmetallation in the presence of an endogenous metal ion Zn(2+). In vivo MRI study showed that GODC produced strong and prolonged contrast enhancement in the vasculature and tumor periphery of mice with breast tumor xenografts. GODC is a promising biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent with high kinetic stability for MR blood pool imaging.

  6. The occurrence of lithium in the environment of the Jordan Valley and its transfer into the food chain.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Tarek G; Al-Zu'bi, Yasin; Abu-Baker, Samih; Dababneh, Basem; Gnemat, Wafa'; Tahboub, Alaeddin

    2011-10-01

    Lithium is found in trace amounts in all soils. It is also found in plants and in nearly all the organs of the human body. Low Li intake can cause behavioral defects. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the concentration and distribution of water-soluble Li in soils of the Jordan Valley and its concentration in citrus trees and some important food crops in view of the significant implications of Li for human health. The concentration of soluble Li was measured in 180 soil samples collected at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) whereas its content was determined in fully expanded leaves collected from citrus and different vegetable crops. Concentrations of soluble Li in soils vary from 0.95 to 1.04 mg l(-1) in topsoil and from 1.06 to 2.68 mg l(-1) in subsoil, while Li concentration in leaves ranged from 2 to 27 mg kg(-1) DM. Lithium concentrations in leaves of crops of the same family or different families vary with location in the valley; i.e., they decreased from north to south. It is concluded that soluble Li in soils and the plant family did not solely affect Li transfer in the food chain. In addition, soil EC, Ca, Mg, and Cl, which increased from north to south, might adversely affect plant Li uptake. The current study also showed that consuming 250-300 g FW of spinach day(-1) per person is recommended to provide consumers with their daily Li requirement necessary for significant health and societal benefits. PMID:20872235

  7. Case studies of aerosol and ocean color retrieval using a Markov chain radiative transfer model and AirMSPI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seidel, F. C.; Dubovik, O.; Zhai, P.

    2014-12-01

    A vector Markov chain radiative transfer method was developed for forward modeling of radiance and polarization fields in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The method was benchmarked against an independent Successive Orders of Scattering code and linearized through the use of Jacobians. Incorporated with the multi-patch optimization algorithm and look-up-table method, simultaneous aerosol and ocean color retrievals were performed using imagery acquired by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) when it was operated in step-and-stare mode with 9 viewing angles ranging between ±67°. Data from channels near 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, and 865* nm were used in the retrievals, where the asterisk denotes the polarimetric bands. Retrievals were run for AirMSPI overflights over Southern California and Monterey Bay, CA. For the relatively high aerosol optical depth (AOD) case (~0.28 at 550 nm), the retrieved aerosol concentration, size distribution, water-leaving radiance, and chlorophyll concentration were compared to those reported by the USC SeaPRISM AERONET-OC site off the coast of Southern California on 6 February 2013. For the relatively low AOD case (~0.08 at 550 nm), the retrieved aerosol concentration and size distribution were compared to those reported by the Monterey Bay AERONET site on 28 April 2014. Further, we evaluate the benefits of multi-angle and polarimetric observations by performing the retrievals using (a) all view angles and channels; (b) all view angles but radiances only (no polarization); (c) the nadir view angle only with both radiance and polarization; and (d) the nadir view angle without polarization. Optimized retrievals using different initial guesses were performed to provide a measure of retrieval uncertainty. Removal of multi-angular or polarimetric information resulted in increases in both parameter uncertainty and systematic bias. Potential accuracy improvements afforded by applying constraints on the surface

  8. Real-time fluorescence ligase chain reaction for sensitive detection of single nucleotide polymorphism based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yueying; Lu, Xiaohui; Su, Fengxia; Wang, Limei; Liu, Chenghui; Duan, Xinrui; Li, Zhengping

    2015-12-15

    Most of practical methods for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) need at least two steps: amplification (usually by PCR) and detection of SNP by using the amplification products. Ligase chain reaction (LCR) can integrate the amplification and allele discrimination in one step. However, the detection of LCR products still remains a great challenge for highly sensitive and quantitative SNP detection. Herein, a simple but robust strategy for real-time fluorescence LCR has been developed for highly sensitive and quantitative SNP detection. A pair of LCR probes are firstly labeled with a fluorophore and a quencher, respectively. When the pair of LCR probes are ligated in LCR, the fluorophore will be brought close to the quencher, and thus, the fluorescence will be specifically quenched by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The decrease of fluorescence intensity resulted from FRET can be real-time monitored in the LCR process. With the proposed real-time fluorescence LCR assay, 10 aM DNA targets or 100 pg genomic DNA can be accurately determined and as low as 0.1% mutant DNA can be detected in the presence of a large excess of wild-type DNA, indicating the high sensitivity and specificity. The real-time measuring does not require the detection step after LCR and gives a wide dynamic range for detection of DNA targets (from 10 aM to 1 pM). As LCR has been widely used for detection of SNP, DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA, the real-time fluorescence LCR assay shows great potential for various genetic analysis.

  9. Gene transfer agent (GTA) genes reveal diverse and dynamic Roseobacter and Rhodobacter populations in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Kui; Budinoff, Charles; Buchan, Alison; Lang, Andrew; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2009-03-01

    Within the bacterial class Alphaproteobacteria, the order Rhodobacterales contains the Roseobacter and Rhodobacter clades. Roseobacters are abundant and play important biogeochemical roles in marine environments. Roseobacter and Rhodobacter genomes contain a conserved gene transfer agent (GTA) gene cluster, and GTA-mediated gene transfer has been observed in these groups of bacteria. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of these two groups in Chesapeake Bay surface waters using a specific PCR primer set targeting the conserved Rhodobacterales GTA major capsid protein gene (g5). The g5 gene was successfully amplified from 26 Rhodobacterales isolates and the bay microbial communities using this primer set. Four g5 clone libraries were constructed from microbial assemblages representing different regions and seasons of the bay and yielded diverse sequences. In total, 12 distinct g5 clusters could be identified among 158 Chesapeake Bay clones, 11 fall within the Roseobacter clade, and one falls in the Rhodobacter clade. The vast majority of the clusters (10 out of 12) lack cultivated representatives. The composition of g5 sequences varied dramatically along the bay during the wintertime, and a distinct Roseobacter population composition between winter and summer was observed. The congruence between g5 and 16S rRNA gene phylogenies indicates that g5 may serve as a useful genetic marker to investigate diversity and abundance of Roseobacter and Rhodobacter in natural environments. The presence of the g5 gene in the natural populations of Roseobacter and Rhodobacter implies that genetic exchange through GTA transduction could be an important mechanism for maintaining the metabolic flexibility of these groups of bacteria.

  10. Main-Chain and Side-Chain Sequence-Regulated Vinyl Copolymers by Iterative Atom Transfer Radical Additions and 1:1 or 2:1 Alternating Radical Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takamasa; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2016-01-27

    Main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers were prepared by a combination of iterative atom transfer radical additions (ATRAs) of vinyl monomers for side-chain control and 1:1 or 2:1 alternating radical copolymerization of the obtained side-chain sequenced "oligomonomers" and vinyl comonomers for main-chain control. A complete set of sequence-regulated trimeric vinyl oligomers of styrene (S) and/or methyl acrylate (A) were first synthesized via iterative ATRAs of these monomers to a halide of monomeric S or A unit (X-S or X-A) under optimized conditions with appropriate ruthenium or copper catalysts, which were selected depending on the monomers and halides. The obtained halogen-capped oligomers were then converted into a series of maleimide (M)-ended oligomonomers with different monomer compositions and sequences (M-SSS, M-ASS, M-SAS, M-AAS, M-SSA, M-ASA, M-SAA, M-AAA) by a substitution reaction of the halide with furan-protected maleimide anion followed by deprotection of the furan units. These maleimide-ended oligomonomers were then radically copolymerized with styrene or limonene to enable the 1:1 or 2:1 monomer-sequence regulation in the main chain and finally result in the main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers with high molecular weights in high yield. The properties of the sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers depended on not only the monomer compositions but also the monomer sequences. The solubility was highly affected by the outer monomer units in the side chains whereas the glass transition temperatures were primarily affected by the two successive monomer sequences. PMID:26761148

  11. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions.

  12. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  13. Concise and Efficient Fluorescent Probe via an Intromolecular Charge Transfer for the Chemical Warfare Agent Mimic Diethylchlorophosphate Vapor Detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjun; Fu, Yanyan; Xu, Wei; Fan, Tianchi; Gao, Yixun; He, Qingguo; Zhu, Defeng; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2016-02-16

    Sarin, used as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) for terrorist attacks, can induce a number of virulent effects. Therefore, countermeasures which could realize robust and convenient detection of sarin are in exigent need. A concise charge-transfer colorimetric and fluorescent probe (4-(6-(tert-butyl)pyridine-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline, TBPY-TPA) that could be capable of real-time and on-site monitoring of DCP vapor was reported in this contribution. Upon contact with DCP, the emission band red-shifted from 410 to 522 nm upon exposure to DCP vapor. And the quenching rate of TBPY-TPA reached up to 98% within 25 s. Chemical substances such as acetic acid (HAc), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PAMP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) do not interfere with the detection. A detection limit for DCP down to 2.6 ppb level is remarkably achieved which is below the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration. NMR data suggested that a transformation of the pyridine group into pyridinium salt via a cascade reaction is responsible for the sensing process which induced the dramatic fluorescent red shift. All of these data suggest TBPY-TPA is a promising fluorescent sensor for a rapid, simple, and low-cost method for DCP detection, which could be easy to prepare as a portable chemosensor kit for its practical application in real-time and on-site monitoring. PMID:26776457

  14. Concise and Efficient Fluorescent Probe via an Intromolecular Charge Transfer for the Chemical Warfare Agent Mimic Diethylchlorophosphate Vapor Detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjun; Fu, Yanyan; Xu, Wei; Fan, Tianchi; Gao, Yixun; He, Qingguo; Zhu, Defeng; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2016-02-16

    Sarin, used as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) for terrorist attacks, can induce a number of virulent effects. Therefore, countermeasures which could realize robust and convenient detection of sarin are in exigent need. A concise charge-transfer colorimetric and fluorescent probe (4-(6-(tert-butyl)pyridine-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline, TBPY-TPA) that could be capable of real-time and on-site monitoring of DCP vapor was reported in this contribution. Upon contact with DCP, the emission band red-shifted from 410 to 522 nm upon exposure to DCP vapor. And the quenching rate of TBPY-TPA reached up to 98% within 25 s. Chemical substances such as acetic acid (HAc), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PAMP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) do not interfere with the detection. A detection limit for DCP down to 2.6 ppb level is remarkably achieved which is below the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration. NMR data suggested that a transformation of the pyridine group into pyridinium salt via a cascade reaction is responsible for the sensing process which induced the dramatic fluorescent red shift. All of these data suggest TBPY-TPA is a promising fluorescent sensor for a rapid, simple, and low-cost method for DCP detection, which could be easy to prepare as a portable chemosensor kit for its practical application in real-time and on-site monitoring.

  15. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger

  16. Calibration chain design based on integrating sphere transfer radiometer for SI-traceable on-orbit spectral radiometric calibration and its uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei-Ning; Fang, Wei; Sun, Li-Wei; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Yu-Peng

    2016-09-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of SI-traceable on-orbit absolute radiation calibration transfer with high accuracy for satellite remote sensors, a transfer chain consisting of a fiber coupling monochromator (FBM) and an integrating sphere transfer radiometer (ISTR) was designed in this paper. Depending on the Sun, this chain based on detectors provides precise spectral radiometric calibration and measurement to spectrometers in the reflective solar band (RSB) covering 300-2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 0.5-6 nm. It shortens the traditional chain based on lamp source and reduces the calibration uncertainty from 5% to 0.5% by using the cryogenic radiometer in space as a radiometric benchmark and trap detectors as secondary standard. This paper also gives a detailed uncertainty budget with reasonable distribution of each impact factor, including the weak spectral signal measurement with uncertainty of 0.28%. According to the peculiar design and comprehensive uncertainty analysis, it illustrates that the spectral radiance measurement uncertainty of the ISTR system can reach to 0.48%. The result satisfies the requirements of SI-traceable on-orbit calibration and has wider significance for expanding the application of the remote sensing data with high-quality. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41474161) and the National High-Technology Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA123703).

  17. Calibration chain design based on integrating sphere transfer radiometer for SI-traceable on-orbit spectral radiometric calibration and its uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei-Ning; Fang, Wei; Sun, Li-Wei; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Yu-Peng

    2016-09-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of SI-traceable on-orbit absolute radiation calibration transfer with high accuracy for satellite remote sensors, a transfer chain consisting of a fiber coupling monochromator (FBM) and an integrating sphere transfer radiometer (ISTR) was designed in this paper. Depending on the Sun, this chain based on detectors provides precise spectral radiometric calibration and measurement to spectrometers in the reflective solar band (RSB) covering 300–2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 0.5–6 nm. It shortens the traditional chain based on lamp source and reduces the calibration uncertainty from 5% to 0.5% by using the cryogenic radiometer in space as a radiometric benchmark and trap detectors as secondary standard. This paper also gives a detailed uncertainty budget with reasonable distribution of each impact factor, including the weak spectral signal measurement with uncertainty of 0.28%. According to the peculiar design and comprehensive uncertainty analysis, it illustrates that the spectral radiance measurement uncertainty of the ISTR system can reach to 0.48%. The result satisfies the requirements of SI-traceable on-orbit calibration and has wider significance for expanding the application of the remote sensing data with high-quality. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41474161) and the National High-Technology Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA123703).

  18. Trophic transfer of trace elements in an isotopically constructed food chain from a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Costa, Valentina; Tramati, Cecilia; Gianguzza, Paola; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Trace element accumulation is particularly important in coastal and transitional environments, which act as contaminant buffers between the continental and marine systems. We compared trace element transfer to the biota in two locations with different open-sea exposures in a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Italy) using isotopically reconstructed food chains. Samples of sediment, macroalgae, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, and bird feathers were sampled in July 2006 and analysed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and trace elements (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], total mercury [THg], and lead [Pb]). Trophic magnification factors were calculated through the relationships between trace elements and δ(15)N in consumers. As and Pb were greater in organic matter sources (sediments and primary producers), whereas Cd and THg were greater in bird feathers. At the food chain level, an insignificant trophic transfer was found for all elements, suggesting biodilution rather than biomagnification. Sediments were more contaminated in the location with lower open-sea exposure. Macroalgae and seagrasses overall mirrored the spatial pattern highlighted in sediments, whereas differences between the two locations became further decreased moving toward higher trophic levels, indicating that trophic transfer of sediment and macrophyte-bound trace elements to the coastal lagoon food chain may be of relatively minor importance.

  19. Grafting of a functionalized side-chain liquid crystal polymer on carbon fiber surfaces: Novel coupling agents for fiber/polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bonheur, V.; Stupp, S.I. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors studied covalent grafting to functionalized carbon fibers of a specially designed liquid crystalline monomer and its corresponding side-chain liquid crystalline polymer containing pendant chemical functions on their mesogenic groups. From a materials point of view these liquid crystalline compounds could act as coupling agents at fiber/polymer matrix interfaces, offering a mechanism to control composite properties not only through bonding but also through their [open quotes]spontaneous[close quotes] molecular orientation in interfacial regions. The grafting methodology for both monomer and polymer to fiber surfaces involved esterification through carbodiimide chemistry in solution. Carboxylic acid groups found on functionalized carbon fiber surfaces were esterified to phenolic functions in the side chains of the experimental polymer. Following grafting procedures the fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by contact angle measurements. SEM micrographs of fibers grafted with polymer revealed the presence of strongly attached polymeric material on the graphitic surface after rigorous extraction with polymer solvent. Contact angle measurements and polar/dispersive free energy analysis indicated also a smaller polar component of the surface free energy of fibers possibly due to the hydrophobic polymer backbone grafted on the carbon surfaces. On the basis of results, it is concluded that the esterification reaction grafted the polyphenolic liquid-crystal polymer on graphite fiber surfaces. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Tramuta, Clara; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Mariella; Dondo, Alessandro; Ferroglio, Ezio; Nebbia, Patrizia; Rosati, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; mPCR5). The protocol was tested on different tissue samples collected from 50 aborted bovine fetuses, and it showed that out of the 50 fetuses, 7 (14%, mPCR2) were PCR-positive for N. caninum, 4 (8%, mPCR5) were PCR-positive for BVDV, and 2 (4%, mPCR4) were PCR-positive for U. diversum. The results obtained by using each multiplex PCR were 100% concordant with those obtained by using the respective PCR assays targeting single genes on the same specimens. Moreover, all multiplex PCR assays on clinical samples were compared with reference methods, obtaining a perfect accordance in all samples and confirming the validity of the set of multiplex PCR assays. The proposed set of multiplex PCR assays is, therefore, suitable for the simultaneous detection of the main infectious agents responsible for bovine abortion.

  1. Environmental monitoring for biological threat agents using the autonomous pathogen detection system with multiplexed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Regan, John F; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Hindson, Benjamin J; Metz, Thomas R; Gutierrez, Dora M; Corzett, Todd H; Hadley, Dean R; Mahnke, Ryan C; Henderer, Bruce D; Breneman, John W; Weisgraber, Todd H; Dzenitis, John M

    2008-10-01

    We have developed and field-tested a now operational civilian biodefense capability that continuously monitors the air in high-risk locations for biological threat agents. This stand-alone instrument, called the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), collects and selectively concentrates particles from the air into liquid samples and analyzes the samples using multiplexed PCR amplification coupled with microsphere array detection. During laboratory testing, we evaluated the APDS instrument's response to Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis by spiking the liquid sample stream with viable spores and cells, bead-beaten lysates, and purified DNA extracts. APDS results were also compared to a manual real-time PCR method. Field data acquired during 74 days of continuous operation at a mass-transit subway station are presented to demonstrate the specificity and reliability of the APDS. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security recently selected the APDS reported herein as the first autonomous detector component of their BioWatch antiterrorism program. This sophisticated field-deployed surveillance capability now generates actionable data in one-tenth the time of manual filter collection and analysis. PMID:18763806

  2. Nucleic Acid Ligands With Protein-like Side Chains: Modified Aptamers and Their Use as Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rohloff, John C; Gelinas, Amy D; Jarvis, Thale C; Ochsner, Urs A; Schneider, Daniel J; Gold, Larry; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2014-01-01

    Limited chemical diversity of nucleic acid libraries has long been suspected to be a major constraining factor in the overall success of SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). Despite this constraint, SELEX has enjoyed considerable success over the past quarter of a century as a result of the enormous size of starting libraries and conformational richness of nucleic acids. With judicious introduction of functional groups absent in natural nucleic acids, the “diversity gap” between nucleic acid–based ligands and protein-based ligands can be substantially bridged, to generate a new class of ligands that represent the best of both worlds. We have explored the effect of various functional groups at the 5-position of uracil and found that hydrophobic aromatic side chains have the most profound influence on the success rate of SELEX and allow the identification of ligands with very low dissociation rate constants (named Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamers or SOMAmers). Such modified nucleotides create unique intramolecular motifs and make direct contacts with proteins. Importantly, SOMAmers engage their protein targets with surfaces that have significantly more hydrophobic character compared with conventional aptamers, thereby increasing the range of epitopes that are available for binding. These improvements have enabled us to build a collection of SOMAmers to over 3,000 human proteins encompassing major families such as growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, hormones, and receptors, with additional SOMAmers aimed at pathogen and rodent proteins. Such a large and growing collection of exquisite affinity reagents expands the scope of possible applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25291143

  3. Building Pathways to Transfer: Community Colleges That Break the Chain of Failure for Students of Color. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study followed all freshman community college students in California who had demonstrated the intent to transfer from 1996, 1997, and 1998. Outcomes were assessed for each of the three entering cohorts after six years (2002-2004) and students were linked with their high schools of origin and the 4-year colleges to which they transferred. The…

  4. Ultrafast charge-transfer reactions of indoline dyes with anchoring alkyl chains of varying length in mesoporous ZnO solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Egmont; Minda, Iulia; Tauscher, Gabriele; Richter, Christoph; Miura, Hidetoshi; Schlettwein, Derck; Schwoerer, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on a mesoporous ZnO substrate were sensitized with the indoline derivatives DN91, DN216 and DN285. The chromophore is the same for each of these dyes. They differ from each other in the length of an alkyl chain, which provides a second anchor to the ZnO surface and prolongs cell lifetime. Ultrafast transient absorption measurements reveal a correlation between the length of the alkyl chain and the fastest electron-injection process. The depopulation of the excited state and the associated emergence of the oxidized molecules are dominant spectral features in the transient absorption of the dyes with shorter alkyl chains. A slower picosecond-scale decay proceeds at constant rate for all three derivatives and is assigned to electron transfer into the trap states of ZnO. All assignments are in good agreement with a higher quantum efficiency of charge injection leading to higher short-circuit currents J(sc) for dyes with shorter alkyl chains. PMID:25652263

  5. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  7. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment–apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Natasha M.; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A.; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B.; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I.; Forte, Trudy M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  8. Measuring distances within unfolded biopolymers using fluorescence resonance energy transfer: The effect of polymer chain dynamics on the observed fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen a number of investigations in which distances within unfolded proteins, polypeptides, and other biopolymers are probed via fluorescence resonance energy transfer, a method that relies on the strong distance dependence of energy transfer between a pair of dyes attached to the molecule of interest. In order to interpret the results of such experiments it is commonly assumed that intramolecular diffusion is negligible during the excited state lifetime. Here we explore the conditions under which this “frozen chain” approximation fails, leading to significantly underestimated donor-acceptor distances, and describe a means of correcting for polymer dynamics in order to estimate these distances more accurately. PMID:19725638

  9. Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-05-01

    After the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), an accidental release of a large amount of radioactive isotopes into both the air and the ocean occurred. Measurements provided by the Japanese agencies over the past 5 years show that elevated concentrations of 137Cs still remain in sediments, benthic organisms, and demersal fishes in the coastal zone around the FDNPP. These observations indicate that there are 137Cs transfer pathways from bottom sediments to the marine organisms. To describe the transfer quantitatively, the dynamic food chain biological uptake model of radionuclides (BURN) has been extended to include benthic marine organisms. The extended model takes into account both pelagic and benthic marine organisms grouped into several classes based on their trophic level and type of species: phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous) for the pelagic food chain; deposit-feeding invertebrates, demersal fishes fed by benthic invertebrates, and bottom omnivorous predators for the benthic food chain; crustaceans, mollusks, and coastal predators feeding on both pelagic and benthic organisms. Bottom invertebrates ingest organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate up through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as food. The model was implemented into the compartment model POSEIDON-R and applied to the north-western Pacific for the period of 1945-2010, and then for the period of 2011-2020 to assess the radiological consequences of 137Cs released due to the FDNPP accident. The model simulations for activity concentrations of 137Cs in both pelagic and benthic organisms in the coastal area around the FDNPP agree well with measurements for the period of 2011-2015. The decrease constant in the fitted exponential function of simulated concentration for the deposit-feeding invertebrates (0.45 yr-1

  10. Eu(III) complexes as anion-responsive luminescent sensors and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Hammell, Jacob; Buttarazzi, Leandro; Huang, Ching-Hui; Morrow, Janet R

    2011-06-01

    The Eu(III) complex of (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) is studied as a sensor for biologically relevant anions. Anion interactions produce changes in the luminescence emission spectrum of the Eu(III) complex, in the (1)H NMR spectrum, and correspondingly, in the PARACEST spectrum of the complex (PARACEST = paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer). Direct excitation spectroscopy and luminescence lifetime studies of Eu(S-THP) give information about the speciation and nature of anion interactions including carbonate, acetate, lactate, citrate, phosphate, and methylphosphate at pH 7.2. Data is consistent with the formation of both innersphere and outersphere complexes of Eu(S-THP) with acetate, lactate, and carbonate. These anions have weak dissociation constants that range from 19 to 38 mM. Citrate binding to Eu(S-THP) is predominantly innersphere with a dissociation constant of 17 μM. Luminescence emission peak changes upon addition of anion to Eu(S-THP) show that there are two distinct binding events for phosphate and methylphosphate with dissociation constants of 0.3 mM and 3.0 mM for phosphate and 0.6 mM and 9.8 mM for methyl phosphate. Eu(THPC) contains an appended carbostyril derivative as an antenna to sensitize Eu(III) luminescence. Eu(THPC) binds phosphate and citrate with dissociation constants that are 10-fold less than that of the Eu(S-THP) parent, suggesting that functionalization through a pendent group disrupts the anion binding site. Eu(S-THP) functions as an anion responsive PARACEST agent through exchange of the alcohol protons with bulk water. The alcohol proton resonances of Eu(S-THP) shift downfield in the presence of acetate, lactate, citrate, and methylphosphate, giving rise to distinct PARACEST peaks. In contrast, phosphate binds to Eu(S-THP) to suppress the PARACEST alcohol OH peak and carbonate does not markedly change the alcohol peak at 5 mM Eu(S-THP), 15 mM carbonate at p

  11. Molecular machines encoded by bacterially-derived multi-domain gene fusions that potentially synthesize, N-methylate and transfer long chain polyamines in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Michael, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    Silica glass formation in diatoms requires the biosynthesis of unusual, very long chain polyamines (LCPA) composed of iterated aminopropyl units. Diatoms processively synthesize LCPA, N-methylate the amine groups and transfer concatenated, N-dimethylated aminopropyl groups to silaffin proteins. Here I show that diatom genomes possess signal peptide-containing gene fusions of bacterially-derived polyamine biosynthetic enzymes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) and an aminopropyltransferase, sometimes fused to a eukaryotic histone N-methyltransferase domain, that potentially synthesize and N-methylate LCPA. Fusions of similar, alternatively configured domains but with a catalytically dead AdoMetDC and in one case a Tudor domain, may N-dimethylate and transfer multiple aminopropyl unit polyamines onto silaffin proteins.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays.

  13. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health. PMID:26854872

  14. Transient free radicals in iron/oxygen reconstitution of mutant protein R2 Y122F. Possible participants in electron transfer chains in ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, M; Lassmann, G; Pötsch, S; Sjöberg, B M; Gräslund, A

    1995-05-26

    Ferrous iron/oxygen reconstitution of the mutant R2 apoprotein Y122F leads to formation of a diferric center similar to that of the wild-type R2 protein of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase. This reconstitution reaction requires two extra electrons, supplied or transferred by the protein matrix of R2. We observed several transient free radical species using stopped flow and freeze quench EPR and stopped flow UV-visible spectroscopy. Three of the radicals occur in the time window 0.1-2 s, i.e. concomitant with formation of the diferric site. They include a strongly iron-coupled radical (singlet EPR signal) observed only at < or = 77 K, a singlet EPR signal observed only at room temperature, and a radical at Tyr-356 (light absorption at 410 nm), an invariant residue proposed to be part of an electron transfer chain in catalysis. Three additional transient radicals species are observed in the time window 6 s to 20 min. Two of these are conclusively identified, by specific deuteration, as tryptophan radicals. Comparing side chain geometry and distance to the iron center with EPR characteristics of the radicals, we propose certain Trp residues in R2 as likely to harbor these transient radicals.

  15. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health.

  16. Real-time trace detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants using recent advances in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Sulzer, Philipp; Mayhew, Chris A; Watts, Peter; Jordan, Alfons; Märk, Lukas; Märk, Tilmann D

    2009-12-01

    This work demonstrates for the first time the potential of using recent developments in proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry for the rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in real-time. A high-resolution (m/Deltam up to 8000) and high-sensitivity (approximately 50 cps/ppbv) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 8000 from Ionicon Analytik GmBH) has been successfully used to detect a number of CWA simulants at room temperature; namely dimethyl methylphosphonate, diethyl methylphosphonate, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. Importantly, we demonstrate in this paper the potential to identify CWAs with a high level of confidence in complex chemical environments, where multiple threat agents and interferents could also be present in trace amounts, thereby reducing the risk of false positives. Instantaneous detection and identification of trace quantities of chemical threats using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry could form the basis for a timely warning system capability with greater precision and accuracy than is currently provided by existing analytical technologies.

  17. Trophic transfer and accumulation of TiO2 nanoparticles from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) along a marine benthic food chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yin, Liyun; Zhao, Jian; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, we investigated the potential benthic trophic transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and their related distribution and toxicity. TiO2 NPs (at 10, 50 and 100 mg/L) could be taken up by clamworms, and mainly accumulated in the lower-digestive tract. TiO2 NPs were able to transfer from clamworms to juvenile turbots. The accumulation of TiO2 NPs in juvenile turbots increased with increasing Ti contents in clamworms during the dietary exposure, however, no biomagnification (BMFs, 0.30-0.33) of TiO2 NPs was observed. For both dietary and waterborne exposure, accumulation of TiO2 NPs was higher in the gill, intestine and stomach of juvenile turbot, following by skin, liver, and muscle. During dietary exposure at Day 20, the growth of turbots was reduced, and abnormal symptoms of liver and spleen were detected. Moreover, both dietary (50 and 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs-treated clamworms) and waterborne (100 mg/L TiO2 NPs) exposures led to significantly lower protein and higher lipid contents, suggesting the nutrition quality reduction of turbots. The findings from this work highlighted the trophic transfer of TiO2 NPs in marine benthic food chain, leading to the potential negative impact on marine aquaculture and food quality. PMID:27010785

  18. Trophic transfer and accumulation of TiO2 nanoparticles from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) along a marine benthic food chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yin, Liyun; Zhao, Jian; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, we investigated the potential benthic trophic transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and their related distribution and toxicity. TiO2 NPs (at 10, 50 and 100 mg/L) could be taken up by clamworms, and mainly accumulated in the lower-digestive tract. TiO2 NPs were able to transfer from clamworms to juvenile turbots. The accumulation of TiO2 NPs in juvenile turbots increased with increasing Ti contents in clamworms during the dietary exposure, however, no biomagnification (BMFs, 0.30-0.33) of TiO2 NPs was observed. For both dietary and waterborne exposure, accumulation of TiO2 NPs was higher in the gill, intestine and stomach of juvenile turbot, following by skin, liver, and muscle. During dietary exposure at Day 20, the growth of turbots was reduced, and abnormal symptoms of liver and spleen were detected. Moreover, both dietary (50 and 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs-treated clamworms) and waterborne (100 mg/L TiO2 NPs) exposures led to significantly lower protein and higher lipid contents, suggesting the nutrition quality reduction of turbots. The findings from this work highlighted the trophic transfer of TiO2 NPs in marine benthic food chain, leading to the potential negative impact on marine aquaculture and food quality.

  19. 76 FR 16707 - Rule 17Ad-17; Transfer Agents', Brokers', and Dealers' Obligation To Search for Lost...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Act Release No. 39176 (Oct. 1, 1997), 62 FR 52229 (Oct. 7, 1997) (adopting Rule 17Ad-17). \\14\\ See id... pursuant to the state's escheatment laws. \\16\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 37595 (Aug. 22, 1996), 61 FR... Search for Lost Securityholders; Paying Agents' Obligation To Search for Missing Securityholders...

  20. Using a Commercial Ultrasound Contrast Agent for Viral-Mediated Gene Transfer In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Candace M.; Forsberg, Flemming; Liu, Ji-Bin; Merton, Daniel A.; Minimo, Corrado; Claudio, Pier P.

    2007-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of site-specific gene delivery mediated by diagnostic ultrasound using genes encapsulated in commercially available ultrasound contrast agents in vitro and in vivo. Five different commercially available contrast agents were tested in vitro for their ability to enclose an adenoviral vector carrying GFP. Prostate cancer cells (DU 145) or non small cell lung cancer cells (H23) were plated in 80 culture wells and insonified at 207 or 535 kPa peak negative pressure for 1 min after administration of 0.1 ml of bubbles reconstituted with the viral vector. Experiments were repeated with the delivery vehicle incubated with complement to inactivate unenclosed Adeno-GFP and with controls. After 24 hours transduction efficiency was demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy. In vivo 15 nude mice with 21 melanoma tumors (DB-1) implanted received 0.1 ml injections of contrast. Mice were split into 3 control and 4 active groups and ultrasound was performed for 4 min at 4 MHz using an Aplio scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA). Tumors, heart, lungs and liver were harvested 48 hours later. Specimens underwent regular and fluorescent microscopy and were stained using an antibody against GFP. In vitro all contrast agents produced more fluorescence at 207 kPa than at 535 kPa. However, only Imagent (IMCOR Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) was able to induce marked gene transduction with the inactivating agent. In vivo systemic delivery of Adeno-GFP carrying microbubbles following pre-treatment with the inactivating agent resulted in specific transduction of the tumor cells only with no uptake in heart, lungs or liver (unlike the controls). In conclusion, specific viral gene transduction has been obtained in vitro and in vivo through the use of ultrasound and Imagent microbubbles as delivery vehicles.

  1. Electron transfer through ordered metallic chains in LiNbO 3 : (Mg, Zn) : Me(3d)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitina, L. G.; Shanina, B. D.; Corradi, G.; Polgar, K.

    1998-04-01

    In crystal and ceramic LiNbO 3 double doped with Mg or Zn above the threshold concentration ( CMg,Zn⩾4-6 mol%) and with transition metals of the 3d group (Cr, Fe, Mn) non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) dependent on the magnetic field was studied. Peak-like dependencies of the NRMA signal intensity on the concentration of dopants and stoichiometry of lithium niobate were found. The EPR line of mobile electrons (Δ B=30 mT) with g=2.0023 was detected. The interaction energy between the substitutional impurities of Mg and Cr was calculated. It was concluded, that in LiNbO 3 : (Mg, Zn) : (Cr, Fe, Mn) ordered metallic chains exist with electron conductivity.

  2. Bioaccumulation and food-chain transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals: A laboratory and field investigation. Final report, 15 Oct 91-14 Oct 92

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.

    1992-10-14

    The extent to which heavy metals and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be transferred up the food chain from sediments to benthic invertebrates and then on to fish species was examined using both laboratory and field techniques. PAHs were shown to bioaccumulate in a chironomid invertebrate (chironomus riparius) to relatively high levels depending on the specific compound. Accumulation in a fish specie (Lepomis macrochirus) that was fed contaminated chironomids was found to be generally low. Mobilization of PAHs from sediments into water was affected by benthic organisms enhancing the bioavailability of these contaminants to other organisms. In field studies, certain benthic invertebrates and abiotic sediment components were also shown to accumulate heavy metals. This metal accumulation persisted even when metal concentrations in the water were diminishing.

  3. Regulation of Synthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Cognate Aminoacyl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthetases of Escherichia coli: a Common Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Julius; Williams, L. S.; Umbarger, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Regulation of isoleucine, valine, and leucine biosynthesis and isoleucyl-, valyl-, and leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase formation was examined in two mutant strains of Escherichia coli. One mutant was selected for growth resistance to the isoleucine analogue, ketomycin, and the other was selected for growth resistance to both trifluoroleucine and valine. Control of the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids by repression was altered in both of these mutants. They also exhibited altered control of formation of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.15, isoleucine:sRNA ligase, AMP), valyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.9, valine:sRNA ligase, AMP), and leucyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.4, leucine:sRNA ligase, AMP). These results suggest the existence of a common element for the control of these two classes of enzymes in Escherichia coli. PMID:4612020

  4. [The transfer of 90Sr and of 137Cs radionuclides in the chain of soil-fodder-animal products in the area contaminated as a consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Spirin, E V; Aleksakhin, R M; Kalmykov, M V; Ageets, V Iu; Averin, V S; Lazarev, N M; Cavellin, G D; Biesold, H

    2006-01-01

    The database on 137Cs and or 90Sr transfer factors in the soil-fodder-animal products chain compiled in the framework of the project "Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" under the French-German Initiative was analyzed. The 137Cs transfer factors were determined into 10 fodder types for farm animals. The 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from daily diet to milk is practically independent from milk yield and season and is about 0.83% and 0.16%. 137Cs transfer factor into beef (adult animals) is about to 2.4% from the daily uptake with fodder per 1 kg meat. PMID:16579548

  5. The cell agglutination agent, phytohemagglutinin-L, improves the efficiency of somatic nuclear transfer cloning in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Du, Fuliang; Shen, Perng-Chih; Xu, Jie; Sung, Li-Ying; Jeong, B-Seon; Lucky Nedambale, Tshimangadzo; Riesen, John; Cindy Tian, X; Cheng, Winston T K; Lee, Shan-Nan; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2006-02-01

    One of the several factors that contribute to the low efficiency of mammalian somatic cloning is poor fusion between the small somatic donor cell and the large recipient oocyte. This study was designed to test phytohemagglutinin (PHA) agglutination activity on fusion rate, and subsequent developmental potential of cloned bovine embryos. The toxicity of PHA was established by examining its effects on the development of parthenogenetic bovine oocytes treated with different doses (Experiment 1), and for different durations (Experiment 2). The effective dose and duration of PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min incubation) was selected and used to compare membrane fusion efficiency and embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer (Experiment 3). Cloning with somatic donor fibroblasts versus cumulus cells was also compared, both with and without PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min). Fusion rate of nuclear donor fibroblasts, after phytohemagglutinin treatment, was increased from 33 to 61% (P < 0.05), and from 59 to 88% (P < 0.05) with cumulus cell nuclear donors. The nuclear transfer (NT) efficiency per oocyte used was improved following PHA treatment, for both fibroblast (13% versus 22%) as well as cumulus cells (17% versus 34%; P < 0.05). The cloned embryos, both with and without PHA treatment, were subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer testing, and resulted in similar survival (approximately 90% hatching) and pregnancy rates (17-25%). Three calves were born following vitrification and embryo transfer of these embryos; two from the PHA-treated group, and one from non-PHA control group. We concluded that PHA treatment significantly improved the fusion efficiency of somatic NT in cattle, and therefore, increased the development of cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, within a determined range of dose and duration, PHA had no detrimental effect on embryo survival post-vitrification, nor on pregnancy or calving rates following embryo transfer.

  6. Synchrotron verification of TiO2 accumulation in cucumber fruit: a possible pathway of TiO2 nanoparticle transfer from soil into the food chain.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alia D; Morales, Maria Isabel; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose Angel; Munoz, Berenice; Zhao, Lijuan; Nunez, Jose E; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2013-10-15

    The transfer of nanoparticles (NPs) into the food chain through edible plants is of great concern. Cucumis sativus L. is a freshly consumed garden vegetable that could be in contact with NPs through biosolids and direct agrichemical application. In this research, cucumber plants were cultivated for 150 days in sandy loam soil treated with 0 to 750 mg TiO2 NPs kg(-1). Fruits were analyzed using synchrotron μ-XRF and μ-XANES, ICP-OES, and biochemical assays. Results showed that catalase in leaves increased (U mg(-1) protein) from 58.8 in control to 78.8 in 750 mg kg(-1) treatment; while ascorbate peroxidase decreased from 21.9 to 14.1 in 500 mg kg(-1) treatment. Moreover, total chlorophyll content in leaves increased in the 750 mg kg(-1) treatment. Compared to control, FTIR spectra of fruit from TiO2 NP treated plants showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in band areas of amide, lignin, and carbohydrates, suggesting macromolecule modification of cucumber fruit. In addition, compared with control, plants treated with 500 mg kg(-1) had 35% more potassium and 34% more phosphorus. For the first time, μ-XRF and μ-XANES showed root-to-fruit translocation of TiO2 in cucumber without biotransformation. This suggests TiO2 could be introduced into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  7. Distribution and trophic transfer of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in an aquatic ecosystem receiving effluents from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Liu, Qian; Han, Shanlong; Yuan, Bo; Zhu, Nali; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are an extremely complex group of industrial chemicals and found to be potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and thus have attracted extensive concern worldwide. In this study, influent, effluent, and sludge were collected from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) in Beijing, China. Water, sediment, and aquatic species were also collected from a recipient lake that receives effluents discharged from the STP. These samples were then analyzed to investigate the effect of STP effluent on distribution and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the local aquatic ecosystem. Concentrations of total SCCPs (ΣSCCPs) in lake water and surface sediments were found in the range 162-176 ng/L and 1.1-8.7 μg/g (dry weight, dw), respectively. Vertical concentration profiles of sediment cores showed ΣSCCPs decreased exponentially with increasing depth. Specific congener composition analysis in sediment layers indicated possible in situ biodegradation might be occurring. High bioaccumulation of SCCPs was observed in the sampled aquatic species. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) generally increased with the number of chlorines in the SCCP congeners. A significantly positive correlation between lipid-normalized ΣSCCPs concentration and trophic levels (R(2) = 0.65, p < 0.05) indicate that SCCPs can biomagnify through the food chain in the effluent-receiving aquatic ecosystem. PMID:21668026

  8. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge.

  9. Nonuniform chain collapse during early stages of staphylococcal nuclease folding detected by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and ultrarapid mixing methods

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Takuya; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Hong; Roder, Heinrich; Maki, Kosuke

    2013-01-01

    The development of tertiary structure during folding of staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) was studied by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured using continuous- and stopped-flow techniques. Variants of this two-domain protein containing intradomain and interdomain fluorescence donor/acceptor pairs (Trp and Cys-linked fluorophore or quencher) were prepared to probe the intradomain and interdomain structural evolution accompanying SNase folding. The intra-domain donor/acceptor pairs are within the β-barrel domain (Trp27/Cys64 and Trp27/Cys97) and the interdomain pair is between the α-helical domain and the β-barrel domain (Trp140/Cys64). Time-resolved energy transfer efficiency accompanying folding and unfolding at different urea concentrations was measured over a time range from 30 μs to ∼10 s. Information on average donor/acceptor distances at different stages of the folding process was obtained by using a quantitative kinetic modeling approach. The average distance for the donor/acceptor pairs in the β-barrel domain decreases to nearly native values whereas that of the interdomain donor/acceptor pairs remains unchanged in the earliest intermediate (<500 μs of refolding). This indicates a rapid nonuniform collapse resulting in an ensemble of heterogeneous conformations in which the central region of the β-barrel domain is well developed while the C-terminal α-helical domain remains disordered. The distance between Trp140 and Cys64 decreases to native values on the 100-ms time scale, indicating that the α-helical domain docks onto the preformed β-barrel at a late stage of the folding. In addition, the unfolded state is found to be more compact under native conditions, suggesting that changes in solvent conditions may induce a nonspecific hydrophobic collapse. PMID:23904284

  10. One for All or All for One: Heterogeneous Expression and Host Cell Lysis Are Key to Gene Transfer Agent Activity in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Paul C. M.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The gene transfer agent (RcGTA) of Rhodobacter capsulatus is the model for a family of novel bacteriophage-related genetic elements that carry out lateral transfer of essentially random host DNA. Genuine and putative gene transfer agents have been discovered in diverse genera and are becoming recognized as potentially an important source of genetic exchange and microbial evolution in the oceans. Despite being discovered over 30 years ago, little is known about many essential aspects of RcGTA biology. Here, we validate the use of direct fluorescence reporter constructs, which express the red fluorescent protein mCherry in R. capsulatus. A construct containing the RcGTA promoter fused to mCherry was used to examine the single-cell expression profiles of wild type and RcGTA overproducer R. capsulatus populations, under different growth conditions and growth phases. The majority of RcGTA production clearly arises from a small, distinct sub-set of the population in the wild type strain and a larger sub-set in the overproducer. The most likely RcGTA release mechanism concomitant with this expression pattern is host cell lysis and we present direct evidence for the release of an intracellular enzyme accompanying RcGTA release. RcGTA ORF s is annotated as a ‘cell wall peptidase’ but we rule out a role in host lysis and propose an alternative function as a key contributor to RcGTA invasion of a target cell during infection. PMID:22916305

  11. Fe2+-Ti4+ vs. Fe2+-Fe3+ charge-transfer and short-range order in single chains of face-sharing octahedra: ellenbergerite and dumortierite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopin, C.; Langer, K.; Khomenko, V.

    2009-04-01

    In zoned pyrope megacrysts from the Dora-Maira UHP terrane, new, dark-violet colour varieties of the hexagonal, high-pressure silicate ellenbergerite extend the range of known Fe contents for this mineral from 0-0.1 to 0-0.4 atom pfu, for Ti contents commonly in the range 0.2-0.4 pfu. The new varieties show an extremely intense pleochroism, colourless for E perpendicular to c to deep Prussian blue for E//c, as compared to colourless to lilac or reddish purple for classical Fe-poor ellenbergerite. These features were the incentive for an electronic absorption spectroscopic study and a reappraisal of the interpretation of the charge transfers (CT), colour and ordering schemes in this group and the structurally related borosilicate dumortierite. Both structures are characterized by the presence of infinite single chains of face-sharing, partly vacant octahedra along the 6-fold screw axis and pseudo-hexad axis, respectively, in which the Fe and Ti atoms are partitioned. In the spectra of Fe-poor ellenbergerite, the presence of a single Fe2+-Ti4+ CT band near 19000 cm˘1 was taken as evidence for complete short-range ordering of Mg(Fe), Ti and vacancies in the octahedral single chain [1]. The E//c spectra of Fe-rich ellenbergerite show the same absorption band near 19000 cm˘1 but consistently flanked by another CT band near 14000 cm˘1 , the intensity of which increases with total Fe content. The latter is similar to the 12400 cm˘1 CT band observed as the single feature in E//c spectra of the isotructural (Ti-free and Fe-bearing) phosphoellenbergerite, and clearly assigned to Fe2+-Fe3+ CT in the octahedral single chain [1]. The same colour pattern occurs in the dumortierite group, with red Fe-poor, Ti-rich crystals showing a single CT band near 20000 cm˘1, blue Ti-poor crystals showing a single CT band near 16500 cm˘1, and violet Fe- and Ti-rich crystals showing a combination of the two bands [2]. In the light of the new data, we reinterpret the dumortierite colour

  12. Novel recombinant adenoviral vector that targets the interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain permits effective gene transfer to malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ulasov, Ilya V; Tyler, Matthew A; Han, Yu; Glasgow, Joel N; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2007-02-01

    Transduction of malignant glioma with adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors is limited by the low levels of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on tumor cells. However, malignant brain tumors have been found to overexpress a glioma-associated receptor, interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2), a marker of both glial transformation and tumor grade. To selectively target Ad5 to IL-13Ralpha2, we constructed a replication-deficient adenoviral vector that possesses an IL-13 ligand presented by a T4 phage fibritin shaft, and designated the new virus LU-13. Western blot and sequence analyses confirmed proper trimerization and ligand presentation by the T4 fibritin shaft. Confocal microscopy analysis of primary glioma suspensions incubated with viral recombinants showed that LU-13 colocalized with IL-13Ralpha2. Luciferase transduction assays conducted in both primary and passaged glioma cell cultures exhibited at least 10-fold enhanced gene transduction. Moreover, the virus preferentially bound to glioma cells, as documented by increased adenoviral E4 DNA copy number. In vitro competition assays performed with anti-human IL-13 monoclonal antibody confirmed significant attenuation of LU-13 transduction. These results were further confirmed in vivo, where LU-13 showed a 300-fold increase in transgene expression. In summary, we describe here the development of a novel and targeted adenoviral vector that binds IL-13Ralpha2. Our findings confirm the ability of LU-13 to bind IL-13Ralpha2 and increase transgene expression, making it an attractive gene therapy vector for the treatment of malignant glioma in a clinical setting.

  13. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  14. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands. PMID:24185855

  15. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p < 0.001). Ratios of invertebrate metal concentration to leaf metal concentration were in the range of 1:0.03 to 1:1.4 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:2.8 for Zn in H. aspersa and 1:0.002 to 1:3.9 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:8.8 for Zn in L. terrestris. Helix aspersa Cd and Zn tissue concentrations (15.5 and 1,220.2 mg/kg, respectively) were approximately threefold those in L. terrestris when both species were fed nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.001) and H. aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing. PMID:19292567

  16. Homologues of Genetic Transformation DNA Import Genes Are Required for Rhodobacter capsulatus Gene Transfer Agent Recipient Capability Regulated by the Response Regulator CtrA

    PubMed Central

    Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Ding, Hao; Johnson, Jeanette A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gene transfer agents (GTAs) morphologically resemble small, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages; however, their only known role is to package and transfer random pieces of the producing cell genome to recipient cells. The best understood GTA is that of Rhodobacter capsulatus, termed RcGTA. We discovered that homologues of three genes involved in natural transformation in other bacteria, comEC, comF, and comM, are essential for RcGTA-mediated gene acquisition. This paper gives genetic and biochemical evidence that RcGTA-borne DNA entry into cells requires the ComEC and ComF putative DNA transport proteins and genetic evidence that putative cytoplasmic ComM protein of unknown function is required for recipient capability. Furthermore, the master regulator of RcGTA production in <1% of a cell population, CtrA, which is also required for gene acquisition in recipient cells, is expressed in the vast majority of the population. Our results indicate that RcGTA-mediated gene transfer combines key aspects of two bacterial horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, where donor DNA is packaged in transducing phage-like particles and recipient cells take up DNA using natural transformation-related machinery. Both of these differentiated subsets of a culture population, donors and recipients, are dependent on the same response regulator, CtrA. IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major driver of bacterial evolution and adaptation to environmental stresses. Traits such as antibiotic resistance or metabolic properties can be transferred between bacteria via HGT; thus, HGT can have a tremendous effect on the fitness of a bacterial population. The three classically described HGT mechanisms are conjugation, transformation, and phage-mediated transduction. More recently, the HGT factor GTA was described, where random pieces of producing cell genome are packaged into phage-like particles that deliver DNA to recipient cells. In this report, we show that transport of

  17. Effect of ageing and ischemia on enzymatic activities linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacids metabolism of free and intrasynaptic mitochondria of cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2009-12-01

    The effect of ageing and the relationships between the catalytic properties of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacid metabolism of cerebral cortex, a functional area very sensitive to both age and ischemia, were studied on mitochondria of adult and aged rats, after complete ischemia of 15 minutes duration. The maximum rate (Vmax) of the following enzyme activities: citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase as total (integrated activity of Complex I-III), rotenone sensitive (Complex I) and cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV) for electron transfer chain; glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate-and glutamate-pyruvate transaminases for glutamate metabolism were assayed in non-synaptic, perikaryal mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., the light and heavy mitochondrial fraction. The results indicate that in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex, the value of the same enzyme activity markedly differs according (a) to the different populations of mitochondria, i.e., non-synaptic or intra-synaptic light and heavy, (b) and respect to ageing. After 15 min of complete ischemia, the enzyme activities of mitochondria located near the nucleus (perikaryal mitochondria) and in synaptic structures (intra-synaptic mitochondria) of the cerebral tissue were substantially modified by ischemia. Non-synaptic mitochondria seem to be more affected by ischemia in adult and particularly in aged animals than the intra-synaptic light and heavy mitochondria. The observed modifications in enzyme activities reflect the metabolic state of the tissue at each specific experimental condition, as shown by comparative evaluation with respect to the content of energy-linked metabolites and substrates. The derangements in enzyme activities due to ischemia is greater in aged than in adult animals and especially the non-synaptic and the intra-synaptic light

  18. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  19. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of α-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the α-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  20. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi

    2013-11-21

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of α-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the α-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  1. Insulin B chain 9-23 gene transfer to hepatocytes protects from type 1 diabetes by inducing Ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs.

    PubMed

    Akbarpour, Mahzad; Goudy, Kevin S; Cantore, Alessio; Russo, Fabio; Sanvito, Francesca; Naldini, Luigi; Annoni, Andrea; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia

    2015-05-27

    Antigen (Ag)-specific tolerance in type 1 diabetes (T1D) in human has not been achieved yet. Targeting lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated gene expression to hepatocytes induces active tolerance toward the encoded Ag. The insulin B chain 9-23 (InsB9-23) is an immunodominant T cell epitope in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. To determine whether auto-Ag gene transfer to hepatocytes induces tolerance and control of T1D, NOD mice were treated with integrase-competent LVs (ICLVs) that selectively target the expression of InsB9-23 to hepatocytes. ICLV treatment induced InsB9-23-specific effector T cells but also FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which halted islet immune cell infiltration, and protected from T1D. Moreover, ICLV treatment combined with a single suboptimal dose of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is effective in T1D reversal. Splenocytes from LV.InsB9-23-treated mice, but not from LV.OVA (ovalbumin)-treated control mice, stopped diabetes development, demonstrating that protection is Ag-specific. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells led to diabetes progression, indicating that Ag-specific FoxP3(+) Tregs mediate protection. Integrase-defective LVs (IDLVs).InsB9-23, which alleviate the concerns for insertional mutagenesis and support transient transgene expression in hepatocytes, were also efficient in protecting from T1D. These data demonstrate that hepatocyte-targeted auto-Ag gene expression prevents and resolves T1D and that stable integration of the transgene is not required for this protection. Gene transfer to hepatocytes can be used to induce Ag-specific tolerance in autoimmune diseases.

  2. Phosphate Concentration and the Putative Sensor Kinase Protein CckA Modulate Cell Lysis and Release of the Rhodobacter capsulatus Gene Transfer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Westbye, A. B.; Leung, M. M.; Florizone, S. M.; Taylor, T. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Fogg, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a bacteriophage-like genetic element with the sole known function of horizontal gene transfer. Homologues of RcGTA genes are present in many members of the alphaproteobacteria and may serve an important role in microbial evolution. Transcription of RcGTA genes is induced as cultures enter the stationary phase; however, little is known about cis-active sequences. In this work, we identify the promoter of the first gene in the RcGTA structural gene cluster. Additionally, gene transduction frequency depends on the growth medium, and the reason for this is not known. We report that millimolar concentrations of phosphate posttranslationally inhibit the lysis-dependent release of RcGTA from cells in both a complex medium and a defined medium. Furthermore, we found that cell lysis requires the genes rcc00555 and rcc00556, which were expressed and studied in Escherichia coli to determine their predicted functions as an endolysin and holin, respectively. Production of RcGTA is regulated by host systems, including a putative histidine kinase, CckA, and we found that CckA is required for maximal expression of rcc00555 and for maturation of RcGTA to yield gene transduction-functional particles. PMID:23995641

  3. Novel one pot synthesis of silver nanoparticle-polymer composites by supercritical CO2 polymerisation in the presence of a RAFT agent.

    PubMed

    Hasell, Tom; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Jones, Rhys D W; Brown, Paul D; Howdle, Steven M

    2007-10-14

    We report the one pot synthesis of a silver-polymer nanocomposite in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) whereby an organometallic silver complex is thermally decomposed in the presence of a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent during a polymerisation reaction in which the RAFT agent simultaneously stabilises the growing polymer microparticles and the formation of surface located silver nanoparticles.

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis and Binding Study of New Long-Chain HPA-12 Analogues as Potent Ligands of the Ceramide Transfer Protein CERT.

    PubMed

    Ďuriš, Andrej; Daïch, Adam; Santos, Cécile; Fleury, Laurence; Ausseil, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Ballereau, Stéphanie; Génisson, Yves; Berkeš, Dušan

    2016-05-01

    A series of 12 analogues of the Cer transfer protein (CERT) antagonist HPA-12 with long aliphatic chains were prepared as their (1R,3S)-syn and (1R,3R)-anti stereoisomers from pivotal chiral oxoamino acids. The enantioselective access to these intermediates as well as their ensuing transformation relied on a practical crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT) process. Sonogashira coupling followed by triple bond reduction and thiophene ring hydrodesulfurization (HDS) into the corresponding alkane moieties was then implemented to complete the synthetic routes delivering the targeted HPA-12 analogues in concise 4- to 6-step reaction sequences. Ten compounds were evaluated regarding their ability to bind to the CERT START domain by using the recently developed time-resolved FRET-based homogeneous (HTR-FRET) binding assay. The introduction of a lipophilic appendage on the phenyl moiety led to an overall 10- to 1000-fold enhancement of the protein binding, with the highest effect being observed for a n-hexyl residue in the meta position. The importance of the phenyl ring for the activity was indicated by the reduced potency of the 3-deoxyphytoceramide aliphatic analogues. The 1,3-syn stereoisomers were systematically more potent than their 1,3-anti analogues. In silico studies were used to rationalized these trends, leading to a model of protein recognition coherent with the stronger binding of (1R,3S)-syn HPAs.

  5. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment and determination of synthetic estrogens in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Minjun; Kong, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers have attracted significant interest because of their multifunctionality of selective recognition of target molecules and rapid magnetic response. In this contribution, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized via surface-initiated reversible addition addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using diethylstilbestrol as the template for the enrichment of synthetic estrogens. The uniform imprinted surface layer and the magnetic property of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers favored a fast binding kinetics and rapid analysis of target molecules. The static and selective binding experiments demonstrated a desirable adsorption capacity and good selectivity of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in comparison to magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers. Accordingly, a corresponding analytical method was developed in which magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction materials for the concentration and determination of four synthetic estrogens (diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, dienestrol, and bisphenol A) in fish pond water. The recoveries of these synthetic estrogens in spiked fish pond water samples ranged from 61.2 to 99.1% with a relative standard deviation of lower than 6.3%. This study provides a versatile approach to prepare well-defined magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers sorbents for the analysis of synthetic estrogens in water solution. PMID:25989155

  6. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  7. DNA-directed alkylating agents. 3. Structure-activity relationships for acridine-linked aniline mustards: consequences of varying the length of the linker chain.

    PubMed

    Valu, K K; Gourdie, T A; Boritzki, T J; Gravatt, G L; Baguley, B C; Wilson, W R; Wakelin, L P; Woodgate, P D; Denny, W A

    1990-11-01

    Four series of acridine-linked aniline mustards have been prepared and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo antitumor activity, and DNA cross-linking ability. The anilines were attached to the DNA-intercalating acridine chromophores by link groups (-O-, -CH2-, -S-, and -SO2-) of widely varying electronic properties, providing four series of widely differing mustard reactivity where the alkyl chain linking the acridine and mustard moieties was varied from two to five carbons. Relationships were sought between chain length and biological properties. Within each series, increasing the chain length did not alter the reactivity of the alkylating moiety but did appear to position it differently on the DNA, since cross-linking ability (measured by agarose gel assay) altered with chain length, being maximal with the C4 analogue. The in vivo antitumor activities of the compounds depended to some extent on the reactivity of the mustard, with the least reactive SO2 compounds being inactive. However, DNA-targeting did appear to allow the use of less reactive mustards, since the S-linked acridine mustards showed significant activity whereas the parent S-mustard did not. Within each active series, the most active compound was the C4 homologue, suggesting some relationship between activity and extent of DNA alkylation.

  8. Protein electron transfer (mechanism and reproductive toxicity): iminium, hydrogen bonding, homoconjugation, amino acid side chains (redox and charged), and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2007-03-01

    This contribution presents novel biochemical perspectives of protein electron transfer (ET) with focus on the iminium nature of the peptide link, along with relationships to reproductive toxicity. The favorable influence of hydrogen bonding on protein ET has been widely documented. Hydrogen bonding of the zwitterionic peptide enhances iminium character. A wide array of such bonding agents is available in vivo, with many reports on the peptide link itself. ET proceeds along the backbone, due in part, to homoconjugation. Redox amino acids (AAs), mainly tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Typ), histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), disulfide, and methionine (Met), are involved in the competing processes for radical formation: direct hydrogen atom abstraction versus electron and proton loss. It appears that the radical or radical cation generated during the redox process is capable of interacting with n-electrons of the backbone. Beneficial effects of cationic AAs impact the conduction process. A relationship apparently exists involving cell signaling, protein conduction, and radicals or electrons. In addition, the link between protein ET and reproductive toxicity is examined. A key element is the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by protein ET. There is extensive evidence for involvement of ROS in generation of birth defects. The radical species arise in protein mainly by ET transformations by enzymes, as illustrated in the case of alcoholism.

  9. Electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization method for catalase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Hou, Dayin; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Tao; Menkhaus, Todd J; Fong, Hao

    2014-12-10

    In this study, an electrospun regenerated cellulose (RC) nanofibrous membrane with fiber diameters of ∼200-400 nm was prepared first; subsequently, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and acrylic acid (AA) were selected as the monomers for surface grafting of polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. Thereafter, four nanofibrous membranes (i.e., RC, RC-poly(HEMA), RC-poly(DMAEMA), and RC-poly(AA)) were explored as innovative supports for immobilization of an enzyme of bovine liver catalase (CAT). The amount/capacity, activity, stability, and reusability of immobilized catalase were evaluated, and the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) for immobilized and free catalase were determined. The results indicated that the respective amounts/capacities of immobilized catalase on RC-poly(HEMA) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) nanofibrous membranes reached 78 ± 3.5 and 67 ± 2.7 mg g(-1), which were considerably higher than the previously reported values. Meanwhile, compared to that of free CAT (i.e., 18 days), the half-life periods of RC-CAT, RC-poly(HEMA)-CAT, RC-poly(DMAEMA)-CAT, and RC-poly(AA)-CAT were 49, 58, 56, and 60 days, respectively, indicating that the storage stability of immobilized catalase was also significantly improved. Furthermore, the immobilized catalase exhibited substantially higher resistance to temperature variation (tested from 5 to 70 °C) and lower degree of sensitivity to pH value (tested from 4.0 and 10.0) than the free catalase. In particular, according to the kinetic parameters of Vmax and Km, the nanofibrous membranes of RC-poly(HEMA) (i.e., 5102 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 44.89 mM) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) (i.e., 4651 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 46.98 mM) had the most satisfactory biocompatibility with immobilized catalase. It was therefore concluded that the electrospun RC nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with 3-dimensional nanolayers of polymer chains/brushes would be

  10. Electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization method for catalase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Hou, Dayin; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Tao; Menkhaus, Todd J; Fong, Hao

    2014-12-10

    In this study, an electrospun regenerated cellulose (RC) nanofibrous membrane with fiber diameters of ∼200-400 nm was prepared first; subsequently, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and acrylic acid (AA) were selected as the monomers for surface grafting of polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. Thereafter, four nanofibrous membranes (i.e., RC, RC-poly(HEMA), RC-poly(DMAEMA), and RC-poly(AA)) were explored as innovative supports for immobilization of an enzyme of bovine liver catalase (CAT). The amount/capacity, activity, stability, and reusability of immobilized catalase were evaluated, and the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) for immobilized and free catalase were determined. The results indicated that the respective amounts/capacities of immobilized catalase on RC-poly(HEMA) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) nanofibrous membranes reached 78 ± 3.5 and 67 ± 2.7 mg g(-1), which were considerably higher than the previously reported values. Meanwhile, compared to that of free CAT (i.e., 18 days), the half-life periods of RC-CAT, RC-poly(HEMA)-CAT, RC-poly(DMAEMA)-CAT, and RC-poly(AA)-CAT were 49, 58, 56, and 60 days, respectively, indicating that the storage stability of immobilized catalase was also significantly improved. Furthermore, the immobilized catalase exhibited substantially higher resistance to temperature variation (tested from 5 to 70 °C) and lower degree of sensitivity to pH value (tested from 4.0 and 10.0) than the free catalase. In particular, according to the kinetic parameters of Vmax and Km, the nanofibrous membranes of RC-poly(HEMA) (i.e., 5102 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 44.89 mM) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) (i.e., 4651 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 46.98 mM) had the most satisfactory biocompatibility with immobilized catalase. It was therefore concluded that the electrospun RC nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with 3-dimensional nanolayers of polymer chains/brushes would be

  11. Exploration on natural product anibamine side chain modification toward development of novel CCR5 antagonists and potential anti-prostate cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoyan G; Zaidi, Saheem A; Zhang, Feng; Singh, Shilpa; Raborg, Thomas J; Yuan, Yunyun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death among males in the world. Prostate cancer cells have been shown to express upregulated chemokine receptor CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that relates to the inflammation process. Anibamine, a natural product containing a pyridine ring and two aliphatic side chains, was shown to carry a binding affinity of 1 μM at CCR5 as an antagonist with potential anti-cancer activity. However, it is not drug-like according to the Lipinski's rule of five mainly due to its two long aliphatic side chains. In our effort to improve its drug-like property, a series of anibamine derivatives were designed and synthesized by placement of aromatic side chains through an amide linkage to the pyridine ring. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their CCR5 affinity and antagonism, and potential anti-proliferation activity against prostate cancer cell lines. Basal cytotoxicity was finally studied for compounds showing potent anti-proliferation activity. It was found that compounds with hydrophobic substitutions on the aromatic systems seemed to carry more promising CCR5 binding and prostate cancer cell proliferation inhibition activities.

  12. The SOS Response Master Regulator LexA Regulates the Gene Transfer Agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Represses Transcription of the Signal Transduction Protein CckA

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinski, Kevin S.; Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Ding, Hao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a genetic exchange element that combines central aspects of bacteriophage-mediated transduction and natural transformation. RcGTA particles resemble a small double-stranded DNA bacteriophage, package random ∼4-kb fragments of the producing cell genome, and are released from a subpopulation (<1%) of cells in a stationary-phase culture. RcGTA particles deliver this DNA to surrounding R. capsulatus cells, and the DNA is integrated into the recipient genome though a process that requires homologs of natural transformation genes and RecA-mediated homologous recombination. Here, we report the identification of the LexA repressor, the master regulator of the SOS response in many bacteria, as a regulator of RcGTA activity. Deletion of the lexA gene resulted in the abolition of detectable RcGTA production and an ∼10-fold reduction in recipient capability. A search for SOS box sequences in the R. capsulatus genome sequence identified a number of putative binding sites located 5′ of typical SOS response coding sequences and also 5′ of the RcGTA regulatory gene cckA, which encodes a hybrid histidine kinase homolog. Expression of cckA was increased >5-fold in the lexA mutant, and a lexA cckA double mutant was found to have the same phenotype as a ΔcckA single mutant in terms of RcGTA production. The data indicate that LexA is required for RcGTA production and maximal recipient capability and that the RcGTA-deficient phenotype of the lexA mutant is largely due to the overexpression of cckA. IMPORTANCE This work describes an unusual phenotype of a lexA mutant of the alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus in respect to the phage transduction-like genetic exchange carried out by the R. capsulatus gene transfer agent (RcGTA). Instead of the expected SOS response characteristic of prophage induction, this lexA mutation not only abolishes the production of RcGTA particles but also impairs the ability

  13. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites.

  14. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites. PMID:26981686

  15. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  16. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry.

  17. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  18. Stability of barley and malt lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) toward heating and reducing agents: relationships with the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Perrocheau, Ludivine; Bakan, Benedicte; Boivin, Patrick; Marion, Didier

    2006-04-19

    Barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1) is a heat-stable and protease-resistant albumin that concentrates in beer, where it participates in the formation and stability of beer foam. Whereas the barley LTP1 does not display any foaming properties, the corresponding beer protein is surface-active. Such an improvement is related to glycation by Maillard reactions on malting, acylation on mashing, and structural unfolding on brewing. The structural stability of purified barley and glycated malt LTP1 toward heating has been analyzed. Whatever the modification, lipid adduction or glycation, barley LTP1s are highly stable proteins that resisted temperatures up to 100 degrees C. Unfolding of LTP1 occurred only when heating was conducted in the presence of a reducing agent. In the presence of sodium sulfite, the lipid-adducted barley and malt LTP1 displayed higher heat stability than the nonadducted protein. Glycation had no or weak effect on heat-induced unfolding. Finally, it was shown that unfolding occurred on wort boiling before fermentation and that the reducing conditions are provided by malt extract.

  19. Cerium(III), europium(III), and ytterbium(III) complexes with alcohol donor groups as chemical exchange saturation transfer agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Morrow, Janet R

    2009-08-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of macrocycles 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (THED) and (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) were studied as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The four hyperfine-shifted alcohol protons of these Ln(III) complexes gave rise to a single (1)H resonance in wet d(3)-acetonitrile that was separated from the bulk water resonance (Delta omega) by 8 ppm (Ce), 2 ppm (Nd), 7 ppm (Eu), or 17 ppm (Yb). A CEST peak corresponding to the alcohol protons was observed for all Ln(THED)(3+) or Ln(S-THP)(3+) complexes except Nd(III) at low water concentrations (<1%). In 100% aqueous buffered solutions, the CEST hydroxyl peak is observed for the Eu(III), Ce(III), and Yb(III) complexes over a range of pH values. The optimal pH range for the CEST effect of each complex is related to the pK(a) of the hydroxyl/water ligands of the complex. Optimum pH values for the CEST effect from alcohol proton exchange are pH = 6.0 for Ce(S-THP)(3+), pH = 4.5 for Eu(THED)(3+), and pH = 3.0 for Yb(S-THP)(3+).

  20. Membrane fusion induced by the membrane mobility agent, A2C. Differentiation between fusible and non-fusible cells. Transfer of fusibility.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Kosower, N S; Halverson, C; Aoki, M; Kosower, E M

    1980-10-01

    Red cells of different species respond differently to the treatment with the membrane mobility agent, A2C, with respect to both the A2C interaction and the subsequent cell-cell interaction. Depending on whether both, one or neither of the processes are effective, some red cells (e.g., nucleated Leghorn hen red cells, rat red cells) fuse easily, some (human red cells) show morphological changes but do not fuse, and others (nucleated Rock hen red cells) show little or no response. Mixed fusion (i.e., between fusible cells of different species) is readily obtained, indicating that no species-specific recognition sites are required for A2C-induced fusion. the potential for fusion is a transferable characteristic. In the presence of fusible cells, A2C induces both heterologous and homologous fusion of otherwise 'non-fusible' cells. Electron micrographs of fusing cells after treatment with A2C reveal 'onion-ring' structures ('whorls'), free of intramembranous protein particles but different from the smooth appearance of A(2)C particles. Whorls are considered to arise from fusion-potent membrane areas. Fusion is apparent at multiple sites along the contact line between apposed membranes. The postulated appearance of vesicle-like structures along the fusion line (Kosower, E.M., Kosower, N.S. and Wegman, P. (1977) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 471, 311-329) is confirmed by micrographs. The mechanism of this fusion process is duscussed and compared to other types of fusion process. PMID:7417438

  1. Modulation of mutagenic properties in a series of DNA-directed alkylating agents by variation of chain length and alkylator reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Turner, P M; Pogai, H; Denny, W A

    1992-02-01

    Four series of aniline mustards linked to a DNA-affinic acridine chromophore by alkyl chains of varying length (2-5 carbon atoms) have been studied for their mutagenic properties, as estimated in four strains of Salmonella typhimurium and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5. The four series have very different mustard reactivities, as determined by the aniline link group (-O-, -CH2-, -S- or -SO2-). Some of the derived compounds cause frameshift mutagenesis which can be detected in TA98 and also "petite" mutagenesis activity, neither of which occur to significant extents with the parent mustards or with 9-aminoacridine. None of the derived compounds are as effective as the parent mustards in mitotic crossing-over, nor do they show ability for frameshift mutagenesis in S. typhimurium TA1977 which is typical of acridines. Some of the compounds have comparable frameshift activity to compounds such as ICR-191, but appear to have a different base-pair preference. The results indicate clear structure-activity relationships for the spectrum of mutagenic activity, which relate to both chain length and alkylator reactivity, for these compounds.

  2. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs. PMID:23107058

  3. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  4. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins-- Addition of Bacillus Cereus Biovar Anthracis to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2016-09-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security. PMID:27632805

  5. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins-- Addition of Bacillus Cereus Biovar Anthracis to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2016-09-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security.

  6. Putative respiratory chain of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Meuric, Vincent; Rouillon, Astrid; Chandad, Fatiha; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The electron transfer chain in Porphyromonas gingivalis, or periodontopathogens, has not yet been characterized. P. gingivalis, a strict anaerobic bacteria and the second colonizer of the oral cavity, is considered to be a major causal agent involved in periodontal diseases. Primary colonizers create a favorable environment for P. gingivalis growth by decreasing oxygen pressure. Oxygen does not appear to be the final electron acceptor of the respiratory chain. Fumarate and cytochrome b have been implicated as major components of the respiratory activity. However, the P. gingivalis genome shows many other enzymes that could be implicated in aerobic or nitrite respiration. Using bioinformatic tools and literature studies of respiratory pathways, the ATP synthesis mechanism from the sodium cycle and nutrients metabolism, the putative respirasome of P. gingivalis has been proposed.

  7. The GtaR protein negatively regulates transcription of the gtaRI operon and modulates gene transfer agent (RcGTA) expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Molly M.; Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Spiegelman, G. B.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gtaI gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus encodes an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase. Immediately 5′ of the gtaI gene is ORF rcc00328 that encodes a potential acyl-HSL receptor protein. A combination of genetic and biochemical approaches showed that rcc00328 (renamed gtaR) modulates the production of a genetic exchange element called the gene transfer agent (RcGTA), and regulates the transcription of gtaI. Although gtaI mutants exhibited decreased levels of RcGTA production, mutagenesis of gtaR did not, whereas a gtaR/gtaI double mutant produced wild-type levels of RcGTA. Because mutagenesis of gtaR suppressed the effect of the gtaI mutation, we suggest that the GtaR protein is a negative transcriptional regulator of RcGTA gene expression. We discovered that the gtaR and gtaI genes are co-transcribed, and also negatively regulated by the GtaR protein in the absence of acyl-HSL. A His-tagged GtaR protein was purified, and DNA-binding experiments revealed a binding site in the promoter region of the gtaRI operon. This GtaR protein did not bind to the RcGTA promoter region, and therefore modulation of RcGTA production appears to require at least one additional factor. We found that RcGTA production was stimulated by spent media from other species, and identified exogenous acyl-HSLs that induce RcGTA. PMID:22211723

  8. Long-chain-substituted uric acid and 5,6-diaminouracil derivatives as novel agents against free radical processes: synthesis and in vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Fraisse, L; Verlhac, J B; Roche, B; Rascle, M C; Rabion, A; Seris, J L

    1993-05-14

    A new series of N-alkylated uric acids (2,6,8-purinetrione) and 5,6-diaminouracils (5,6-diamino-2,4-pyrimidinedione) were synthesized, and their activities against free radicals were evaluated. Long-chain derivatives of both series exhibited a large inhibitory activity against oxygen radical induced lipid peroxidation in bovine heart mitochondria (IC50 lower than 1 microM), compared to the reference antioxidants trolox C or alpha-tocopherol. This activity appeared related to (i) the ability of these compounds to reduce the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and (ii) their lipophilicity estimated by log P determination. In order to study the scavenging mechanisms of diaminouracils and urate derivatives against lipid radicals, they were also tested against the azo-initiated peroxidation of either methyl linoleate in organic solvents or a liposomal suspension of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Urate derivatives reacted moderately with lipid radicals and were slowly consumed, significantly affecting the propagation of the peroxidation. Diaminouracils strongly reduced the propagation rate. They were quickly consumed and were able to deactivate about 1 mol of lipid radical per mole of compound in organic solvent. Dodecyl urates and decyl- and dodecyldiaminouracils were chosen for further in vitro investigation and in vivo evaluation.

  9. Screening models to predict food-chain transfer of environmental toxicants: Progress report for the period April 1 to November 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    To date, two experiments with laying hens have been completed and two studies with milking goats will be concluded by the end of the project year. This study will elucidate transfer parameters using the goat and hen as screening models. There are strong arguments for use of the Transfer Coefficient (F/sub j/) parameter for transfer of certain environmental elements to animal food products. The Observed Ratio (OR) also has validity for certain element/carrier pairs. There are interesting species differences in both parameters and a general conclusion that the variability of experimental results could be reduced if more attention were given to chemical form, biological carrier, and experimental methodology. Animal experiments are designed to determine the influence of carrier elements upon the transfer of tracer elements to milk, eggs and meat. The biological transfer uncertainty will be determined by minimizing all variables other than carrier element and mass. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Transfer of noncovalent chiral information along an optically inactive helical peptide chain: allosteric control of asymmetry of the C-terminal site by external molecule that binds to the N-terminal site.

    PubMed

    Ousaka, Naoki; Inai, Yoshihito

    2009-02-20

    This study aims at demonstrating end-to-end transfer of noncovalent chiral information along a peptide chain. The domino-type induction of helical sense is proven by using achiral peptides 1-m of bis-chromophoric sequence with different chain lengths: H-(Aib-Delta(Z)Phe)(m)-(Aib-Delta(Z)Bip)(2)-Aib-OCH(3) [m = 2, 4, and 6; Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid; Delta(Z)Phe = (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydrophenylalanine; Delta(Z)Bip = (Z)-beta-(4,4'-biphenyl)-alpha,beta-didehydroalanine]. They all showed the tendency to adopt a 3(10)-helix. Whereas peptide 1-m originally shows no circular dichroism (CD) signals, marked CD signals were induced at around 270-320 nm based on both the beta-aryl didehydroresidues by chiral Boc-proline (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl). The observed CD spectra were interpreted on the basis of the exciton chirality method and theoretical CD simulation of several helical conformations that were energy-minimized. The experimental and theoretical CD analysis reveals that Boc-l-proline induces the preference for a right-handed helicity in the whole chain of 1-m. Such noncovalent chiral induction was not observed in the corresponding N-terminally protected 1-m. Obviously, helicity induction in 1-m originates from the binding of Boc-proline to the N-terminal site. In the 17-mer (1-6), the information of helix sense reaches the 16th residue from the N-terminus. We have monitored precise transfer of noncovalent chiral stimulus along a helical peptide chain. The present study also proposes a primitive allosteric model of a single protein-mimicking backbone. Here chiral molecule binding the N-terminal site of 1-6 controls the chiroptical signals and helical sense of the C-terminal site about 30 A away.

  11. Organization of the electron transfer chain to oxygen in the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae: roles for cytochromes c4 and c5, but not cytochrome c2, in oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Hopper, Amanda; Overton, Tim; Squire, Derrick J P; Cole, Jeffrey; Tovell, Nicholas

    2010-05-01

    Although Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a prolific source of eight c-type cytochromes, little is known about how its electron transfer pathways to oxygen are organized. In this study, the roles in the respiratory chain to oxygen of cytochromes c(2), c(4), and c(5), encoded by the genes cccA, cycA, and cycB, respectively, have been investigated. Single mutations in genes for either cytochrome c(4) or c(5) resulted in an increased sensitivity to growth inhibition by excess oxygen and small decreases in the respiratory capacity of the parent, which were complemented by the chromosomal integration of an ectopic, isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible copy of the cycA or cycB gene. In contrast, a cccA mutant reduced oxygen slightly more rapidly than the parent, suggesting that cccA is expressed but cytochrome c(2) is not involved in electron transfer to cytochrome oxidase. The deletion of cccA increased the sensitivity of the cycB mutant to excess oxygen but decreased the sensitivity of the cycA mutant. Despite many attempts, a double mutant defective in both cytochromes c(4) and c(5) could not be isolated. However, a strain with the ectopically encoded, IPTG-inducible cycB gene with deletions in both cycA and cycB was constructed: the growth and survival of this strain were dependent upon the addition of IPTG, so gonococcal survival is dependent upon the synthesis of either cytochrome c(4) or c(5). These results define the gonococcal electron transfer chain to oxygen in which cytochromes c(4) and c(5), but not cytochrome c(2), provide alternative pathways for electron transfer from the cytochrome bc(1) complex to the terminal oxidase cytochrome cbb(3).

  12. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND TOXINS § 73.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent or toxin may only be transferred under the conditions of...

  13. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to an individual or entity registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select...

  14. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  15. Silver nanoparticles well-dispersed in amine-functionalized, one-pot made vesicles as an effective antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuanming; Li, Jiefeng; Yu, Junyan; Zhao, Jinlai; Tang, Jiaoning

    2016-03-01

    We report a simple route to prepare silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) loaded amine functionalized poly-oligomeric (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate block poly-glycidyl methacrylate (POEGMA-b-PGMA) vesicles as an effective antibacterial agent. Self-assemblies of POEGMA-b-PGMA were prepared from reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization mediated by a POEGMA macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in ethanol. Amine-functionalized self-assemblies were applied for Ag NP loading by using amine and hydroxyl groups as both the coordination agent and reductant under hydrothermal condition in high-pressure steam sterilization. 12.7 wt.% content of fine Ag NP well-dispersed in vesicles showed excellent antibacterial activities with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) below 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L against Escherichia coli and 2.5 and 80 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus respectively.

  16. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  17. Specific dimerization of the light chains of human immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, G T; Straus, D

    1968-07-01

    1. The light chains of human immunoglobulin were allowed to dimerize in vitro on removal of the dispersing agents acetic acid or urea. 2. On electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel at pH8.8 the dimers yielded up to nine regularly spaced bands. This approximates to the number of electrophoretic components known to occur among the monomers. 3. Single electrophoretic components of the dimers were isolated from the gel, dissociated into monomers, and subjected as such to electrophoresis in urea-containing gels. Each gave two adjacent bands. 4. Similarly, after all the light chains as monomers had been subjected to electrophoresis in urea-containing gels, single electrophoretic components were isolated and allowed to dimerize. When examined now as dimers in the absence of urea, each component gave two adjacent bands. 5. These findings are explicable on the following basis. (a) The dimerization of the light chains is specific, at least inasmuch as it occurs between monomers of the same electrophoretic mobilities. (b) With the buffer constant, different light chains undergo different changes in net charge on being transferred from urea-containing to urea-free solution; in this way two different chains of the same initial charge can acquire a charge difference of 1. 6. Experiments with Bence-Jones proteins and other homogeneous light chains gave results substantiating the conclusions (a) and (b). PMID:4174431

  18. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus by sample transfer, plaque assay and strand-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: what do we detect?

    PubMed

    Kreil, T R; Zimmermann, K; Burger, I; Attakpah, E; Mannhalter, J W; Eibl, M M

    1997-10-01

    Experimental inoculation of mice provides a well characterized model for studying infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus pathogenic for humans. Conflicting data on the kinetics of viremia and the development of virus titers in the brain, however, were only recently shown to have resulted from the use of assay systems with different levels of sensitivity in the titration of TBEV, i.e. plaque assay or sample transfer into naive recipient mice. Theoretically, RT-PCR could extend further the detectability to antibody-neutralized virus and when undertaken strand-specifically discriminate active replication from the mere presence of TBEV. We have compared the conventional methods for detection of TBEV with a newly devised RT-PCR method. As expected, RT-PCR, in contrast to the infectivity assays, detected antibody-neutralized virus. Furthermore, the mere presence or active replication of the virus could be differentiated by strand-specific RT-PCR. Plaque assay and sample transfer, in contrast, both detected only infectious virus. However, whereas sample transfer provides higher sensitivity for detection of TBEV from solid organs, the plaque assay is less costly and considering animals welfare more convenient. Thus, the newly devised method may allow the resolution of unanswered questions, while both the traditional infectivity assays retain their benefits in certain situations.

  19. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ has a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2. PMID:26884151

  20. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    DOE PAGES

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; et al

    2016-02-17

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ hasmore » a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2.« less

  1. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern antibiotic era and all the benefits that these therapeutic agents have brought, i.e., longer life spans, greater levels of public health, widespread modern surgery, and control of debilitating infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to become commercially available, and its use ushered in the age of antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin's bactericidal action had been made by Alexander Fleming in London in 1928. After publishing his observations in 1929, no further progress was made until the work was picked up in 1939 by scientists at Oxford University. The group was headed by Howard Florey, and Chain was the group's lead scientist. Chain was born and educated in Germany, and he fled in 1933 as a Jewish refugee from Nazism to England. Other important members of the Oxford research team were Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham. The team was able to produce and isolate penicillin under conditions of scarce resources and many technical challenges. Sufficient material was collected and tested on mice to successfully demonstrate penicillin's bactericidal action on pathogens, while being nontoxic to mammals. Chain directed the microbiological methods for producing penicillin and the chemical engineering methods to extract the material. This technology was transferred to US government facilities in 1941 for commercial production of penicillin, becoming an important element in the Allied war effort. In 1945, the Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by Fleming, Florey, and Chain in recognition of their work in developing penicillin as a therapeutic agent. After World War II, Chain tried to persuade the British government to fund a new national antibiotic industry with both research and production facilities. As

  2. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern antibiotic era and all the benefits that these therapeutic agents have brought, i.e., longer life spans, greater levels of public health, widespread modern surgery, and control of debilitating infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to become commercially available, and its use ushered in the age of antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin's bactericidal action had been made by Alexander Fleming in London in 1928. After publishing his observations in 1929, no further progress was made until the work was picked up in 1939 by scientists at Oxford University. The group was headed by Howard Florey, and Chain was the group's lead scientist. Chain was born and educated in Germany, and he fled in 1933 as a Jewish refugee from Nazism to England. Other important members of the Oxford research team were Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham. The team was able to produce and isolate penicillin under conditions of scarce resources and many technical challenges. Sufficient material was collected and tested on mice to successfully demonstrate penicillin's bactericidal action on pathogens, while being nontoxic to mammals. Chain directed the microbiological methods for producing penicillin and the chemical engineering methods to extract the material. This technology was transferred to US government facilities in 1941 for commercial production of penicillin, becoming an important element in the Allied war effort. In 1945, the Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by Fleming, Florey, and Chain in recognition of their work in developing penicillin as a therapeutic agent. After World War II, Chain tried to persuade the British government to fund a new national antibiotic industry with both research and production facilities. As

  3. Comparison of transfer and effects of Cd on rats exposed in a short experimental snail-rat food chain or to CdCl2 dosed food.

    PubMed

    Hispard, F; de Vaufleury, A; Cosson, R P; Devaux, S; Scheifler, R; Coeurdassier, M; Gimbert, F; Martin, H; Richert, L; Berthelot, A; Badot, P-M

    2008-04-01

    Transfer and toxic effects of two cadmium (Cd) forms, inorganic (CdCl2 dosed rat food) or organic (contaminated snail-based rat food) were studied in Wistar rat. Cd concentrations in rat food were 0 and 2.5 microg Cd g(-1) for both inorganic and organic forms and a high concentration of 100 microg Cd g(-1) was also tested for the inorganic form. Rats were exposed for four weeks to contaminated food. Both forms of Cd were bioavailable to rats, with a percentage of transfer from food to rats of around 1% for all contaminated groups. Cd concentrations in rat tissues increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. Rats fed with organic form of Cd accumulated significantly more Cd in the main organ for Cd toxicity, the kidney, than those eating the inorganic form. Survival was not affected for any rat group but a decrease in growth and food consumption was observed for the inorganic form. As a defence system against Cd toxicity, rats increased their metallothionein (MT) synthesis at the highest Cd concentration in the target organs (kidney, liver and small intestine) and even did the same at low Cd concentrations (2.5 microg Cd g(-1)) in the kidney. At this low Cd concentration, MT induction was lower in the small intestine of rats ingesting organic Cd than those ingesting inorganic Cd. Bioavailability of organic and inorganic forms of Cd was similar, but subsequent Cd distribution within organs was different. This quantification of the trophic transfer of both inorganic and organic forms of a toxicant is a basis for a better assessment of the fate and effects of chemicals in food webs.

  4. Characterization of a unique [FeS] cluster in the electron transfer chain of the oxygen tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Infossi, Pascale; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Bill, Eckhard; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2011-04-12

    Iron-sulfur clusters are versatile electron transfer cofactors, ubiquitous in metalloenzymes such as hydrogenases. In the oxygen-tolerant Hydrogenase I from Aquifex aeolicus such electron "wires" form a relay to a diheme cytb, an integral part of a respiration pathway for the reduction of O(2) to water. Amino acid sequence comparison with oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases showed conserved binding motifs for three iron-sulfur clusters, the nature and properties of which were unknown so far. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra exhibited complex signals that disclose interesting features and spin-coupling patterns; by redox titrations three iron-sulfur clusters were identified in their usual redox states, a [3Fe4S] and two [4Fe4S], but also a unique high-potential (HP) state was found. On the basis of (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy we attribute this HP form to a superoxidized state of the [4Fe4S] center proximal to the [NiFe] site. The unique environment of this cluster, characterized by a surplus cysteine coordination, is able to tune the redox potentials and make it compliant with the [4Fe4S](3+) state. It is actually the first example of a biological [4Fe4S] center that physiologically switches between 3+, 2+, and 1+ oxidation states within a very small potential range. We suggest that the (1 + /2+) redox couple serves the classical electron transfer reaction, whereas the superoxidation step is associated with a redox switch against oxidative stress.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of electron transfer reaction of single and double chain surfactant cobalt(III) complex by Fe2+ ions in liposome (dipalmitoylphosphotidylcholine) vesicles: effects of phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Karuppiah; Senthil Murugan, Krishnan; Thangamuniyandi, Pilavadi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we report the kinetics of reduction reactions of single and double chain surfactant cobalt(III) complexes of octahedral geometry, cis-[Co(en)2(4AMP)(DA)](ClO4)3 and cis-[Co(dmp)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (en = ethylenediamine, dmp = 1,3-diaminopropane, 4AMP = 4-aminopropane, C12H25NH2 = dodecylamine) by Fe2+ ion in dipalmitoylphosphotidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles at different temperatures under pseudo first-order conditions. The kinetics of these reactions is followed by spectrophotometry method. The reactions are found to be second order and the electron transfer is postulated as outer sphere. The remarkable findings in the present investigation are that, below the phase transition temperature of DPPC, the rate decreases with an increase in the concentration of DPPC, while above the phase transition temperature the rate increases with an increase in the concentration of DPPC. The main driving force for this phenomenon is considered to be the intervesicular hydrophobic interaction between vesicles surface and hydrophobic part of the surfactant complexes. Besides, comparing the values of rate constants of these outer-sphere electron transfer reactions in the absence and in the presence of DPPC, the rate constant values in the presence of DPPC are always found to be greater than in the absence of DPPC. This is ascribed to the double hydrophobic fatty acid chain in the DPPC that gives the molecule an overall tubular shape due to the intervesicular hydrophobic interaction between vesicles surface and hydrophobic part of the surfactant complexes more suitable for vesicle aggregation which facilitates lower activation energy, and consequently higher rate is observed in the presence of DPPC. The activation parameters (ΔS# and ΔH#) of the reactions at different temperatures have been calculated which corroborate the kinetics of the reaction.

  6. Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticlesvia reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic

  7. O-alkyl S-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxobutyl dithiocarbonates as versatile sulfur-transfer agents in radical C(sp3)-H functionalization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akinori; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Oshima, Koichiro

    2007-12-01

    Boiling of the title compounds in ethereal solvents or cycloalkanes in the presence of a radical initiator leads to radical C(sp3)-H functionalization, by which a sulfur atom is introduced into the ethereal solvents at the oxygenated carbon atom or into the cycloalkanes. Both acyclic and cyclic ethers, such as [18]crown-6 and [D8]THF, undergo the sulfur transfer. The reaction is useful for the synthesis of monothioacetals, thiols, and sulfides from simple starting materials.

  8. Exact fractional revival in spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of fractional revival in quantum spin chains is examined. Analytic models where this phenomenon can be exhibited in exact solutions are provided. It is explained that spin chains with fractional revival can be obtained by isospectral deformations of spin chains with perfect state transfer.

  9. Development and inter-laboratory transfer of a decaplex polymerase chain reaction assay combined with capillary electrophoresis for the simultaneous detection of ten food allergens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Jin; Pan, Aihu; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing; Kim, HaeYeong; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Yang, Litao

    2016-05-15

    Food allergies cause health risks to susceptible consumers and regulations on labeling of food allergen contents have been implemented in many countries and regions. To achieve timely and accurate food allergen labeling, the development of fast and effective allergen detection methods is very important. Herein, a decaplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with capillary electrophoresis was developed to detect simultaneously 10 common food allergens from hazelnut, pistachio, oat, sesame, peanut, cashew, barley, wheat, soybean and pecan. The absolute limit of detection (LODa) of this system is between 2 and 20 copies of haploid genome, and the relative LOD (LODr) is as low as 0.005% (w/w) in simulated food mixtures. The developed assay was subsequently applied to 20 commercial food products and verified the allergen ingredients stated on the labels. Furthermore, results using this decaplex PCR assay was successfully replicated in three other laboratories, demonstrating the repeatability and applicability of this assay in routine analysis of the 10 food allergens.

  10. Development and inter-laboratory transfer of a decaplex polymerase chain reaction assay combined with capillary electrophoresis for the simultaneous detection of ten food allergens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Jin; Pan, Aihu; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing; Kim, HaeYeong; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Yang, Litao

    2016-05-15

    Food allergies cause health risks to susceptible consumers and regulations on labeling of food allergen contents have been implemented in many countries and regions. To achieve timely and accurate food allergen labeling, the development of fast and effective allergen detection methods is very important. Herein, a decaplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with capillary electrophoresis was developed to detect simultaneously 10 common food allergens from hazelnut, pistachio, oat, sesame, peanut, cashew, barley, wheat, soybean and pecan. The absolute limit of detection (LODa) of this system is between 2 and 20 copies of haploid genome, and the relative LOD (LODr) is as low as 0.005% (w/w) in simulated food mixtures. The developed assay was subsequently applied to 20 commercial food products and verified the allergen ingredients stated on the labels. Furthermore, results using this decaplex PCR assay was successfully replicated in three other laboratories, demonstrating the repeatability and applicability of this assay in routine analysis of the 10 food allergens. PMID:26776037

  11. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  12. A marriage of convenience; a simple food chain comprised of Lemna minor (L.) and Gammarus pulex (L.) to study the dietary transfer of zinc.

    PubMed

    Lahive, E; O'Halloran, J; Jansen, M A K

    2015-01-01

    Macrophytes contribute significantly to the cycling of metals in aquatic systems, through accumulation during growth and release during herbivory or decomposition. Accumulation of high levels of metals has been extensively documented in Lemnaceae (duckweeds). However, the degree of trophic transfer of metals from Lemnaceae to secondary consumers remains poorly understood. This study demonstrates that zinc accumulated in Lemna minor is bioavailable to the herbivore consumer Gammarus pulex. Overall, the higher the zinc content of L. minor, the more zinc accumulated in G. pulex. Accumulation in G. pulex was such that mortality occurred when they were fed high zinc-containing L. minor. Yet, the percentage of consumed zinc retained by G. pulex actually decreased with higher zinc concentrations in L. minor. We hypothesise that this decrease reflects internal zinc metabolism, including a shift from soluble to covalently bound zinc in high zinc-containing L. minor. Consistently, relatively more zinc is lost through depuration when G. pulex is fed L. minor with high zinc content. The developed Lemna-Gammarus system is simple, easily manipulated, and sensitive enough for changes in plant zinc metabolism to be reflected in metal accumulation by the herbivore, and therefore suitable to study ecologically relevant metal cycling in aquatic ecosystems.

  13. A marriage of convenience; a simple food chain comprised of Lemna minor (L.) and Gammarus pulex (L.) to study the dietary transfer of zinc.

    PubMed

    Lahive, E; O'Halloran, J; Jansen, M A K

    2015-01-01

    Macrophytes contribute significantly to the cycling of metals in aquatic systems, through accumulation during growth and release during herbivory or decomposition. Accumulation of high levels of metals has been extensively documented in Lemnaceae (duckweeds). However, the degree of trophic transfer of metals from Lemnaceae to secondary consumers remains poorly understood. This study demonstrates that zinc accumulated in Lemna minor is bioavailable to the herbivore consumer Gammarus pulex. Overall, the higher the zinc content of L. minor, the more zinc accumulated in G. pulex. Accumulation in G. pulex was such that mortality occurred when they were fed high zinc-containing L. minor. Yet, the percentage of consumed zinc retained by G. pulex actually decreased with higher zinc concentrations in L. minor. We hypothesise that this decrease reflects internal zinc metabolism, including a shift from soluble to covalently bound zinc in high zinc-containing L. minor. Consistently, relatively more zinc is lost through depuration when G. pulex is fed L. minor with high zinc content. The developed Lemna-Gammarus system is simple, easily manipulated, and sensitive enough for changes in plant zinc metabolism to be reflected in metal accumulation by the herbivore, and therefore suitable to study ecologically relevant metal cycling in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24731282

  14. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  15. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microemulsions composed of tripled-chain surface active ionic liquids, RTILs, and biological solvent: an excitation wavelength dependence study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kundu, Niloy; Ghosh, Surajit; Mandal, Sarthak; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-08-15

    In this article we have reported the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study in our earlier characterized surface active ionic liquids (SAILs)-containing microemulsion, i.e., N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P13][Tf2N])/[CTA][AOT]/isopropyl myristate ([IPM]) and N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([N3111][Tf2N])/[CTA][AOT]/[IPM] microemulsions (Banerjee, C.; Mandal, S.; Ghosh, S.; Kuchlyan, J.; Kundu, N.; Sarkar, N. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 3927-3934). The occurrence of effective FRET from the donor, coumarin-153 (C-153) to the acceptor rhodamine 6G (R6G) is evident from the decrease in the steady state fluorescence intensity of the donor with addition of acceptor and subsequent increase in the fluorescence intensity of the acceptor in the presence of donor. The excitation wavelength dependent FRET from C-153 to R6G has also been performed to assess the dynamic heterogeneity of these confined systems. In time-resolved experiments, the significant rise time of the acceptor in the presence of the donor further confirms the occurrence of FRET. The multiple donor-acceptor (D-A) distances, for various microemulsions, obtained from the rise times of the acceptor emission in the presence of a donor can be rationalized from the varying distribution of the donor, C-153, in the different regions of the microemulsion. Time-resolved measurement reveals that with increasing excitation wavelength from 408 to 440 nm, the contribution of the faster rise component of FRET increases significantly due to the close proximity of the C-153 and R6G in the polar region of the microemulsion where occurrence of FRET is very high. Moreover, we have also studied the FRET with variation of R (R = [room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)]/[surfactant]) and shown that the effect of excitation wavelength on FRET is similar irrespective of R values.

  16. Long-term impact of sewage irrigation on soil properties and assessing risk in relation to transfer of metals to human food chain.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramu; Datta, S P; Golui, Debasis; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2016-07-01

    A case study was undertaken to assess the risk of sewage-irrigated soils in relation to the transfer of trace elements to rice and wheat grain. For this purpose, peri-urban agricultural lands under the Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme (KEIS) of Delhi were selected. These agricultural lands have been receiving irrigation through sewage effluents since 1979. Sewage effluent, groundwater, soil, and plant (rice and wheat grain) samples were collected with GPS coordinates from this peri-urban area. Under wheat crop, sewage irrigation for four decades resulted into a significant buildup of zinc (141 %), copper (219 %), iron (514 %), nickel (75.0 %), and lead (28.1 %) in sewage-irrigated soils over adjacent tube well water-irrigated ones. Under rice crop, there was also a significant buildup of phosphorus (339 %), sulfur (130 %), zinc (287 %), copper (352 %), iron (457 %), nickel (258 %), lead (136 %), and cadmium (147 %) in sewage-irrigated soils as compared to that of tube well water-irrigated soils. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of trace toxic elements by humans through consumption of rice and wheat grain grown on these sewage-irrigated soils were well within the safe permissible limit. The variation in Zn, Ni, and Cd content in wheat grain could be explained by solubility-free ion activity model (FIAM) to the extent of 50.1, 56.8, and 37.2 %, respectively. Corresponding values for rice grain were 49.9, 41.2, and 42.7 %, respectively. As high as 36.4 % variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by solubility-FIAM model. Toxic limit of extractable Cd and As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard associated with consumption of rice grain by humans was established. A similar exercise was also done in respect of Cd for wheat. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of extractable metals and metalloid in soils with respect to soil properties and human health hazard under the

  17. Fundamental Difference in Reductive Lithiations with Preformed Radical Anions versus Catalytic Aromatic Electron-Transfer Agents: N,N-Dimethylaniline as an Advantageous Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Nicole; Liu, Peng; Cohen, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    The reductive lithiation of phenyl thioethers, or alkyl chlorides, by either preformed aromatic radical anions or by lithium metal and an aromatic electron-transfer catalyst, is commonly used to prepare organolithiums. Revealed herein is that these two methods are fundamentally different. Reductions with radical anions occur in solution, whereas the catalytic reaction occurs on the surface of lithium, which is constantly reactivated by the catalyst, an unconventional catalyst function. The order of relative reactivity is reversed in the two methods as the dominating factor switches from electronic to steric effects of the alkyl substituent. A catalytic amount of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) and Li ribbon can achieve reductive lithiation. DMA is significantly cheaper than alternative catalysts, and conveniently, the Li ribbon does not require the removal of the oxide coating when DMA is used as the catalyst.

  18. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  19. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  20. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. PMID:25776544

  1. Automatic microbial transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Device can transfer metabolites or inhibitory agents to broth cultures of bacteria, in various stages of growth, for study. It also has application in transfer of other micro-organisms, such as yeasts, and could be useful in clinical and research laboratories. Device has been used for wide variety of purposes in experimental situations.

  2. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  3. New approach to real-time nucleic acids detection: folding polymerase chain reaction amplicons into a secondary structure to improve cleavage of Forster resonance energy transfer probes in 5'-nuclease assays.

    PubMed

    Kutyavin, Igor V

    2010-03-01

    The article describes a new technology for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of nucleic acids. Similar to Taqman, this new method, named Snake, utilizes the 5'-nuclease activity of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase that cleaves dual-labeled Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes and generates a fluorescent signal during PCR. However, the mechanism of the probe cleavage in Snake is different. In this assay, PCR amplicons fold into stem-loop secondary structures. Hybridization of FRET probes to one of these structures leads to the formation of optimal substrates for the 5'-nuclease activity of Taq. The stem-loop structures in the Snake amplicons are introduced by the unique design of one of the PCR primers, which carries a special 5'-flap sequence. It was found that at a certain length of these 5'-flap sequences the folded Snake amplicons have very little, if any, effect on PCR yield but benefit many aspects of the detection process, particularly the signal productivity. Unlike Taqman, the Snake system favors the use of short FRET probes with improved fluorescence background. The head-to-head comparison study of Snake and Taqman revealed that these two technologies have more differences than similarities with respect to their responses to changes in PCR protocol, e.g. the variations in primer concentration, annealing time, PCR asymmetry. The optimal PCR protocol for Snake has been identified. The technology's real-time performance was compared to a number of conventional assays including Taqman, 3'-MGB-Taqman, Molecular Beacon and Scorpion primers. The test trial showed that Snake supersedes the conventional assays in the signal productivity and detection of sequence variations as small as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Due to the assay's cost-effectiveness and simplicity of design, the technology is anticipated to quickly replace all known conventional methods currently used for real-time nucleic acid detection.

  4. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or CDC prior to the transfer. 7 7 The requirements of this section do not apply to transfers within a... authorization for a transfer, APHIS/CDC Form 2 must be submitted. (e) After authorization is provided by APHIS or CDC, the packaging of the select agent(s) and toxin(s) is performed by an individual approved...

  5. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or CDC prior to the transfer. 7 7 The requirements of this section do not apply to transfers within a... authorization for a transfer, APHIS/CDC Form 2 must be submitted. (e) After authorization is provided by APHIS or CDC, the packaging of the select agent(s) and toxin(s) is performed by an individual approved...

  6. Evidence that the flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain is high during gluconeogenesis from lactate in hepatocytes from starved rats. Implications for the hormonal control of gluconeogenesis and action of hypoglycaemic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, H J; Smyth, J E; Quinlan, P T; Halestrap, A P

    1987-01-01

    1. Increasing concentrations of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a mild respiratory-chain inhibitor [Halestrap (1987) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 927, 280-290], caused progressive inhibition of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate by hepatocytes from starved rats incubated in the presence or absence of oleate and gluconeogenic hormones. 2. No significant changes in tissue ATP content were observed, but there were concomitant decreases in ketone-body output and cytochrome c reduction and increases in NADH fluorescence and the ratios of [lactate]/[pyruvate] and [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. 3. The inhibition by DCMU of palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by isolated liver mitochondria was used to calculate a flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain towards gluconeogenesis. In the presence of 1 mM-oleate, the calculated values were 0.61, 0.39 and 0.25 in the absence of hormone and in the presence of glucagon or phenylephrine respectively, consistent with activation of the respiratory chain in situ as previously suggested [Quinlan & Halestrap (1986) Biochem. J. 236, 789-800]. 4. Cytoplasmic oxaloacetate concentrations were shown to decrease under these conditions, implying inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. 5. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis from fructose and dihydroxyacetone was also observed with DCMU and was accompanied by an increased output of lactate + pyruvate, suggesting that activation of pyruvate kinase was occurring. With the latter substrate, measurements of tissue ADP and ATP contents showed that DCMU caused a small fall in [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. 6. Two inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation, pent-4-enoate and 2-tetradecylglycidate, were shown to abolish and to decrease respectively the effects of hormones, but not valinomycin, on gluconeogenesis from lactate + pyruvate, without changing tissue ATP content. 7. It is concluded that the hormonal increase in mitochondrial matrix volume stimulates fatty acid oxidation and respiratory-chain

  7. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  8. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1992-03-01

    In recent years, introduction of new and more effective agents has improved the overall therapy for parasitic infections. This field, however, is still plagued by numerous problems, including the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents (especially with malaria), unavailability of agents in the United States or lack of approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and major toxicities or lack of experience in pregnant women and children, which limits use in these groups of patients. Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other agents has complicated the treatment and prophylaxis of this type of malaria. A combination of quinine and Fansidar is usually effective oral therapy for falciparum malaria; quinidine may be administered if intravenous therapy is needed. Mefloquine, which is currently recommended for prophylaxis against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, is also effective for single-dose oral treatment, although this regimen has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Metronidazole has been widely used for treatment of gastroenteritis due to Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the latter) and is considered safe and effective. A new macrolide, azithromycin, has been reported to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in experimental animals; currently, no effective therapy is available for human infections. Combinations of sulfonamides with other antifolates, trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, are recommended therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis, respectively. Therapies for the various types of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are complex, often toxic, and often of limited efficacy. The benzimidazoles are effective for roundworm infections, although thiabendazole has severe toxic effects. The recent introduction of ivermectin has revolutionized the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Another relatively new agent, praziquantel

  9. Quantum spin chains with fractional revival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2016-08-01

    A systematic study of fractional revival at two sites in XX quantum spin chains is presented. Analytic models with this phenomenon are obtained by combining two basic ways of realizing fractional revival in a spin chain. The first proceeds through isospectral deformations of spin chains with perfect state transfer. The second makes use of couplings provided by the recurrence coefficients of polynomials with a bi-lattice orthogonality grid. The latter method leads to analytic models previously identified that can exhibit perfect state transfer in addition to fractional revival.

  10. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  11. Electron transfer in peptides.

    PubMed

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  12. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  14. Detection of the reemerging agent Burkholderia mallei in a recent outbreak of glanders in the United Arab Emirates by a newly developed fliP-based polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Holger C; Joseph, Marina; Tomaso, Herbert; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Witte, Angela; Kinne, Joerg; Hagen, Ralph M; Wernery, Renate; Wernery, Ulrich; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2006-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the flagellin P (fliP)-I S407A genomic region of Burkholderia mallei was developed for the specific detection of this organism in pure cultures and clinical samples from a recent outbreak of equine glanders. Primers deduced from the known fliP-IS407A sequence of B. mallei American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 23344(T) allowed the specific amplification of a 989-bp fragment from each of the 20 B. mallei strains investigated, whereas other closely related organisms tested negative. The detection limit of the assay was 10 fg for purified DNA of B. mallei ATCC 23344(T). B. mallei DNA was also amplified from various tissues of horses with a generalized B. mallei infection. The developed PCR assay can be used as a simple and rapid tool for the specific and sensitive detection of B. mallei in clinical samples.

  15. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section and must be authorized by CDC or APHIS prior to the transfer. 4 4 This section does not cover... transferred without prior authorization from CDC or APHIS provided that, at least seven calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to CDC or APHIS the select agent or toxin to be transferred and...

  16. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section and must be authorized by CDC or APHIS prior to the transfer. 4 4 This section does not cover... transferred without prior authorization from CDC or APHIS provided that, at least seven calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to CDC or APHIS the select agent or toxin to be transferred and...

  17. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section and must be authorized by CDC or APHIS prior to the transfer. 4 4 This section does not cover... transferred without prior authorization from CDC or APHIS provided that, at least seven calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to CDC or APHIS the select agent or toxin to be transferred and...

  18. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section and must be authorized by CDC or APHIS prior to the transfer. 4 4 This section does not cover... transferred without prior authorization from CDC or APHIS provided that, at least seven calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to CDC or APHIS the select agent or toxin to be transferred and...

  19. The respiratory chain in yeast behaves as a single functional unit.

    PubMed

    Boumans, H; Grivell, L A; Berden, J A

    1998-02-27

    Inhibitor titrations using antimycin have been used to study the pool behavior of ubiquinone and cytochrome c in the respiratory chain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. If present in a homogeneous pool, these carriers should be able to diffuse freely through or along the membrane respectively and accept and subsequently donate electrons to an infinite number of the respective respiratory complex. However, we show that under physiological conditions neither ubiquinone nor cytochrome c exhibits pool behavior, implying that the respiratory chain in yeast is one functional unit. Pool behavior can be introduced for both small carriers by adding chaotropic agents to the reaction medium. We conclude that these agents disrupt the interaction between the respiratory complexes, thereby causing them to become randomly arranged in the membrane. In such a situation, ubiquinone and cytochrome c become mobile carriers, shuttling between the large respiratory complexes. Furthermore, we conclude from the respiratory activities found for different substrates that the respiratory units in yeast vary in composition with respect to the ubiquinone reducing enzyme. All units contain the cytochrome chain, supplemented with either succinate dehydrogenase or the internal or the external NADH dehydrogenase. This implies that when only one substrate is available, only a certain fraction of the cytochrome chain is used in respiration. The molecular organization of the respiratory chain in yeast is compared with that of higher eukaryotes and to the electron transfer systems of photosynthetic membranes. Differences between the organization of the respiratory chain of yeast and that of higher eukaryotes are discussed in terms of the ability of yeast to radically alter its metabolism in response to change of the available carbon source.

  20. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow.

  1. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  2. Lipid-lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented. PMID:23811423

  3. Lipid-lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  4. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage.

  5. Comparative gene transfer efficiency of low molecular weight polylysine DNA-condensing peptides.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D L; Collard, W T; Rice, K G

    1999-10-01

    In a previous report (M.S. Wadhwa et al. (1997) Bioconjugate Chem. 8, 81-88), we synthesized a panel of polylysine-containing peptides and determined that a minimal repeating lysine chain of 18 residues followed by a tryptophan and an alkylated cysteine residue (AlkCWK18) resulted in the formation of optimal size (78 nm diameter) plasmid DNA condensates that mediated efficient in vitro gene transfer. Shorter polylysine chains produced larger DNA condensates and mediated much lower gene expression while longer lysine chains were equivalent to AlkCWK18. Surprisingly, AlkCWK18 (molecular weight 2672) was a much better gene transfer agent than commercially available low molecular weight polylysine (molecular weight 1000-4000), despite its similar molecular weight. Possible explanations were that the cysteine or tryptophan residue in AlkCWK18 contributed to the DNA binding and the formation of small condensates or that the homogeneity of AlkCWK18 relative to low molecular weight polylysine facilitated optimal condensation. To test these hypotheses, the present study prepared AlkCYK18 and K20 and used these to form DNA condensates and conduct in vitro gene transfer. The results established that DNA condensates prepared with either AlkCYK18 or K20 possessed identical particle size and mediated in vitro gene transfer efficiencies that were indistinguishable from AlkCWK18 DNA condensates, eliminating the possibility of contributions from cysteine or tryptophan. However, a detailed chromatographic and electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of low molecular weight polylysine revealed it to possess a much lower than anticipated average chain length of dp 6. Thus, the short chain length of low molecular weight polylysine explains its inability to form small DNA condensates and mediate efficient gene transfer relative to AlkCWK18 DNA condensates. These experiments further emphasize the need to develop homogenous low molecular weight carrier molecules for nonviral gene delivery.

  6. Method of encapsulating polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agents in liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1977-11-10

    A method is provided for transferring a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes, which liposomes will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. The chelating agent is encapsulated within liposomes by drying a lipid mixture to form a thin film and wetting the lipid film with a solution containing the chelating agent. Mixing then results in the formation of a suspension of liposomes encapsulating the chelating agent, which liposomes can then be separated.

  7. Filling agents.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis P

    2005-06-01

    Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

  8. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  9. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  10. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  11. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  12. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  13. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  14. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  15. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  16. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  17. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  18. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section and must be authorized by APHIS or CDC prior to the transfer. 14 14 The requirements of this... proficiency testing may be transferred without prior authorization from APHIS or CDC provided that, at least 7 calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to APHIS or CDC the select agent or toxin to...

  19. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or CDC prior to the transfer. 8 8 The requirements of this section do not apply to transfers within a... authorization for a transfer, APHIS/CDC Form 2 must be submitted. (e) The recipient must submit a completed APHIS/CDC Form 2 within 2 business days of receipt of a select agent or toxin. (f) The recipient...

  20. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or CDC prior to the transfer. 8 8 The requirements of this section do not apply to transfers within a... authorization for a transfer, APHIS/CDC Form 2 must be submitted. (e) The recipient must submit a completed APHIS/CDC Form 2 within 2 business days of receipt of a select agent or toxin. (f) The recipient...

  1. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section and must be authorized by APHIS or CDC prior to the transfer. 12 12 The requirements of this... proficiency testing may be transferred without prior authorization from APHIS or CDC provided that, at least 7 calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to APHIS or CDC the select agent or toxin to...

  2. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section and must be authorized by APHIS or CDC prior to the transfer. 14 14 The requirements of this... proficiency testing may be transferred without prior authorization from APHIS or CDC provided that, at least 7 calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to APHIS or CDC the select agent or toxin to...

  3. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section and must be authorized by APHIS or CDC prior to the transfer. 12 12 The requirements of this... proficiency testing may be transferred without prior authorization from APHIS or CDC provided that, at least 7 calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to APHIS or CDC the select agent or toxin to...

  4. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section and must be authorized by APHIS or CDC prior to the transfer. 14 14 The requirements of this... proficiency testing may be transferred without prior authorization from APHIS or CDC provided that, at least 7 calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to APHIS or CDC the select agent or toxin to...

  5. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  6. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  7. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  8. New acceptor-bridge-donor strategy for enhancing NLO response with long-range excess electron transfer from the NH2...M/M3O donor (M = Li, Na, K) to inside the electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the unusual σ chain bridge (CH2)4.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-04-01

    Using the strong electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor, the NH2...M/M3O (M = Li, Na, and K) complicated donors with excess electron, and the unusual σ chain (CH2)4 bridge, we construct a new kind of electride molecular salt e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...M(+)/M3O(+) (M = Li, Na, and K) with excess electron anion inside the hole cage (to be encapsulated excess electron-hole pair) serving as a new A-B-D strategy for enhancing nonlinear optical (NLO) response. An interesting push-pull mechanism of excess electron generation and its long-range transfer is exhibited. The excess electron is pushed out from the (super)alkali atom M/M3O by the lone pair of NH2 in the donor and further pulled inside the hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the efficient long σ chain (CH2)4 bridge. Owing to the long-range electron transfer, the new designed electride molecular salts with the excess electron-hole pair exhibit large NLO response. For the e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...Na(+), its large first hyperpolarizability (β0) reaches up to 9.5 × 10(6) au, which is about 2.4 × 10(4) times the 400 au for the relative e(-)@C20F20...Na(+) without the extended chain (CH2)4-NH2. It is shown that the new strategy is considerably efficient in enhancing the NLO response for the salts. In addition, the effects of different bridges and alkali atomic number on β0 are also exhibited. Further, three modulating factors are found for enhancing NLO response. They are the σ chain bridge, bridge-end group with lone pair, and (super)alkali atom. The new knowledge may be significant for designing new NLO materials and electronic devices with electrons inside the cages. They may also be the basis of establishing potential organic chemistry with electron-hole pair.

  9. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  10. Accumulation and transfer of Hg, As, Se, and other metals in the sediment-vegetation-crab-human food chain in the coastal zone of the northern Brazilian state of Pará (Amazonia).

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Maria S P; Costa, Marcondes L; Berredo, Jose Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The high consumption of crabs (Ucides cordatus) stimulated interest in the present study on the northern coast of Brazil, which encompasses a preserved area of mangrove forest. The objective was to describe and quantify the transfer of metals from the muddy sediments to the leaves of the Rhizophora mangle, and thence the crabs and humans. The samples were collected along two transects, while samples of hair were obtained from local habitants. The pH, interstitial salinity, Eh (mV) were measured, the granulometry and mineralogical and multi-element chemical analyses were run, and the organic material determined. The sediments are silty-clayey, composed of quartz, kaolinite, iron oxides, and illite, as well as smaller portions of smectite, pyrite, halite, and high levels of SiO2 (56.5 %), Al2O3 (18.5 %), and Fe2O3 (7 %). The elements Zn, Sr, As, and Zr are concentrated in the leaves, while the bioaccumulation of Zn, Se, Sr, and As was recorded in the crabs, of which, Se is the most concentrated in the tissue of the muscles and the hepatopancreas. The concentrations of nutrient and toxic elements were similar in all age groups (hair samples), with only Hg presenting an increasing concentration between infants and adults. The highest rates of transfer were recorded for the elements Zn and Se in the crabs and Hg in leaves and hair. The accumulation of metals in the leaves and crabs reflects the chemical composition of the sediments and low rates of sediment-vegetation-crab transfer, with the exception of Hg, which accumulated in the hair. PMID:23334486

  11. TRANSFER STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREIVE, DONALD E.

    THIS 1967 STUDY AT LORAIN COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE (LCCC) WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DISCOVER (1) THE PERCENTAGE OF CREDIT HOURS IN A UNIVERSITY PARALLEL PROGRAM ACCEPTED BY TRANSFER INSTITUTIONS, (2) THE STUDENT'S GPA BEFORE AND AFTER TRANSFER, AND (3) HOW MANY COLLEGES ACCEPTED LCCC'S TRANSFERS. INSTITUTIONS TO WHICH LCCC STUDENTS HAD HAD THEIR…

  12. Chemical Action of Halogenated Agents in Fire Extinguishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E.

    1955-01-01

    The action of halogenated agents in preventing flame propagation in fuel-air mixtures in laboratory tests is discussed in terms of a possible chemical mechanism. The mechanism chosen is that of chain-breaking reactions between agent and active particles (hydrogen and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicsls). Data from the literature on the flammability peaks of n-heptane agent-air mixtures are treated. Ratings of agent effectiveness in terms of the fuel equivalent of the agent, based on both fuel and agent concentrations at the peak, are proposed as preferable to ratings in terms of agent concentration alone. These fuel-equivalent ratings are roughly correlated by reactivities assigned to halogen and hydrogen atoms in the agent molecules. It is concluded that the presence of hydrogen in agent need not reduce its fire-fighting ability, provided there is enough halogen to make the agent nonflammable. A method is presented for estimating from quenching-distance data a rate constant for the reaction of agent with active particles. A quantitative result is obtained for methyl bromide. This rate constant predicts the observed peak concentration of methyl bromide quite well. However, more data are needed to prove the validity of the method. The assumption that hal.ogenatedagents act mainly by chain-bresking reactions with active particles is consistent with the experimental facts and should help guide the selection of agents for further tests.

  13. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  14. Crater chains on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  15. Can Space Applications Benefit from Intelligent Agents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Blesson; McKee, Gerard

    The work reported in this paper proposes a Swarm-Array computing approach based on 'Intelligent Agents' to apply autonomic computing concepts to parallel computing systems and build reliable systems for space applications. Swarm-array computing is a swarm robotics inspired, novel computing approach considered as a path to achieve autonomy in parallel computing systems. In the intelligent agent approach, a task to be executed on parallel computing cores is considered as a swarm of autonomous agents. A task is carried to a computing core by carrier agents and can be seamlessly transferred between cores in the event of a predicted failure, thereby achieving self-* objectives of autonomic computing. The approach is validated on a multi-agent simulator.

  16. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  17. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  18. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    PubMed

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials.

  19. Chain entanglements. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixman, Marshall

    1988-09-01

    A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.

  20. BART: Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer fitting code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Rojo, Patricio; Lust, Nate; Bowman, Oliver; Stemm, Madison; Foster, Andrew; Loredo, Thomas J.; Fortney, Jonathan; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-08-01

    BART implements a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer scheme for extracting parameters from spectra of planetary atmospheres. BART combines a thermochemical-equilibrium code, a one-dimensional line-by-line radiative-transfer code, and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module to constrain the atmospheric temperature and chemical-abundance profiles of exoplanets.

  1. Interspecies Transfer of the Penicillin-Binding Protein 3-Encoding Gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Can Confer Reduced Susceptibility to β-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus. PMID:25918135

  2. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. {yields} Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. {yields} Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  3. Chain-amplified photochemical fragmentation of N-alkoxypyridinium salts: proposed reaction of alkoxyl radicals with pyridine bases to give pyridinyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Deepak; Adiga, Shashishekar P; Ahearn, Wendy G; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P; Farid, Samir

    2013-03-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer to N-alkoxypyridiniums, which leads to N–O bond cleavage and alkoxyl radical formation, is highly chain amplified in the presence of a pyridine base such as lutidine. Density functional theory calculations support a mechanism in which the alkoxyl radicals react with lutidine via proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) to produce lutidinyl radicals (BH•). A strong electron donor, BH• is proposed to reduce another alkoxypyridinium cation, leading to chain amplification, with quantum yields approaching 200. Kinetic data and calculations support the formation of a second, stronger reducing agent: a hydrogen-bonded complex between BH• and another base molecule (BH•···B). Global fitting of the quantum yield data for the reactions of four pyridinium salts (4-phenyl and 4-cyano with N-methoxy and N-ethoxy substituents) led to a consistent set of kinetic parameters. The chain nature of the reaction allowed rate constants to be determined from steady-state kinetics and independently determined chain-termination rate constants. The rate constant of the reaction of CH3O• with lutidine to form BH•, k1, is ~6 × 10(6) M(–1) s(–1); that of CH3CH2O• is ~9 times larger. Reaction of CD3O• showed a deuterium isotope effect of ~6.5. Replacing lutidine by 3-chloropyridine, a weaker base, decreases k1 by a factor of ~400.

  4. Quantum spin transistor with a Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Volosniev, A. G.; Valiente, M.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-10-01

    Spin chains are paradigmatic systems for the studies of quantum phases and phase transitions, and for quantum information applications, including quantum computation and short-distance quantum communication. Here we propose and analyse a scheme for conditional state transfer in a Heisenberg XXZ spin chain which realizes a quantum spin transistor. In our scheme, the absence or presence of a control spin excitation in the central gate part of the spin chain results in either perfect transfer of an arbitrary state of a target spin between the weakly coupled input and output ports, or its complete blockade at the input port. We also discuss a possible proof-of-concept realization of the corresponding spin chain with a one-dimensional ensemble of cold atoms with strong contact interactions. Our scheme is generally applicable to various implementations of tunable spin chains, and it paves the way for the realization of integrated quantum logic elements.

  5. Quantum spin transistor with a Heisenberg spin chain

    PubMed Central

    Marchukov, O. V.; Volosniev, A. G.; Valiente, M.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-01-01

    Spin chains are paradigmatic systems for the studies of quantum phases and phase transitions, and for quantum information applications, including quantum computation and short-distance quantum communication. Here we propose and analyse a scheme for conditional state transfer in a Heisenberg XXZ spin chain which realizes a quantum spin transistor. In our scheme, the absence or presence of a control spin excitation in the central gate part of the spin chain results in either perfect transfer of an arbitrary state of a target spin between the weakly coupled input and output ports, or its complete blockade at the input port. We also discuss a possible proof-of-concept realization of the corresponding spin chain with a one-dimensional ensemble of cold atoms with strong contact interactions. Our scheme is generally applicable to various implementations of tunable spin chains, and it paves the way for the realization of integrated quantum logic elements. PMID:27721438

  6. Perfect state transfer without state initialization and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, Marcin; Wiesniak, Marcin

    2009-05-15

    We present a perfect state transfer protocol via a qubit chain with the evolution governed by the xx Hamiltonian. In contrast to the recent protocol announced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 230502 (2008), our method does not demand any remote-cooperated initialization and sending classical information about measurement outcomes. We achieve the perfect state transfer only with the assumption of access to two spins at each end of the chain, while the initial state of the whole chain is irrelevant.

  7. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  8. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  9. Interaction of poxvirus intracellular mature virion proteins with the TPR domain of kinesin light chain in live infected cells revealed by two-photon-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jeshtadi, Ananya; Burgos, Pierre; Stubbs, Christopher D; Parker, Anthony W; King, Linda A; Skinner, Michael A; Botchway, Stanley W

    2010-12-01

    Using two-photon-induced fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we corroborate an interaction (previously demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid domain analysis) of full-length vaccinia virus (VACV; an orthopoxvirus) A36 protein with the cellular microtubule motor protein kinesin. Quenching of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), fused to the C terminus of VACV A36, by monomeric red fluorescent protein (mDsRed), fused to the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of kinesin, was observed in live chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with either modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) or wild-type fowlpox virus (FWPV; an avipoxvirus), and the excited-state fluorescence lifetime of EGFP was reduced from 2.5 ± 0.1 ns to 2.1 ± 0.1 ns due to resonance energy transfer to mDsRed. FWPV does not encode an equivalent of intracellular enveloped virion surface protein A36, yet it is likely that this virus too must interact with kinesin to facilitate intracellular virion transport. To investigate possible interactions between innate FWPV proteins and kinesin, recombinant FWPVs expressing EGFP fused to the N termini of FWPV structural proteins Fpv140, Fpv168, Fpv191, and Fpv198 (equivalent to VACV H3, A4, p4c, and A34, respectively) were generated. EGFP fusions of intracellular mature virion (IMV) surface protein Fpv140 and type II membrane protein Fpv198 were quenched by mDsRed-TPR in recombinant FWPV-infected cells, indicating that these virion proteins are found within 10 nm of mDsRed-TPR. In contrast, and as expected, EGFP fusions of the IMV core protein Fpv168 did not show any quenching. Interestingly, the p4c-like protein Fpv191, which demonstrates late association with preassembled IMV, also did not show any quenching.

  10. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  11. Microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridge cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Tala, Srinivasa R; Schnell, Sathya M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2015-12-15

    Side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridged cyclic peptides have been utilized as therapeutic agents and biochemical tools. Previous synthetic methods of these peptides need special reaction conditions, form side products and take longer reaction times. Herein, an efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridge cyclic peptides SHU9119 and MTII is reported. The synthesis time and efforts are significantly reduced in the present method, without side product formation. The analytical and pharmacological data of the synthesized cyclic peptides are in accordance with the commercially obtained compounds. This new method could be used to synthesize other side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridge peptides and amenable to automation and extensive SAR compound derivatization.

  12. Substrate Effects for Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A substrate for future atomic chain electronics, where adatoms are placed at designated positions and form atomically precise device components, is studied theoretically. The substrate has to serve as a two-dimensional template for adatom mounting with a reasonable confinement barrier and also provide electronic isolation, preventing unwanted coupling between independent adatom structures. For excellent structural stability, we demand chemical bonding between the adatoms and substrate atoms, but then good electronic isolation may not be guaranteed. Conditions are clarified for good isolation. Because of the chemical bonding, fundamental adatom properties are strongly influenced: a chain with group IV adatoms having two chemical bonds, or a chain with group III adatoms having one chemical bond is semiconducting. Charge transfer from or to the substrate atoms brings about unintentional doping, and the electronic properties have to be considered for the entire combination of the adatom and substrate systems even if the adatom modes are well localized at the surface.

  13. Kinetic chain abnormalities in the athletic shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Aaron; Thigpen, Charles; Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith

    2012-03-01

    Overhead activities require the shoulder to be exposed to and sustain repetitive loads. The segmental activation of the body's links, known as the kinetic chain, allows this to occur effectively. Proper muscle activation is achieved through generation of energy from the central segment or core, which then transfers the energy to the terminal links of the shoulder, elbow, and hand. The kinetic chain is best characterized by 3 components: optimized anatomy, reproducible efficient motor patterns, and the sequential generation of forces. However, tissue injury and anatomic deficits such as weakness and/or tightness in the leg, pelvic core, or scapular musculature can lead to overuse shoulder injuries. These injuries can be prevented and maladaptations can be detected with a thorough understanding of biomechanics of the kinetic chain as it relates to overhead activity.

  14. 31 CFR 357.22 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... Direct to TreasuryDirect is effective as provided in 31 CFR part 363. If the transfer cannot be completed... unmatured security may be transferred to a Federal Reserve Bank acting as the designated fiscal agent of...

  15. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  16. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  17. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1445-4 - Liability of agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... soon as possible after learning of the false certification or statement, but not later than the date of the transfer (prior to the transferee's payment of consideration). If an agent first learns of a false... notice need not disclose the information on which the agent's statement is based. The following is...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1445-4 - Liability of agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... after learning of the false certification or statement, but not later than the date of the transfer (prior to the transferee's payment of consideration). If an agent first learns of a false certification... notice need not disclose the information on which the agent's statement is based. The following is...

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyurethane Acrylates for UV Curable Coating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi Na; Kang, Young Soo; Oh, Sun Wha; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Moon, Myung Jun

    The single hydroxyl-terminated urethane acrylate oligomers were synthesized from 2-mercaptoethanol (2-MEOH), alkyl (methyl, butyl, and 2-ethylhexyl) acrylate, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator), with dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. 2-MEOH was used as a functional chain transfer agent. Poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers were obtained by the reaction of single hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylates and 2-isocyanatoethyl acrylate. They were characterized by NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, rheometer, and DSC. Because poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers have lower Tg and viscosity than hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylate oligomers (HTPAO) non-containing urethane groups, they can be used for ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings, inks, and adhesives.

  1. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  2. Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adatom chains, precise structures artificially created on an atomically regulated surface, are the smallest possible candidates for future nanoelectronics. Since all the devices are created by combining adatom chains precisely prepared with atomic precision, device characteristics are predictable, and free from deviations due to accidental structural defects. In this atomic dimension, however, an analogy to the current semiconductor devices may not work. For example, Si structures are not always semiconducting. Adatom states do not always localize at the substrate surface when adatoms form chemical bonds to the substrate atoms. Transport properties are often determined for the entire system of the chain and electrodes, and not for chains only. These fundamental issues are discussed, which will be useful for future device considerations.

  3. New mooring chain designs

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, L.; Vicinay, J.; Sanz, A.; Lopez, E.

    1996-12-31

    The present work introduces the readers to the developments the high technology offshore chain industry has carried out in recent years, in an effort to offer products that meet the needs of petroleum exploration and production. In this manner the industry can continue to regard chain as a fundamental element in its moorings system, whether for projects with a 25 year life, or projects at depths of over 1,000 meters, or in such severe environments as those faced in the Sub-Arctic. Data are presented on Studless Chain and VGW or Variable Geometry and Weight chain. These will allow engineers designers to forget the needs for chains to be circumscribed to rigid guidelines of geometry or dimensions. Instead they can design mooring systems specific for the particular situations they face. No longer shall chain have to meet geometric standardization derived from the middle of the 19th century while meeting the requirements of the 2nd half of the 20th century.

  4. The Relationship between Organizational Transfer Climate and Positive Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouiller, Janice Z; Goldstein, Irwin L.

    1993-01-01

    After a 9-week training course, 102 manager trainees in a fast-food chain were assigned to restaurants. Those assigned to units having positive organizational transfer climate (measured by situational cues and consequences) were rated as better performers. Climate affected the degree to which learned behavior was transferred to the actual job. (SK)

  5. Biosecurity reference : CFR-listed agent and toxin summaries.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Natalie Beth

    2003-09-01

    This reference document provides summary information on the animal, plant, zoonotic, and human pathogens and toxins regulated and categorized by 9 CFR 331 and 7 CFR 121, 'Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Possession, Use and Transfer of Biological Agents and Toxins,' and 42 CFR 73, 'Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins.' Summary information includes, at a minimum, a description of the agent and its associated symptoms; often additional information is provided on the diagnosis, treatment, geographic distribution, transmission, control and eradication, and impacts on public health.

  6. NISAC Agent Based Laboratory for Economics

    2006-10-11

    The software provides large-scale microeconomic simulation of complex economic and social systems (such as supply chain and market dynamics of businesses in the US economy) and their dependence on physical infrastructure systems. The system is based on Agent simulation, where each entity of inteest in the system to be modeled (for example, a Bank, individual firms, Consumer households, etc.) is specified in a data-driven sense to be individually repreented by an Agent. The Agents interactmore » using rules of interaction appropriate to their roles, and through those interactions complex economic and social dynamics emerge. The software is implemented in three tiers, a Java-based visualization client, a C++ control mid-tier, and a C++ computational tier.« less

  7. NISAC Agent Based Laboratory for Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Downes, Paula; Davis, Chris; Eidson, Eric; Ehlen, Mark; Gieseler, Charles; Harris, Richard

    2006-10-11

    The software provides large-scale microeconomic simulation of complex economic and social systems (such as supply chain and market dynamics of businesses in the US economy) and their dependence on physical infrastructure systems. The system is based on Agent simulation, where each entity of inteest in the system to be modeled (for example, a Bank, individual firms, Consumer households, etc.) is specified in a data-driven sense to be individually repreented by an Agent. The Agents interact using rules of interaction appropriate to their roles, and through those interactions complex economic and social dynamics emerge. The software is implemented in three tiers, a Java-based visualization client, a C++ control mid-tier, and a C++ computational tier.

  8. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain.

  9. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain. PMID:11993628

  10. Polyisobutylene chain end transformations: Block copolymer synthesis and click chemistry functionalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magenau, Andrew Jackson David

    The primary objectives of this research were twofold: (1) development of synthetic procedures for combining quasiliving carbocationic polymerization (QLCCP) of isobutylene (IB) and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization for block copolymer synthesis; (2) utilization of efficient, robust, and modular chemistries for facile functionalization of polyisobutylene (PIB). In the first study block copolymers consisting of PIB, and either PMMA or PS block segments, were synthesized by a site transformation approach combining living cationic and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations. The initial PIB block was synthesized via quasiliving cationic polymerization using the TMPCl/TiCl4 initiation system and was subsequently converted into a hydroxylterminated PIB. Site transformation of the hydroxyl-terminated PIB into a macro chain transfer agent (PIB-CTA) was accomplished by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed esterification with 4-cyano-4-(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonylsulfanyl)pentanoic acid. In the second study another site transformation approach was developed to synthesize a novel block copolymer, composed of PIB and PNIPAM segments. The PIB block was prepared via quasiliving cationic polymerization and end functionalized by in-situ quenching to yield telechelic halogen-terminated PIB. Azido functionality was obtained by displacement of the terminal halogen through nucleophilic substitution, which was confirmed by both 1H and 13C NMR. Coupling of an alkyne-functional chain transfer agent (CTA) to azido PIB was successfully accomplished through a copper catalyzed click reaction. Structure of the resulting PIB-based macro-CTA was verified with 1H NMR, FTIR, and GPC; whereas coupling reaction kinetics were monitored by real time variable temperature (VT) 1H NMR. In a third study, a click chemistry functionalization procedure was developed based upon the azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar

  11. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  12. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    PubMed

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  13. Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  14. Transport of triplet excitons along continuous 100 nm polyfluorene chains

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Liang; Bird, Matthew; Mauro, Gina; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Cook, Andrew R.; Chen, Hung -Cheng; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trapped triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 µs timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into “segments,” perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 µs. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. As a result, a

  15. Transport of triplet excitons along continuous 100 nm polyfluorene chains

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Liang; Bird, Matthew; Mauro, Gina; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Cook, Andrew R.; Chen, Hung -Cheng; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trappedmore » triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 µs timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into “segments,” perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 µs. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. As a

  16. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  17. Chain inflation revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chialva, Diego; Danielsson, Ulf H E-mail: ulf.danielsson@fysast.uu.se

    2008-10-15

    This paper represents an in-depth treatment of the chain inflation scenario. We fully determine the evolution of the universe in the model, the conditions necessary in order to have a successful inflationary period, and the matching with the observational results regarding the cosmological perturbations. We study in great detail, and in general, the dynamics of the background, as well as the mechanism of generation of the perturbations. We also find an explicit formula for the spectrum of adiabatic perturbations. Our results prove that chain inflation is a viable model for solving the horizon, entropy and flatness problems of standard cosmology and for generating the right amount of adiabatic cosmological perturbations. The results are radically different from those found in previous works on the subject. Finally, we argue that there is a natural way to embed chain inflation into flux compactified string theory. We discuss the details of the implementation and how to fit observations.

  18. Multi-Agent Patrolling under Uncertainty and Threats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaofei; Wu, Feng; Shen, Lincheng; Chen, Jing; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a multi-agent patrolling problem where information is distributed alongside threats in environments with uncertainties. Specifically, the information and threat at each location are independently modelled as multi-state Markov chains, whose states are not observed until the location is visited by an agent. While agents will obtain information at a location, they may also suffer damage from the threat at that location. Therefore, the goal of the agents is to gather as much information as possible while mitigating the damage incurred. To address this challenge, we formulate the single-agent patrolling problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and propose a computationally efficient algorithm to solve this model. Building upon this, to compute patrols for multiple agents, the single-agent algorithm is extended for each agent with the aim of maximising its marginal contribution to the team. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on problems of multi-agent patrolling and show that it outperforms a baseline algorithm up to 44% for 10 agents and by 21% for 15 agents in large domains. PMID:26086946

  19. Multi-Agent Patrolling under Uncertainty and Threats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaofei; Wu, Feng; Shen, Lincheng; Chen, Jing; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a multi-agent patrolling problem where information is distributed alongside threats in environments with uncertainties. Specifically, the information and threat at each location are independently modelled as multi-state Markov chains, whose states are not observed until the location is visited by an agent. While agents will obtain information at a location, they may also suffer damage from the threat at that location. Therefore, the goal of the agents is to gather as much information as possible while mitigating the damage incurred. To address this challenge, we formulate the single-agent patrolling problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and propose a computationally efficient algorithm to solve this model. Building upon this, to compute patrols for multiple agents, the single-agent algorithm is extended for each agent with the aim of maximising its marginal contribution to the team. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on problems of multi-agent patrolling and show that it outperforms a baseline algorithm up to 44% for 10 agents and by 21% for 15 agents in large domains. PMID:26086946

  20. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents....

  1. 42 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... days after identification, the select agent or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 73.16 or 9 CFR... of receipt, the select agent or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 73.16 or 9 CFR part 121.16... reported to CDC or APHIS and to other appropriate authorities when required by Federal, State, or local...

  2. 9 CFR 121.6 - Exemptions for overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... after identification, the agent or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 121.16 or 42 CFR 73.16 or... or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 121.16 or 42 CFR 73.16 or destroyed on-site by a... reported; and (3) The identification of the agent or toxin is reported to APHIS or CDC. (i)...

  3. 9 CFR 121.6 - Exemptions for overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... after identification, the agent or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 121.16 or 42 CFR 73.16 or... or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 121.16 or 42 CFR 73.16 or destroyed on-site by a... reported; and (3) The identification of the agent or toxin is reported to APHIS or CDC. (i)...

  4. 42 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for overlap select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... days after identification, the select agent or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 73.16 or 9 CFR... of receipt, the select agent or toxin is transferred in accordance with § 73.16 or 9 CFR part 121.16... reported to CDC or APHIS and to other appropriate authorities when required by Federal, State, or local...

  5. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  6. [Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latker, Norman J.

    Some authorities on technolgoy transfer feel that industry is not fully capitalizing on the inventive output of universities and nonprofit organizations. From the point of view of the government, the stakes are high. The magnitude of federal support of research and development in these organizations demands evidence of useful results if it is to…

  7. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  8. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  9. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  10. Biocatalytic reduction of short-chain carboxylic acids into their corresponding alcohols with syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jose M; Richter, Hanno; Loftus, Sarah E; Angenent, Largus T

    2013-04-01

    Short-chain carboxylic acids generated by various mixed- or pure-culture fermentation processes have been considered valuable precursors for production of bioalcohols. While conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols is routinely performed with catalytic hydrogenation or with strong chemical reducing agents, here, a biological conversion route was explored. The potential of carboxydotrophic bacteria, such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium ragsdalei, as biocatalysts for conversion of short-chain carboxylic acids into alcohols, using syngas as a source of electrons and energy is demonstrated. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, isobutyric acid, n-valeric acid, and n-caproic acid were converted into their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, biomass yields and fermentation stoichiometry from the experimental data were modeled to determine how much metabolic energy C. ljungdahlii generated during syngas fermentation. An ATP yield of 0.4-0.5 mol of ATP per mol CO consumed was calculated in the presence of hydrogen. The ratio of protons pumped across the cell membrane versus electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(+) via the Rnf complex is suggested to be 1.0. Based on these results, we provide suggestions how n-butyric acid to n-butanol conversion via syngas fermentation can be further improved. PMID:23172270

  11. Ferrimagnetic susceptibility contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, T

    1993-01-01

    Contrast agents based on superparamagnetic particles have been in clinical development for more than 5 years, and the complexity of their effects is still not elucidated. The relaxivities are frequently used to give an idea of their efficacy, but these parameters can only be used if they are concentration independent. For large superparamagnetic systems, the evolution of the transverse magnetization is biexponential, after an initial loss of magnetization. Both these characteristics of large superparamagnetic systems should lead to prudence in using the relaxivities as indicators of contrast medium efficacy. Susceptibility induced artefacts have been associated with the use of superparamagnetic contrast agents since the first imaging evaluation took place. The range of concentrations where good contrast effect was achieved without inducing artefacts, as well as blurring and metal artefacts were evaluated. The influence of motion on the induction of artefacts was studied, and compared to the artefacts induced by a paramagnetic agent subject to motion. With a suitable concentration of a negative contrast agent, a signal void could be achieved in the region prone to motion, and no artefacts were induced. If the concentration was too high, a displacement of the region close to the contrast agent was observed. The artefacts occurred in a volume surrounding the contrast agent, i.e., also outside the imaging plane. In comparison a positive, paramagnetic contrast agent induced heavy artefacts in the phase encoding direction, appearing as both high intensity regions and black holes, in a mosaic pattern. Clinical trials of the oral contrast agent OMP for abdominal MR imaging showed this agent to be safe and efficacious. OMP increased the diagnostic efficacy of abdominal MR imaging in 2 of 3 cases examined, with a significant decrease in motion artefacts. Susceptibility contrast agents may also be of use in the evaluation of small lesions in the liver. Particulate material

  12. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  13. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  14. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  15. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  16. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness. PMID:10345634

  17. Breaking the Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In 1792 more than 350,000 people in Britain signed a petition calling for an end to the slave trade. It was, writes historian Adam Hochschild in his book "Bury the Chains," "the first time in history that a large number of people became outraged, and stayed outraged for many years, over someone else's rights". In 1807--after 15 years of…

  18. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  19. INTERACTING QUANTUM SPIN CHAINS

    SciTech Connect

    ZHELUDEV,A.

    2001-09-09

    A brief review of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of low-dimensional quantum magnets is followed by a particular example. The separation of single-particle and continuum states in the weakly-coupled S = l/2 chains system BaCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} is described in some detail.

  20. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  1. Nodal-chain metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, Quansheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain—a chain of connected loops in momentum space—along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF4), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  2. Atwood's Heavy Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    While perusing various websites in search of a more challenging lab for my students, I came across a number of ideas where replacing the string in an Atwood's machine with a simple ball chain like the kind found in lamp pulls created an interesting system to investigate. The replacement of the string produced a nice nonuniform acceleration, but…

  3. [Ligase chain reaction (LCR)].

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, K; Yasuno, H

    1993-06-01

    Ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a ligation-mediated amplification technique of a target DNA sequence using oligonucleotides and thermostable ligase. LCR is useful for the detection of known DNA sequences and point mutations in a limited amount of DNA. We introduce the principle, development, and protocol of this simple and convenient technique for DNA analysis.

  4. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  5. Paclitaxel is an Inhibitor and its Boron Dipyrromethene Derivative is a Fluorescent Recognition Agent for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype A

    PubMed Central

    Dadgar, Saedeh; Ramjan, Zack; Floriano, Wely B.

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully identified one new inhibitor and one new fluorescent recognition agent for the botulinum neurotoxin subtype A (BoNT/A) using the virtual screening protocol Protein Scanning with Virtual Ligand Screening (PSVLS). Hit selection used an in-house developed Holistic Binding scoring method. Selected hits were tested experimentally for inhibitory activity using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assays against the light chain (catalytic domain) of BoNT/A. Ligand binding was determined against the light and heavy chain BoNT/A complex either through radiolabeled ligand binding assays (non-fluorescent ligands) or fluorescence intensity assays (fluorescent ligands). These experimental assays have confirmed one compound (paclitaxel) to inhibit BoNT/A’s proteolytic activity experimentally with an IC50 of 5.2 μM. A fluorescent derivative was also confirmed to bind to the toxin, and therefore is a suitable candidate for the rational design of new detection agents and for the development of fluorescence-based multi-probe detection assays. PMID:23484537

  6. Flexible chains of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Galabura, Yuriy; Luzinov, Igor

    2014-07-22

    We report the fabrication of flexible chains of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles that possess the ability to adapt other than the typically observed rigid (nearly) straight configurations in the absence of an external magnetic field. The dynamic mobility of the ferromagnetic chains originates from a layer of densely grafted polyethylene glycol macromolecules enveloping each nanoparticle in the chain. While ferromagnetic chains of unmodified Ni nanoparticles behave as stiff nickel nanorods, the chains made of the grafted nanoparticles demonstrate extreme flexibility. Upon changing the direction of the field, and inevitably going through a zero-field point, the shorter chains undergo chain-globule-chain transformation. The longer chains can bend to a high degree, attaining "snake-like" configurations.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect in ferroelectric Ising chain magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yan; Liu, Jia; Yu, Nai-sen; Du, An

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in multiferroic chain system by adopting the elastic Ising-chain model. Based on the transfer-matrix method, the magnetothermal quantities of characterizing MCE behaviors including the entropy, entropy change and adiabatic cooling rate are rigorously determined. Combined with analysis of ground-state, we mainly discuss results in an antiferromagnetic regime associated with ferroelectric transition. Our results show that the entropy change is greatly enhanced near the saturation field as frustration parameter varies in this regime, and accompanied with remarkable inverse MCE, indicating the enormous potential of multiferroic system in low-temperature refrigeration. Meanwhile we also observe a prominent temperature variation in the isoentropy curves close to zero-temperature ferroelectric transition, but this enhancing MCE signal is very sensitive to the thermal fluctuations, and can be strongly suppressed even under a small temperature.

  8. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  9. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  10. The causal agents of damping-off disease of buglosse from Iran.

    PubMed

    Okhovvat, S M; Zakeri, Z; Moshashai, R

    2005-01-01

    Iran is considered a major genetic for medicinal plant in the world. Because of this significant diversity and historical background in identification and utilization to remedy human and animal diseases, export of medicinal plant can help to strengthen local as well as natural economy. Buglosse (Fig. 1) is one of the most important and common medicinal plants in Iran and exist as Echium amoneum and Borago officinalis. This work was conducted in order to identify the causal agent(s) of damping off disease in buglosse. Plant disease samples were taken from Esfahan and Tehran provinces. Symptoms on original plant including root, crown rot, dark tissue, pith and hallow root were collected in order to isolate disease agent(s). Symptomatic root and crown tissues after surface sterilization with 96% ethanol were transferred on to PDA and WA media and also on moist filter paper in petri dishes. Two fungal colonies grew from tissue segments and spore culture was subsequently purified. The fungal isolate identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on the following test. Hyphal tip was removed from colony margin placed on PDA and PSA media and incubated in dark. Colony diameter of one hundred hyphae measured and nucleus was stained according to Bandoni (1979), Kronland and Stanghellini (1988). It was observed that in each cell of hyphae there are more than two nuclei. Single spore culture were obtained from macroconidia of Fusarium isolate. After 24 hr of incubation, growing single spore were transferred to KCL medium to detect spore chains. Fungal isolates transferred to PSA and PDA media for sporulation. After 7 days colonies appeared as white cream to pinkish on top and cream to dark pink at the bottom of petri dish with abundant micro and macro conidia. Colonies were snow white, felting shape, with ample causal hyphae on PSA medium. On KCL medium, fungal growth was superficial and colonies were colorless with long macroconidia and individual sausage-shape macroconidia being

  11. The causal agents of damping-off disease of buglosse from Iran.

    PubMed

    Okhovvat, S M; Zakeri, Z; Moshashai, R

    2005-01-01

    Iran is considered a major genetic for medicinal plant in the world. Because of this significant diversity and historical background in identification and utilization to remedy human and animal diseases, export of medicinal plant can help to strengthen local as well as natural economy. Buglosse (Fig. 1) is one of the most important and common medicinal plants in Iran and exist as Echium amoneum and Borago officinalis. This work was conducted in order to identify the causal agent(s) of damping off disease in buglosse. Plant disease samples were taken from Esfahan and Tehran provinces. Symptoms on original plant including root, crown rot, dark tissue, pith and hallow root were collected in order to isolate disease agent(s). Symptomatic root and crown tissues after surface sterilization with 96% ethanol were transferred on to PDA and WA media and also on moist filter paper in petri dishes. Two fungal colonies grew from tissue segments and spore culture was subsequently purified. The fungal isolate identified as Rhizoctonia solani based on the following test. Hyphal tip was removed from colony margin placed on PDA and PSA media and incubated in dark. Colony diameter of one hundred hyphae measured and nucleus was stained according to Bandoni (1979), Kronland and Stanghellini (1988). It was observed that in each cell of hyphae there are more than two nuclei. Single spore culture were obtained from macroconidia of Fusarium isolate. After 24 hr of incubation, growing single spore were transferred to KCL medium to detect spore chains. Fungal isolates transferred to PSA and PDA media for sporulation. After 7 days colonies appeared as white cream to pinkish on top and cream to dark pink at the bottom of petri dish with abundant micro and macro conidia. Colonies were snow white, felting shape, with ample causal hyphae on PSA medium. On KCL medium, fungal growth was superficial and colonies were colorless with long macroconidia and individual sausage-shape macroconidia being

  12. Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Krause, Frieder; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to provide a systematic overview on tensile transmission along myofascial chains based on anatomical dissection studies and in vivo experiments. Evidence for the existence of myofascial chains is growing, and the capability of force transmission via myofascial chains has been hypothesized. However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the functional significance and capability for force transfer. A systematic literature research was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Studied myofascial chains encompassed the superficial backline (SBL), the back functional line (BFL) and the front functional line (FFL). Peer-reviewed human dissection studies as well as in vivo experiments reporting intermuscular tension transfer between the constituents of a myofascial chain were included. To assess methodic quality, two independent investigators rated studies by means of validated assessment tools (QUACS and PEDro Scale). The literature research identified 1022 articles. Nine studies (moderate to excellent methodological quality) were included. Concerning the SBL and the BFL, there is moderate evidence for force transfer at all three transitions (based on six studies), and one of two transitions (three studies). One study yields moderate evidence for a slight, but not significant force transfer at one transition in the FFL. The findings of the present study indicate that tension can be transferred between some of the examined adjacent structures. Force transfer might have an impact in overuse conditions as well as on sports performance. However, different methods of force application and measurement hinder the comparability of results. Considering anatomical variations in the degree of continuity and histological differences of the linking structures is crucial for interpretation. Future studies should focus on the in vivo function of myofascial continuity during isolated active or passive tissue tensioning. PMID

  13. Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Krause, Frieder; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to provide a systematic overview on tensile transmission along myofascial chains based on anatomical dissection studies and in vivo experiments. Evidence for the existence of myofascial chains is growing, and the capability of force transmission via myofascial chains has been hypothesized. However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the functional significance and capability for force transfer. A systematic literature research was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Studied myofascial chains encompassed the superficial backline (SBL), the back functional line (BFL) and the front functional line (FFL). Peer-reviewed human dissection studies as well as in vivo experiments reporting intermuscular tension transfer between the constituents of a myofascial chain were included. To assess methodic quality, two independent investigators rated studies by means of validated assessment tools (QUACS and PEDro Scale). The literature research identified 1022 articles. Nine studies (moderate to excellent methodological quality) were included. Concerning the SBL and the BFL, there is moderate evidence for force transfer at all three transitions (based on six studies), and one of two transitions (three studies). One study yields moderate evidence for a slight, but not significant force transfer at one transition in the FFL. The findings of the present study indicate that tension can be transferred between some of the examined adjacent structures. Force transfer might have an impact in overuse conditions as well as on sports performance. However, different methods of force application and measurement hinder the comparability of results. Considering anatomical variations in the degree of continuity and histological differences of the linking structures is crucial for interpretation. Future studies should focus on the in vivo function of myofascial continuity during isolated active or passive tissue tensioning.

  14. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  15. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Phaneuf, Christopher R; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D Curtis; Holst, Gregory L; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously-each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  16. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Christopher R.; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Holst, Gregory L.; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L.; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously—each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  17. Single-Chain Antibody Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baird, Cheryl

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

  18. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  19. Callisto Crater Chain Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of three images shows an area within the Valhalla region on Jupiter's moon, Callisto. North is to the top of the mosaic and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The smallest details that can be discerned in this picture are knobs and small impact craters about 160 meters (175 yards) across. The mosaic covers an area approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) across. It shows part of a prominent crater chain located on the northern part of the Valhalla ring structure.

    Crater chains can form from the impact of material ejected from large impacts (forming secondary chains) or by the impact of a fragmented projectile, perhaps similar to the Shoemaker-Levy 9 cometary impacts into Jupiter in July 1994. It is believed this crater chain was formed by the impact of a fragmented projectile. The images which form this mosaic were obtained by the solid state imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on Nov. 4, 1996 (Universal Time).

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  20. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  1. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  2. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  3. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  4. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... agent from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  5. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  6. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  7. Rural Child Labour: Views of Extension Agents in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Una

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Whilst children working in agriculture and domestic work is an inherent part of growing up and essential for survival, if boys and girls lose out on education they are less equipped to respond to inevitable environmental shocks and to negotiate agri-food value chains. This article investigates views of extension agents on children…

  8. Analogs of the antituberculous agent pyrazinamide are competitive inhibitors of NADPH binding to M. tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Sayahi, Halimah; Pugliese, Kaitlin M; Zimhony, Oren; Jacobs, William R; Shekhtman, Alexander; Welch, John T

    2012-11-01

    Analogs of pyrazinamide (=pyrazine-2-carboxamide; PZA), an essential component of short-course antituberculous chemotherapy, such as 5-chloropyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) act as competitive inhibitors of NADPH binding to purified mycobacterial fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) as shown by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR studies. In addition, pyrazinoic acid esters (POE) and 5-Cl-POE reversibly bind to FAS I with the relatively greater affinity of longer-chain esters for FAS I, clear from the STD amplification factors. The competitive binding of PZA and 5-Cl-PZA clearly illustrates that both agents bind FAS. In contrast to PZA, at low NADPH concentrations 5-Cl-PZA is a cooperative inhibitor of NADPH binding.

  9. Excited state proton transfer in 9-aminoacridine carboxamides in water and in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The 9-aminoacridine molecule is important in several different fields of chemistry. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of this compound are pH sensitive and it is this property that allowed it to be used as a pH probe in different chemical environments. The compound exhibits proton transfer reactions which are among the most fundamental of chemical reactions. The planarity of 9-aminoacridine allows it to intercalate into DNA. Intercalation is a process in which the aromatic flat surface of the intercalator inserts between adjacent base pairs of DNA. The large surface area of 9-aminoacridine`s fused tricyclic ring system allows strong intercalative binding through van der Waals attractions. 9-aminoacridine and many of its derivatives have been tried as possible antitumor drugs. The cytotoxicity of an antitumor agent can be dramatically increased through the addition of one or two cationic side chains. This increase in cytotoxicity using the 9-aminoacridine compound as a parent molecule has been investigated through various derivatives with cationic side chains consisting of different number of carbon atoms between the proximal and distal N atoms. Similar derivatives varied the position of the carboxamide side chain on the aromatic ring system. The objective of this work is to first create a baseline study of the excited state kinetics of the 9-aminoacridine carboxamides in the absence of DNA. The baseline study will allow the excited state kinetics of these antitumor drugs when placed in DNA to be more fully understood.

  10. Synthesis and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of biocompatible branched copolymer nanocontrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexander W; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Shi, Jian; Rannard, Steven P; Liu, Quan; Yang, Chang-Tong; He, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Branched copolymer nanoparticles (Dh =20–35 nm) possessing 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid macrocycles within their cores have been synthesized and applied as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nanosized contrast agents in vivo. These nanoparticles have been generated from novel functional monomers via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The process is very robust and synthetically straightforward. Chelation with gadolinium and preliminary in vivo experiments have demonstrated promising characteristics as MRI contrast agents with prolonged blood retention time, good biocompatibility, and an intravascular distribution. The ability of these nanoparticles to perfuse and passively target tumor cells through the enhanced permeability and retention effect is also demonstrated. These novel highly functional nanoparticle platforms have succinimidyl ester-activated benzoate functionalities within their corona, which make them suitable for future peptide conjugation and subsequent active cell-targeted MRI or the conjugation of fluorophores for bimodal imaging. We have also demonstrated that these branched copolymer nanoparticles are able to noncovalently encapsulate hydrophobic guest molecules, which could allow simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery. PMID:26425088

  11. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  12. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented.

  13. Stable, Electroinactive Wetting Agent For Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Surya G.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Straight-chain perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (C8 acid) identified as innocuous and stable wetting agent for use with polytetrafluoroethylene-containing electrodes in liquid-feed direct-oxidation fuel cells suggested for use in vehicles and portable power supplies. C8 acid in small concentrations in aqueous liquid solutions of methanol, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane enables oxidation of these substances by use of commercially available electrodes of type designed originally for use with gases. This function specific to C8 acid molecule and not achieved by other related perfluorolkanesulfonic acids.

  14. Energy transfer of nucleic acid products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Paul M.; Hu, Hsiang-Yun; Khalil, Omar S.

    1995-04-01

    Fluorescence energy transfer was investigated as a homogeneous detection method for the gapped ligase chain reaction (G-LCR). Oligonucleotides of a Chlamydia trachomatic G-LCR probe set were labeled with fluorescein as the donor and Texas Red as the acceptor fluorophore. Amplification and detection of 10 molecules of synthetic target was demonstrated in spiked urine samples.

  15. Exact solution of the D3 non-Abelian anyon chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braylovskaya, Natalia; Finch, Peter E.; Frahm, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Commuting transfer matrices for linear chains of interacting non-Abelian anyons from the two-dimensional irreducible representation of the dihedral group D3 [or, equivalently, the integer sector of the s u (2) 4 spin-1 chain] are constructed using the spin-anyon correspondence to a D3-symmetric formulation of the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. The spectral problem is solved using discrete inversion identities satisfied by these transfer matrices and functional Bethe ansatz methods. The resulting spectrum can be related to that of the XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with boundary conditions depending on the topological sector of the anyon chain. The properties of this model in the critical regime are studied by finite size analysis of the spectrum. In particular, points in the phase diagram where the anyon chain realizes some of the rational Z2 orbifold theories are identified.

  16. [Light Chain Amyloidosis: an Update for Treatment].

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Ni; Li, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is the most common type of amyloidosis, in which deposition of misfolded monoclonal light chain secreted by underlying clonal plasma cells leads to organ dysfunction. Tissue biopsy of involved organ is needed to confirm the type of amyloid deposits, thus proper treatment could be applied. Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry, performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, has been proven superior to traditional methods on accurate diagnosis of amyloidosis. Prognosis depends on the extent of cardiac involvement. The Mayo staging system using NT-ProBNP, cardiac troponin-T and free light chain, is the most robust method for risk stratification and treatment guidance. The introduction of autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-ASCT) resulted in long-term survival in responders, while treatment-related toxicity substantially limited the number of eligible candidates. Novel agents, especially bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide hold promise to achieve comparable hematological responses with auto-ASCT, which might play significant role in treatment of recurrent or refractory AL amyloidosis. PMID:26117060

  17. Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Christopher R; Khara, Basile; Johannissen, Linus O; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2011-12-01

    Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal "ready and waiting" states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals "ready and waiting" conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron transfer along complex

  18. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  19. Musical Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  20. Monte Carlo without chains

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, Alexandre J.

    2007-12-12

    A sampling method for spin systems is presented. The spin lattice is written as the union of a nested sequence of sublattices, all but the last with conditionally independent spins, which are sampled in succession using their marginals. The marginals are computed concurrently by a fast algorithm; errors in the evaluation of the marginals are offset by weights. There are no Markov chains and each sample is independent of the previous ones; the cost of a sample is proportional to the number of spins (but the number of samples needed for good statistics may grow with array size). The examples include the Edwards-Anderson spin glass in three dimensions.