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Sample records for chain transfer agents

  1. RAFT microemulsion polymerization with surface-active chain transfer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hedok, Ibrahim Adnan

    The work described in this dissertation focuses on enhancing the polymer nanoparticle synthesis using RAFT (reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer) in microemulsion polymerization in order to achieve predetermined molecular weight with narrow molecular weight polydispersity. The hypothesis is that the use of an amphiphilic chain transfer agent (surface-active CTA) will confine the CTA to the surface of the particle and thermodynamically favor partitioning of the CTA between micelles and particles throughout the polymerization. Thus, the CTA diffusion from micelles to polymer particles would be minimized and the breadth of the CTA per particle distribution would remain low. We report the successful improved synthesis of poly(butyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(styrene) nanoparticles using the RAFT microemulsion polymerization with surface-active CTA. The polymerization kinetics, polymer characteristics and latex size experimental data are presented. The data analysis indicates that the CTA remains partitioned between the micelles and particles by the end of the polymerization, as expected. We also report the synthesis of well-defined core/shell poly(styrene)/poly(butyl acrylate) nanoparticle, having polydispersity index value of 1.1, using semi-continuous microemulsion polymerization with the surface-active CTA. The surface-active CTA restricts the polymerization growth to the surface of the particle, which facilitates the formation of a shell block co-polymers with each subsequent second monomer addition instead of discrete homopolymers. This synthesis method can be used to create a wide range of core/shell polymer nanoparticles with well-defined morphology, given the right feeding conditions.

  2. Thermal effects of the functionalities of chain transfer agent on photopolymer holographic volume gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinxin; Tomita, Yasuo; Zhang, Xinping

    2017-05-01

    The photopolymerizable nanoparticle-polymer composites (NPCs) have thus far shown their excellent performance in practical applications, such as holographic data storage, nonlinear optics and neutron optics. We have demonstrated twofold enhancement of the saturated refractive index modulation (Δnsat) of ZrO2 NPC volume gratings recorded at high spatial frequencies by doping with a single functional thiol as a chain transfer agent (CTA). This result suggested that the incorporation of a CTA in an NPC is very useful for holographic applications of volume gratings in light and neutron optics. Such chemical modification of NPC volume gratings may be more effective by doping with multifunctional thiols. This is so because polymer features such as the molecular weight and the crosslinking network density can be tailored more diversely by introducing multifunctional thiols in photopolymers. The influences of varying functionalities of thiols as chain transfer agents on the thermal stability of a volume grating recorded in a photopolymerizable ZrO2 nanoparticle-polymer composite film have been investigated.

  3. Z-Group ketone chain transfer agents for RAFT polymer nanoparticle modification via hydrazone conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Saibal; Xia, Xin; Maiseiyeu, Andrei; Mihai, Georgeta; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    A ketal-containing trithiocarbonyl compound has been synthesized and characterized as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in Reversible Addition Fragmentation Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The ketal functionality does not interfere with RAFT polymerization of acrylate monomers, which proceeds as previously reported to yield macro-CTA polymers and block co-polymers. Post-polymerization ketal cleavage revealed ketone functionality at the polar terminus of an amphiphilic block co-polymer. Hydrazone-formation was facile in both organic solution as well as in aqueous buffer where polymer nanoparticle assemblies were formed, indicating a conjugation/end-functionalization yield of 40–50%. Conjugation was verified with fluorescein, biotin and Gd-DOTA derivatives, and though the trithiocarbonate linkage is hydrolytically labile, we observed stable conjugation for several days at pH 7.4. and 37°C. As expected, streptavidin binding to biotinylated polymer micelles was observed, and size-change based relaxivity increases were observed when Gd-DOTA hydrazide was conjugated to polymer micelles. Cell-uptake of fluorescently labeled polymer micelles was also readily tracked by FACS and fluorescence microscopy. These polymer derivatives demonstrate a range of potential theranostic/biotechnological applications for this conveniently accessible keto-CTA, which include ligand-based nanoparticle targeting and fluorescent/MR nanoparticle contrast agents. PMID:23148126

  4. Effect of the different chain transfer agents on molecular weight and optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetinkaya, Onur; Demirci, Gökhan; Mergo, Paweł

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of molecular weight and optical properties of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) polymerized in house with different chain transfer agents was studied. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), n-butyl mercaptan (nBMC) and pentamethyl disilane (PMDS) were used as chain transfer agents. The molecular weight (Mw) of PMMA samples were measured by Ostwald viscometer. Mw of bulk polymer samples were decreased with increase the concentration of chain transfer agents (CTA). Since reactivity of used CTAs is not same, molecular weights of samples which were produced with different type of CTA but same concentration of CTA was varied. Higher concentration of n-BMC showed higher scattering. Transmission of samples could not be correlated with different concentration of CTA. Refractive index of samples was not affected by concentration of CTA nevertheless higher molecular weight of CTA showed higher refractive index.

  5. Facile Fabrication of Water Dispersible Latex Particles with Homogeneous or Chain-Segregated Surface from RAFT Polymerization Using a Mixture of Two Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Hong, Liangzhi; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Water dispersible latex particles with randomly mixed shells or chain segregated surface are synthesized from one-pot reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer heterogeneous polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) using a mixture of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) and poly(2,3-bis(succinyloxy)propyl methacrylate) (PBSPMA) macromolecular chain transfer agents. In methanol, the two in situ synthesized PGMA-b-PBzMA and PBSPMA-b-PBzMA diblock copolymers coaggregate into spherical micelles, which contain PBzMA core and discrete PGMA and PBSPMA nanodomains on the shell. In contrast, in water-methanol mixture (V/V = 9/1), latex particles with homogeneous distribution of PGMA and PBSPMA polymer chains on the shell are obtained. The reasons leading to formation of latex particles with homogenous or chain-segregated surface are discussed, and polymerization kinetics and physical state of PBSPMA in methanol and water-methanol mixtures are ascribed. These polymeric micelles with patterned functional group on the surface are potentially important for application in supracolloidal hierarchical assemblies and catalysis.

  6. 12 CFR 9.20 - Transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer agents. 9.20 Section 9.20 Banks and... Regulations § 9.20 Transfer agents. (a)(1) Registration. An application for registration under Section 17A(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of a transfer agent for which the OCC is the appropriate...

  7. 12 CFR 9.20 - Transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer agents. 9.20 Section 9.20 Banks and... Regulations § 9.20 Transfer agents. (a)(1) Registration. An application for registration under Section 17A(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of a transfer agent for which the OCC is the appropriate...

  8. 12 CFR 9.20 - Transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer agents. 9.20 Section 9.20 Banks and... Regulations § 9.20 Transfer agents. (a)(1) Registration. An application for registration under Section 17A(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of a transfer agent for which the OCC is the appropriate...

  9. 12 CFR 9.20 - Transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer agents. 9.20 Section 9.20 Banks and... Regulations § 9.20 Transfer agents. (a)(1) Registration. An application for registration under Section 17A(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of a transfer agent for which the OCC is the appropriate...

  10. 12 CFR 9.20 - Transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer agents. 9.20 Section 9.20 Banks and... Regulations § 9.20 Transfer agents. (a)(1) Registration. An application for registration under Section 17A(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of a transfer agent for which the OCC is the appropriate...

  11. NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS characterisation of end-functionalised PVP oligomers prepared with different esters as chain transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, Elisabetta; Ferruti, Paolo; Annunziata, Rita; Gerges, Irini; Spinelli, Giuseppe

    2006-03-14

    Ester-functionalised poly(1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one) (PVP) oligomers obtained by radical polymerisation in methyl propionate, diethyl malonate and diethyl 2-methylmalonate were characterised by NMR spectroscopy, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The chain-transfer constants were determined as 5.54 x 10(-4), 1.22 x 10(-3) and 1.70 x 10(-2), respectively, by measuring the variation of the number-average molecular weight on conversion. These values were compared with those of methyl isobutyrate (1.65 x 10(-3)) and ethyl lactate (1.03 x 10(-2)), which had been previously determined. A clear dependence was found on the reactivity of the mobile hydrogen atoms alpha with the ester group. All of the macromolecules carried a single ester function. Therefore, the re-initiation step by the CTA-derived radicals overwhelmingly prevailed over initiation by the primary radicals.

  12. Irreversible heavy chain transfer to chondroitin.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L; Calabro, Anthony

    2014-10-17

    We have recently demonstrated that the transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-α-inhibitor, via the enzyme TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6), to hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides is an irreversible event in which subsequent swapping of HCs between HA molecules does not occur. We now describe our results of HC transfer experiments to chondroitin sulfate A, chemically desulfated chondroitin, chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin, unsulfated heparosan, heparan sulfate, and alginate. Of these potential HC acceptors, only chemically desulfated chondroitin and chemoenzymatically synthesized chondroitin were HC acceptors. The kinetics of HC transfer to chondroitin was similar to HA. At earlier time points, HCs were more widely distributed among the different sizes of chondroitin chains. As time progressed, the HCs migrated to lower molecular weight chains of chondroitin. Our interpretation is that TSG-6 swaps the HCs from the larger, reversible sites on chondroitin chains, which function as HC acceptors, onto smaller chondroitin chains, which function as irreversible HC acceptors. HCs transferred to smaller chondroitin chains were unable to be swapped off the smaller chondroitin chains and transferred to HA. HCs transferred to high molecular weight HA were unable to be swapped onto chondroitin. We also present data that although chondroitin was a HC acceptor, HA was the preferred acceptor when chondroitin and HA were in the same reaction mixture.

  13. Superadiabatic quantum state transfer in spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agundez, R. R.; Hill, C. D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.; Blaauboer, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a superadiabatic protocol where quantum state transfer can be achieved with arbitrarily high accuracy and minimal control across long spin chains with an odd number of spins. The quantum state transfer protocol only requires the control of the couplings between the qubits on the edge and the spin chain. We predict fidelities above 0.99 for an evolution of nanoseconds using typical spin-exchange coupling values of μ eV . Furthermore, by building a superadiabatic formalism on top of this protocol, we propose an effective superadiabatic protocol that retains the minimal control over the spin chain and further improves the fidelity.

  14. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) Polymerization of 4-Vinylbenzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guorong; Cheng, Chong; Wooley, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    The direct reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 4-vinylbenzaldehyde (VBA) was established as a new synthetic method for the preparation of well-defined poly(vinylbenzaldehyde) (PVBA), a polymer having reactive aldehyde side chain substiuents. RAFT polymerization of VBA was investigated using S-1-dodecyl-S’-(α,α’-dimethyl-α”-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate (DDMAT) as chain transfer agent (CTA) and 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator in 1,4-dioxane or 2-butanone at 70-75 °C for 7.5-22.5 h. With 45-76% of monomer conversion, the resulting PVBA had well controlled number-average molecular weight (Mn) and low polydispersity (PDI < 1.17). The living characteristic of the RAFT polymerization process was confirmed by the linearity between the Mn values of PVBA and monomer conversions. Well-defined PVBA was further used as a macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in RAFT polymerization of styrene (St), and a block copolymer PVBA-b-PSt with relatively low polydispersity (PDI = 1.20) was successfully synthesized. PMID:19066633

  15. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  16. Sieving polymer synthesis by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Nai, Yi Heng; Jones, Roderick C; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    Replaceable sieving polymers are the fundamental component for high resolution nucleic acids separation in CE. The choice of polymer and its physical properties play significant roles in influencing separation performance. Recently, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has been shown to be a versatile polymerization technique capable of yielding well defined polymers previously unattainable by conventional free radical polymerization. In this study, a high molecular weight PDMA at 765 000 gmol-1 with a PDI of 1.55 was successfully synthesized with the use of chain transfer agent - 2-propionic acidyl butyl trithiocarbonate (PABTC) in a multi-step sequential RAFT polymerization approach. This study represents the first demonstration of RAFT polymerization for synthesizing polymers with the molecular weight range suitable for high resolution DNA separation in sieving electrophoresis. Adjustment of pH in the reaction was found to be crucial for the successful RAFT polymerization of high molecular weight polymer as the buffered condition minimizes the effect of hydrolysis and aminolysis commonly associated with trithiocarbonate chain transfer agents. The separation efficiency of PABTC-PDMA was found to have marginally superior separation performance compared to a commercial PDMA formulation, POP™-CAP, of similar molecular weight range.

  17. Excitation transfer in stacked quantum dot chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Xu, Ming; Jaffré, Alexandre; Jittrong, Apichart; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Boutchich, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Stacked InAs quantum dot chains (QDCs) on InGaAs/GaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) templates yield a rich emission spectrum with an unusual carrier transfer characteristic compared to conventional quantum dot (QD) stacks. The photoluminescent spectra of the controlled, single QDC layer comprise multiple peaks from the orthogonal QDCs, the free-standing QDs, the CHP, the wetting layers and the GaAs substrate. When the QDC layers are stacked, employing a 10 nm GaAs spacer between adjacent QDC layers, the PL spectra are dominated by the top-most stack, indicating that the QDC layers are nominally uncoupled. Under high excitation power densities when the high-energy peaks of the top stack are saturated, however, low-energy PL peaks from the bottom stacks emerge as a result of carrier transfers across the GaAs spacers. These unique PL signatures contrast with the state-filling effects in conventional, coupled QD stacks and serve as a means to quickly assess the presence of electronic coupling in stacks of dissimilar-sized nanostructures.

  18. 12 CFR 341.3 - Registration as securities transfer agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration as securities transfer agent. 341... OF GENERAL POLICY REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES TRANSFER AGENTS § 341.3 Registration as securities... functions of a transfer agent as described in § 341.2(a) with respect to qualifying securities shall...

  19. 76 FR 16843 - Order Cancelling Registrations of Certain Transfer Agents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... were no longer in existence or had ceased doing business as transfer agents.\\3\\ \\3\\ Id. In the notice... they have not ceased doing business as a transfer agent. The Commission has decided not to cancel the... existence or has ceased doing business as a transfer agent. It is therefore ordered pursuant to Section...

  20. Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins: 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Bryan D; Cartagena, Debora; McClee, Vondguraus; Gangadharan, Denise; Weyant, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Select Agent Program, which is composed of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Select Agents and Toxins and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Agricultural Select Agent Services, regulates entities that possess, use, or transfer biological select agents and toxins in the United States and must preapprove all transfers within or into the US. The requirement to preapprove transfers allows the Federal Select Agent Program to monitor and track shipments to receive alerts of theft, loss, or release during shipment, thereby protecting public health and safety. As part of the program, the Division of Select Agents and Toxins regulates biological select agents and toxins that have been identified by the US government as posing a severe threat to public health and safety. The division analyzed 4,402 transfers that occurred between March 2003 and December 2013 to identify frequently transferred biological select agents and toxins and the types of entities involved in transfers. During the study period, 1 package was lost during shipment and it was determined not to pose a threat to public health. The Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated the loss and concluded that the package was most likely damaged by the commercial carrier and discarded. Further, there were no reports of theft or release associated with biological select agents and toxins shipments. This report represents the first in-depth review of biological select agent and toxin transfers that were approved by the Division of Select Agents and Toxins.

  1. Versatile pathways for in situ polyolefin functionalization with heteroatoms: catalytic chain transfer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Smruti B; Marks, Tobin J

    2008-01-01

    Chain-transfer processes represent highly effective chemical means to achieve selective, in situ d- and f-block-metal catalyzed functionalization of polyolefins. A diverse variety of electron-poor and electron-rich chain-transfer agents, including silanes, boranes, alanes, phosphines, and amines, effect efficient chain termination with concomitant carbon-heteroelement bond formation during single-site olefin-polymerization processes. High polymerization activities, control of polyolefin molecular weight and microstructure, and selective chain functionalization are all possible, with distinctly different mechanisms operative for the electron-poor and electron-rich reagents. A variety of metal centers (early transition metals, lanthanides, late transition metals) and single-site ancillary ligand arrays (metallocene, half-metallocene, non-metallocene) are able to mediate these selective chain-termination/functionalization processes.

  2. Simulation of economic agents interaction in a trade chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimanova, I. A.; Dulesov, A. S.; Litvin, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    The mathematical model of economic agents interaction is offered in the work. It allowsconsidering the change of price and sales volumesin dynamics according to the process of purchase and sale in the single-product market of the trade and intermediary network. The description of data-flow processes is based on the use of the continuous dynamic market model. The application of ordinary differential equations during the simulation allows one to define areas of coefficients - characteristics of agents - and to investigate their interaction in a chain on stability.

  3. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on antibacterial bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Weir, M D; Xu, H H K

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms.

  4. Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Chain Length on Antibacterial Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms. PMID:23958761

  5. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  6. Multistep hopping and extracellular charge transfer in microbial redox chains.

    PubMed

    Pirbadian, Sahand; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2012-10-28

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria are microorganisms that gain energy by transferring respiratory electrons to extracellular solid-phase electron acceptors. In addition to its importance for physiology and natural environmental processes, this form of metabolism is being investigated for energy conversion and fuel production in bioelectrochemical systems, where microbes are used as biocatalysts at electrodes. One proposed strategy to accomplish this extracellular charge transfer involves forming a conductive pathway to electrodes by incorporating redox components on outer cell membranes and along extracellular appendages known as microbial nanowires within biofilms. To describe extracellular charge transfer in microbial redox chains, we employed a model based on incoherent hopping between sites in the chain and an interfacial treatment of electrochemical interactions with the surrounding electrodes. Based on this model, we calculated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and found the results to be in good agreement with I-V measurements across and along individual microbial nanowires produced by the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Based on our analysis, we propose that multistep hopping in redox chains constitutes a viable strategy for extracellular charge transfer in microbial biofilms.

  7. Chain elongation analog of resveratrol as potent cancer chemoprevention agent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Hai-Xia; Xin, Long-Zuo; Ge, Li-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is identified as a natural cancer chemoprevention agent. There has been a lot of interest in designing and developing resveratrol analogs with cancer chemoprevention activity superior to that of parent molecule and exploring their action mechanism in the past several decades. In this study, we have synthesized resveratrol analogs of compounds A-C via conjugated chain elongation based on isoprene unit retention strategy. Remarkably, cytotoxic activity analysis results indicated that compound B possesses the best proliferation inhibition activity for NCI-H460 cells in all the test compounds. Intriguingly, compound B displayed a higher cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) compared to normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). Afterward, flow cytometry analysis showed that compound B would induce cell apoptosis. We further researched the action mechanism. When NCI-H460 cells were incubated by compound B for 6 or 9 h, respectively, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was enhanced obviously. With elevation of intracellular ROS level, flow cytometry measurement verified mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, which was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. More interestingly, compound B increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, compound B arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. These are all to provide useful information for designing resveratrol-based chemoprevention agent and understanding the action mechanism.

  8. Qubit teleportation and transfer across antiferromagnetic spin chains.

    PubMed

    Campos Venuti, L; Degli Esposti Boschi, C; Roncaglia, M

    2007-08-10

    We explore the capability of spin-1/2 chains to act as quantum channels for both teleportation and transfer of qubits. Exploiting the emergence of long-distance entanglement in low-dimensional systems [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 247206 (2006)10.1103/Phys.Rev.Lett.96, 247206(2006)], here we show how to obtain high communication fidelities between distant parties. An investigation of protocols of teleportation and state transfer is presented, in the realistic situation where temperature is included. Basing our setup on antiferromagnetic rotationally invariant systems, both protocols are represented by pure depolarizing channels. We propose a scheme where channel fidelity close to 1 can be achieved on very long chains at moderately small temperature.

  9. Dynamics of exciton transfer in coupled polymer chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Liu, X. J.; Sun, Z.; An, Z.

    2013-05-01

    The dynamics of singlet and triplet exciton transfer in coupled polymer chains are investigated within the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger+Pariser-Parr-Pople model including both electron-phonon (e-p) coupling and electron-electron (e-e) interactions, using a multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock dynamic method. In order to explain the processes involved, the effects of on-site and long-range e-e interactions on the locality of the singlet and triplet excitons are first investigated on an isolated chain. It is found that the locality of the singlet exciton decreases, while the locality of the triplet exciton increases with an increase in the on-site e-e interactions. On the other hand, an increase in the long-range e-e interaction results in a more localized singlet exciton and triplet exciton. In coupled polymer chains, we then quantitatively show the yields of singlet and triplet exciton transfer products under the same interchain coupling. It is found that the yield of singlet interchain excitons is much higher than that of triplet interchain excitons, that is to say, singlet exciton transfer is significantly easier than that for triplet excitons. This results from the fact that the singlet exciton is more delocalized than the triplet exciton. In addition, hopping of electrons with opposite spins between the coupled chains can facilitate the transfer of singlet excitons. The results are of great significance for understanding the photoelectric conversion process and developing high-power organic optoelectronic applications.

  10. State of research: environmental pathways and food chain transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, B E

    1984-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of biologically active components of petroleum, synthetic fuel oils, certain metal elements and pesticides provide valuable generic information needed for predicting the long-term fate of buried waste constituents and their likelihood of entering food chains. Components of such complex mixtures partition between solid and solution phases, influencing their mobility, volatility and susceptibility to microbial transformation. Estimating health hazards from indirect exposures to organic chemicals involves an ecosystem's approach to understanding the unique behavior of complex mixtures. Metabolism by microbial organisms fundamentally alters these complex mixtures as they move through food chains. Pathway modeling of organic chemicals must consider the nature and magnitude of food chain transfers to predict biological risk where metabolites may become more toxic than the parent compound. To obtain predictions, major areas are identified where data acquisition is essential to extend our radiological modeling experience to the field of organic chemical contamination. PMID:6428875

  11. Gene transfer agents: phage-like elements of genetic exchange

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew S.; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is important in the evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes. An interesting genetic exchange process is carried out by diverse phage-like gene transfer agents (GTAs) that are found in a wide range of prokaryotes. Although GTAs resemble phages, they lack the hallmark capabilities that define typical phages, and they package random pieces of the producing cell’s genome. In this Review, we discuss the defining characteristics of the GTAs that have been identified to date, along with potential functions for these agents and the possible evolutionary forces that act on the genes involved in their production. PMID:22683880

  12. Alkoxyamine-cyanoborane adducts: efficient cyanoborane transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Márquez, José M; Martínez-Castro, Elisa; Gabrielli, Serena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Angulo, Manuel; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández-Bolaños, José G

    2011-05-21

    We report the synthesis of the hitherto unknown zwitterionic alkoxyamino cyanoboranes by reduction of O-alkyloximes with sodium cyanoborohydride; unprecedented cyanoboronated N-alkoxyformamidines were also isolated as by-products. Boronated alkoxyamines were found to be efficient cyanoborane transfer agents towards more basic amines, including aminosugars; they were also successfully transformed into neoglycoconjugates by the neoglycorandomization reaction with reducing sugars.

  13. Optimization of excitation transfer in a spin chain

    SciTech Connect

    Gurman, Vladimir I.; Guseva, Irina S.; Fesko, Oles V.

    2016-06-08

    A revised formulation of the problem of fastest transfer of the excitation in a spin chain is considered on the base of Shrödinger equation which Hamiltonian depends linearly on control. It is taken into account that the excitation of the first or last spin means that it has greatest amplitude equal to the chain invariant whereas its phase is undefined and can be considered as an additional control variable. The role of this additional control is analyzed via transformation of the original problem with unbounded linear control to the regular derived problem known from the theory of degenerate problems [1, 2], in the same way as in [2]. The overall procedure is demonstrated in computational experiments with the use of visual examples.

  14. Optimization of excitation transfer in a spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Vladimir I.; Guseva, Irina S.; Fesko, Oles V.

    2016-06-01

    A revised formulation of the problem of fastest transfer of the excitation in a spin chain is considered on the base of Shrödinger equation which Hamiltonian depends linearly on control. It is taken into account that the excitation of the first or last spin means that it has greatest amplitude equal to the chain invariant whereas its phase is undefined and can be considered as an additional control variable. The role of this additional control is analyzed via transformation of the original problem with unbounded linear control to the regular derived problem known from the theory of degenerate problems [1, 2], in the same way as in [2]. The overall procedure is demonstrated in computational experiments with the use of visual examples.

  15. Robust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. Y.; Jiang, L.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Gong, Z.-X.; Zhai, A.; Duan, L.-M.; Lukin, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling-strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over an arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between nitrogen-vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed.

  16. Evolutionary conservation of heavy chain protein transfer between glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Hansen, Lone; Scavenius, Carsten; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; Kristensen, Torsten; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2010-04-01

    The bikunin proteins are composed of heavy chains (HCs) covalently linked to a chondroitin sulfate chain originating from Ser-10 of bikunin. Tumor necrosis factor stimulated gene-6 protein (TSG-6)/heavy chain 2 (HC2) cleaves this unique cross-link and transfers the HCs to hyaluronan and other glycosaminoglycans via a covalent HC*TSG-6 intermediate. In the present study, we have investigated if this reaction is evolutionary conserved based on the hypothesis that it is of fundamental importance. The results revealed that plasma/serum samples from mammal, bird, and reptile were able to form TSG-6 complexes suggesting the presence of proteins with the same function as the human bikunin proteins. To substantiate this, the complex forming protein from Gallus gallus (Gg) plasma was purified and identified as a Gg homolog of human HC2*bikunin. In addition, Gg pre-alpha-inhibitor and smaller amount of high molecular weight forms composed of bikunin and two HCs were purified. Like the human bikunin proteins, the purified Gg proteins were all stabilized by a protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein cross-link, i.e. the HCs were covalently attached to a chondroitin sulfate originating from bikunin. Furthermore, the complex formed between Gg HC2*bikunin and human TSG-6 appeared to be identical to that of the human proteins. Akin to human, Gg HC2 was further transferred to hyaluronan when present, and when incubated in vitro, Gg pre-alpha-inhibitor and TSG-6, failed to form the intermediate covalent complex, essential for HC transfer. Significantly, Gg HC2, analogous to human HC2, promoted complex formation between human HC3 and human TSG-6, substantiating the evolutionary conservation of these interactions. The present study demonstrates that the unique interactions between bikunin proteins, glycosaminoglycans, and TSG-6 are evolutionary conserved, emphasizing the physiological importance of the TSG-6/HC2-mediated HC-transfer reaction. In addition, the data show that the evolution of

  17. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-04

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41 CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 78 FR 26113 - Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request; Transfer Agent Registration and Amendment Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Renewal; Comment Request; Transfer Agent Registration and Amendment Form AGENCIES: Office of the... currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number. The OCC and FDIC are soliciting comment concerning renewal of its information collection titled, ``Transfer Agent Registration...

  19. 'Green' reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsarilar, Mona; Perrier, Sébastien

    2010-10-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization has revolutionized the field of polymer synthesis as a versatile tool for the production of complex polymeric architectures. As for all chemical processes, research and development in RAFT have to focus on the design and application of chemical products and processes that have a minimum environmental impact, and follow the principles of 'green' chemistry. In this Review, we summarize some of the green features of the RAFT process, and review the recent advances in the production of degradable polymers obtained from RAFT polymerization. Its use to modify biodegradable and renewable inorganic and organic materials to yield more functional products with enhanced applications is also covered. RAFT is a promising candidate for answering both the increasing need of modern society to employ highly functional polymeric materials and the global requirements for developing sustainable chemicals and processes.

  20. Dynamic model for tritium transfer in an aquatic food chain.

    PubMed

    Melintescu, A; Galeriu, D

    2011-08-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is released from some nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities. It is a ubiquitous isotope because it enters straight into organisms, behaving essentially identically to its stable analogue (hydrogen). Tritium is a key radionuclide in the aquatic environment, in some cases, contributing significantly to the doses received by aquatic, non-human biota and by humans. The updated model presented here is based on more standardized, comprehensive assessments than previously used for the aquatic food chain, including the benthic flora and fauna, with an explicit application to the Danube ecosystem, as well as an extension to the special case of dissolved organic tritium (DOT). The model predicts the organically bound tritium (OBT) in the primary producers (the autotrophs, such as phytoplankton and algae) and in the consumers (the heterotrophs) using their bioenergetics, which involves the investigation of energy expenditure, losses, gains and efficiencies of transformations in the body. The model described in the present study intends to be more specific than a screening-level model, by including a metabolic approach and a description of the direct uptake of DOT in marine phytoplankton and invertebrates. For a better control of tritium transfer into the environment, not only tritiated water must be monitored, but also the other chemical forms and most importantly OBT, in the food chain.

  1. A Supply Chain Architecture Based on Multi-agent Systems to Support Decentralized Collaborative Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Jorge E.; Poler, Raúl; Mula, Josefa

    In a supply chain management context, the enterprise architecture concept to efficiently support the collaborative processes among the supply chain members involved has been evolving. Each supply chain has an organizational structure that describes the hierarchical relationships among its members, ranging from centralized to decentralized organizations. From a decentralized perspective, each supply chain member is able to identify collaborative and non collaborative partners and the kind of information to be exchanged to support negotiation processes. The same concepts of organizational structure and negotiation rules can be applied to a multi-agent system. This paper proposes a novel supply chain architecture to support decentralized collaborative processes in supply chains by considering a multi-agent-based system modeling approach.

  2. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  3. Poly(vinyl ester) Block Copolymers Synthesized by Reversible Addition−Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerizations

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, Corinne E.; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    2009-07-31

    Homopolymerizations and block copolymerizations of vinyl acetate (VAc), vinyl pivalate (VPv), and vinyl benzoate (VBz) by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization have been studied. Polymerizations of VAc initiated with 2,2{prime}-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) at 60 C using two different xanthate RAFT agents C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(=S)SR (R = -CH(CH{sub 3})CO{sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (1) and -CH(CH{sub 3})O{sub 2}CC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} (2)) were examined to elucidate the dependence of the polydispersities of the resulting polymers on the RAFT agent leaving group R. RAFT agent 2, in which the leaving R-group mimics a growing vinyl ester polymer chain, consistently yields poly(vinyl acetates) having broader polydispersities than those synthesized using 1 (M{sub n} = 3.6-14 kg/mol and M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.15-1.33). While VPv exhibits similar controlled polymerization behavior to VAc, RAFT homopolymerizations of VBz mediated by 1 indicate this electron-deficient vinyl ester requires higher temperatures to effect controlled polymerizations to yield polymers having M{sub n} = 4-14 kg/mol and M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.29-1.53. Chain extension reactions from xanthate-terminated vinyl ester homopolymers with VAc, VPv, and VBz proceed with variable efficiencies to furnish block copolymers that microphase separate in the melt state as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  4. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain.

    PubMed

    Blakkolb, B; Logan, C; Jandura, L; Okon, A; Anderson, M; Katz, I; Aveni, G; Brown, K; Chung, S; Ferraro, N; Limonadi, D; Melko, J; Mennella, J; Yavrouian, A

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm(2) on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm(2) on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  5. Organic cleanliness of the Mars Science Laboratory sample transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakkolb, B.; Logan, C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A.; Anderson, M.; Katz, I.; Aveni, G.; Brown, K.; Chung, S.; Ferraro, N.; Limonadi, D.; Melko, J.; Mennella, J.; Yavrouian, A.

    2014-07-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, is the detection of organics in Mars rock and regolith. To achieve this, the Curiosity rover includes a robotic sampling system that acquires rock and regolith samples and delivers it to the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the rover. In order to provide confidence that any significant organics detection result was Martian and not terrestrial in origin, a requirement was levied on the flight system (i.e., all sources minus the SAM instrument) to impart no more than 36 parts per billion (ppb by weight) of total reduced carbon terrestrial contamination to any sample transferred to the SAM instrument. This very clean level was achieved by a combination of a rigorous contamination control program on the project, and then using the first collected samples for a "dilution cleaning" campaign of the sample chain prior to delivering a sample to the SAM instrument. Direct cleanliness assays of the sample-contacting and other Flight System surfaces during pre-launch processing were used as inputs to determine the number of dilution cleaning samples needed once on Mars, to enable delivery of suitably clean samples to the SAM experiment. Taking into account contaminant redistribution during launch thorough landing of the MSL on Mars, the amount of residue present on the sampling hardware prior to the time of first dilution cleaning sample acquisition was estimated to be 60 ng/cm2 on exposed outer surfaces of the sampling hardware and 20 ng/cm2 on internal sample contacting surfaces; residues consisting mainly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and esters. After three dilution cleaning samples, estimated in-sample contamination level for the first regolith sample delivered to the SAM instrument at the Gale Crater "Rocknest" site was bounded at ≤10 ppb total organic carbon. A Project decision to forego ejecting the dilution cleaning sample and instead transfer the first drill

  6. All possible coupling schemes in XY spin chains for perfect state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yaoxiong; Shuang Feng; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-07-15

    We investigate quantum state transfer in XY spin chains and propose a recursive procedure to construct the nonuniform couplings within these chains of arbitrary length in order to achieve perfect state transfer. We show that this method is capable of finding all possible coupling schemes for perfect state transfer. These schemes, without external control fields, involve analytically identified engineered couplings without the need for dynamical control. The analytical solutions provide all information for coupling design.

  7. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-16 - Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... clearing agency functions as described in section 3(a)(23)(A)(i) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(23)(A)(i... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-16 Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services. (a) A..., including a registered transfer agent that ceases to perform transfer agent services on behalf of an issuer...

  8. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-16 - Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... clearing agency functions as described in section 3(a)(23)(A)(i) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(23)(A)(i... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-16 Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services. (a) A..., including a registered transfer agent that ceases to perform transfer agent services on behalf of an issuer...

  9. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-16 - Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... clearing agency functions as described in section 3(a)(23)(A)(i) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(23)(A)(i... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-16 Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services. (a) A..., including a registered transfer agent that ceases to perform transfer agent services on behalf of an issuer...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-16 - Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... clearing agency functions as described in section 3(a)(23)(A)(i) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(23)(A)(i... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-16 Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services. (a) A..., including a registered transfer agent that ceases to perform transfer agent services on behalf of an issuer...

  11. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-16 - Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... clearing agency functions as described in section 3(a)(23)(A)(i) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(23)(A)(i... Organizations § 240.17Ad-16 Notice of assumption or termination of transfer agent services. (a) A registered..., including a registered transfer agent that ceases to perform transfer agent services on behalf of an issuer...

  12. 77 FR 71702 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins... updated the list of HHS and overlap biological agents and toxins and designated certain select agents and... CONTACT: Robbin Weyant, Director, Division of Select Agents and Toxins, Centers for Disease Control...

  13. Energy transfer processes along a supramolecular chain of π-conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Schmid, S A; Abbel, R; Schenning, A P H J; Meijer, E W; Herz, L M

    2012-08-13

    We have investigated the energy transfer dynamics in a supramolecular linear polymer chain comprising oligofluorene (OF) energy donor units linked by quadruple hydrogen-bonding groups, and oligophenylene (OPV) chain ends that act as energy acceptors. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we followed the dynamics of energy transfer from the main chain of OF units to the OPV chain ends and simulated these data taking a Monte Carlo approach that included different extents of electronic wave function delocalization for the energy donor and acceptor. Best correlations between experimental and theoretical results were obtained for the assumption of electronic coupling occurring between a localized donor dipole moment and a delocalized acceptor moment. These findings emphasize that geometric relaxation following initial excitation of the donor needs to be taken into account, as it leads to a localization of the donor's excited state wave function prior to energy transfer. In addition, our simulations show that the energy transfer from the main chain to the ends is dominated by an interplay between slow and spatially limited exciton migration along the OF segments comprising the main chain and the comparatively faster hetero-transfer to the end-cap acceptors from directly adjoining OF segments. These results clearly support the description of host-guest energy transfer in linear polymer chains as a two-step mechanism with exciton diffusion in the host being a prerequisite to energy transfer to the guest.

  14. Carprofen-imprinted monolith prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization in room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lu; Han, Xu; Wang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    To obtain fast separation, ionic liquids were used as porogens first in combination with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to prepare a new type of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith. The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized using a mixture of carprofen (template), 4-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, [BMIM]BF4, and chain transfer agent (CTA). Some polymerization factors, such as template-monomer molar ratio, the degree of crosslinking, the composition of the porogen, and the content of CTA, on the column efficiency and imprinting effect of the resulting MIP monolith were systematically investigated. Affinity screening of structurally similar compounds with the template can be achieved in 200 s on the MIP monolith due to high column efficiency (up to 12,070 plates/m) and good column permeability. Recognition mechanism of the imprinted monolith was also investigated.

  15. Biodegradable Multiblock Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization and Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopečková, Pavla; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2011-04-26

    A new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA) containing alkyne end groups was designed, synthesized and used for direct synthesis of clickable telechelic polymers. Good control of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) was achieved by using the new CTA, as indicated by a linear increase of number average molecular weight (Mn) with conversion and low polydispersity (PDI) (<1.1). In particular, enzymatically degradable multiblock HPMA polymers were readily prepared by subsequent reaction with αω, -diazido oligopeptide (GFLG) sequence via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Upon exposure of high molecular weight fractions of multiblock polyHPMA to papain or cathepsin B, the polymer was degraded into segments of molecular weight and narrow polydispersity similar to those of the initial telechelic polyHPMA.

  16. Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Daryaei, Iman; Pagel, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a "double-agent" approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T2-exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T1 and T2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as "secret agents" in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging.

  17. Heavy chain transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 to the bikunin proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Lamkin, Elliott; Cheng, Georgiana; Calabro, Anthony; Hascall, Vincent C; Joo, Eun Ji; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Lauer, Mark E

    2015-02-20

    We present data that hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides, about 14-86 monosaccharides in length, are capable of accepting only a single heavy chain (HC) from inter-α-inhibitor via transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) and that this transfer is irreversible. We propose that either the sulfate groups (or the sulfation pattern) at the reducing end of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) chain of bikunin, or the core protein itself, enables the bikunin proteoglycan (PG) to accept more than a single HC and permits TSG-6 to transfer these HCs from its relatively small CS chain to HA. To test these hypotheses, we investigated HC transfer to the intact CS chain of the bikunin PG, and to the free chain of bikunin. We observed that both the free CS chain and the intact bikunin PG were only able to accept a single HC from inter-α-inhibitor via transfer by TSG-6 and that HCs could be swapped from the bikunin PG and its free CS chain to HA. Furthermore, a significant portion of the bikunin PG was unable to accept a single heavy chain. We discuss explanations for these observations, including the intracellular assembly of inter-α-inhibitor. In summary, these data demonstrate that the sulfation of the CS chain of bikunin and/or its core protein promote HC transfer by TSG-6 to its relatively short CS chain, although they are insufficient to enable the CS chain of bikunin to accept more than one HC in the absence of other cofactors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Heavy Chain Transfer by Tumor Necrosis Factor-stimulated Gene 6 to the Bikunin Proteoglycan*

    PubMed Central

    Lamkin, Elliott; Cheng, Georgiana; Calabro, Anthony; Hascall, Vincent C.; Joo, Eun Ji; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Lauer, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We present data that hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides, about 14–86 monosaccharides in length, are capable of accepting only a single heavy chain (HC) from inter-α-inhibitor via transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) and that this transfer is irreversible. We propose that either the sulfate groups (or the sulfation pattern) at the reducing end of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) chain of bikunin, or the core protein itself, enables the bikunin proteoglycan (PG) to accept more than a single HC and permits TSG-6 to transfer these HCs from its relatively small CS chain to HA. To test these hypotheses, we investigated HC transfer to the intact CS chain of the bikunin PG, and to the free chain of bikunin. We observed that both the free CS chain and the intact bikunin PG were only able to accept a single HC from inter-α-inhibitor via transfer by TSG-6 and that HCs could be swapped from the bikunin PG and its free CS chain to HA. Furthermore, a significant portion of the bikunin PG was unable to accept a single heavy chain. We discuss explanations for these observations, including the intracellular assembly of inter-α-inhibitor. In summary, these data demonstrate that the sulfation of the CS chain of bikunin and/or its core protein promote HC transfer by TSG-6 to its relatively short CS chain, although they are insufficient to enable the CS chain of bikunin to accept more than one HC in the absence of other cofactors. PMID:25561734

  19. Using Information Gain to Analyze and Fine Tune the Performance of Supply Chain Trading Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, James; Benisch, Michael; Sardinha, Alberto; Sadeh, Norman

    The Supply Chain Trading Agent Competition (TAC SCM) was designed to explore approaches to dynamic supply chain trading. During the course of each year's competition historical data is logged describing more than 800 games played by different agents from around the world. In this paper, we present analysis that is focused on determining which features of agent behavior, such as the average lead time requested for supplies or the average selling price offered on finished products, tend to differentiate agents that win from those that do not. We present a visual inspection of data from 16 games played in one bracket of the 2006 TAC SCM semi-final rounds. Plots of data from these games help isolate behavioral features that distinguish top performing agents in this bracket. We then introduce a metric based on information gain to provide a more complete analysis of the 80 games played in the 2006 TAC SCM quarter-final, semi-final and final rounds. The metric captures the amount of information that is gained about an agent's performance by knowing its value for each of 20 different behavioral features. Using this metric we find that, in the final rounds of the 2006 competition, winning agents distinguished themselves by their procurement decisions, rather than their customer bidding decisions. We also discuss how we used the analysis presented in this paper to improve our entry for the 2007 competition, which was one of the six finalists that year.

  20. 17 CFR 240.17Ac2-2 - Annual reporting requirement for registered transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual reporting requirement... Company Rules § 240.17Ac2-2 Annual reporting requirement for registered transfer agents. (a) Every transfer agent registered on December 31 must file a report covering the reporting period on Form...

  1. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-17 - Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... search for lost securityholders. 240.17Ad-17 Section 240.17Ad-17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-17 Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders. (a)(1) Every..., each recordkeeping transfer agent shall conduct two data base searches using at least one information...

  2. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-17 - Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... search for lost securityholders. 240.17Ad-17 Section 240.17Ad-17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-17 Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders. (a)(1) Every..., each recordkeeping transfer agent shall conduct two data base searches using at least one information...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-17 - Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... search for lost securityholders. 240.17Ad-17 Section 240.17Ad-17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-17 Transfer agents' obligation to search for lost securityholders. (a)(1) Every..., each recordkeeping transfer agent shall conduct two data base searches using at least one information...

  4. Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Daryaei, Iman; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a “double-agent” approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T2-exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T1 and T2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as “secret agents” in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging. PMID:27747191

  5. Thermoacoustic instability mechanism under conditions of the forced motion of the heat-transfer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, V. I.

    1987-02-01

    The mechanism of the thermoacoustic instability arising in a heated channel at a supercritical pressure of the heat-transfer agent is analyzed using acoustic balance equations. It is shown that, in the case of the forced motion of the heat-transfer agent at a supercritical pressure, the most probable source of acoustic energy is the work of thermal expansion resulting from the interaction between an acoustic wave and the heat transfer process. The main cause of the thermoacoustic effect is the pressure-related perturbation of the thermophysical properties of the heat-transfer agent.

  6. Cryoprotective properties of completely synthetic polyampholytes via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and the effects of hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Robin; Jain, Minkle; Matsumura, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    A completely synthetic polyampholyte cryoprotectant was developed with cationic and anionic monomers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The neutralized random polyampholyte, which had an equal composition ratio of monomers, showed high cryoprotective properties in mammalian cells. Introduction of a small amount of hydrophobic monomer enhanced cell viability after cryopreservation, indicating the importance of hydrophobicity. Leakage experiments confirmed that these polyampholytes protected the cell membrane during cryopreservation. Due to low cytotoxicity, this polyampholyte has the potential to replace the convention cryoprotective agent dimethyl sulfoxide. The present study is the first to show that we can design a polymeric cryoprotectant that will protect the cell membrane during freezing using appropriate polymerization techniques.

  7. Surface modification of carbon nanotubes via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Liu, Meiying; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qingsong; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a novel strategy for surface modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization. First, pristine CNTs were functionalized with polydopamine (PDA), which is formed via self-polymerization of dopamine in alkaline conditions. These PDA functionalized CNTs can be further reacted with amino-terminated polymers (named as PDMC), which was synthesized through chain transfer free radical polymerization using cysteamine hydrochloride as chain transfer agent and methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride as the monomer. PDMC perfectly conjugated with CNT-PDA was ascertained by a series of characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dispersibility of obtained CNT nanocomposites (named as CNT-PDA-PDMC) was further examined. Results showed that the dispersibility of CNT-PDA-PDMC in aqueous and organic solutions was obviously enhanced. Apart from PDMC, many other amino-terminated polymers can also be used to functionalization of CNTs via similar strategy. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a general strategy for fabrication various polymer nanocomposites.

  8. 76 FR 78215 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins...) requesting public comment on the appropriateness of the current HHS and Overlap list of select agents and... appropriateness of the proposed tiering of the select agents and toxins list; whether minimum standards...

  9. A Demand-Driven Approach for a Multi-Agent System in Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, Yevgeniya; Fasli, Maria

    This paper presents the architecture of a multi-agent decision support system for Supply Chain Management (SCM) which has been designed to compete in the TAC SCM game. The behaviour of the system is demand-driven and the agents plan, predict, and react dynamically to changes in the market. The main strength of the system lies in the ability of the Demand agent to predict customer winning bid prices - the highest prices the agent can offer customers and still obtain their orders. This paper investigates the effect of the ability to predict customer order prices on the overall performance of the system. Four strategies are proposed and compared for predicting such prices. The experimental results reveal which strategies are better and show that there is a correlation between the accuracy of the models' predictions and the overall system performance: the more accurate the prediction of customer order prices, the higher the profit.

  10. Truncation of the amino terminus of branching enzyme changes its chain transfer pattern.

    PubMed

    Binderup, Kim; Mikkelsen, René; Preiss, Jack

    2002-01-15

    Previous work has reported the production of an Escherichia coli branching enzyme with a 112-residue deletion at the amino terminal by limited proteolysis. Here, we study the chain transfer pattern of this enzyme. Gel-permeation chromatography of in vitro branched amylose shows that the truncated branching enzyme transfers fewer short chains (degree of polymerization [d.p.] <20) and a greater proportion of intermediate size chains (d.p. 30-90) than the native enzyme. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) of the branching limited alpha-glucan product indicates that the truncated branching enzyme transfers a smaller proportion of chains with d.p. 4-11 and more chains longer than d.p. 12. Also, the genes encoding native or truncated branching enzyme were individually expressed in a branching enzyme-deficient mutant, AC71 (glgB(-)). By HPAEC analysis of the purified alpha-glucans we find that truncated branching enzyme transfers fewer chains of d.p. 5-11 and more chains longer than d.p. 12 relative to the full-length enzyme. These observations allow us to conclude that truncation of the amino-terminal domain has altered the branching pattern of the enzyme. Our results are consistent with the construction of hybrid branching enzymes from the maize isoforms.

  11. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  12. Transferring information through a mixed-five-spin chain channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Movahhedian, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    We initially introduce one-dimensional mixed-five-spin chain with Ising-XY model which includes mixture of spins-1/2 and spins-1. Here, it is considered that nearest spins (1,1/2) have Ising-type interaction and nearest spins (1/2,1/2) have both XY-type and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions together. Nearest spins (1,1) have XX Heisenberg interaction. This system is in the vicinity of an external homogeneous magnetic field B in thermal equilibrium state. We promote the quantum information transmitting protocol verified for a normal spin chain with simple model (refer to Rossini D, Giovannetti V and Fazio R 2007 Int. J. Quantum Infor. 5 439) (widely in reference: Giovannetti V and Fazio R 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 032314) by means of considering the suggested mixed-five-spin chain as a quantum communication channel for transmitting both qubits and qutrits ideally. Hence, we investigate some useful quantities such as quantum capacity and quantum information transmission rate for the system. Finally, we conclude that, when the DM interaction between spins (1/2,1/2) increases the system is a more ideal channel for transmitting information.

  13. The fear of being eaten reduces energy transfer in a simple food chain.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-12-01

    Food chain length is an important property of ecosystems, but the mechanisms maintaining it remain elusive. Classical views suggest that energetic inefficiencies (the "energy-flow hypothesis") limit food chain length, but others have argued that better explanations reside in more complex scenarios that consider the stability of food webs or the combined effects of productivity and ecosystem size. We argue that abandonment of the energy-flow hypothesis is premature. For a simple tritrophic rocky intertidal food chain, we show that the efficiency of energy transfer is strongly influenced by predation risk and consumer density. Effects tied to predation risk were particularly strong, explaining 32% of the variation in growth efficiency (compared to 15% for density effects) and reducing it by 44-76%. Hence, the stress (fear of being eaten) that predators impose on prey may be instrumental in limiting energy transfer up the food chain and thus contribute to the shortening of food chains.

  14. The Role of Institutional Agents in Promoting Transfer Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Pak, Jenny H.; Bensimon, Estela Mara

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research points to the important role played by "institutional agents" in facilitating college access and success for students from non-dominant racial-ethnic and low socioeconomic status groups. Applying attachment theory, this study adds to that literature by demonstrating how institutional agents can provide a secure…

  15. Radiative transfer calculated from a Markov chain formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.; House, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of Markov chains is used to formulate the radiative transport problem in a general way by modeling the successive interactions of a photon as a stochastic process. Under the minimal requirement that the stochastic process is a Markov chain, the determination of the diffuse reflection or transmission from a scattering atmosphere is equivalent to the solution of a system of linear equations. This treatment is mathematically equivalent to, and thus has many of the advantages of, Monte Carlo methods, but can be considerably more rapid than Monte Carlo algorithms for numerical calculations in particular applications. We have verified the speed and accuracy of this formalism for the standard problem of finding the intensity of scattered light from a homogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere with an arbitrary phase function for scattering. Accurate results over a wide range of parameters were obtained with computation times comparable to those of a standard 'doubling' routine. The generality of this formalism thus allows fast, direct solutions to problems that were previously soluble only by Monte Carlo methods. Some comparisons are made with respect to integral equation methods.

  16. Mechanistic Studies of Hafnium-Pyridyl Amido-Catalyzed 1-Octene Polymerization and Chain Transfer Using Quench-Labeling Methods.

    PubMed

    Cueny, Eric S; Johnson, Heather C; Anding, Bernie J; Landis, Clark R

    2017-08-30

    Chromophore quench-labeling applied to 1-octene polymerization as catalyzed by hafnium-pyridyl amido precursors enables quantification of the amount of active catalyst and observation of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of Hf-bound polymers via UV-GPC analysis. Comparison of the UV-detected MWD with the MWD of the "bulk" (all polymers, from RI-GPC analysis) provides important mechanistic information. The time evolution of the dual-detection GPC data, concentration of active catalyst, and monomer consumption suggests optimal activation conditions for the Hf pre-catalyst in the presence of the activator [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]. The chromophore quench-labeling agents do not react with the chain-transfer agent ZnEt2 under the reaction conditions. Thus, Hf-bound polymeryls are selectively labeled in the presence of zinc-polymeryls. Quench-labeling studies in the presence of ZnEt2 reveal that ZnEt2 does not influence the rate of propagation at the Hf center, and chain transfer of Hf-bound polymers to ZnEt2 is fast and quasi-irreversible. The quench-label techniques represent a means to study commercial polymerization catalysts that operate with high efficiency at low catalyst concentrations without the need for specialized equipment.

  17. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... describing the transfer agent's preparation for Year 2000 Problems. Part I of Form TA-Y2K shall be filed no... what steps the transfer agent must take to address Year 2000 Problems; (iii) Implementation of the... software designed to address Year 2000 Problems (including testing with other transfer agents, other...

  18. 11 CFR 102.6 - Transfers of funds; collecting agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 102.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL REGISTRATION, ORGANIZATION, AND.... (iii) Transfers of joint fundraising proceeds may be made without limit on amount between organizations or committees participating in the joint fundraising activity provided that no...

  19. 17 CFR 240.17Ac2-2 - Annual reporting requirement for registered transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating... inaccurate, incomplete, or misleading. A transfer agent may file an amendment at any time; however, in order...

  20. Kinetics of electron transfer through the respiratory chain.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qusheng; Bethke, Craig M

    2002-01-01

    We show that the rate at which electrons pass through the respiratory chain in mitochondria and respiring prokaryotic cells is described by the product of three terms, one describing electron donation, one acceptance, and a third, the thermodynamic drive. We apply the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics in the context of the chemiosmotic model of proton translocation and energy conservation. This approach leads to a closed-form expression that predicts steady-state electron flux as a function of chemical conditions and the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane or prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane. The rate expression, derived considering reverse and forward electron flow, is the first to account for both thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the respiration rate. The expression can be simplified under specific conditions to give rate laws of various forms familiar in cellular physiology and microbial ecology. The expression explains the nonlinear dependence of flux on electrical potential gradient, its hyperbolic dependence on substrate concentration, and the inhibiting effects of reaction products. It provides a theoretical basis for investigating life under unusual conditions, such as microbial respiration in alkaline waters. PMID:12324402

  1. Transferring entangled states through spin chains by boundary-state multiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Peter; Stolze, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Quantum spin chains may be used to transfer quantum states between elements of a quantum information processing device. A scheme discovered recently [Phys. Rev. A 85, 022312 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.022312] was shown to have favorable transfer properties for single-qubit states even in the presence of built-in static disorder caused by manufacturing errors. We extend that scheme in a way suggested already in Bruderer et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 022312 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.022312] and study the transfer of the four Bell states which form a maximally entangled basis in the two-qubit Hilbert space. We show that perfect transfer of all four Bell states separately and of arbitrary linear combinations may be achieved for chains with hundreds of spins. For simplicity we restrict ourselves to systems without disorder.

  2. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated.

  3. Passive transfer of maternal immunity in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), involvement of heavy chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Imed; Bessalah, Salma; Mbarek, Sonia Ben; Chniter, Mohamed; Seddik, Mabrouk-Mouldi; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    In many mammalian species, newborns are agammaglobulinemic; thus, colostrum and milk are the main sources of early protective antibodies. These antibodies are produced in the mother's serum and transferred to mammalian glands a few days before parturition. Here, we have studied the transfer of immunity from a she-camel immunized with human serum albumin (HSA) to her calf via colostrum and milk. Our results show that HSA-specific antibodies are produced in the mother's serum and are subsequently transferred to her colostrum. These specific antibodies are then transferred by suckling to the calf. The calf serum did not contain HSA-reactive antibodies at parturition and before the first feed, after suckling, a rise in reactivity was observed peaking at 24 h postpartum. The involvement of heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) in the process of immunity transfer was also examined, and it was found that they were also transferred from the colostrum to the calf serum like conventional antibodies.

  4. Bacteriophage-like Particles Associated with the Gene Transfer Agent of Methanococcus Voltale PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Eiserling, F.; Pushkin, A.; Gingery, M.

    1999-01-01

    The methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococus voltae (strain PS) is known to produce a filterable, DNase resistant agent (called VTA, for voltae transfer agent), which carries very small fragments (4,400 base pairs) of bacterial DNA and is able to transduce bacterial genes between derivatives of the strain.

  5. Bacteriophage-like Particles Associated with the Gene Transfer Agent of Methanococcus Voltale PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Eiserling, F.; Pushkin, A.; Gingery, M.

    1999-01-01

    The methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococus voltae (strain PS) is known to produce a filterable, DNase resistant agent (called VTA, for voltae transfer agent), which carries very small fragments (4,400 base pairs) of bacterial DNA and is able to transduce bacterial genes between derivatives of the strain.

  6. Institutional Agents' Impact on Transfer Student Success through the Avenue of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Paul William

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates that institutional agents at the community college make a significant difference in the lives of students by supporting them during the transfer process. This study brings a critical perspective to the education field by giving a voice to institutional agents at the community college level. Utilizing the social capital…

  7. Long-range doublon transfer in a dimer chain induced by topology and ac fields

    PubMed Central

    Bello, M.; Creffield, C. E.; Platero, G.

    2016-01-01

    The controlled transfer of particles from one site of a spatial lattice to another is essential for many tasks in quantum information processing and quantum communication. In this work we study how to induce long-range transfer between the two ends of a dimer chain, by coupling states that are localized just on the chain’s end-points. This has the appealing feature that the transfer occurs only between the end-points – the particle does not pass through the intermediate sites–making the transfer less susceptible to decoherence. We first show how a repulsively bound-pair of fermions, known as a doublon, can be transferred from one end of the chain to the other via topological edge states. We then show how non-topological surface states of the familiar Shockley or Tamm type can be used to produce a similar form of transfer under the action of a periodic driving potential. Finally we show that combining these effects can produce transfer by means of more exotic topological effects, in which the driving field can be used to switch the topological character of the edge states, as measured by the Zak phase. Our results demonstrate how to induce long range transfer of strongly correlated particles by tuning both topology and driving. PMID:26932406

  8. Directing alkyl chain ordering of functional phosphorus coupling agents on ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Lomoschitz, Christoph J; Feichtenschlager, Bernhard; Moszner, Norbert; Puchberger, Michael; Müller, Klaus; Abele, Matthias; Kickelbick, Guido

    2011-04-05

    ZrO(2) powder (6.6 m(2)/g) was modified using polymerizable phosphorus-based coupling agents (P-CAs) (i.e., phosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, and bis-phosphonic acid), resulting in densely grafted layers as determined by thermogravimetry and elemental analysis (up to 4.2 molecules/nm(2)). The applied P-CAs contained a methacrylate group, which led to the covalent incorporation of a polymerizable moiety into the grafted layer. To direct the ordering of the alkyl chains in the layer, three different approaches were evaluated with respect to their structure-directing ability by means of FT-IR and nitrogen sorption at 77 K: (i) variation of the chain length, (ii) variation of the anchoring group and (iii) comodification with a defined amount of a nonfunctional phosphonic acid (variation of the functional/nonfunctional acid ratio). It was shown that the chain length and anchoring group size have significant effects on the alkyl chain ordering and morphology of the layer.

  9. Using frequency-labeled exchange transfer to separate out conventional magnetization transfer effects from exchange transfer effects when detecting ParaCEST agents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yuan; Yadav, Nirbhay N; Friedman, Joshua I; Ratnakar, James; Sherry, A Dean; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2012-04-01

    Paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents combine the benefits of a large chemical shift difference and a fast exchange rate for sensitive MRI detection. However, the in vivo detection of these agents is hampered by the need for high B(1) fields to allow sufficiently fast saturation before exchange occurs, thus causing interference of large magnetization transfer effects from semisolid macromolecules. A recently developed approach named frequency-labeled exchange transfer utilizes excitation pulses instead of saturation pulses for detecting the exchanging protons. Using solutions and gel phantoms containing the europium (III) complex of DOTA tetraglycinate (EuDOTA-(gly)(-) (4) ), it is shown that frequency-labeled exchange transfer allows the separation of chemical exchange effects and magnetization transfer (MT) effects in the time domain, therefore allowing the study of the individual resonance of rapidly exchanging water molecules (k(ex) >10(4) s(-1) ) without interference from conventional broad-band MT.

  10. Proton transfer via a transient linear water-molecule chain in a membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Freier, Erik; Wolf, Steffen; Gerwert, Klaus

    2011-07-12

    High-resolution protein ground-state structures of proton pumps and channels have revealed internal protein-bound water molecules. Their possible active involvement in protein function has recently come into focus. An illustration of the formation of a protonated protein-bound water cluster that is actively involved in proton transfer was described for the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) [Garczarek F, Gerwert K (2006) Nature 439:109-112]. Here we show through a combination of time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations that three protein-bound water molecules are rearranged by a protein conformational change that resulted in a transient Grotthuss-type proton-transfer chain extending through a hydrophobic protein region of bR. This transient linear water chain facilitates proton transfer at an intermediate conformation only, thereby directing proton transfer within the protein. The rearrangement of protein-bound water molecules that we describe, from inactive positions in the ground state to an active chain in an intermediate state, appears to be energetically favored relative to transient incorporation of water molecules from the bulk. Our discovery provides insight into proton-transfer mechanisms through hydrophobic core regions of ubiquitous membrane spanning proteins such as G-protein coupled receptors or cytochrome C oxidases.

  11. Chaining direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2010-09-28

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for chaining DMA data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO buffer for the origin DMA engine, a RGET data descriptor specifying a DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node and a second RGET data descriptor on the origin node, the second RGET data descriptor specifying a target RGET data descriptor on the target node, the target RGET data descriptor specifying an additional DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node; creating, by the origin DMA engine, an RGET packet in dependence upon the RGET data descriptor, the RGET packet containing the DMA transfer operation data descriptor and the second RGET data descriptor; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine to a target DMA engine on the target node, the RGET packet.

  12. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; Liu, Ying; Heberle, Frederick A.; Katsaras, John; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.

  13. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; ...

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlationmore » spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.« less

  14. Using Business Process Specification and Agent to Integrate a Scenario Driven Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyunbo; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jeong, Hanil; Jones, Albert

    2004-07-01

    In today's increasingly competitive global market, most enterprises place high priority on reducing order-fulfillment costs, minimizing time-to-market, and maximizing product quality. The desire of businesses to achieve these goals has seen a shift from a make-to-stock paradigm to a make-to-order paradigm. The success of this new paradigm requires robust and efficient supply chain integration and the ability to operate in the business-to-business (B2B) environment. Recent internet-based approaches have enabled instantaneous and secure information sharing among trading partners (i.e., customers, manufacturers, and suppliers). In this paper, we present a framework that enables both integration and B2B operations. This framework uses pre-defined business process specifications (BPS) and agent technologies. The BPS, which specifies a message choreography among the trading partners, is modeled using a modified Unified Modeling Language (UML). The behavior of the enterprise applications within each trading partner -- how they respond to external events specified in the BPS -- is modeled using Petri-nets and implemented as a collection of agents. The concepts and models proposed in this paper should provide the starting point for the formulation of a structured approach to B2B supply chain integration and implementation.

  15. Hydropersulfides: H-Atom Transfer Agents Par Excellence.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Jean-Philippe R; Griesser, Markus; Pratt, Derek A

    2017-05-10

    Hydropersulfides (RSSH) are formed endogenously via the reaction of the gaseous biotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and disulfides (RSSR) and/or sulfenic acids (RSOH). RSSH have been investigated for their ability to store H2S in vivo and as a line of defense against oxidative stress, from which it is clear that RSSH are much more reactive to two-electron oxidants than thiols. Herein we describe the results of our investigations into the H-atom transfer chemistry of RSSH, contrasting it with the well-known H-atom transfer chemistry of thiols. In fact, RSSH are excellent H-atom donors to alkyl (k ∼ 5 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)), alkoxyl (k ∼ 1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), peroxyl (k ∼ 2 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), and thiyl (k > 1 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)) radicals, besting thiols by as little as 1 order and as much as 4 orders of magnitude. The inherently high reactivity of RSSH to H-atom transfer is based largely on thermodynamic factors; the weak RSS-H bond dissociation enthalpy (∼70 kcal/mol) and the associated high stability of the perthiyl radical make the foregoing reactions exothermic by 15-34 kcal/mol. Of particular relevance in the context of oxidative stress is the reactivity of RSSH to peroxyl radicals, where favorable thermodynamics are bolstered by a secondary orbital interaction in the transition state of the formal H-atom transfer that drives the inherent reactivity of RSSH to match that of α-tocopherol (α-TOH), nature's premier radical-trapping antioxidant. Significantly, the reactivity of RSSH eclipses that of α-TOH in H-bond-accepting media because of their low H-bond acidity (α2(H) ∼ 0.1). This affords RSSH a unique versatility compared to other highly reactive radical-trapping antioxidants (e.g., phenols, diarylamines, hydroxylamines, sulfenic acids), which tend to have high H-bond acidities. Moreover, the perthiyl radicals that result are highly persistent under autoxidation conditions and undergo very rapid dimerization (k = 5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1

  16. Lipid transfer between phosphatidylcholine vesicles and human erythrocytes: exponential decrease in rate with increasing acyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, J E; Lee, K J; Huestis, W H

    1985-06-04

    The rate of phospholipid transfer from sonicated phospholipid vesicles to human erythrocytes has been studied as a function of membrane concentration and lipid acyl chain composition. Phospholipid transfer exhibits saturable first-order kinetics with respect to both cell and vesicle membrane concentrations. This kinetic behavior is consistent either with transfer during transient contact between cell and vesicle surfaces (but only if the fraction of the cell surface susceptible to such interaction is small) or with transfer of monomers through the aqueous phase. The acyl chain composition of the transferred phospholipid affects the transfer kinetics profoundly; for homologous saturated phosphatidylcholines, the rate of transfer decreases exponentially with increasing acyl chain length. This behavior is consistent with passage of phospholipid monomers through a polar phase, which might be the bulk aqueous phase( as in the monomer transfer model) or the hydrated head-group regions of a cell-vesicle complex (transient collision model). Collisional transfer also predicts that intercell transfer of phospholipids should be slow compared to cell-vesicle transfer, as surface charge and steric effects should prevent close apposition of donor and acceptor membranes. This is not found; dilauroylphosphatidylcholine transfers rapidly between red cells. Thus, the observed relationship between acyl chain length and intermembrane phospholipid transfer rates likely reflects the energetics of monomer transfer through the aqueous phase.

  17. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Natália; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs) related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs) 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR) were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%), and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future.

  18. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Malaguti, Natália; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs) related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs) 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR) were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%), and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future. PMID:26078959

  19. Electrode assemblies composed of redox cascades from microbial respiratory electron transfer chains

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Andrew J.; Marritt, Sophie; Bradley, Justin; Shi, Liang; McMillan, Duncan G.; Jeuken, Lars J.; Richardson, David; Butt, Julea N.

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer chains are dependent on vectorial electron transfer through a series of redox proteins. Examples include electron transfer from NapC to NapAB nitrate reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans and from CymA to Fcc3 (flavocytochrome c3) fumarate reductase in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. In the present article, we demonstrate that graphite electrodes can serve as surfaces for the stepwise adsorption of NapC and NapAB, and the stepwise adsorption of CymA and Fcc3. Aspects of the catalytic properties of these assemblies are different from those of NapAB and Fcc3 adsorbed in isolation. We propose that this is due to the formation of NapC-NapAB and of CymA-Fcc3 complexes that are capable of supporting vectorial electron transfer.

  20. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Elizabeth M; Newell, Jennifer M; González, María J; Vanni, Michael J

    2008-11-25

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in food chains with 3 or more trophic levels. In a field experiment manipulating light, nutrients, and food-chain length, we show that FCE is constrained by algal food quality and food-chain length. FCE across 3 trophic levels (phytoplankton to carnivorous fish) was highest under low light and high nutrients, where algal quality was best as indicated by taxonomic composition and nutrient stoichiometry. In 3-level systems, FCE was constrained by the efficiency at which both herbivores and carnivores converted food into production; a strong nutrient effect on carnivore efficiency suggests a carryover effect of algal quality across 3 trophic levels. Energy transfer efficiency from algae to herbivores was also higher in 2-level systems (without carnivores) than in 3-level systems. Our results support the hypothesis that FCE is strongly constrained by light, nutrients, and food-chain length and suggest that carryover effects across multiple trophic levels are important. Because many environmental perturbations affect light, nutrients, and food-chain length, and many ecological services are mediated by FCE, it will be important to apply these findings to various ecosystem types.

  1. Dissemination of CERN's Technology Transfer: Added Value from Regional Transfer Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Technologies developed at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, are disseminated via a network of external technology transfer officers. Each of CERN's 20 member states has appointed at least one technology transfer officer to help establish links with CERN. This network has been in place since 2001 and early experiences indicate…

  2. Dissemination of CERN's Technology Transfer: Added Value from Regional Transfer Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Technologies developed at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, are disseminated via a network of external technology transfer officers. Each of CERN's 20 member states has appointed at least one technology transfer officer to help establish links with CERN. This network has been in place since 2001 and early experiences indicate…

  3. Universal scheme for finite-probability perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states through spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; An, Nguyen Ba; Xia, Yun-Jie; Kim, Jaewan

    2014-12-15

    In combination with the theories of open system and quantum recovering measurement, we propose a quantum state transfer scheme using spin chains by performing two sequential operations: a projective measurement on the spins of ‘environment’ followed by suitably designed quantum recovering measurements on the spins of interest. The scheme allows perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states through multiple parallel spin chains with finite probability. Our scheme is universal in the sense that it is state-independent and applicable to any model possessing spin–spin interactions. We also present possible methods to implement the required measurements taking into account the current experimental technologies. As applications, we consider two typical models for which the probabilities of perfect state transfer are found to be reasonably high at optimally chosen moments during the time evolution. - Highlights: • Scheme that can achieve perfect quantum state transfer is devised. • The scheme is state-independent and applicable to any spin-interaction models. • The scheme allows perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states. • Applications to two typical models are considered in detail.

  4. Transfer of Metals in Food Chain: An Example with Copper and Lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2012-12-01

    Present study investigated the possible transfer of metals in the food chain (from soil to edible plants). The experiment was done with lettuce Lactuca sativa grown in different types of soil contaminated with copper (Cu2+) in various concentrations, with or without addition of humic substances. The highest content of copper was detected in lettuce samples grown in soils with lower levels of organic matter, thus indicating the importance of soil organics in metal transfer routes and accumulation rates in plants. It was found that copper accumulation in lettuce grown in contaminated soils can be significantly reduced by the addition of humic substances.

  5. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua Zakaria, Sarani; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  6. Fluorosugar Chain Termination Agents as Probes of the Sequence Specificity of a Carbohydrate Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher D.; Rusek, Max S.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers are ubiquitous. They are assembled by polymerizing glycosyltransferases, which can generate polysaccharide products with repeating sequence patterns. The fidelity of enzymes of this class is unknown. We report a method for testing the fidelity of carbohydrate polymerase pattern deposition: we synthesized fluorosugar donors and used them as chain termination agents. The requisite nucleotide fluorosugars could be produced from a single intermediate using the Jacobsen catalyst in a kinetically controlled separation of diastereomers. The resulting fluorosugar donors were used by galactofuranosyltransferase GlfT2 from Myco-bacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and the data indicate that this enzyme mediates the cell wall galactan production through a sequence-specific polymerization. PMID:22458542

  7. Medium-chain sugar amphiphiles: a new family of healthy vegetable oil structuring agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swapnil R; Hwang, Hyeondo; Huang, Qingrong; John, George

    2013-12-11

    Vegetable oils are frequently structured to enhance their organoleptic and mechanical properties. This is usually achieved by increasing the net amount of saturated and/or trans fatty acids in the oil. With the risk of coronary heart diseases associated with these fatty acids, the food industry is looking for better alternatives. In this context, the medium-chain dialkanoates of low-calorie sugars (sugar alcohol dioctanoates) are investigated as a healthy alternative structuring agent. Precursors of sugar amphiphiles, being FDA-approved GRAS materials, exhibited high cell viability at a concentration ~50 μg/mL. They readily formed nanoscale multilayered structures in an oil matrix to form a coherent network at low concentrations (1-3 wt %/v), which immobilized a wide range of oils (canola, soybean, and grapeseed oils). The structuring efficiency of sugar amphiphiles was computed in terms of mechanical, thermal, and structural properties and found to be a function of its type and concentration.

  8. A chiroptical switch based on supramolecular chirality transfer through alkyl chain entanglement and dynamic covalent bonding.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kai; Qin, Long; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2013-12-14

    Chirality transfer is an interesting phenomenon in Nature, which represents an important step to understand the evolution of chiral bias and the amplification of the chirality. In this paper, we report the chirality transfer via the entanglement of the alkyl chains between chiral gelator molecules and achiral amphiphilic Schiff base. We have found that although an achiral Schiff base amphiphile could not form organogels in any kind of organic solvents, it formed co-organogels when mixed with a chiral gelator molecule. Interestingly, the chirality of the gelator molecules was transferred to the Schiff base chromophore in the mixed co-gels and there was a maximum mixing ratio for the chirality transfer. Furthermore, the supramolecular chirality was also produced based on a dynamic covalent chemistry of an imine formed by the reaction between an aldehyde and an amine. Such a covalent bond of imine was formed reversibly depending on the pH variation. When the covalent bond was formed the chirality transfer occurred, when it was destroyed, the transfer stopped. Thus, a supramolecular chiroptical switch is obtained based on supramolecular chirality transfer and dynamic covalent chemistry.

  9. Ultrafast energy transfer from rigid, branched side-chains into a conjugated, alternating copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Graham B.; Lundin, Pamela M.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Linkin, Alexander; McGillicuddy, Ryan D.; Bao, Zhenan; Engel, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a benzodithiophene/thiophene alternating copolymer decorated with rigid, singly branched pendant side chains. We characterize exciton migration and recombination dynamics in these molecules in tetrahydrofuran solution, using a combination of static and time-resolved spectroscopies. As control experiments, we also measure electronic relaxation dynamics in isolated molecular analogues of both the side chain and polymer moieties. We employ semi-empirical and time-dependent density functional theory calculations to show that photoexcitation of the decorated copolymer using 395 nm laser pulses results in excited states primarily localized on the pendant side chains. We use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that excitations are transferred to the polymer backbone faster than the instrumental response function, ∼250 fs. PMID:25669410

  10. Ultrafast energy transfer from rigid, branched side-chains into a conjugated, alternating copolymer.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Graham B; Lundin, Pamela M; Rolczynski, Brian S; Linkin, Alexander; McGillicuddy, Ryan D; Bao, Zhenan; Engel, Gregory S

    2014-01-21

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a benzodithiophene/thiophene alternating copolymer decorated with rigid, singly branched pendant side chains. We characterize exciton migration and recombination dynamics in these molecules in tetrahydrofuran solution, using a combination of static and time-resolved spectroscopies. As control experiments, we also measure electronic relaxation dynamics in isolated molecular analogues of both the side chain and polymer moieties. We employ semi-empirical and time-dependent density functional theory calculations to show that photoexcitation of the decorated copolymer using 395 nm laser pulses results in excited states primarily localized on the pendant side chains. We use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that excitations are transferred to the polymer backbone faster than the instrumental response function, ∼250 fs.

  11. Ultrafast energy transfer from rigid, branched side-chains into a conjugated, alternating copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Graham B.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Linkin, Alexander; McGillicuddy, Ryan D.; Engel, Gregory S.; Lundin, Pamela M.; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-21

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a benzodithiophene/thiophene alternating copolymer decorated with rigid, singly branched pendant side chains. We characterize exciton migration and recombination dynamics in these molecules in tetrahydrofuran solution, using a combination of static and time-resolved spectroscopies. As control experiments, we also measure electronic relaxation dynamics in isolated molecular analogues of both the side chain and polymer moieties. We employ semi-empirical and time-dependent density functional theory calculations to show that photoexcitation of the decorated copolymer using 395 nm laser pulses results in excited states primarily localized on the pendant side chains. We use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that excitations are transferred to the polymer backbone faster than the instrumental response function, ∼250 fs.

  12. Spin-state transfer in laterally coupled quantum-dot chains with disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato

    2010-08-01

    Quantum dot arrays are a promising medium for transferring quantum information between two distant points without resorting to mobile qubits. Here we study the two most common disorders, namely hyperfine interaction and exchange coupling fluctuations, in quantum dot arrays and their effects on quantum communication through these chains. Our results show that the hyperfine interaction is more destructive than the exchange coupling fluctuations. The average optimal time for communication is not affected by any disorder in the system and our simulations show that antiferromagnetic chains are much more resistive than the ferromagnetic ones against both kind of disorders. Even when time modulation of a coupling and optimal control is employed to improve the transmission, the antiferromagnetic chain performs much better. We have assumed the quasistatic approximation for hyperfine interaction and time-dependent fluctuations in the exchange couplings. Particularly for studying exchange coupling fluctuations we have considered the static disorder, white noise, and 1/f noise.

  13. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Másson, Már; Kristinsson, Karl G; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha A; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2003-09-11

    A series of soft quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents, which are analogues to currently used quaternary ammonium preservatives such as cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were synthesized. These soft analogues consist of long alkyl chain connected to a polar headgroup via chemically labile spacer group. They are characterized by facile nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation to form their original nontoxic building blocks. However, their chemical stability has to be adequate in order for them to have antimicrobial effects. Stability studies and antibacterial and antiviral activity measurements revealed relationship between activity, lipophilicity, and stability. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was as low as 1 microg/mL, and their viral reduction was in some cases greater than 6.7 log. The structure-activity studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds (i.e., MIC for Gram-positive bacteria of <10 microg/mL) have an alkyl chain length between 12 and 18 carbon atoms, with a polar headgroup preferably of a small quaternary ammonium group, and their acquired inactivation half-life must be greater than 3 h at 60 degrees C.

  14. Evaluation of the potential for trophic transfer of roxithromycin along an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Zhang, Zhenghua

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a new class of environmental pollutants in recent years. But data about their potential for transfer and biomagnification in aquatic food chains are still lacking. In this study, bioaccumulation of the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) was determined in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea Daphnia magna and the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 48 h of exposure, S. obliquus accumulated ROX from media, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 74.6, 46.3, and 24.5 l kg(-1) at nominal exposure concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 μg l(-1), respectively. After 48 h of feeding ROX-contaminated algae, D. magna was able to accumulate ROX in all three concentration treatments, but biomagnification did not occur at this trophic level, as biomagnification factors (BMFs) varied from 0.21 to 0.29 in different concentration treatments were well below one. In tissues (muscle, gill, liver, and bile) of C. auratus fed with contaminated daphnia for 8 days, no biomagnification was observed. However, this species did accumulate a certain degree of ROX through food chain transfer, and the tissue burden was greatest in the liver > muscle > gill and lowest in the bile. This work suggests that the trophic transfer should be a matter of concern for ecological risk assessments of pharmaceutical substances in aquatic food webs.

  15. Respiratory chain of a pathogenic fungus, Microsporum gypseum: effect of the antifungal agent pyrrolnitrin.

    PubMed

    Wong, D T; Horng, J S; Gordee, R S

    1971-04-01

    Pyrrolnitrin has been reported to inhibit Bacillus megaterium primarily by forming complexes with phospholipids and to block electron transfer of Saccharomyces cerevisiae between succinate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q. We found that pyrrolnitrin inhibited respiration of conidia of Microsporum gypseum. In mitochondrial preparations, pyrrolnitrin strongly inhibited respiration and the rotenone-sensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The rotenone-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase, the succinate-cytochrome c reductase, and the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by either NADH or succinate were inhibited to a lesser extent. However, the activity of cytochrome oxidase was not affected by pyrrolnitrin. The extent of reduction of flavoproteins by NADH and succinate, measured at 465 - 510 nm, was unaltered; however, the reduction of cytochrome b, measured at 560 - 575 nm, was partially inhibited by pyrrolnitrin. The level of totally reduced cytochrome b was restored with antimycin A. We, therefore, concluded that the primary site of action of this antifungal antibiotic is to block electron transfer between the flavoprotein of the NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome b segment of the respiratory chain of M. gypseum.

  16. Respiratory Chain of a Pathogenic Fungus, Microsporum gypseum: Effect of the Antifungal Agent Pyrrolnitrin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David T.; Horng, Jong-Sin; Gordee, Robert S.

    1971-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin has been reported to inhibit Bacillus megaterium primarily by forming complexes with phospholipids and to block electron transfer of Saccharomyces cerevisiae between succinate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q. We found that pyrrolnitrin inhibited respiration of conidia of Microsporum gypseum. In mitochondrial preparations, pyrrolnitrin strongly inhibited respiration and the rotenone-sensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The rotenone-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase, the succinate-cytochrome c reductase, and the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by either NADH or succinate were inhibited to a lesser extent. However, the activity of cytochrome oxidase was not affected by pyrrolnitrin. The extent of reduction of flavoproteins by NADH and succinate, measured at 465 - 510 nm, was unaltered; however, the reduction of cytochrome b, measured at 560 - 575 nm, was partially inhibited by pyrrolnitrin. The level of totally reduced cytochrome b was restored with antimycin A. We, therefore, concluded that the primary site of action of this antifungal antibiotic is to block electron transfer between the flavoprotein of the NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome b segment of the respiratory chain of M. gypseum. PMID:4323963

  17. Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Manohar; Shea, Lonnie D.; Snurr, Randall Q.

    2009-01-01

    Problems requiring numerical solutions of differential equations or the use of agent-based modeling are presented for use in a course on mass transfer. These problems were solved using the popular technical computing language MATLABTM. Students were introduced to MATLAB via a problem with an analytical solution. A more complex problem to which no…

  18. BASE-CATALYZED DESTRUCTION OF PCBS-NEW DONORS, NEW TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrogen transfer agents and catalysts to improve the base-catalyzed decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The reaction proceeded only in the presence of base, but the rate of PCB disappearance increased with increasing amount of hydrogen ...

  19. BASE-CATALYZED DESTRUCTION OF PCBS-NEW DONORS, NEW TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrogen transfer agents and catalysts to improve the base-catalyzed decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The reaction proceeded only in the presence of base, but the rate of PCB disappearance increased with increasing amount of hydrogen ...

  20. Numerical Problems and Agent-Based Models for a Mass Transfer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Manohar; Shea, Lonnie D.; Snurr, Randall Q.

    2009-01-01

    Problems requiring numerical solutions of differential equations or the use of agent-based modeling are presented for use in a course on mass transfer. These problems were solved using the popular technical computing language MATLABTM. Students were introduced to MATLAB via a problem with an analytical solution. A more complex problem to which no…

  1. Mucus altering agents as adjuncts for nonviral gene transfer to airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, S; Kitson, C; Farley, R; Steel, R; Marriott, C; Parkins, D A; Scarpa, M; Wainwright, B; Evans, M J; Colledge, W H; Geddes, D M; Alton, E W

    2001-09-01

    Nonviral vectors have been shown to be a safe and valid alternative to recombinant viruses for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF). Nevertheless, gene transfer efficiency needs to be increased before clinical efficacy is likely in man. One barrier to increased efficacy is normal airway mucus. Using an ex vivo model of sheep tracheal epithelium, we show that this barrier can, in part, be overcome by treatment with the mucolytic agents, Nacystelyn or N-acetylcysteine using either a cationic lipid or a cationic polymer as the gene transfer agent. Further, in vivo application of either Nacystelyn or the anticholinergic glycopyrrolate, both clinically used agents, resulted in increased reporter gene expression in the mouse lung, but no significant correction of the bioelectric defect in CF null mice. These results, whilst unlikely to be sufficient in themselves to achieve clinically relevant gene therapy, may be a further useful step in the attainment of this goal.

  2. Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based screening assay for bacterial biothreat agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samuel; Rothman, Richard E; Hardick, Justin; Kuroki, Marcos; Hardick, Andrew; Doshi, Vishal; Ramachandran, Padmini; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2008-04-01

    To design and evaluate a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for detecting Eubacteria and performing early screening for selected Class A biothreat bacterial pathogens. The authors designed a two-step PCR-based algorithm consisting of an initial broad-based universal detection step, followed by specific pathogen identification targeted for identification of the Class A bacterial biothreat agents. A region in the bacterial 16S rRNA gene containing a highly variable sequence flanked by clusters of conserved sequences was chosen as the target for the PCR assay design. A previously described highly conserved region located within the 16S rRNA amplicon was selected as the universal probe (UniProbe, Integrated DNA Technology, Coralville, IA). Pathogen-specific TaqMan probes were designed for Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. Performance of the assay was assessed using genomic DNA extracted from the aforementioned biothreat-related organisms (inactivated or surrogate) and other common bacteria. The UniProbe detected the presence of all tested Eubacteria (31/31) with high analytical sensitivity. The biothreat-specific probes accurately identified organisms down to the closely related species and genus level, but were unable to discriminate between very close surrogates, such as Yersinia philomiragia and Bacillus cereus. A simple, two-step PCR-based assay proved capable of both universal bacterial detection and identification of select Class A bacterial biothreat and biothreat-related pathogens. Although this assay requires confirmatory testing for definitive species identification, the method has great potential for use in ED-based settings for rapid diagnosis in cases of suspected Category A bacterial biothreat agents.

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the steps needed to address Year 2000 Problems; (iv) Internal testing of software designed to address... software designed to address Year 2000 Problems (including testing with other transfer agents, other... software that will address Year 2000 Problems; (5) Whether the transfer agent has written contingency...

  4. The Oxidation of Terminal Alkenes by Permanganate: A Practical Demonstration of the Use of Phase Transfer Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keith C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Use of phase transfer agents to facilitate/accelerate chemical reactions has become an established practice, particularly in organic chemistry. Describes an undergraduate laboratory procedure demonstrating the principles involved in the use of said agents. Includes student results from phase transfer assisted permanganate oxidations. (Author/JN)

  5. Safety of medium-chain triglycerides used as an intraocular tamponading agent in an experimental vitrectomy model rabbit.

    PubMed

    Auriol, Sylvain; Mahieu, Laurence; Brousset, Pierre; Malecaze, François; Mathis, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate safety of medium-chain triglycerides used as a possible intraocular tamponading agent. A 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed in the right eye of 28 rabbits. An ophthalmologic examination was performed every week until rabbits were killed. At days 7, 30, 60, and 90, rabbits were killed and the treated eyes were examined macroscopically and prepared for histologic examination. Principal outcome was retinal toxicity evaluated by light and electron microscopy, and secondary outcomes were the presence of medium-chain triglyceride emulsification, inflammatory reactions, and the development of cataract. Histologic examination did not reveal any retinal toxicity. Two cases of moderate emulsification were observed, but in these cases, emulsification was caused by the perioperative injection of the agent and did not increase during the postoperative period. We noted 13 cases of inflammatory reaction in vitreous cavity and no case of inflammatory reaction in anterior chamber. Two eyes developed cataract as a result of perioperative trauma to the lens with the vitreous cutter and not secondary to the presence of medium-chain triglycerides in the vitreous cavity. Medium-chain triglycerides did not induce morphologic evidence of retinal toxicity. The results suggest that medium-chain triglycerides could be a promising alternative intraocular tamponading agent for the treatment of retinal detachments.

  6. Swelling agent adopted decal transfer method for membrane electrode assembly fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doo Hee; Lee, So Young; Shin, Dong Won; Hwang, Doo Sung; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-07-01

    The decal transfer method is regarded as an effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication method for industrial processes due to the improved adhesion between the catalyst layers and the hydrocarbon membrane. In this study, three swelling agents (ethanol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol) are introduced to the conventional decal methods in order to improve both the transfer ratio of electrodes on the membrane surface and the electrochemical properties. These swelling agents affect the surface energy differences between the swollen catalyst layer and the membrane substrate. Swelling agents also change the structure of the catalyst layer during the preparation (hot pressing) of the MEA. Changing the catalyst layer structure by introducing swelling agents diminishes the charge transfer resistance and internal resistances of MEAs. These improved electrochemical properties lead to the remarkably enhanced single cell performance of a SPAES MEA of 1380 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V, compared to a SPAES MEA fabricated by the conventional decal method (500 mA cm-2).

  7. Occurrence and expression of gene transfer agent genes in marine bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Biers, Erin J; Wang, Kui; Pennington, Catherine; Belas, Robert; Chen, Feng; Moran, Mary Ann

    2008-05-01

    Genes with homology to the transduction-like gene transfer agent (GTA) were observed in genome sequences of three cultured members of the marine Roseobacter clade. A broader search for homologs for this host-controlled virus-like gene transfer system identified likely GTA systems in cultured Alphaproteobacteria, and particularly in marine bacterioplankton representatives. Expression of GTA genes and extracellular release of GTA particles ( approximately 50 to 70 nm) was demonstrated experimentally for the Roseobacter clade member Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3, and intraspecific gene transfer was documented. GTA homologs are surprisingly infrequent in marine metagenomic sequence data, however, and the role of this lateral gene transfer mechanism in ocean bacterioplankton communities remains unclear.

  8. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer corrects very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism in adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, N; Lopez, J; Moullier, P; Rocchiccioli, F; Rolland, M O; Jorge, P; Mosser, J; Mandel, J L; Bougnères, P F; Danos, O

    1995-01-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a lethal demyelinating disease of the brain, is caused by mutations of a gene encoding an ATP-binding transporter, called ALDP, localized in the peroxisomal membrane. It is associated with a defective oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids, leading to their accumulation in many tissues. This study reports that the retroviral-mediated transfer of the ALD cDNA restored very-long-chain fatty acid oxidation in ALD fibroblasts in vitro following abundant expression and appropriate targeting of the vector-encoded ALDP in peroxisomes. The same method may be used in hematopoietic cells as a further step of a gene therapy approach of ALD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7878038

  9. Quantum correlation transfer through two parallel XXZ spin chains with phase shift control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jian; Shao Bin; Liu Benqiong; Zou Jian; Li Qianshu; Wu Lianao

    2011-07-15

    Transmitting quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum computation. Quantum discord has received much attention in quantum computation. We transfer quantum discord through two parallel XXZ spin chains with phase shift. The maximum discord can be enhanced by the phase shift. It will take more time to obtain an enhanced maximum discord in some cases, but for other cases, both the maximum and speed are enhanced by the phase shift. In the thermodynamic limit, the effect of the phase shift disappears and the maximum discord exponentially decays with increasing of the receiving position. Our results on spin chains are generalized to a family of linear Hamiltonians.

  10. Inverting OII 83.4 nm dayglow profiles using Markov chain radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, George; Douglas, Ewan; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2016-11-01

    Emission profiles of the resonantly scattered OII 83.4 nm triplet can in principle be used to estimate O+ density profiles in the F2 region of the ionosphere. Given the emission source profile, solution of this inverse problem is possible but requires significant computation. The traditional Feautrier solution to the radiative transfer problem requires many iterations to converge, making it time consuming to compute. A Markov chain approach to the problem produces similar results by directly constructing a matrix that maps the source emission rate to an effective emission rate which includes scattering to all orders. The Markov chain approach presented here yields faster results and therefore can be used to perform the O+ density retrieval with higher resolution than would otherwise be possible.

  11. Radical telomerization of vinyltrimethylsilane by bromoform and partial chain-transfer constants

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'eva, T.T.; Kochetkova, V.A.; Nelyubin, B.V.; Freidlina, R.Kh.

    1986-12-20

    The telomerization of vinyltrimethylsilane by bromoform initiated by benzoyl peroxide occurs because of scission of the C-Br bond in bromoform and gives telomers of structure CHBr/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/CHSiMe/sub 3/)/sub n/Br, where n = 1, 2. The first partial chain-transfer constant C/sub 1/ approx. = 120. When the vinyltrimethylsilane/bromoform ratio is less than or equal to 5, by-product tetrabromo derivatives CBr/sub 3/CH/sub 2/CHBrSiMe/sub 3/ and CBr/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/CHBrSiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ are formed.

  12. Synthesis of silane coupling agents containing fluorocarbon chain and applications to dentistry: plaque-controlling surface modifiers.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, N; Teranaka, T

    1997-01-01

    Silane coupling agents containing a fluorocarbon chain were prepared in high yields. It was found that silanes can be useful modifiers of the surfaces of glass, metals, and resin composites for dental use. The silane coupling agent CF3(CF2)9CH2CH2Si(OCH3)3 was the best modifier of these surfaces in terms of water and oil repellency. Colorants and experimental bacterial plaque detached much more easily from, and adhered less well to, surfaces modified with this silane coupling agent compared with unmodified surfaces. The surfaces of four teeth of a denture were modified with this silane coupling agent by spreading the agent on the surfaces with a small brush followed by brief drying with a hair drier. The modified tooth surfaces of the denture, which was worn for four months in a heavy smoker's oral cavity, were more stain-resistant than the unmodified tooth surfaces. It is expected that silane coupling agents containing a fluorocarbon chain will be surface modifiers for enhancement of oral health.

  13. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N.; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a “metabolic transistor” approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The “metabolic transistor” strategy was applied to controlling electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount. PMID:25596510

  15. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a "metabolic transistor" approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The "metabolic transistor" strategy was applied to control electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount.

  16. Carrier transfer in vertically stacked quantum ring-quantum dot chains

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Yu. I. Dorogan, V. G.; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.; Lopes-Oliveira, V.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Teodoro, M. D.; Marques, G. E.; Souza, L. D. de; Wu, J.; Wang, Z. M.; Tarasov, G. G.; Marega, E.

    2015-04-21

    The interplay between structural properties and charge transfer in self-assembled quantum ring (QR) chains grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) superlattice template is analyzed and characterized. The QDs and QRs are vertically stacked and laterally coupled as well as aligned within each layer due to the strain field distributions that governs the ordering. The strong interdot coupling influences the carrier transfer both along as well as between chains in the ring layer and dot template structures. A qualitative contrast between different dynamic models has been developed. By combining temperature and excitation intensity effects, the tuning of the photoluminescence gain for either the QR or the QD mode is attained. The information obtained here about relaxation parameters, energy scheme, interlayer and interdot coupling resulting in creation of 1D structures is very important for the usage of such specific QR–QD systems for applied purposes such as lasing, detection, and energy-harvesting technology of future solar panels.

  17. Environmental factors influencing gene transfer agent (GTA) mediated transduction in the subtropical ocean.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Lauren D; Young, Elizabeth C; Ritchie, Kimberly B; Paul, John H

    2012-01-01

    Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine α-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain) were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's) in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10-30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA-mediated HGT in the

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Gene Transfer Agent (GTA) Mediated Transduction in the Subtropical Ocean

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Lauren D.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Ritchie, Kimberly B.; Paul, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine α-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain) were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's) in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10–30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA-mediated HGT in the

  19. Plasmon assisted control of photo-induced excitation energy transfer in a molecular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2017-08-01

    The strong and ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a molecular chain in close vicinity to a spherical metal nano-particle (MNP) is studied theoretically. Due to local-field enhancement around the MNP, pronounced excited-state formation has to be expected for the part of the chain which is in proximity to the MNP. Here, the description of this phenomenon will be based on a uniform quantum theory of the MNP-molecule system. It accounts for local-field effects due to direct consideration of the strong excitation energy transfer coupling between the MNP and the various molecules. The molecule-MNP distances are chosen in such a way as to achieve a correct description of the MNP via dipole-plasmon excitations. Short plasmon life-times are incorporated in the framework of a density matrix approach. By extending earlier work the present description allows for multi-exciton formation and multiple dipole-plasmon excitation. The region of less intense and not-too-short optical excitation is identified as being best suited for excitation energy localization in the chain.

  20. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients. PMID:24877122

  1. Impairment of electron transfer chain induced by acute carnosine administration in skeletal muscle of young rats.

    PubMed

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I-III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I-III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  2. Short-chain PEG molecules strongly bound to magnetic nanoparticle for MRI long circulating agents.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Salas, G; Calero, M; Hernández, Y; Villanueva, A; Herranz, F; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S; Martínez, E; Barber, D F; Morales, M P

    2013-05-01

    This study developed an approach for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles coated with three different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derived molecules. The influence of the coating on different properties of the nanoparticles was studied. Magnetite nanoparticles (7 and 12 nm in diameter) were obtained via thermal decomposition of a coordination complex as an iron precursor to ensure nanoparticle homogeneity in size and shape. Particles were first coated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid by a ligand exchange process to remove oleic acid, followed by modification with three distinct short-chain PEG polymers, which were covalently bound to the nanoparticle surface via 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride activation of the carboxylic acids. In all cases, colloidal suspensions had hydrodynamic sizes <100 nm and low surface charge, demonstrating the effect of PEG coating on the aggregation properties and steric stabilization of the magnetic nanoparticles. The internalization and biocompatibility of these materials in the HeLa human cervical carcinoma cell line were tested. Cells preincubated with PEG-coated iron nanoparticles were visualized outside the cells, and their biocompatibility at high Fe concentrations was demonstrated using a standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Finally, relaxivity parameters (r1 and r2) were used to evaluate the efficiency of suspensions as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents; the r2 value was similar to that for Resovist and up to four times higher than that for Sinerem, probably due to the larger nanoparticle size. The time of residence in blood of the nanoparticles measured from the relaxivity values, and the Fe content in blood was doubled for rats and rabbits due to the PEG on the nanoparticle surface. The results suggest that this PEGylation strategy for large magnetic nanoparticles (>10nm) holds promise for biomedical applications.

  3. Simulation of radioactive cesium transfer in the southern Fukushima coastal biota using a dynamic food chain transfer model.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki

    2013-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident occurred on 11 March 2011. The accident introduced (137)Cs into the coastal waters which was subsequently transferred to the local coastal biota thereby elevating the concentration of this radionuclide in coastal organisms. In this study, the radioactive cesium levels in coastal biota from the southern Fukushima area were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. The simulation derived the possible maximum radioactive cesium levels in organisms, indicating that the maximum (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, benthic fish and predator fish occurred during late April, late May and late July, respectively in the studied area where the source was mainly the direct leakage of (137)Cs effluent from the 1F NPP. The delay of a (137)Cs increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer of (137)Cs introduced to the ecosystem from the initial contamination of the seawater. The model also provided the degree of radionuclide depuration in organisms, and it demonstrated the latest start of the decontamination phase in benthic fish. The ecological half-lives, derived both from model simulation and observation, were 1-4 months in invertebrates, and 2-9 months in plankton feeding fish and coastal predator fish from the studied area. In contrast, it was not possible to similarly calculate these parameters in benthic fish because of an unidentified additional radionuclide source which was deduced from the biological compartment model. To adequately reconstruct the in-situ depuration of radiocesium in benthic fish in the natural ecosystem, a contamination source associated with the bottom sediments is necessary.

  4. The Potential of Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization as Safe Nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Shuo; Luo, Kui; Hu, Jiani; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers have been presented as nanoscale drug/gene delivery systems and imaging probes, and the well-defined HPMA copolymers prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization promote their to clinical trials, as the significant enhanced anticancer efficacy. The biosafety is another issue associated with the carriers. In this study, we prepared the linear and branched HPMA copolymers labeled with Cy5.5 via RAFT polymerization and click chemistry, and their potential biosafety was studied. The linear copolymer was prepared via RAFT polymerization mediated by the ends-functionalized peptide chain transfer agent (peptide2CTA), resulting in well-defined and block linear HPMA copolymer with molecular weight (MW) of 98 kDa. Additionally, the branched HPMA copolymer was also prepared via RAFT polymerization. Followed by Cy5.5 labeling, the two copolymers showed negative zeta potential and their accumulation into tumor was studied by in vivo optical fluorescence imaging in the nude mice with breast tumors. The biosafety studies on in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility studies, including hemolysis tests, plasma coagulation and thromboelastography assay were carried out well, demonstrating that the linear HPMA copolymer-Cy5.5 with MW around 100 kDa and biodegradable moiety in the main chain might be utilized as safe nanoscale carrier.

  5. Stress relaxation via addition-fragmentation chain transfer in a thiol-ene photopolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kloxin, Christopher J.; Scott, Timothy F.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Allyl sulfide addition-fragmentation chain transfer was employed concurrently with the radical-mediated formation of a thiol-ene network to enable network adaptation and mitigation of polymerization-induced shrinkage stress. This result represents the first demonstration of simultaneous polymerization and network adaptation in covalently crosslinked networks with significant implications for the fabrication of low stress polymer networks. For comparison, analogous networks incorporating propyl sulfide moieties, incapable of addition-fragmentation, were synthesized and evaluated in parallel. At the highest irradiation intensity, the allyl sulfide-containing material demonstrated a more than 75% reduction in the final stress when compared with the propyl sulfide-containing material. Analysis of the conversion evolution revealed that allyl sulfide addition-fragmentation decreased the polymerization rate owing to thiyl radical sequestration. Slow consumption of the allyl sulfide functional group suggests that intramolecular homolytic substitution occurs by a step-wise, rather than concerted, mechanism. Simultaneous stress and conversion measurements demonstrated that the initial stress evolution was identical for both the allyl and propyl sulfide-containing materials but diverged after gelation. While addition-fragmentation chain transfer was found to occur throughout the polymerization, its effect on the stress evolution was concentrated towards the end of polymerization when network rearrangement becomes the dominant mechanism for stress relaxation. Even after the polymerization reaction was completed, the polymerization-induced shrinkage stress in the allyl sulfide-containing material continued to decrease, exhibiting a maximum in the stress evolution and demonstrating the potential for continuing, longer term stress relaxation. PMID:20160931

  6. Refined Model of Heat Transfer in Composite Bodies Reinforced with Tubes with a Liquid Heat-Transfer Agent Moving in a Developed Turbulent Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The author has obtained equations describing thermal conductivity of composite bodies spatially reinforced with a system of smooth tubes in which an incompressible liquid heat-transfer agent is pumped in a developed turbulent regime. The corresponding boundary-value heat-conduction problem was formulated and its qualitative analysis was made. Specific calculations were performed for steady-state temperature fields in cylindrical concrete shells spirally reinforced with steel tubes through which a heat-transfer agent (air) is pumped. A study has been made of the influence of the reinforcement parameters and of the velocity and direction of the heat-transfer agent in the tubes and the dimensions of their cross sections on the temperature field. It has been established that variation of these characteristics enables one to substantially change the intensity of heat removal from the shells, opening up wide opportunities for efficient control of the heat transfer in them.

  7. Side chain effects in reactions of the potassium-tyrosine charge transfer complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Meneses, G.; Ingólfsson, O.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2016-10-01

    Fragmentation of transient negative ions of tyrosine formed through electron transfer in collisions with neutral potassium atoms is presented in the collision energy range from 30 to 75 eV. At low collision energies the dominating side chain channel observed corresponds to the cleavage of the bond from the para-position of the phenyl ring to the β-C of the remaining moiety, but cleavage of the Cαsbnd Cβ bond is also observed. Further fragments are formed through cleavage of the Cα bond to the carbonyl group, through decomposition of the carboxyl group or through significant decomposition of the backbone. The dehydrogenated molecular anion is also observed with appreciable intensity. These results are discussed in the context of earlier studies on dissociative electron attachment to tyrosine and other amino acids, as well as within the role of the side chain in electron induced decomposition of this aromatic amino acid. Stabilization of the temporary molecular anion in the transient collision complex is discussed and we argue that this may have significant influence on the branching ratios observed.

  8. The role of solitons in charge and energy transfer in 1D molecular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivić , Zoran

    1998-03-01

    The idea that polarons and solitons could play the crucial role in the transport processes in biological structures, has been critically reexamined on the basis of the general theory of self-trapping phenomena. The criteria which enable one to determine conditions for the existence and stability of polarons and solitons and to determine their character, in dependence of the values of the basic physical parameters of the system, were formulated. Validity of the so-called Davydov's soliton model was discussed on the basis of these criteria. It was found that the original Davydov's proposal, based upon the idea of the soliton creation due to the single excitation (particle, vibron, etc.) self-trapping, cannot explain the intramolecular energy transfer in α-helix and acetanilide. However, Davydov theory is flexible enough to describe the single electron transfer in some systems (α-helix and acetanilide for example). In the many-particle systems, dressing effect, due to the quantum nature of phonons, may cause the creation of the bound states of the several excitons in the molecular chain. The possibility of creation of the soliton states of this type is discussed for the simple Fröhlich's one-dimensional model. The regions of the system parameter space where different mechanisms dominate the behaviour of such entities are characterized.

  9. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long

  10. Transfer of lead (Pb) in the soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird beetle food chain, a comparison between two host plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Xingmin; Ashraf, Umair; Qiu, Baoli; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become an issue of concern on global scale. This study investigates the translocation of lead (Pb) along the soil - plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) food chain. Soil amendments used for this study were adjusted to 0, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of Pb (w/w). The results revealed significantly higher transfer of Pb in tomato when compared to eggplant. Bio-magnification of Pb (2-4 times) was observed for soil - root transfer whereas Pb was bio-minimized in later part of food chain (shoot - mealybug - ladybird transfer). A dose dependent increase in transfer of Pb across the multi-trophic food chain was observed for both host plants. A decrease in coefficients of Pb transfer (from root - shoot and shoot - mealybug) was observed with increase in Pb concentrations. Our results also showed removal of Pb from the bodies of ladybird beetle during metamorphosis. Further studies are required to explain the mechanisms or physiological pathways involved in the bio-minimization of Pb across the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating the trophic transfer of cadmium, polonium, and methylmercury in an estuarine food chain.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Teresa; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2008-05-01

    We examined the transfer of Cd, methylmercury (MeHg), and Po in an estuarine food chain (from phytoplankton to zooplankton [Daphnia pulex] to killifish [Fundulus heteroclitus] and, finally, to juvenile striped bass [Morone saxatilis]) to better understand both the extent to which these elements may biomagnify and the underlying mechanisms governing this biomagnification. Among the phytoplankton examined (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Chlamdomonas reinhardtii), metal uptake was rapid, and volume concentration factors for all metals reached values between 10(4) and 10(5). The resulting assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals in all animals were highest for MeHg, with values greater than 76%. The AEs of Cd were 21 to 33% in D. pulex, 1 to 16% in F. heteroclitus, and 38 to 56% in M. saxatilis. Polonium AEs were 69 to 87% in D. pulex, 25 to 41% in F. heteroclitus, and 9 to 21% in M. saxatilis. Loss rate constants (ke) of metals in D. pulex ranged from 0.04/d for MeHg to 0.39/d for Po; metal ke values for F. heteroclitus ranged from 0.01 to 0.02/d. Using a kinetic model, we showed that the trophic transfer factor, defined as the ratio of metal concentration in predatory animals to metal concentration in prey organisms, was greater than unity for all three metals in D. pulex feeding on phytoplankton, suggesting that these metals may be biomagnified at this trophic step. In killifish feeding on D. pulex, the trophic transfer factor was consistently greater than one for MeHg, consistently less than one for Cd, and from 0.1 to 1.4 for Po, suggesting that both MeHg and Po have the potential to biomagnify at this trophic step.

  12. Detection of nerve agents using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Joachim M

    2013-01-01

    The chemical warfare agents (CWA) Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin and Tabun were characterised by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTRMS). It was found that PTRMS is a suitable technique to detect nerve agents highly sensitively, highly selectively and in near real-time. Methods were found to suppress molecule fragmentation which is significant under PTRMS hollow cathode ionisation conditions. In this context, the drift voltage (as one of the most important system parameters) was varied and ammonia was introduced as an additional chemical reagent gas. Auxiliary chemicals such as ammonia affect ionisation processes and are quite common in context with detectors for CWAs based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). With both, variation of drift voltage and ammonia as the reagent gas, fragmentation can be suppressed effectively. Suppression of fragmentation is crucial particularly concerning the implementation of an algorithm for automated agent identification in field applications. On the other hand, appearance of particular fragments might deliver additional information. Degradation and rearrangement products of nerve agents are not distinctive for the particular agent but for the chemical class they belong to. It was found that switching between ammonia doped and ordinary water ionisation chemistry can easily be performed within a few seconds. Making use of this effect it is possible to switch between fragment and molecular ion peak spectra. Thus, targeted fragmentation can be used to confirm identification based only on single peak detection. PTRMS turned out to be a promising technique for future CWA detectors. In terms of sensitivity, response time and selectivity (or confidence of identification, respectively) PTRMS performs as a bridging technique between IMS and GC-MS.

  13. Development of new atom transfer radical polymerization system by iron (III)-metal salts without using any external initiator and reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Yusuf; Chen, Xiangxiong; Lee, Seung Woo; Noh, Seok Kyun

    2013-08-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) catalyzed by high oxidation state metal salts of FeX3 is developed for the first time in the absence of both external initiator and reducing agent. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene are polymerized successfully using FeX3 /Phosphorous ligands with well-controlled molecular weight distributions (=1.5). The molecular weight of the polymers increases with monomer consumption with the progress of time and the polymerization behaviors show a decent ATRP trend. Activators and initiators are suggested to generate in situ by the addition reaction of MMA and one equivalent of FeX3 . The PMMA synthesized from without-initiator system is characterized by (1) H, (13) C and DEPT (distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer nuclear magnetic resonance) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chain extension and copolymerization experiments prove the livingness of the obtained polymer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Elin; Lindqvist, Dennis; Dahlgren, Henrik; Asplund, Lillemor; Lehtilä, Kari

    2016-02-01

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  15. An Agent-Based Framework for Building Decision Support System in Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, A.; Fazel Zarandi, M. H.

    In this study, two scenarios are presented for solving Production-Distribution Panning Problem (PDPP) in a Decision Support System (DSS) framework. In the first scenario, a Traditional Decision Support System (TDSS) is presented for PDPP and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for solving it. In the second scenario, a Multi-agent Decision Support System (MADSS) is considered for PDPP and three algorithms are used for solving it: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS) and Simulated Annealing (SA). Then an algorithm is suggested by using multi-agent system and A Teams concept. The obtained results reveal that the use of MADSS delivers better solutions to us.

  16. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-11-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds.

  17. Expedited Phonon Transfer in Interfacially Constrained Polymer Chain along Self-Organized Amino Acid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liwen; Li, Yifan; Mehra, Nitin; Ji, Tuo; Zhu, Jiahua

    2017-04-05

    In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/amino acid (AA) composites were prepared by a self-organized crystallization process. Five different AAs (cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, ornithine, and lysine) were selected based on their similar functional groups but different molecular structures. The different PVA-AA interactions in the five PVA/AA composites lead to two crystal patterns, i.e., continuous network (cysteine and lysine) and discrete particles (glutamic acid, ornithine, and aspartic acid). Scanning thermal microscopy is then applied to map the distribution of thermal conduction in these composites. It is found that the interface surrounding the crystals plays a dominating role in phonon transport where the polymer chains are greatly restrained by the interfacial confinement effect. Continuous crystal network builds up a continuous interface that facilitates phonon transfer while phonon scattering occurs in discrete crystalline structures. Significantly improved thermal conductivity of ∼0.7 W/m·K is observed in PVA/cysteine composite with AA loading of 8.4 wt %, which corresponds to a 170% enhancement as compared to pure PVA. The strong PVA-AA molecular interaction and self-organized crystal structure are considered the major reasons for the unique interface property and superior thermal conductivity.

  18. Delayed Gelation Through Chain-Transfer Reactions: Mechanism For Stress Reduction In Methacrylate Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Carmem S.; Wilson, Nicholas D.; Shelton, Zachary R.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Chain-transfer reactions from thiols to methacrylates are expected to delay gelation and possibly reduce stress at the bonded interface of dental restorations. Thiol additives with varying structures were combined with a dimethacrylate commonly used in dental materials. Polymerization stress/modulus development were monitored by a tensometer/rheometer, respectively, both coupled with RT-NIR. For all thiol-modified materials, conversion and modulus were 5–25 % higher than the control, and maximum reaction rate was 25–50 % lower. Gel point conversions were 12–22 % (control=5 %), and deceleration was observed at later stages in conversion (30–60 %; control=15 %). Consequently, even with increased conversion/modulus, stress values were either equal or reduced compared to the control. This approach does not require any modification in the bonding/photoactivation procedures, and seems promising for stress management not only in polymeric dental materials, but also for other applications of glassy, crosslinked photopolymers, as long as thiol volatility is addressed. PMID:21799544

  19. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation Framework for Supply Chain Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Balanced Scorecard Performance Measures ( Kaplan and Norton 1992) Figure 11 - Balanced Scorecard for DoD Logistics (DoD 2004) 69...Research & Applications 6(4), 197-210. Kaplan , R. and D.P. Norton . 1992. “The Balanced Scorecard – Measures that Drive Performance.” Harvard Business...Agent Structure ......................................................... 65 Figure 10 - Original Balanced Scorecard Performance Measures ( Kaplan

  20. Surface protein imprinted core-shell particles for high selective lysozyme recognition prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinran; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Jianxi; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-24

    A novel kind of lysozyme (Lys) surface imprinted core-shell particles was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) strategy. With controllable polymer shell chain length, such particles showed obviously improved selectivity for protein recognition. After the RAFT initial agent and template protein was absorbed on silica particles, the prepolymerization solution, with methacrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate as the monomers, and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) as the cross-linker, was mixed with the silica particles, and the polymerization was performed at 40 °C in aqueous phase through the oxidation-reduction initiation. Ater polymerization, with the template protein removal and destroying dithioester groups with hexylamine, the surface Lyz imprinted particles were obtained with controllable polymer chain length. The binding capacity of the Lys imprinted particles could reach 5.6 mg protein/g material, with the imprinting factor (IF) as 3.7, whereas the IF of the control material prepared without RAFT strategy was only 1.6. The absorption equilibrium could be achieved within 60 min. Moreover, Lys could be selectively recognized by the imprinted particles from both a four-proteins mixture and egg white sample. All these results demonstrated that these particles prepared by RAFT strategy are promising to achieve the protein recognition with high selectivity.

  1. QSAR Study and Molecular Design of Open-Chain Enaminones as Anticonvulsant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Garro Martinez, Juan C.; Duchowicz, Pablo R.; Estrada, Mario R.; Zamarbide, Graciela N.; Castro, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    Present work employs the QSAR formalism to predict the ED50 anticonvulsant activity of ringed-enaminones, in order to apply these relationships for the prediction of unknown open-chain compounds containing the same types of functional groups in their molecular structure. Two different modeling approaches are applied with the purpose of comparing the consistency of our results: (a) the search of molecular descriptors via multivariable linear regressions; and (b) the calculation of flexible descriptors with the CORAL (CORrelation And Logic) program. Among the results found, we propose some potent candidate open-chain enaminones having ED50 values lower than 10 mg·kg−1 for corresponding pharmacological studies. These compounds are classified as Class 1 and Class 2 according to the Anticonvulsant Selection Project. PMID:22272137

  2. In vitro assembly of a prohead-like structure of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent

    SciTech Connect

    Spano, Anthony J. . E-mail: ajs6z@virginia.edu; Chen, Frank S.; Goodman, Benjamin E.; Sabat, Agnes E.; Simon, Martha N.; Wall, Joseph S.; Correia, John J.; McIvor, Wilson; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Schnur, Joel M.; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2007-07-20

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like particle capable of exchanging double-stranded DNA fragments between cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Here we show that the major capsid protein of GTA, expressed in E. coli, can be assembled into prohead-like structures in the presence of calcium ions in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of uranyl acetate staining material and thin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed material demonstrates that these associates have spherical structures with diameters in the range of 27-35 nm. The analysis of scanning TEM images revealed particles of mass {approx} 4.3 MDa, representing 101 {+-} 11 copies of the monomeric subunit. The establishment of this simple and rapid method to form prohead-like particles permits the GTA system to be used for genome manipulation within the photosynthetic bacterium, for specific targeted drug delivery, and for the construction of biologically based distributed autonomous sensors for environmental monitoring.

  3. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-09

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  4. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication.

  5. Multistep photoinduced electron transfer in a de Novo helix bundle: Multimer self-assembly of peptide chains including a chromophore special pair

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II; Vullev, V.; Braswell, E.H.; Zhu, D.

    2000-01-19

    The importance of protein aggregation in providing environments for charge transport is now well established in natural systems that include the helix bundle that facilitates the light-induced proton pump in bacteriorhodopsin, as well as the membrane protein matrix that houses the reaction center of photosynthetic bacteria. In the present article, the authors describe a de novo 24-residue peptide having propensity for a high order of self-assembly. Moreover, the synthetic protein is capable of multistep electron-transfer involving an electrostatic docking agent. Other feature of the prevailing arrangement include an orientation for peptide chains that allows organization of N-terminal pyrene chromophores as dimers. Photooxidation of the self-assembled peptide bundle using methyl viologen (MV{sup 2+}) as electron acceptor is followed by charge migration to a remote site on the peptide provided by a tryptophan moiety.

  6. Heat conduction in chain polymer liquids: molecular dynamics study on the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Taku; Yuan, Tan Chia; Torii, Daichi; Kikugawa, Gota; Kosugi, Naohiro

    2011-07-21

    In this paper, the molecular mechanisms which determine the thermal conductivity of long chain polymer liquids are discussed, based on the results observed in molecular dynamics simulations. Linear n-alkanes, which are typical polymer molecules, were chosen as the target of our studies. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of bulk liquid n-alkanes under a constant temperature gradient were performed. Saturated liquids of n-alkanes with six different chain lengths were examined at the same reduced temperature (0.7T(c)), and the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer to heat conduction flux, which were identified as components of heat flux by the authors' previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044504 (2008)], were observed. The present study compared n-alkane liquids with various molecular lengths at the same reduced temperature and corresponding saturated densities, and found that the contribution of intramolecular energy transfer to the total heat flux, relative to that of intermolecular energy transfer, increased with the molecular length. The study revealed that in long chain polymer liquids, thermal energy is mainly transferred in the space along the stiff intramolecular bonds. This finding implies a connection between anisotropic thermal conductivity and the orientation of molecules in various organized structures with long polymer molecules aligned in a certain direction, which includes confined polymer liquids and self-organized structures such as membranes of amphiphilic molecules in water.

  7. Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using selective precipitation by compaction agents.

    PubMed

    Añez-Lingerfelt, Mariaclara; Fox, George E; Willson, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An important problem in measurement of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise the integrity of the RNA, are time-consuming, and/or are hazardous. We present a rapid, nuclease-free, and cost-effective method of eliminating contaminating DNA in RNA samples using selective precipitation by compaction agents. Compaction agents are cationic molecules that bind to double-stranded nucleic acids, driven by electrostatic interactions and steric complementarity. The effectiveness and DNA selectivity of six compaction agents were investigated: trivalent spermidine, Triquat A, and Triquat 7; tetravalent spermine and Quatro-quat; and hexavalent Quatro-diquat. Effectiveness was measured initially by supernatant UV absorbance after precipitation of salmon sperm DNA. Effectiveness and selectivity were then investigated using differences in RT-PCR C(t) values with synthetic mixtures of human genomic DNA and total RNA and with total RNA isolated from cells. With 500 microM spermidine or Triquat A, the supernatant DNA could not be detected up to 40 cycles of PCR (C(t)12.6), whereas the C(t) for the mRNA was increased by only five cycles. Therefore, spermidine and Triquat A each show strong DNA selectivity and could be used to eliminate contaminating DNA in measurements of mRNA.

  8. Transfer and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene in an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Tineke; Segner, Helmut; Mayer, Philipp; Smith, Kilian; Igumnova, Elizaveta; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Dömötörová, Milena; Oehlmann, Jörg; Liebig, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes are environmentally relevant compounds that are measured in biota at concentrations in the μg/kg lipid range. Despite their widespread occurrence, literature data on the accumulation and effects of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems are sparsely available. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the biomagnification and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene (PeCN52) in an experimental food chain consisting of benthic worms and juvenile rainbow trout. Worms were contaminated with PeCN52 by passive dosing from polydimethylsiloxane silicone. The contaminated worms were then used to feed the juvenile rainbow trout at 0.12, 0.25 or 0.50 μg/g fish wet weight/day, and the resulting internal whole-body concentrations of the individual fish were linked to biological responses. A possible involvement of the cellular detoxification system was explored by measuring PeCN52-induced expression of the phase I biotransformation enzyme gene cyp1a1 and the ABC transporter gene abcb1a. At the end of the 28-day study, biomagnification factors were similar for all dietary intake levels with values between 0.5 and 0.7 kg lipid(fish)/kg lipid(worm). The average uptake efficiency of 60% indicated that a high amount of PeCN52 was transferred from the worms to the fish. Internal concentrations of up to 175 mg/kg fish lipid in the highest treatment level did not result in effects on survival, behavior, or growth of the juvenile trout, but were associated with the induction of phase I metabolism which was evident from the significant up-regulation of cyp1a1 expression in the liver. In contrast, no changes were seen in abcb1a transcript levels.

  9. In vivo visual evaluation of nanoparticle transfer in a three-species terrestrial food chain.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being used, and they present the risk of being introduced into food webs. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects of NPs in the aquatic and freshwater environments and their transfer to upper-level trophic organisms. However, information on the transfer and consequent effects of NPs on soil invertebrates is still limited. In this study, we assessed the transfer of quantum dots (QDs) through a three-species terrestrial food chain that consisted of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the collembolan Folsomia candida, and the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, as well as their biodistribution in vital organs using fluorescence analytical techniques. To visualize QD incorporation and biodistribution in F. candida, longitudinal and transversal sections were observed after short-term (3 d) and long-term (12 d) feeding with QD-treated yeast. QDs were located only in the intestine of F. candida and excreted within 1-2 d. QDs were also transferred to the pill bug by feeding, and remained in its intestine. This study showed the transfer of NPs through a model terrestrial food chain and indicated the potential hazards of released NPs for organisms at different trophic levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Markov chain formalism for polarized light transfer in plane-parallel atmospheres, with numerical comparison to the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B; West, Robert A; Esposito, Larry W

    2011-01-17

    Building on the Markov chain formalism for scalar (intensity only) radiative transfer, this paper formulates the solution to polarized diffuse reflection from and transmission through a vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere. For verification, numerical results are compared to those obtained by the Monte Carlo method, showing deviations less than 1% when 90 streams are used to compute the radiation from two types of atmospheres, pure Rayleigh and Rayleigh plus aerosol, when they are divided into sublayers of optical thicknesses of less than 0.03.

  11. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-12-01

    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  12. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-12-15

    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  13. Engineered electron-transfer chain in photosystem 1 based photocathodes outperforms electron-transfer rates in natural photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kothe, Tim; Pöller, Sascha; Zhao, Fangyuan; Fortgang, Philippe; Rögner, Matthias; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Plumeré, Nicolas

    2014-08-25

    Photosystem 1 (PS1) triggers the most energetic light-induced charge-separation step in nature and the in vivo electron-transfer rates approach 50 e(-)  s(-1)  PS1(-1). Photoelectrochemical devices based on this building block have to date underperformed with respect to their semiconductor counterparts or to natural photosynthesis in terms of electron-transfer rates. We present a rational design of a redox hydrogel film to contact PS1 to an electrode for photocurrent generation. We exploit the pH-dependent properties of a poly(vinyl)imidazole Os(bispyridine)2Cl polymer to tune the redox hydrogel film for maximum electron-transfer rates under optimal conditions for PS1 activity. The PS1-containing redox hydrogel film displays electron-transfer rates of up to 335±14 e(-)  s(-1)  PS1(-1), which considerably exceeds the rates observed in natural photosynthesis or in other semiartificial systems. Under O2 supersaturation, photocurrents of 322±19 μA cm(-2) were achieved. The photocurrents are only limited by mass transport of the terminal electron acceptor (O2). This implies that even higher electron-transfer rates may be achieved with PS1-based systems in general. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Computer software failing to detect that the Year 2000 is a leap year; or (4) Any other computer software... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Year 2000 Reports to be made... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-18 Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents. (a) Each...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Computer software failing to detect that the Year 2000 is a leap year; or (4) Any other computer software... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Year 2000 Reports to be made... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-18 Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents. (a) Each...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-18 - Year 2000 Reports to be made by certain transfer agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management regarding the Year 2000 Problems; (7) Any additional material information in both reports... approved and funded plans for preparing and testing its computer systems for Year 2000 Problems; (2) Whether the plans of the transfer agent exist in writing and address all mission critical computer...

  17. Detection of antibiotic-related genes from bacterial biocontrol agents with polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Fernando, W G D; de Kievit, T R; Berry, C; Daayf, F; Paulitz, T C

    2006-05-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23, Pseudomonas spp. strain DF41, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS6 consistently inhibit infection of canola petals by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in both greenhouse and field experiments. Bacillus thuringiensis BS8, Bacillus cereus L, and Bacillus mycoides S have shown significant inhibition against S. sclerotiorum on plate assays. The presence of antibiotic biosynthetic or self-resistance genes in these strains was investigated with polymerase chain reaction and, in one case, Southern blotting. Thirty primers were used to amplify (i) antibiotic biosythetic genes encoding phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, and pyrrolnitrin, and (ii) the zwittermicin A self-resistance gene. Our findings revealed that the fungal antagonist P. chlororaphis PA23 contains biosynthetic genes for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyrrolnitrin. Moreover, production of these compounds was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. Pseudomonas spp. DF41 and B. amyloliquefaciens BS6 do not appear to harbour genes for any of the antibiotics tested. Bacillus thuringiensis BS8, B. cereus L, and B. mycoides S contain the zwittermicin A self-resistance gene. This is the first report of zmaR in B. mycoides.

  18. Theoretical Studies of Oxygen Reduction and Proton Transfer in SOFCs and Nerve Agents on Selected Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    Terzyk, A. P.; Neimark, A. V., Screening of carbonaceous nanoporous materials for capture of nerve agents. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2013... materials are considered for two types of nerve agents: sarin, a nerve gas, (see Fig. 1) and VX type nerve agents . Although both nerve agents are

  19. Polymer-grafted lignin surfactants prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-08-12

    Kraft lignin grafted with hydrophilic polymers has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and investigated for use as a surfactant. In this preliminary study, polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid) were grafted from a lignin RAFT macroinitiator at average initiator site densities estimated to be 2 per particle and 17 per particle. The target degrees of polymerization were 50 and 100, but analysis of cleaved polyacrylamide was consistent with a higher average molecular weight, suggesting not all sites were able to participate in the polymerization. All materials were readily soluble in water, and dynamic light scattering data indicate polymer-grafted lignin coexisted in isolated and aggregated forms in aqueous media. The characteristic size was 15-20 nm at low concentrations, and aggregation appeared to be a stronger function of degree of polymerization than graft density. These species were surface active, reducing the surface tension to as low as 60 dyn/cm at 1 mg/mL, and a greater decrease was observed than for polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles, suggesting that the lignin core was also surface active. While these lignin surfactants were soluble in water, they were not soluble in hexanes. Thus, it was unexpected that water-in-oil emulsions formed in all surfactant compositions and solvent ratios tested, with average droplet sizes of 10-20 μm. However, although polymer-grafted lignin has structural features similar to nanoparticles used in Pickering emulsions, its interfacial behavior was qualitatively different. While at air-water interfaces, the hydrophilic grafts promote effective reductions in surface tension, we hypothesize that the low grafting density in these lignin surfactants favors partitioning into the hexanes side of the oil-water interface because collapsed conformations of the polymer grafts improve interfacial coverage and reduce water-hexanes interactions. We propose that polymer-grafted lignin

  20. Short-chain fatty acids and poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates: (New) Biocontrol agents for a sustainable animal production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Because of the risk of antibiotic resistance development, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used more carefully in animal production. However, a decreased use of antibiotics could result in a higher frequency of pathogenic bacteria, which in its turn could lead to a higher incidence of infections. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have long been known to exhibit bacteriostatic activity. These compounds also specifically downregulate virulence factor expression and positively influence the gastrointestinal health of the host. As a consequence, there is currently considerable interest in SCFAs as biocontrol agents in animal production. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers of beta-hydroxy short-chain fatty acids. Currently, PHAs are applied as replacements for synthetic polymers. These biopolymers can be depolymerised by many different microorganisms that produce extracellular PHA depolymerases. Interestingly, different studies provided some evidence that PHAs can also be degraded upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract of animals and consequently, adding these compounds to the feed might result in biocontrol effects similar to those described for SCFAs.

  1. Emulating quantum state transfer through a spin-1 chain on a one-dimensional lattice of superconducting qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Joydip

    2014-12-01

    Spin-1 systems, in comparison to spin-1/2 systems, offer a better security for encoding and transferring quantum information, primarily due to their larger Hilbert spaces. Superconducting artificial atoms possess multiple energy levels, thereby being capable of emulating higher-spin systems. Here I consider a one-dimensional lattice of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems, and devise a scheme to transfer an arbitrary qutrit state (a state encoded in a three-level quantum system) across the chain. I assume adjustable couplings between adjacent transmons, derive an analytic constraint for the control pulse, and show how to satisfy the constraint to achieve a high-fidelity state transfer under current experimental conditions. My protocol thus enables enhanced quantum communication and information processing with promising superconducting qutrits.

  2. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, Yijing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-06-01

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis.

  3. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, YiJing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-06-23

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis.

  4. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, YiJing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis. PMID:24954746

  5. Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.

  6. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205–279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics. PMID:27460944

  7. A novel roseobacter phage possesses features of podoviruses, siphoviruses, prophages and gene transfer agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Huang, Sijun; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Chen, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3Φ8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3Φ8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3Φ8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3Φ8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146 kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205–279 kb). DSS3Φ8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3Φ8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3Φ8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3Φ8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Bacterial Communities and Gene Transfer Agents in Northern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments. PMID:25364820

  9. Evolutionary implications of phylogenetic analyses of the gene transfer agent (GTA) of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andrew S; Taylor, Terumi A; Beatty, J Thomas

    2002-11-01

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) of the a-proteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is a cell-controlled genetic exchange vector. Genes that encode the GTA structure are clustered in a 15-kb region of the R. capsulatus chromosome, and some of these genes show sequence similarity to known bacteriophage head and tail genes. However, the production of GTA is controlled at the level of transcription by a cellular two-component signal transduction system. This paper describes homologues of both the GTA structural gene cluster and the GTA regulatory genes in the a-proteobacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Caulobacter crescentus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella melitensis. These sequences were used in a phylogenetic tree approach to examine the evolutionary relationships of selected GTA proteins to these homologues and (pro)phage proteins, which was compared to a 16S rRNA tree. The data indicate that a GTA-like element was present in a single progenitor of the extant species that contain both GTA structural cluster and regulatory gene homologues. The evolutionary relationships of GTA structural proteins to (pro)phage proteins indicated by the phylogenetic tree patterns suggest a predominantly vertical descent of GTA-like sequences in the a-proteobacteria and little past gene exchange with (pro)phages.

  10. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.

    2009-09-09

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.

  11. Lysophosphatidylcholine as an adjuvant for lentiviral vector mediated gene transfer to airway epithelium: effect of acyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor gene transfer efficiency has been a major problem in developing an effective gene therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), a natural airway surfactant, can enhance viral gene transfer in animal models. We examined the electrophysiological and physical effect of airway pre-treatment with variants of LPC on lentiviral (LV) vector gene transfer efficiency in murine nasal airways in vivo. Methods Gene transfer was assessed after 1 week following nasal instillations of a VSV-G pseudotype LV vector pre-treated with a low and high dose of LPC variants. The electrophysiological effects of a range of LPC variants were assessed by nasal transepithelial potential difference measurements (TPD) to determine tight junction permeability. Any physical changes to the epithelium from administration of the LPC variants were noted by histological methods in airway tissue harvested after 1 hour. Results Gene transduction was significantly greater compared to control (PBS) for our standard LPC (palmitoyl/stearoyl mixture) treatment and for the majority of the other LPC variants with longer acyl chain lengths. The LPC variant heptadecanoyl also produced significantly greater LV gene transfer compared to our standard LPC mixture. LV gene transfer and the transepithelial depolarization produced by the 0.1% LPC variants at 1 hour were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.94), but at the 1% concentration the correlation was less strong (r2 = 0.59). LPC variants that displayed minor to moderate levels of disruption to the airway epithelium were clearly associated with higher LV gene transfer. Conclusions These findings show the LPC variants effect on airway barrier function and their correlation to the effectiveness of gene expression. The enhanced expression produced by a number of LPC variants should provide new options for preclinical development of efficient airway gene transfer techniques. PMID:20569421

  12. Adiabatic quantum state transfer in tight-binding chains using periodic driving fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    2014-09-01

    A method for high-fidelity coherent adiabatic transport in a zig-zag tight-binding chain, based on application of two external periodic driving fields, is theoretically proposed. The method turns out to be robust against imperfections and disorder of the static lattice Hamiltonian, is tolerant to next-nearest neighborhood interactions, and enables coherent transport in long chains without the need for a local control and timing of the trapping potential.

  13. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-31

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a hotspot owing to the dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the MMIPs were obtained by the surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using Sudan I as the template. The resultant MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction. Benefiting from the controlled/living property of the RAFT strategy, the uniform MIP layer was successfully grafted on the surface of RAFT agent-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, favoring the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four Sudan dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV) from chili powder samples. The recoveries of the spiked samples in chili powder samples ranged from 74.1 to 93.3% with RSD lower than 6.4% and the relative standard uncertainty lower than 0.029. This work provided a good platform for the extraction and removal of Sudan dyes in complicated matrixes and demonstrated a bright future for the application of the well-constructed MMIPs in the field of solid-phase extraction.

  14. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium [14C]pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids.

    PubMed

    Gruttke, H; Kratz, W; Weigmann, G; Haque, A

    1988-06-01

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of [14C]pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of [14C]PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models.

  15. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    SciTech Connect

    Gruttke, H.; Kratz, W.; Weigmann, G.; Haque, A.

    1988-06-01

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of (/sup 14/C)PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models.

  16. The preparation of high-capacity boronate affinity adsorbents by surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment of ribonucleosides in serum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaozhan; Xu, Huanhuan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-01-01

    Boronate affinity adsorption is uniquely selective for cis-diol-containing molecules. The preparation and application of boronate affinity materials has attracted much attention in recent years. In this work, a high-capacity boronate affinity adsorbent was prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (SI-RAFT). Commercial aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were modified with the chain transfer agent (CTA) S-1-dodecyl-S-(α,α-dimethyl-α-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate (DDATC). Boronate-affinity adsorbents were then prepared via SI-RAFT polymerization employing 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) as the monomer. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements have proven the successful grafting of AAPBA on PGMA microspheres surface. The boronate affinity adsorbents thus prepared possess much higher adsorption capacity (99.2 µmol/g of adenosine) and both faster adsorption and desorption speed towards ribonucleosides, the adsorption and desorption could be completed in 2 min. The high selectivity of the adsorbents to ribonucleosides was verified in the presence of a large excess of deoxynucleosides. The boronate affinity adsorbents were then employed for sample pretreatment before HPLC analysis of ribonucleosides in serum. The ribonucleosides were effectively enriched by boronate affinity dispersive solid-phase extraction (BA-DSPE), with high mass recoveries and good precision. The simultaneous determination of uridine and guanosine in calf serum was achieved by utilizing the standard addition method, their contents were determined to be 170 ± 11.6 ng/mL and 39.6 ± 4.4 ng/mL respectively. The results proved that the prepared boronate affinity materials could be applied for sample pretreatment of cis-diol containing molecules in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Involvement of a cytosine side chain in proton transfer in the rate-determining step of ribozyme self-cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Shih, I-hung; Been, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Ribozymes of hepatitis delta virus have been proposed to use an active-site cytosine as an acid-base catalyst in the self-cleavage reaction. In this study, we have examined the role of cytosine in more detail with the antigenomic ribozyme. Evidence that proton transfer in the rate-determining step involved cytosine 76 (C76) was obtained from examining cleavage activity of the wild-type and imidazole buffer-rescued C76-deleted (C76Δ) ribozymes in D2O and H2O. In both reactions, a similar kinetic isotope effect and shift in the apparent pKa indicate that the buffer is functionally substituting for the side chain in proton transfer. Proton inventory of the wild-type reaction supported a mechanism of a single proton transfer at the transition state. This proton transfer step was further characterized by exogenous base rescue of a C76Δ mutant with cytosine and imidazole analogues. For the imidazole analogues that rescued activity, the apparent pKa of the rescue reaction, measured under kcat/KM conditions, correlated with the pKa of the base. From these data a Brønsted coefficient (β) of 0.51 was determined for the base-rescued reaction of C76Δ. This value is consistent with that expected for proton transfer in the transition state. Together, these data provide strong support for a mechanism where an RNA side chain participates directly in general acid or general base catalysis of the wild-type ribozyme to facilitate RNA cleavage. PMID:11171978

  18. [Gene transfer agent--a novel and widespread occurrence mechanism of gene exchange in ocean-a review].

    PubMed

    Cai, Haiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Gene Transfer Agent (GTA) particles are released by bacteria and resemble small, tailed bacteriophages. GTA particles contain small, random pieces of host DNA rather than GTA structural genes or a phage genome. Gene transfer mediated by GTA is efficient and species specific based on knowledge of currently best studied GTAs produced by 4 anaerobes. Genome sequencing projects have revealed a remarkable distribution of GTA gene clusters in the genomes of marine bacterioplankton, implying GTA may be an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in ocean. On basis of characterization of the 4 best studied GTAs, this review described GTAs released by numerically dominant marine bacteria, discussed their properties that were important for horizontal gene transfer in ocean, and gave future perspectives to advance GTA research.

  19. Advantages of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) complexes having slow to intermediate water exchange properties as responsive MRI agents.

    PubMed

    Soesbe, Todd C; Wu, Yunkou; Dean Sherry, A

    2013-07-01

    Paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) complexes are exogenous contrast agents that have great potential to further extend the functional and molecular imaging capabilities of magnetic resonance. As a result of the presence of a central paramagnetic lanthanide ion (Ln(3+) ≠ La(3+) , Gd(3+) , Lu(3+) ) within the chelate, the resonance frequencies of exchangeable protons bound to the PARACEST agent are shifted far away from the bulk water frequency. This large chemical shift, combined with an extreme sensitivity to the chemical exchange rate, make PARACEST agents ideally suited for the reporting of significant biological metrics, such as temperature, pH and the presence of metabolites. In addition, the ability to turn PARACEST agents 'off' and 'on' using a frequency-selective saturation pulse gives them a distinct advantage over Gd(3+) -based contrast agents. A current challenge for PARACEST research is the translation of the promising in vitro results into in vivo systems. This short review article first describes the basic theory behind PARACEST contrast agents, their benefits over other contrast agents and their applications to MRI. It then describes some of the recent PARACEST research results: specifically, pH measurements using water molecule exchange rate modulation, T2 exchange contrast caused by water molecule exchange, the use of ultrashort TEs (TE < 10 µs) to overcome T2 exchange line broadening and the potential application of T2 exchange as a new contrast mechanism for MRI.

  20. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  1. Elucidation and Control of an Intramolecular Charge Transfer Property of Fucoxanthin by a Modification of Its Polyene Chain Length.

    PubMed

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Kajikawa, Takayuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Katsumura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-03-06

    Fucoxanthin is an essential pigment for the highly efficient light-harvesting function of marine algal photosynthesis. It exhibits excited state properties attributed to intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. This report describes the excited state properties of fucoxanthin homologues with four to eight conjugated double bonds in various solvents using the femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results clarified that fucoxanthin homologues with longer polyene chains did not possess pronounced ICT spectroscopic signatures, while the shorter fucoxanthin homologues had a strong ICT character, even in a nonpolar solvent. On the basis of the observations, we quantitatively correlated the ICT character in the excited state to the conjugated polyene chain lengths of fucoxanthin molecules.

  2. Assessment of selenium food chain transfer and critical exposure factors for avian wildlife species: Need for site-specific data

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J.; Brix, K.V.; Cothern, K.A.; Tear, L.M.; Cardwell, R.D.; Toll, J.E.; Fairbrother, A.

    1998-12-31

    Observations of selenium poisoning in Belews Lake, NC in the mid-1970s and Kesterson Reservoir, CA in the mid-1980s precipitated a large number of selenium studies. Numerous authors have evaluated the potential for selenium to cause ecologically significant effects via food chain transfer in aquatic ecosystems, especially wetlands. Additionally, bioaccumulation models have been proposed for estimating selenium concentrations in food chains and water that should not be exceeded in order to avoid reproductive effects in avian and aquatic species. The current national chronic ambient water quality criterion (WQC) for protection of aquatic life is 5 {micro}g/L. Scientists with the US Fish and Wildlife Service have recommended setting the ambient water quality criterion at 2 {micro}g/L for both aquatic and wildlife protection.

  3. Food chain transfer of selenium in lentic and lotic habitats of a western Canadian watershed.

    PubMed

    Orr, Patricia L; Guiguer, Karin R; Russel, Cynthia K

    2006-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient, exhibiting a narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic concentrations. Egg-laying vertebrates at the top of aquatic food chains are most at risk in environments with elevated aqueous Se concentrations. The Elk River watershed in British Columbia, Canada receives effluents containing Se from five coal mine operations. This study tested three hypotheses that might account for higher Se concentrations in fish from lentic compared to lotic habitats in the watershed: (1) enhanced uptake by aquatic primary producers, (2) longer food chain length, or (3) greater food web accumulation through sediment-detrital pathways. Stable isotope and Se concentration data demonstrated that Se concentrations in aquatic primary producers and food chain lengths were comparable in lentic and lotic habitats. Enhanced formation of organoselenium and subsequent uptake and cycling via sediment detrital pathways likely account for higher fish tissue Se concentrations in lentic than in lotic areas.

  4. Developing a Taxonomy and Model to Transfer and Assess Best Practices for Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Myrna; Mendoza, Ana; Lavin, Victor; Flores, Benito

    Supply Chain Management can be briefly defined as the orchestration of a network of entities such as suppliers, distributors and clients to achieve a common goal: delivering cost efficient products and services exceeding customers’ expectations. Therefore, firms should consider all those End-to-End processes enabling an efficient integration and interoperability of partners collaborating in such Supply Chain when designing their Business Process Architecture (BPA). One key enabler to accomplish this goal is the identification, documentation and sharing of best practices. This paper describes the outcomes of a collaborative project carried out by CEMEX Research Group and the Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM), which focused on developing taxonomy to document best practices for the supply chain management together with a generic model to evaluate their level of implementation.

  5. Food chain transfer of selenium in lentic and lotic habitats of a western Canadian watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, P.L.; Guiguer, K.R.; Russel, C.K.

    2006-02-15

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient, exhibiting a narrow margin between nutritionally optimal and potentially toxic concentrations. Egg-laying vertebrates at the top of aquatic food chains are most at risk in environments with elevated aqueous Se concentrations. The Elk River watershed in British Columbia, Canada receives effluents containing Se from five coal mine operations. This study tested three hypotheses that might account for higher Se concentrations in fish from lentic compared to lotic habitats in the watershed: (1) enhanced uptake by aquatic primary producers, (2) longer food chain length, or (3) greater food web accumulation through sediment-detrital pathways. Stable isotope and Se concentration data demonstrated that Se concentrations in aquatic primary producers and food chain lengths were comparable in lentic and lotic habitats. Enhanced formation of organoselenium and subsequent uptake and cycling via sediment detrital pathways likely account for higher fish tissue Se concentrations in lentic than in lotic areas.

  6. Charge transfer between the PO4- groups of DNA and the arginine + and lysine + side chains of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, A.; Bogár, F.; Ladik, J.

    2007-03-01

    Using the HF + MP2 methods with full geometry optimizations the charge transfer (CT) from the PO4- groups of DNA to the arginine or lysine side chains of the proteins forming the nuclohistone cores were calculated. (X-ray investigation shows that in the nucleohistone core there are eight histones which are wrapped around by a DNA superhelix). We have found 0.21e and 0.26e CT, respectively. Knowing the structure of nucleohistones one can estimate a charge transfer at every fourth base pair. Taking as average 0.10e CT (there are also other attractive interactions) one can compute the concentrations of holes in DNA. From these one can obtain the dc conductivity for polyguanilic acid (the mobilities are known).

  7. Antibody-Directed Cytotoxic Agents: Use of Monoclonal Antibody to Direct the Action of Toxin A Chains to Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, D. Gary; Steplewski, Zenon; Collier, R. John; Mitchell, Kenneth F.; Chang, Tong H.; Koprowski, Hilary

    1980-08-01

    We have constructed cell-specific cytotoxic agents by covalently coupling the A chain from diphtheria toxin or ricin toxin to monoclonal antibody directed against a colorectal carcinoma tumor-associated antigen. Antibody 1083-17-1A was modified by attachment of 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl or cystaminyl groups and then treated with reduced A chain to give disulfide-linked conjugates that retained the original binding specificity of the antibody moiety. The conjugates showed cytotoxic activity for colorectal carcinoma cells in culture, but were not toxic in the same concentration range for a variety of cell lines that lacked the antigen. Under defined conditions virtually 100% of antigen-bearing cultured cells were killed, whereas cells that lacked the antigen were not affected. Conjugates containing toxin A chains coupled to monoclonal antibodies may be useful in studying functions of various cell surface components and, possibly, as tumor-specific therapeutic agents.

  8. Enhancing Chinese Agribusiness Supply Chains with Internet Technologies: A Transnational Knowledge Transfer Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; Bentley, Yongmei; Fu, Zetian; Zografos, Konstantinos; Bemeleit, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports research findings from a project funded by the European Commission. The research used case studies and surveys to identify gaps between Europe and China in the level of Internet adoption in fresh-produce supply chains. The project reveals barriers to Internet adoption in China in this industry, and employs a transnational…

  9. Enhancing Chinese Agribusiness Supply Chains with Internet Technologies: A Transnational Knowledge Transfer Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; Bentley, Yongmei; Fu, Zetian; Zografos, Konstantinos; Bemeleit, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports research findings from a project funded by the European Commission. The research used case studies and surveys to identify gaps between Europe and China in the level of Internet adoption in fresh-produce supply chains. The project reveals barriers to Internet adoption in China in this industry, and employs a transnational…

  10. Self-oscillating soluble-insoluble changes of a polymer chain including an oxidizing agent induced by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Sakai, Takamasa; Maeda, Shingo; Hashimoto, Shuji; Yoshida, Ryo

    2005-12-15

    A new type of self-oscillating polymer was prepared by utilizing the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. In this study, capture sites with a positive charge for an oxidizing agent as a counterion were incorporated into the copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide and the ruthenium complex as a catalyst. Soluble-insoluble self-oscillation of the polymer was first achieved without adding an oxidizing agent. The effect of temperature on the self-oscillating behavior was investigated. It was clarified that the polymer had two advantageous characteristics because of the higher LCST; one is to enable self-oscillation around body temperature, and the other is to cause the oscillation for a longer time without intermolecular aggregation among the polymer chains in the reduced state. This achievement of self-oscillation of polymer chains including an oxidizing agent may lead to their practical use under oxidant-free conditions.

  11. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH2) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such zwitterion modified PP surface.

  12. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer in push-pull polyenes: effects of solvation, electron-donor group, and polyenic chain length.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Laage, Damien; Plaza, Pascal; Martin, Monique M; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2008-01-17

    Subpicosecond absorption spectroscopy is used to characterize the primary photoinduced processes in a class of push-pull polyenes bearing a julolidine end group as the electron donor and a diethylthiobarbituric acid end group as the electron acceptor. The excited-state decay time and relaxation pathway have been studied for four polyenes of increasing chain length (n = 2-5 double bonds) in aprotic solvents of different solvation time, polarity, and viscosity. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) leading to a transient state of cyanine-like structure (fully conjugated with no bond length alternation) is observed in all polar solvents at a solvent dependent rate, but the reaction is not observed in cyclohexane, a nonpolar solvent. In polar solvents, the reaction time increases with the average solvation time but remains slightly larger, except in the viscous solvent triacetin. These facts are interpreted as an indication that both solvent reorganization and internal restructuring are involved in the ICT-state formation. The observed photodynamics resemble those we previously found for another class of polyenes bearing a dibutylaniline group as the donor, including a similar charge-transfer rate in spite of the larger electron donor character of the julolidine group. This observation brings further support to the proposal that an intramolecular coordinate is involved in the charge-transfer reaction, possibly a torsional motion of the donor end group. On the other hand, relaxation of the ICT state leads to cis-trans isomerization or crossing to the triplet state, depending on the length of the polyenic chain. In dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and triacetin, the ICT state of the shorter chains (n = 2, 3) relaxes to the isomer with a viscosity-dependent rate, while that of the longer ones (n = 4, 5) leads to the triplet state with a viscosity-independent rate, as expected. In acetonitrile, the ICT-state lifetime is generally much shorter. A change from photoisomerization to

  13. An 'adding' algorithm for the Markov chain formalism for radiation transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    An adding algorithm is presented, that extends the Markov chain method and considers a preceding calculation as a single state of a new Markov chain. This method takes advantage of the description of the radiation transport as a stochastic process. Successive application of this procedure makes calculation possible for any optical depth without increasing the size of the linear system used. It is determined that the time required for the algorithm is comparable to that for a doubling calculation for homogeneous atmospheres. For an inhomogeneous atmosphere the new method is considerably faster than the standard adding routine. It is concluded that the algorithm is efficient, accurate, and suitable for smaller computers in calculating the diffuse intensity scattered by an inhomogeneous planetary atmosphere.

  14. Origins of the solvent chain-length dependence of Gibbs free energies of transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.G.; Zhuravlev, N.D.; Chen, B.; Carr, P.W.; Siepmann, J.I.

    1999-04-15

    Experimentally measured partition coefficients show that the solubilities of small solutes in normal alkanes depend on the solvent chain length (n{sub C}). The causes for this n{sub C} dependence have not yet been unambiguously determined, and there is considerable controversy as to whether different interactions with methyl and methylene groups or entropic Flory-Huggins-like effects might play the major role. The authors have performed Gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations to study the vapor-liquid partitioning of methane in normal alkanes (with 6--12 carbon atoms) and related model solvents. The simulations show that the increase in solvent density with increasing n{sub C} is the main origin of the n{sub C} dependence for normal alkanes; that is, the solute molecule feels a different environment depending on the alkane chain length.

  15. Natural specific radioactivity in different soils. Transfer in the soil plant food chain.

    PubMed

    Spera, G; Cardone, F; Cherubini, G; Leandri, A

    2003-01-01

    In order to warrant customer's health we must pay attention to the quality of the environment and production processes; that means look all over alimentary chain. Media speak often about this topics, because of the interest of the public opinion regarding agribusiness; Nether the less much is know about soil radioactivity, but often scant attention is directed to the knowledge of the amount what remains in food and arrives to the man who is the last and main user of the product. As a consequence of that, we have done some originals studies concerning specific radioactivity in alimentary chain: soil-plant-food. These studies have been made in relation with geopedologic position of fields in volcanic, clayey, sandy soils of Latium. We have measured radioactive activity over some alimentary chains both annual (like turnip and garden cress) and pluriannual (such as vine). We made comparisons on the same soils studying the following natural markers: K40, Pb214, and Bi214; and Cs137, one of the main natural markers.

  16. Transfer of radionuclides from high polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chain in post Fukushima period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake and tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity into air and ocean. Around 80% of the radioactivity released due to the FDNPP accident in March-April 2011 was either directly discharged into the ocean or deposited onto the ocean surface from the atmosphere. A large amount of long-lived radionuclides (mainly Cs-137) were released into the environment. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean reached a maximum in mid-April of 2011, and then gradually decreased. From 2011 the concentration of Cs-137 in water essentially fell except the area around the FDNPP where leaks of contaminated water are continued. However, in the bottom sediment high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in the first months after the accident and slowly decreased with time. Therefore, it should be expected that a time delay is found of sediment-bound radionuclides in marine organisms. For the modeling of radionuclide transfer from highly polluted bottom sediments to marine organisms the dynamical food chain model BURN-POSEIDON (Heling et al, 2002; Maderich et al., 2014) was extended. In this model marine organisms are grouped into a limited number of classes based on their trophic level and type of species. These include: phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous), crustaceans, and molluscs for pelagic food chain and bottom sediment invertebrates, demersal fishes and bottom predators for benthic food chain and whole water column predators feeding by pelagial and benthic fishes. Bottom invertebrates consume organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as via food. In fishes where radioactivity is not homogeneously distributed over all tissues of the organism, it is assumed that radionuclide

  17. Biomedical applications of polymers derived by reversible addition - fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT).

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Meagher, Laurence

    2015-08-30

    RAFT- mediated polymerization, providing control over polymer length and architecture as well as facilitating post polymerization modification of end groups, has been applied to virtually every facet of biomedical materials research. RAFT polymers have seen particularly extensive use in drug delivery research. Facile generation of functional and telechelic polymers permits straightforward conjugation to many therapeutic compounds while synthesis of amphiphilic block copolymers via RAFT allows for the generation of self-assembled structures capable of carrying therapeutic payloads. With the large and growing body of literature employing RAFT polymers as drug delivery aids and vehicles, concern over the potential toxicity of RAFT derived polymers has been raised. While literature exploring this complication is relatively limited, the emerging consensus may be summed up in three parts: toxicity of polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents is observed at high concentrations but not with polymers generated with trithiocarbonate RAFT agents; even for polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents, most reported applications call for concentrations well below the toxicity threshold; and RAFT end-groups may be easily removed via any of a variety of techniques that leave the polymer with no intrinsic toxicity attributable to the mechanism of polymerization. The low toxicity of RAFT-derived polymers and the ability to remove end groups via straightforward and scalable processes make RAFT technology a valuable tool for practically any application in which a polymer of defined molecular weight and architecture is desired.

  18. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.

    PubMed

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G

    2011-09-30

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11β; flow cytometry studies showed that 11β exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11β inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11β blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11β enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11β, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11β, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death.

  19. 76 FR 61205 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... of pharmacotherapies and immunizations to treat and prevent illnesses resulting from an agent or... No change. related requirements. 73.1 Definitions........ Definitions added: Adjudicated as a mental defective; alien; committed to any mental institution; controlled substance; crime punishable by...

  20. Turning the corner: efficient energy transfer in bent plasmonic nanoparticle chain waveguides.

    PubMed

    Solis, David; Paul, Aniruddha; Olson, Jana; Slaughter, Liane S; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2013-10-09

    For integrating and multiplexing of subwavelength plasmonic waveguides with other optical and electric components, complex architectures such as junctions with sharp turns are necessary. However, in addition to intrinsic losses, bending losses severely limit plasmon propagation. In the current work, we demonstrate that propagation of surface plasmon polaritons around 90° turns in silver nanoparticle chains occurs without bending losses. Using a far-field fluorescence method, bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP), which creates a permanent map of the plasmonic near-field through bleaching of a fluorophore coated on top of a plasmonic waveguide, we measured propagation lengths at 633 nm for straight and bent silver nanoparticle chains of 8.0 ± 0.5 and 7.8 ± 0.4 μm, respectively. These propagation lengths were independent of the input polarization. We furthermore show that subradiant plasmon modes yield a longer propagation length compared to energy transport via excitation of super-radiant modes.

  1. The transfer and fate of Pb from sewage sludge amended soil in a multi-trophic food chain: a comparison with the labile elements Cd and Zn.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mudasir Irfan; Khan, Fareed Ahmad; Green, Iain D; Naikoo, Mohd Irfan

    2015-10-01

    The contamination of agroecosystems due to the presence of trace elements in commonly used agricultural materials is a serious issue. The most contaminated material is usually sewage sludge, and the sustainable use of this material within agriculture is a major concern. This study addresses a key issue in this respect, the fate of trace metals applied to soil in food chains. The work particularly addresses the transfer of Pb, which is an understudied element in this respect, and compares the transfer of Pb with two of the most labile metals, Cd and Zn. The transfer of these elements was determined from sludge-amended soils in a food chain consisting of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and a predatory beetle (Coccinella septempunctata). The soil was amended with sludge at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 % (w/w). Results showed that Cd was readily transferred through the food chain until the predator trophic level. Zn was the most readily transferred element in the lower trophic levels, but transfer to aphids was effectively restricted by the plant regulating shoot concentration. Pb had the lowest level of transfer from soil to shoot and exhibited particular retention in the roots. Nevertheless, Pb concentrations were significantly increased by sludge amendment in aphids, and Pb was increasingly transferred to ladybirds as levels increased. The potential for Pb to cause secondary toxicity to organisms in higher trophic levels may have therefore been underestimated.

  2. Transfer of eight phthalates through the milk chain--a case study.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2013-01-01

    This survey determined the levels of eight phthalates - i.e. dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) - in several Belgian milk and dairy products. Samples were obtained from various farms, a dairy factory and from different shops in order to investigate phthalate contamination "from farm to fork". At several stages in the milk chain, product contamination with phthalates - mostly DiBP, DnBP, BzBP and DEHP - was observed. At farm level, the mechanical milking process and the intake of phthalate containing feed by the cattle were found to be possible contamination sources. At industry and retail level, contact materials including packaging materials were additional contamination sources for phthalates in milk and dairy products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uptake and transfer of14C-simetryne through the laboratory freshwater food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Lay, J. P.; Zhang, Yongyuan

    1989-03-01

    This paper deals with the bioconcentration of14C-simetryne from water by aquatic test organisms: green algae— Monoraphidium minutum, rotifers— Brachionus rubens, daphnids— Daphnia magna, and fish— Brachydanio rerio. The chemical was bioconcentrated rapidly in all test species during the first 48 hours of experiment. The BCF values (bioconcentration factor) from all uptake studies show that simetryne has higher accumulation in algae than in rotifers, daphnids and zebra fish. The logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient of simetryne measured as 2.06±0.05 was correlated with the BCFs in the organisms as based on the lipid contents. 14C-simetryne uptake via the food-chain amounted to only 22% to 42% of the bioconcentration from water. Clearance of14C-derived residues from fish was rapid with a half-life of 2.1 days.

  4. Chain length distributions in linear polyaddition proceeding in nano-scale small volumes without mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, R.; Sosnowski, S.

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulations (Monte Carlo and numerical integration of differential equations) and theoretical analysis show that the statistical nature of polyaddition, both irreversible and reversible one, affects the way the macromolecules of different lengths are distributed among the small volume nano-reactors (droplets in this study) at any reaction time. The corresponding droplet distributions in respect to the number of reacting chains as well as the chain length distributions depend, for the given reaction time, on rate constants of polyaddition kp and depolymerization kd (reversible process), and the initial conditions: monomer concentration and the number of its molecules in a droplet. As a model reaction, a simple polyaddition process (M)1+(M)1 ⟶ ⟵ (M)2 , (M)i+(M)j ⟶ ⟵ (M)i+j was chosen, enabling to observe both kinetic and thermodynamic (apparent equilibrium constant) effects of a small number of reactant molecules in a droplet. The average rate constant of polymerization is lower than in a macroscopic system, depending on the average number of reactant molecules in a droplet. The apparent equilibrium constants of polymerization Ki j=[(M)i +j] ¯ /([(M)i] ¯ [(M)j] ¯ ) appear to depend on oligomer/polymer sizes as well as on the initial number of monomer molecules in a droplet. The corresponding equations, enabling prediction of the equilibrium conditions, were derived. All the analyzed effects are observed not only for ideally dispersed systems, i.e. with all droplets containing initially the same number of monomer (M)1 molecules, but also when initially the numbers of monomer molecules conform the Poisson distribution, expected for dispersions of reaction mixtures.

  5. Interaction between photosynthetic and respiratory electron-transfer chains in the membranes of Anabaena variabilis.

    PubMed

    Abdourashitova, F D; Barsky, E L; Gusev, M V; Samuilov, V D

    1985-10-01

    The rate of CO2- and p-benzoquione-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution by Anabaena variabilis cells remained unaltered and the rate of O2 uptake observed after switching off the light (endogenous respiration) was enhanced by a factor of 6-8 when the O2 concentration was increased from 200 to 400 μM. Photosystem-I-linked O2 uptake and respiration of the cells incubated with ascorbate and N,N,N'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine was not appreciable influenced by the O2 concentration. 2-Iodo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-2',4,4'-trinitrodiphenyl ether, blocking electron transfer at the plastoquinone level, suppressed O2 evolution and had no influence on endogenous respiration. 2-n-Heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, an inhibitor of electron transfer between photosystems II and I, as well as the cytochrome-oxidase inhibitors N 3 (-) , CN(-) and NH2OH, caused a 35-50% retardation of endogenous respiration and blocked photosynthetic O2 evolution. The molar ratio of cytochromes b6, f, c-553, aa3 and photosystem-I reaction centers in the isolated membranes equalled approx. 2:1:2:0.7:2. It is inferred that endogenous respiration of A. variabilis cells is inhibited by the light-induced electron flow through both photosystems at the level of the plastoquinone-plastocyanin-oxidoreductase complex.

  6. Hybrid assemblies based on a gadolinium-containing polyoxometalate and a cationic polymer with spermine side chains for enhanced MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wenqiang; Wang, Shan; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Guifeng; Fischer, Karl; Li, Haolong; Wu, Lixin; Schmidt, Manfred

    2013-09-27

    Supramolecular assembly: Spherical and stable hybrid assemblies based on a cationic polymer with spermine side chains and an anionic Gd(3+)-containing polyoxometalate cluster (GdW) are prepared by electrostatic interaction. The T1-weighted MRI performance of GdW is enhanced about three times in the assemblies; meanwhile, the assemblies show good biocompatibility, which enables them to be promising candidates for MRI contrast agents. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Role of Humic-Bound Iron as an Electron Transfer Agent in Dissimilatory Fe(III) Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, Derek R.; Blunt-Harris, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    The dissimilatory Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens reduced Fe(III) bound in humic substances, but the concentrations of Fe(III) in a wide range of highly purified humic substances were too low to account for a significant portion of the electron-accepting capacities of the humic substances. Furthermore, once reduced, the iron in humic substances could not transfer electrons to Fe(III) oxide. These results suggest that other electron-accepting moieties in humic substances, such as quinones, are the important electron-accepting and shuttling agents under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. PMID:10473447

  8. Role of humic-bound iron as an electron transfer agent in dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R; Blunt-Harris, E L

    1999-09-01

    The dissimilatory Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens reduced Fe(III) bound in humic substances, but the concentrations of Fe(III) in a wide range of highly purified humic substances were too low to account for a significant portion of the electron-accepting capacities of the humic substances. Furthermore, once reduced, the iron in humic substances could not transfer electrons to Fe(III) oxide. These results suggest that other electron-accepting moieties in humic substances, such as quinones, are the important electron-accepting and shuttling agents under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  9. Proton Exchange in a Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Agent from Experimental Studies and ab Initio Metadynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Rodolphe; Bonnet, Célia S; Retailleau, Pascal; Durand, Philippe; Tóth, Éva

    2017-03-27

    The proton-exchange process between water and a carbamate has been studied experimentally and theoretically in a lanthanide-based paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agent endowed with potential multimodality detection capabilities (optical imaging, or T1 MRI for the Gd(III) analogue). In addition to an in-depth structural analysis by a combined approach (using X-ray crystallography, NMR, and molecular dynamics), our ab initio simulation in aqueous solution sheds light on the reaction mechanism for this proton exchange, which involves structural Grotthuss diffusion.

  10. Transfer of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb through the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain of northern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.; Sheard, J.W.; Swanson, S.

    1994-06-01

    Natural background activity and food chain transfer of the uranium decay products, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, were examined in the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain at two locations in the Northwest Territories of Canada. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities in lichens differed with species and location. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were markedly higher in caribou bone than in wolf bone. {sup 210}Po activities in liver, kidney, and muscle were similar in both species. Caribou fetuses had lower activities of {sup 210}Po but higher activities of {sup 210}Pb than maternal muscle and placenta, suggesting greater placental transport of {sup 210}Pb than {sup 210}Po. Concentration ratios (CR = Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in consumer/Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in its food source) and f{sub f} values (f{sub f} in d kg{sup {minus}1} = Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in muscle/Bq d{sup {minus}1} ingested) showed that wolves retain more {sup 210}Po and less {sup 210}Pb from their diet than do caribou. {sup 210}Po CRs averaged 0.38 for caribou/lichens, 0.26 for caribou/rumen contents, and 0.40 for wolves/caribou. {sup 210}Pb CRs averaged 0.36 for caribou/lichens, 0.57 for caribou/rumen contents, and 0.13 for wolves/caribou. 43 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Unraveling the interplay of backbone rigidity and electron rich side-chains on electron transfer in peptides: the realization of tunable molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Horsley, John R; Yu, Jingxian; Moore, Katherine E; Shapter, Joe G; Abell, Andrew D

    2014-09-03

    Electrochemical studies are reported on a series of peptides constrained into either a 310-helix (1-6) or β-strand (7-9) conformation, with variable numbers of electron rich alkene containing side chains. Peptides (1 and 2) and (7 and 8) are further constrained into these geometries with a suitable side chain tether introduced by ring closing metathesis (RCM). Peptides 1, 4 and 5, each containing a single alkene side chain reveal a direct link between backbone rigidity and electron transfer, in isolation from any effects due to the electronic properties of the electron rich side-chains. Further studies on the linear peptides 3-6 confirm the ability of the alkene to facilitate electron transfer through the peptide. A comparison of the electrochemical data for the unsaturated tethered peptides (1 and 7) and saturated tethered peptides (2 and 8) reveals an interplay between backbone rigidity and effects arising from the electron rich alkene side-chains on electron transfer. Theoretical calculations on β-strand models analogous to 7, 8 and 9 provide further insights into the relative roles of backbone rigidity and electron rich side-chains on intramolecular electron transfer. Furthermore, electron population analysis confirms the role of the alkene as a "stepping stone" for electron transfer. These findings provide a new approach for fine-tuning the electronic properties of peptides by controlling backbone rigidity, and through the inclusion of electron rich side-chains. This allows for manipulation of energy barriers and hence conductance in peptides, a crucial step in the design and fabrication of molecular-based electronic devices.

  12. Toxic heritage: Maternal transfer of pyrethroid insecticides and sunscreen agents in dolphins from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mariana B; Feo, Maria Luisa; Corcellas, Cayo; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Marigo, Juliana; Flach, Leonardo; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2015-12-01

    Pyrethroids (PYR) and UV filters (UVF) were investigated in tissues of paired mother-fetus dolphins from Brazilian coast in order to investigate the possibility of maternal transfer of these emerging contaminants. Comparison of PYR and UVF concentrations in maternal and fetal blubber revealed Franciscana transferred efficiently both contaminants to fetuses (F/M > 1) and Guiana dolphin transferred efficiently PYR to fetuses (F/M > 1) different than UVF (F/M < 1). PYR and UVF concentrations in fetuses were the highest-ever reported in biota (up to 6640 and 11,530 ng/g lw, respectively). Muscle was the organ with the highest PYR and UVF concentrations (p < 0.001), suggesting that these two classes of emerging contaminants may have more affinity for proteins than for lipids. The high PYR and UVF concentrations found in fetuses demonstrate these compounds are efficiently transferred through placenta. This study is the first to report maternal transfer of pyrethroids and UV filters in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beta-sheet side chain polymers synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Lee; Adams, P Hans H M; Löwik, Dennis W P M; van Hest, Jan C M

    2005-01-01

    Silks are a widely studied class of naturally occurring structural proteins. Dragline spider silk, in particular, is considered to be nature's high-performance material due to its remarkable combination of strength and toughness. These mechanical properties stem from the protein secondary structure, a combination of well-defined beta-sheets in a less well-defined glycine-rich matrix. The translation of this structure into a synthetic polymer was the aim of this investigation. To achieve this, a peptide-based monomer containing the sequence alanine-glycine-alanine-glycine, a well-known beta-sheet-forming sequence found in silk, was synthesized. Using atom-transfer radical polymerization and a bifunctional initiator, a well-defined peptide-based polymer was prepared. This was then used as the macroinitiator for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. The resulting well-defined triblock copolymer was analyzed using IR spectroscopy, which clearly showed beta-sheet secondary structure had been introduced.

  14. Intracellular hydrolysis of short chain glycerides by rat small intestine in vitro and transfer of glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Howard, J.; Jackson, M. J.; Smyth, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    1. When triacetin, tripropionin and tributyrin are incubated with sacs of rat everted intestine, they enter the epithelial cells and are completely hydrolysed to free fatty acids and glycerol. 2. The distribution between the mucosal and serosal fluids of the glycerol released is very different from that of the fatty acid. Although both hydrolytic products are accumulated in the serosal fluid, a much higher fraction of the fatty acid appears in this compartment. 3. When glycerol is initially present in the mucosal fluid there is no evidence of its movement against a concentration gradient. 4. The results confirm the existence of a transport mechanism for fatty acids released intracellularly but do not require the hypothesis of a special mechanism for glycerol transfer. PMID:5500736

  15. The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magma

    PubMed

    Philpotts; Dickson

    2000-07-06

    The basaltic rock in the lower part of the thick Holyoke lava flow in Connecticut and Massachusetts has been shown to have a remarkable texture, with crystals of feldspar linked together in a continuous three-dimensional network of chains. Heating experiments have revealed that this network persists to temperatures where the rock is 75% liquid, and therefore the network was interpreted to have formed at an early stage of crystallization and to have played an important role in the compaction of crystal mush in the lower part of the flow. Despite the texture's importance to our understanding of how such basalt flows form, the origin of the texture has remained uncertain. Here we show that, although the network is present in the lower third of the flow, it was actually formed in the upper solidification front and was transported down in plumes of dense crystal mush. Convection of this type has been postulated for intrusive magma chambers, but corroborative field evidence has been equivocal, especially in lava lakes and flows. Preservation of the roof-generated texture in the lower part of a thick flood-basalt flow therefore constitutes important evidence for the role of convection in the solidification and differentiation of a simple magma sheet.

  16. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

  17. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  18. Early career: Templating of liquid crystal microstructures by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, Jennifer M.

    2014-12-31

    This research has shown that the microstructure of self-assembled copolymers can be decoupled from the polymer chemistry. The simplest polymer architecture, linear block copolymers, is valuable for a broad range of applications, including adhesives and coatings, medical devices, electronics and energy storage, because these block copolymers reproducibly self-assemble into microphase separated nanoscale domains. Unfortunately, the self-assembled microstructure is tuned by polymer composition, thus limiting the potential to simultaneously optimize chemical, mechanical, and transport properties for desired applications. To this end, much work was been put into manipulating block copolymer self-assembly independently of polymer composition. These efforts have included the use of additives or solvents to alter polymer chain conformation, the addition of a third monomer to produce ABC triblock terpolymers, architectures with mixed blocks, such as tapered/gradient polymers, and the synthesis of other nonlinear molecular architectures. This work has shown that the microstructures formed by linear ABC terpolymers can be altered by controlling the architecture of the polymer molecules at a constant monomer composition, so that the microstructure is tuned independently from the chemical properties.

  19. Effect of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on food-chain transfer of PCBs in Saginaw Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hoof, P.L. Van; Hsieh, J.L.; Eadie, B.J.; Lansing, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The recent invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has significantly impacted the water quality of the Great Lakes. Relatively little is known about the influence of zebra mussels on contaminant cycling, and transfer to higher trophic organisms. Due to its high filtering rate and ability to rapidly establish large populations, Dreissena could potentially alter the flow of energy through the food web. In addition, this species has demonstrated a large capacity for accumulating lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Thus, zebra mussels could contribute to enhanced contaminant biomagnification by serving as an additional food-chain link either through direct transfer (ingestion by fish or ducks), and/or indirectly by funneling contaminants out of the pelagic zone down to benthic invertebrates. In order to determine if zebra mussels are enhancing biomagnification of PCBs in a Saginaw Bay food web, two years of field collections of various components (water, sediment, algae, zooplankton, zebra mussel, zebra mussel feces, gammarid amphipods, fish) were analyzed for their PCB congener content. Trophic levels will be characterized using stable isotope ratios of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, whereas carbon sources will be identified using {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C ratios.

  20. From the quantum transfer matrix to the quench action: the Loschmidt echo in XXZ Heisenberg spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piroli, Lorenzo; Pozsgay, Balázs; Vernier, Eric

    2017-02-01

    We consider the computation of the Loschmidt echo after quantum quenches in the interacting XXZ Heisenberg spin chain both for real and imaginary times. We study two-site product initial states, focusing in particular on the Néel and tilted Néel states. We apply the quantum transfer matrix (QTM) approach to derive generalized TBA equations, which follow from the fusion hierarchy of the appropriate QTM’s. Our formulas are valid for arbitrary imaginary time and for real times at least up to a time t 0, after which the integral equations have to be modified. In some regimes, t 0 is seen to be either very large or infinite, allowing to explore in detail the post-quench dynamics of the system. As an important part of our work, we show that for the Néel state our imaginary time results can be recovered by means of the quench action approach, unveiling a direct connection with the quantum transfer matrix formalism. In particular, we show that in the zero-time limit, the study of our TBA equations allows for a simple alternative derivation of the recently obtained Bethe ansatz distribution functions for the Néel, tilted Néel and tilted ferromagnet states.

  1. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain.

    PubMed

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-03-31

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta.

  2. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    PubMed Central

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta. PMID:27030539

  3. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta.

  4. FAD oxidizes the ERO1-PDI electron transfer chain: The role of membrane integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, Eszter; Nardai, Gabor; Mandl, Jozsef; Banhegyi, Gabor; Csermely, Peter . E-mail: csermely@puskin.sote.hu

    2005-12-16

    The molecular steps of the electron transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum from the secreted proteins during their oxidation are relatively unknown. We present here that flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a powerful oxidizer of the oxidoreductase system, Ero1 and PDI, besides the proteins of rat liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells. Inhibition of FAD transport hindered the action of FAD. Microsomal membrane integrity was mandatory for all FAD-related oxidation steps downstream of Ero1. The PDI inhibitor bacitracin could inhibit FAD-mediated oxidation of microsomal proteins and PDI, but did not hinder the FAD-driven oxidation of Ero1. Our data demonstrated that Ero1 can utilize FAD as an electron acceptor and that FAD-driven protein oxidation goes through the Ero1-PDI pathway and requires the integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our findings prompt further studies to elucidate the membrane-dependent steps of PDI oxidation and the role of FAD in redox folding.

  5. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively.

  6. Chain conformation and nano-patterning of polymer brushes prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang

    Over the past decade, the development of surface-initiated living polymerization methods has brought a breakthrough to surface modification owing to their control ability. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (si-ATRP), as the most popular one, has been widely employed to give novel polymer structures and functionalities to various surfaces for the purposes of tailoring surface properties, introducing new functions, or preparing so-called "smart surfaces", which can respond to external stimuli such as solvent type, pH, temperature, electric and magnetic fields etc. In this thesis, the mechanistic study of the si-ATRP was first carried out through modeling to gain good understanding of si-ATRP. Si-ATRP was then employed to prepare different types of polymer brushes to produce "smart surfaces". The kinetic model was developed using the method of moment. Combined with experimental data, a quantitative analysis was carried out for the si-ATRP mechanism. All information of grafted polymer chains, including active chain concentration, radical concentration, chain length, polydispersity, was illustrated. A new radical termination mechanism, termed as migration-termination, was proposed for si-ATRP. Si-ATRP was then employed to graft poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) block poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes on silicon wafer surfaces. Simple solvent treatment gave nanoscale patterns via the phase segregation of POEGMA and PMMA segments. Various patterns including spherical aggregates, wormlike aggregates, stripe patterns, perforated layers and complete overlayers, were obtained by adjusting the upper block layer thickness. Furthermore, these nanopatterns had a unique stimuli-responsive property, i.e., switching between different morphologies reversibly after being treated with selective solvents. POEGMA-block-poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) brushes, having two hydrophilic segments, were synthesized

  7. The effect of mucolytic agents on gene transfer across a CF sputum barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stern, M; Caplen, N J; Browning, J E; Griesenbach, U; Sorgi, F; Huang, L; Gruenert, D C; Marriot, C; Crystal, R G; Geddes, D M; Alton, E W

    1998-01-01

    Trials of gene transfer for cystic fibrosis (CF) are currently underway. However, direct application to the airways may be impeded by the presence of airway secretions. We have therefore assessed the effect of CF sputum on the expression of the reporter gene beta-galactosidase complexed with the cationic liposome DC-Chol/DOPE in a number of cell lines in vitro. Transfection was markedly inhibited in the presence of sputum; the effect was concentration dependent and was only partially ameliorated by removal of sputum with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) washing before gene transfer. However, treatment of the sputum-covered cells with recombinant human DNase (rhDNase, 50 micrograms/ml) but not with N-acetylcysteine, Nacystelyn, lysine (all 20 mM) or recombinant alginase (0.5 U/ml) significantly (P < 0.005) improved gene transfer. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer efficiency in the presence of sputum was similarly inhibited, and again, treatment with rhDNase before transfection significantly improved gene transfer (P < 0.005). Transfection of Cos 7 cells in the presence of exogenous genomic DNA alone demonstrated similar inhibition to that observed with sputum and was also ameliorated by pre-treatment of DNA-covered cells with rhDNase. In a separate series of experiments performed in the absence of added sputum or genomic DNA, increasing concentrations of rhDNase resulted in a concentration-related decline in transfection efficiency. However, even at the highest concentration (500 micrograms/ml of rhDNase), transfection efficiency remained more than 50% of control. Thus, pre-treatment of CF airways with rhDNase may be appropriate before liposome or adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.

  8. 77 FR 61083 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...In accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has reviewed the list of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety and is republishing that list. As a result of......

  9. Experimental Study of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Mediated Heat Transfer for Therapeutic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, D.; Adam, D. R.; Einziger, P. D.

    2006-05-01

    Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCA) have been recently suggested as efficient enhancers of ultrasonic power deposition in tissue. The ultrasonic energy absorption by UCA, considered as disadvantageous in diagnostic imaging, might be valuable in therapeutic applications such as targeted hyperthermia or ablation treatments. The current study, based on theoretical predictions, was designed to experimentally measure the dissipation and heating effects of encapsulated UCA (Optison™) in a well-controlled and calibrated environment.

  10. Investigations in physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process assisted simultaneously by phase transfer agent and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar B; Chakma, Sankar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-05-01

    This paper attempts to discern the physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process simultaneously assisted by ultrasound and phase transfer agent (PTA). With different experimental protocols, an attempt is made to deduce individual beneficial effects of PTA and ultrasound on the oxidative desulfurization system, and also the synergy between the effects of PTA and ultrasound. Effect of PTA is more marked for mechanically stirred system due to mass transfer limitations, while intense emulsification due to ultrasound helps overcome the mass transfer limitations and reduces the extent of enhancement of oxidation by PTA. Despite application of PTA and ultrasound, the intrinsic factors and properties of the reactants such as polarity (and hence partition coefficient) and diffusivity have a crucial effect on the extent of oxidation. The intrinsic reactivity of the oxidant also plays a vital role, as seen from the extent of oxidation achieved with performic acid and peracetic acid. The interfacial transport of oxidant in the form of oxidant-PTA complex reduces the undesired consumption of oxidant by the reducing species formed during transient cavitation in organic medium, which helps effective utilization of oxidant towards desulfurization.

  11. En bloc transfer of polyubiquitin chains to PCNA in vitro is mediated by two different human E2–E3 pairs

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Yuji; Suzuki, Miki; Kawai, Hidehiko; Hishiki, Asami; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Masutani, Chikahide; Hishida, Takashi; Suzuki, Fumio; Kamiya, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Post-replication DNA repair in eukaryotes is regulated by ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Monoubiquitination catalyzed by RAD6–RAD18 (an E2–E3 complex) stimulates translesion DNA synthesis, whereas polyubiquitination, promoted by additional factors such as MMS2–UBC13 (a UEV–E2 complex) and HLTF (an E3 ligase), leads to template switching in humans. Here, using an in vitro ubiquitination reaction system reconstituted with purified human proteins, we demonstrated that PCNA is polyubiquitinated predominantly via en bloc transfer of a pre-formed ubiquitin (Ub) chain rather than by extension of the Ub chain on monoubiquitinated PCNA. Our results support a model in which HLTF forms a thiol-linked Ub chain on UBC13 (UBC13∼Ubn) and then transfers the chain to RAD6∼Ub, forming RAD6∼Ubn+1. The resultant Ub chain is subsequently transferred to PCNA by RAD18. Thus, template switching may be promoted under certain circumstances in which both RAD18 and HLTF are coordinately recruited to sites of stalled replication. PMID:22904075

  12. Controlling Electron Transfer between the Two Cofactor Chains of Photosystem I by the Redox State of One of Their Components

    PubMed Central

    Santabarbara, Stefano; Bullock, Bradford; Rappaport, Fabrice; Redding, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Two functional electron transfer (ET) chains, related by a pseudo-C2 symmetry, are present in the reaction center of photosystem I (PSI). Due to slight differences in the environment around the cofactors of the two branches, there are differences in both the kinetics of ET and the proportion of ET that occurs on the two branches. The strongest evidence that this is indeed the case relied on the observation that the oxidation rates of the reduced phylloquinone (PhQ) cofactor differ by an order of magnitude. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues involved in the respective PhQ-binding sites resulted in a specific alteration of the rates of semiquinone oxidation. Here, we show that the PsaA-F689N mutation results in an ∼100-fold decrease in the observed rate of PhQA− oxidation. This is the largest change of PhQA− oxidation kinetics observed so far for a single-point mutation, resulting in a lifetime that exceeds that of the terminal electron donor, P700+. This situation allows a second photochemical charge separation event to be initiated before PhQA− has decayed, thereby mimicking in PSI a situation that occurs in type II reaction centers. The results indicate that the presence of PhQA− does not impact the overall quantum yield and leads to an almost complete redistribution of the fractional utilization of the two functional ET chains, in favor of the one that does not bear the charged species. The evolutionary implications of these results are also briefly discussed. PMID:25809266

  13. Identification of the site where the electron transfer chain of plant mitochondria is stimulated by electrostatic charge screening.

    PubMed

    Krab, K; Wagner, M J; Wagner, A M; Moller, I M

    2000-02-01

    Modular kinetic analysis was used to determine the sites in plant mitochondria where charge-screening stimulates the rate of electron transfer from external NAD(P)H to oxygen. In mitochondria isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber callus, stimulation of the rate of oxygen uptake was accompanied by a decrease in the steady-state reduction level of coenzyme Q, and by a small decrease in the steady-state reduction level of cytochrome c. Modular kinetic analysis around coenzyme Q revealed that stimulation of the rate was due to stimulation of quinol oxidation via the cytochrome pathway (cytochrome bc1, cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase). It was not a consequence of any effect on quinone reduction (by external NADH or NADPH dehydrogenase). This explains the salt-induced decrease in the steady-state reduction level of coenzyme Q. Analysis around cytochrome c revealed that stimulation by salts was due to a dual effect on the respiratory chain. The kinetic curves for the oxidation and reduction pathways of cytochrome c revealed that they were both activated by salt, the simultaneity explaining the small variation observed in the steady-state reduction level of cytochrome c. A simple kinetic core model is used to show that changes in the rate of dissociation of cytochrome c from the membrane can explain the observed kinetic changes in both cytochrome c reduction and cytochrome c oxidation. The stimulation is proposed to be the result of an increase in the rate constant of cytochrome c dissociation from the membrane induced by cation screening. We conclude that this type of modular kinetic analysis is a powerful tool to identify and quantitatively characterize multiple-site effects on the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  14. Neutral-Type One-Dimensional Mixed-Valence Halogen-Bridged Platinum Chain Complexes with Large Charge-Transfer Band Gaps.

    PubMed

    Otake, Ken-ichi; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-07

    One-dimensional (1D) electronic systems have attracted significant attention for a long time because of their various physical properties. Among 1D electronic systems, 1D halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition-metal complexes (the so-called MX chains) have been thoroughly studied owing to designable structures and electronic states. Here, we report the syntheses, structures, and electronic properties of three kinds of novel neutral MX-chain complexes. The crystal structures consist of 1D chains of Pt-X repeating units with (1R,2R)-(-)-diaminocychlohexane and CN(-) in-plane ligands. Because of the absence of a counteranion, the neutral MX chains have short interchain distances, so that strong interchain electronic interaction is expected. Resonance Raman spectra and diffuse-reflectance UV-vis spectra indicate that their electronic states are mixed-valence states (charge-density-wave state: Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···). In addition, the relationship between the intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) band gap and the degree of distortion of the 1D chain shows that the neutral MX chains have a larger IVCT band gap than that of cationic MX-chain complexes. These results provide new insight into the physical and electronic properties of 1D chain compounds.

  15. Bioaccumulation and food-chain analysis for evaluating ecological risks in terrestrial and wetland habitats: Availability-transfer factors (ATFs) in soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Bollman, M.; Callahan, C.; Gillette, C.; Nebeker, A.; Wilborn, D.

    1998-12-31

    As part of the ecological risk assessment process for terrestrial and wetland habitats, the evaluation of bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCCs) is frequently pursued through food-chain analysis with a subsequent comparison of daily doses to benchmark toxicity reference values, when available. Food-chain analysis has frequently been applied to the analysis of exposure to BCCs identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) in the ecological risk assessment process. Here, designed studies focused on wetland food-chains such as hydric soil {r_arrow} soil macroinvertebrate {r_arrow} amphibian and terrestrial food-chains such as soil {r_arrow} plant {r_arrow} small mammal illustrate an approach for the derivation and validation of trophic transfer factors for metals considered as COPECs such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. The results clearly indicate that the transfer of chemicals between trophic levels is critical in the bioaccumulation process in wetland and terrestrial food-chains and is influenced by numerous interacting abiotic and biotic factors, including physicochemical properties of soil, and the role, if any, that the metal has in the receptor as a required trace element.

  16. Long chain ionic liquid based mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersed solid-phase extraction for the extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Xianbo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-04-12

    A novel mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction method based on long-chain ionic liquids for the extraction of five fluorescent whitening agents was established. The factors influenced on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, namely, the pH of sample solution at 8.0, the concentration of long chain ionic liquid at 0.5 mmol/L, the amount of Fe3 O4 nanoparticle at 12 mg, extraction time at 10 min, pH 6.0 of methanol as eluent and the desorption time at 1 min, satisfactory results were obtained. Wide linear ranges (0.02-10 ng/mL) and good linearity were attained (0.9997-0.9999). The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.1-8.3%. Limits of detection were 0.004-0.01 ng/mL, which was decreased by almost an order of magnitude compared to direct detection without extraction. The present method was applied to extract the fluorescent whitening agents in two kinds of paper samples, obtaining satisfactory results. All showed results illustrated that the detection sensitivity was improved and the proposed method was a good choice for the enriching and monitoring of trace fluorescent whitening agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  18. Stimulation of Menaquinone-Dependent Electron Transfer in the Respiratory Chain of Bacillus subtilis by Membrane Energization

    PubMed Central

    Azarkina, N.; Konstantinov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    At a pH of ≤7, respiration of Bacillus subtilis cells on endogenous substrates shut down almost completely upon addition of an uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone [CCCP]) and a K+-ionophore (valinomycin). The same effect was observed with cell spheroplasts lacking the cell wall. The concentration of CCCP required for 50% inhibition of the endogenous respiration in the presence of K+-valinomycin was below 100 nM. Either CCCP or valinomycin alone was much less efficient than the combination of the two. The inhibitory effect was easily reversible and depended specifically on the H+ and K+ concentrations in the medium. Similar inhibition was observed with respect to the reduction of the artificial electron acceptors 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine cation (TMPD+), which intercept reducing equivalents at the level of menaquinol. Oxidation of the reduced DCPIP or TMPD in the bacterial cells was not sensitive to uncoupling. The same loss of the electron transfer activities as induced by the uncoupling was observed upon disruption of the cells during isolation of the membranes; the residual activities were not further inhibited by the uncoupler and ionophores. We conclude that the menaquinone-dependent electron transfer in the B. subtilis respiratory chain is facilitated, thermodynamically or kinetically, by membrane energization. A requirement for an energized state of the membrane is not a specific feature of succinate oxidation, as proposed in the literature, since it was also observed in a mutant of B. subtilis lacking succinate:quinone reductase as well as for substrates other than succinate. Possible mechanisms of the energy-dependent regulation of menaquinone-dependent respiration in B. subtilis are discussed. PMID:12218020

  19. Metal Ion-dependent Heavy Chain Transfer Activity of TSG-6 Mediates Assembly of the Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David C.; Birchenough, Holly L.; Ali, Tariq; Rugg, Marilyn S.; Waltho, Jon P.; Ievoli, Elena; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Enghild, Jan J.; Richter, Ralf P.; Salustri, Antonietta; Milner, Caroline M.; Day, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) has a critical role in the expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC), a process that is necessary for ovulation and fertilization in most mammals. Hyaluronan is organized into a cross-linked network by the cooperative action of three proteins, inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), pentraxin-3, and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), driving the expansion of the COC and providing the cumulus matrix with its required viscoelastic properties. Although it is known that matrix stabilization involves the TSG-6-mediated transfer of IαI heavy chains (HCs) onto hyaluronan (to form covalent HC·HA complexes that are cross-linked by pentraxin-3) and that this occurs via the formation of covalent HC·TSG-6 intermediates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have determined the tertiary structure of the CUB module from human TSG-6, identifying a calcium ion-binding site and chelating glutamic acid residue that mediate the formation of HC·TSG-6. This occurs via an initial metal ion-dependent, non-covalent, interaction between TSG-6 and HCs that also requires the presence of an HC-associated magnesium ion. In addition, we have found that the well characterized hyaluronan-binding site in the TSG-6 Link module is not used for recognition during transfer of HCs onto HA. Analysis of TSG-6 mutants (with impaired transferase and/or hyaluronan-binding functions) revealed that although the TSG-6-mediated formation of HC·HA complexes is essential for the expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, the hyaluronan-binding function of TSG-6 does not play a major role in the stabilization of the murine cumulus matrix. PMID:26468290

  20. A hermetic self-sustained microbial solar cell based on Chlorella vulgaris and a versatile charge transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keliang; Zhou, Peijiang

    2015-10-01

    A hermetic noble-metal-free membrane-less microbial solar cell (MSC) is established. The substances decomposition and regeneration in this MSC are carried out only by Chlorella vulgaris simultaneously. The conversion of metabolism types of C. vulgaris is controlled only by illumination. By using a pleiotropic redox mediator and a cupric hexacyanoferrate modified cathode, a two-phase three-stage charge transfer chain is formed. Through this pathway, the one microorganism self-sustained system gets a long-term power output up to 0.04773 mW/cm2 at 0.423 V without any material exchange with external, which is 50 times higher than that obtained from the original system. Benefiting from this electron buffer system, the battery will achieve an electricity generation in both light and dark conditions. There is almost no consumption of any substrates throughout the stabilized process, and no more additions are required. This maintenance-free and extremely inexpensive reactor with a simple structure and a long service life demonstrates the possibility of combining the microbial, chemical and photo cells.

  1. Xanthohumol induces generation of reactive oxygen species and triggers apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chu, Wei; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Wei, Taotao

    2015-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a prenylflavonoid extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus). It possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers therapeutic benefits for treatment of metabolic syndromes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects remain to be elucidated, together with its cellular target. Here, we provide evidence that xanthohumol directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation, triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces apoptosis. In addition, we show that as a result of the inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xanthohumol exposure causes a rapid decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, we showed that xanthohumol up-regulates the glycolytic capacity in cells, and thus compensates cellular ATP generation. Dissection of the multiple steps of aerobic respiration by extracellular flux assays revealed that xanthohumol specifically inhibits the activity of mitochondrial complex I, but had little effect on that of complex II, III and IV. Inhibition of complex I by xanthohumol caused the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. We also found that isoxanthohumol, the structural isomer of xanthohumol, is inactive to cells, suggesting that the reactive 2-hydroxyl group of xanthohumol is crucial for its targeting to the mitochondrial complex I. Together, the remodeling of cell metabolism revealed here has therapeutic potential for the use of xanthohumol.

  2. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a marine food web from Liaodong Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Ziwei; Chen, Jingwen; Chen, Jiping

    2014-05-20

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under the evaluation for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. However, information on their bioconcentration and biomagnification in marine ecosystems is unavailable, limiting the evaluation of their ecological risks. In this study, seawater, sediment, zooplankton, invertebrates, and fishes collected from Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea, North China were analyzed to investigate the residual level, congener group profile, bioaccumulation, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in a marine food web. The total concentrations of SCCPs ranged from 4.1 to 13.1 ng L(-1) in seawater, 65 to 541 ng g(-1) (dw) in sediment, and 86 to 4400 ng g(-1) (ww) in organisms. Correspondence analysis indicated the relative enrichment of C10Cl5 and C11Cl5 formula groups in most aquatic organisms. Both the logarithm bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs: 4.1-6.7) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs: 0.1-7.3) of individual congeners implied the bioaccumulation of SCCPs. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of ∑SCCPs was determined to be 2.38 in the zooplankton-shrimp-fish food web, indicating biomagnification potential of SCCPs in the marine ecosystem. The TMF values of individual congener groups significantly correlated with their log KOW values.

  3. Improving the health and safety of 911 emergency call centre agents: an evaluability assessment of a knowledge transfer strategy.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Christian; Plouffe, Laurence; Gagné, Charles; Toulouse, Georges; Breault, Andrée-Anne; Dupont, Didier

    2017-03-01

    A knowledge transfer (KT) strategy was implemented by the IRSST, an occupational health and safety research institute established in Québec (Canada), to improve the prevention of psychological and musculoskeletal problems among 911 emergency call centre agents. An evaluability assessment was conducted in which each aspect of the KT approach was documented systematically to determine whether the strategy had the potential to be evaluated in terms of its impact on the targeted population. A review of the literature on KT in occupational health and safety and on the evaluation of such KT programmes, along with the development of a logic model based on documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, indicated that the KT strategy was likely to have had a positive impact in the 911 emergency call centre sector. Implications for future research are discussed.

  4. Optimal range for parvalbumin as relaxing agent in adult cardiac myocytes: gene transfer and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Coutu, Pierre; Metzger, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) has recently been shown to increase the relaxation rate when expressed in intact isolated cardiac myocytes via adenovirus gene transfer. We report here a combined experimental and mathematical modeling approach to determine the dose-response and the sarcomere length (SL) shortening-frequency relationship of PV in adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture. The dose-response was obtained experimentally by observing the PV-transduced myocytes at different time points after gene transfer. Calcium transients and unloaded mechanical contractions were measured. The results were as follows. At low estimated [PV] (approximately 0.01 mM), contractile parameters were unchanged; at intermediate [PV], relaxation rate of the mechanical contraction and the decay rate of the calcium transient increased with little effects on amplitude; and at high [PV] (approximately 0.1 mM), relaxation rate was further increased, but the amplitudes of the mechanical contraction and the calcium transient were diminished when compared with control myocytes. The SL shortening-frequency relationship exhibited a biphasic response to increasing stimulus frequency in controls (decrease in amplitude and re-lengthening time from 0.2 to 1.0 Hz followed by an increase in these parameters from 2.0 to 4.0 Hz). The effect of PV was to flatten this frequency response. This flattening effect was partly explained by a reduction in the variation in fractional binding of PV to calcium during beats at high frequency. In conclusion, experimental results and mathematical modeling indicate that there is an optimal PV range for which relaxation rate is increased with little effect on contractile amplitude and that PV effectiveness decreases as the stimulus frequency increases. PMID:11964244

  5. Conditionally activating optical contrast agent with enhanced sensitivity via gold nanoparticle plasmon energy transfer: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Aih; Wang, Jianting

    2014-12-07

    Molecular sensing/imaging utilizing fluorophores has been one of the most frequently used techniques in biomedical research. As for any molecular imaging techniques, fluorescence mediated sensing always seeks for greater specificity and sensitivity. Since fluorophores emit fluorescence while their electron energy state changes, manipulating the local electromagnetic field around the fluorophores may be a way to enhance the specificity and sensitivity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are known to form a very strong electromagnetic field on their surface [i.e., surface plasmon field (SPF)], upon receiving photonic energy. The level of fluorescence change by GNP-SPF may range from complete quenching to extensive enhancement, depending upon the SPF strength, excitation and emission wavelengths, and quantum yield of the fluorophore. Here, we report a novel design that utilizes BOTH fluorescence quenching and enhancement abilities of the GNP in one single nano-entity, providing high specificity and sensitivity. The construct utilizes a specially designed molecular dual-spacer that places the fluorphore at the location with an appropriate GNP-SFP strength before and after exposed to the biomarker. A model system to test the concept was an optical signal mediator activated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA; breast cancer secreting enzyme). The resulting contrast agent shows less than 10% of the natural fluorescence but, in the presence of uPA, its fluorescence emission is triggered and emits its fluorescence approximately twice of the natural form. This study demonstrated that our novel design of an optical contrast agent can be conditionally activated with enhanced sensitivity, using both quenching and enhancement phenomena of fluorophores in the electromagnetic field of the appropriate strengths (in this case, locally generated by the GNP-SPF). This entity is similar to molecular beacon in terms of specificity but with greater sensitivity. In addition, it is not

  6. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  7. Study of fluorescence characteristics of the charge-transfer reaction of quinolone agents with bromanil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Xuan, Chun-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method was discussed for the determination of three antibacterial quinolone derivatives, ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) through charge-transfer complexation (CTC) with 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, TBBQ). The method was based on the reaction of these drugs as n-electron donors with the π-acceptor TBBQ. TBBQ was found to react with these drugs to produce a kind of yellow complexes and the fluorescence intensities of the complexes were enhanced by 29-36 times more than those of the corresponding monomers. UV-vis, 1H NMR and XPS techniques were used to study the complexes formed. The various experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity were studied and optimized. Under optimal reaction conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.021-2.42 μg mL -1, 0.017-2.63 μg mL -1 and 0.019-2.14 μg mL -1 for OFL, NOR and CIP, respectively. The methods developed were applied successfully to the determination of the subject drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms with good precision and accuracy compared to official and reported methods as revealed by t- and F-tests.

  8. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Mike; Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-07-04

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of "simulatenous" presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  9. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels †

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions. PMID:28677637

  10. Case studies of aerosol and ocean color retrieval using a Markov chain radiative transfer model and AirMSPI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seidel, F. C.; Dubovik, O.; Zhai, P.

    2014-12-01

    A vector Markov chain radiative transfer method was developed for forward modeling of radiance and polarization fields in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The method was benchmarked against an independent Successive Orders of Scattering code and linearized through the use of Jacobians. Incorporated with the multi-patch optimization algorithm and look-up-table method, simultaneous aerosol and ocean color retrievals were performed using imagery acquired by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) when it was operated in step-and-stare mode with 9 viewing angles ranging between ±67°. Data from channels near 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, and 865* nm were used in the retrievals, where the asterisk denotes the polarimetric bands. Retrievals were run for AirMSPI overflights over Southern California and Monterey Bay, CA. For the relatively high aerosol optical depth (AOD) case (~0.28 at 550 nm), the retrieved aerosol concentration, size distribution, water-leaving radiance, and chlorophyll concentration were compared to those reported by the USC SeaPRISM AERONET-OC site off the coast of Southern California on 6 February 2013. For the relatively low AOD case (~0.08 at 550 nm), the retrieved aerosol concentration and size distribution were compared to those reported by the Monterey Bay AERONET site on 28 April 2014. Further, we evaluate the benefits of multi-angle and polarimetric observations by performing the retrievals using (a) all view angles and channels; (b) all view angles but radiances only (no polarization); (c) the nadir view angle only with both radiance and polarization; and (d) the nadir view angle without polarization. Optimized retrievals using different initial guesses were performed to provide a measure of retrieval uncertainty. Removal of multi-angular or polarimetric information resulted in increases in both parameter uncertainty and systematic bias. Potential accuracy improvements afforded by applying constraints on the surface

  11. Novel Dental Restorative Materials having Low Polymerization Shrinkage Stress via Stress Relaxation by Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Young; Kloxin, Christopher J.; Abuelyaman, Ahmed S.; Oxman, Joe D.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To produce a reduced stress dental restorative material while simultaneously maintaining excellent mechanical properties, we have incorporated an allyl sulfide functional group into norbornene-methacrylate comonomer resins. We hypothesize that the addition-fragmentation chain transfer (AFCT) enabled by the presence of the allyl sulfide relieves stress in these methacrylate-based systems while retaining excellent mechanical properties owing to the high glass transition temperature of norbornene-containing resins. Methods An allyl sulfide-containing dinorbornene was stoichiometrically formulated with a ring-containing allyl sulfide-possessing methacrylate. To evaluate the stress relaxation effect as a function of the allyl sulfide concentration, a propyl sulfide-based dinorbornene, not capable of addition-fragmentation, was also formulated with the methacrylate monomer. Shrinkage stress, the glass transition temperature and the elastic modulus were all measured. The composite flexural strength and modulus were also measured. ANOVA (CI 95%) was conducted to determine differences between the means. Results Increasing the allyl sulfide content in the resin dramatically reduces the final stress in the norbornene-methacrylate systems. Both norbornene-methacrylate resins demonstrated almost zero stress (more than 96% stress reduction) compared with the conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA 70/30 wt% control. Mechanical properties of the allyl sulfide-based dental composites were improved to the point of being statistically indistinguishable from the control BisGMA-TEGDMA by changing the molar ratio between the methacrylate and norbornene functionalities. Significance The allyl sulfide-containing norbornene-methacrylate networks possessed super-ambient Tg, and demonstrated significantly lower shrinkage stress when compared with the control (BisGMA/TEGDMA 70 to 30 wt%). Although additional development remains, these low stress materials exhibit excellent mechanical

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of a polydisulfide with Gd-DOTA monoamide side chains as a biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent for MR blood pool imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Wu, Xueming; Tan, Mingqian; Jesberger, Jack; Grisworld, Mark; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Macromolecular Gd(III)-based contrast agents are effective for contrast-enhanced blood pool and cancer MRI in preclinical studies. However, their clinical applications are impeded by potential safety concerns associated with slow excretion and prolonged retention of these agents in the body. To minimize the safety concerns of macromolecular Gd contrast agents, we have developed biodegradable macromolecular Gd contrast agents based on polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes. In this study, we designed and synthesized a new generation of the polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes containing a macrocyclic Gd(III) chelate, Gd-DOTA monoamide, to improve the in vivo kinetic inertness of the Gd(III) chelates. (N6-Lysyl)lysine-(Gd-DOTA) monoamide and 3-(2-carboxyethyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid copolymers (GODC) were synthesized by copolymerization of (N6-lysyl)lysine DOTA monoamide and dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate), followed by complexation with Gd(OAc)3. The GODC had an apparent molecular weight of 26.4 kDa and T1 relaxivity of 8.25 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd at 1.5 T. The polymer chains of GODC were readily cleaved by L-cysteine and the chelates had high kinetic stability against transmetallation in the presence of an endogenous metal ion Zn(2+). In vivo MRI study showed that GODC produced strong and prolonged contrast enhancement in the vasculature and tumor periphery of mice with breast tumor xenografts. GODC is a promising biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent with high kinetic stability for MR blood pool imaging.

  13. Characterization of tailor-made copolymers of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate as nonviral gene transfer agents: influence of macromolecular structure on gene vector particle properties and transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Uzgün, Senta; Akdemir, Ozgür; Hasenpusch, Günther; Maucksch, Christof; Golas, Monika M; Sander, Bjoern; Stark, Holger; Imker, Rabea; Lutz, Jean-François; Rudolph, Carsten

    2010-01-11

    Oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylates (OEGMA) of various chain lengths (i.e., 9, 23, or 45 EG units) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were copolymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), yielding well-defined P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers with increasing OEGMA molar fractions (F(OEGMA)) but a comparable degree of polymerization (DP approximately 120). Increase of both F(OEGMA) and OEGMA chain lengths correlated inversely with gene vector size, morphology, and zeta potential. P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers prevented gene vector aggregation at high plasmid DNA (pDNA) concentrations in isotonic solution and did not induce cytotoxicity even at high concentrations. Transfection efficiency of the most efficient P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers was found to be >10-fold lower compared with branched polyethylenimine (PEI) 25 kDa. Although OEGMA copolymerization largely reduced gene vector binding with the cell surface, cellular internalization of the bound complexes was less affected. These observations suggest that inefficient endolysosomal escape limits transfection efficiency of P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymer gene vectors. Despite this observation, optimized p(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) gene vectors remained stable under conditions for in vivo application leading to 7-fold greater gene expression in the lungs compared with PEI. Tailor-made P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers are promising nonviral gene transfer agents that fulfill the requirements for successful in vivo gene delivery.

  14. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors <1. Despite the decrease in the assimilation efficiency of metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products.

  15. Conformation of methyl beta-lactoside bound to the ricin B-chain: Interpretation of transferred nuclear Overhauser effects facilitated by spin simulation and selective deuteration

    SciTech Connect

    Bevilacqua, V.L.; Thomson, D.S.; Prestegard, J.H. )

    1990-06-12

    Spin simulation and selective deuteration have been used to aid in the interpretation of 1D transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) NMR experiments on ricin B-chain/ligand systems. Application of these methods has revealed a change in the conformation of deuterated methyl beta-lactoside upon binding to the ricin B-chain which results in a slight change in glycosidic torsional angels which appear to dominate in the solution conformation. The combination of simulation and experiment also shows an important sensitivity of TRNOE magnitudes to dissociation rate constants and available spin-diffusion pathways for the ricin B-chain/ligand systems under study. The sensitivity to dissociation rates allows determination of rate constants for methyl beta-lactoside and methyl beta-galactoside of 50 and 300 s-1, respectively.

  16. Paramagnetic lanthanide(III) complexes as pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents for MRI applications.

    PubMed

    Aime, Silvio; Barge, Alessandro; Delli Castelli, Daniela; Fedeli, Franco; Mortillaro, Armando; Nielsen, Flemming U; Terreno, Enzo

    2002-04-01

    The recently introduced new class of contrast agents (CAs) based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) may have a huge potential for the development of novel applications in the field of MRI. In this work we explored the CEST properties of a series of Lanthanide(III) complexes (Ln = Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) with the macrocyclic DOTAM-Gly ligand, which is the tetraglycineamide derivative of DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). These complexes possess two pools of exchangeable protons represented by the coordinated water and the amide protons. Yb-DOTAM-Gly displays the most interesting CEST properties when its amide N-H resonance (16 ppm upfield H2O signal) is irradiated. Up to 70% suppression of the water signal is obtained at pH 8. As the exchange rate of amide protons is base-catalyzed, Yb-DOTAM-Gly results to be an efficient pH-responsive probe in the 5.5-8.1 pH range. Moreover, a ratiometric method has been set up in order to remove the dependence of the observed pH responsiveness from the absolute concentration of the paramagnetic agent. In fact, the use of a mixture of Eu-DOTAM-Gly and Yb-DOTAM-Gly, whose exchangeable proton pools are represented by the coordinated water (ca. 40 ppm downfield H2O signal at 312K) and amide protons, respectively, produces a pH-dependent CEST effect which is the function of the concentration ratio of the two complexes.

  17. Calibration chain design based on integrating sphere transfer radiometer for SI-traceable on-orbit spectral radiometric calibration and its uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei-Ning; Fang, Wei; Sun, Li-Wei; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Yu-Peng

    2016-09-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of SI-traceable on-orbit absolute radiation calibration transfer with high accuracy for satellite remote sensors, a transfer chain consisting of a fiber coupling monochromator (FBM) and an integrating sphere transfer radiometer (ISTR) was designed in this paper. Depending on the Sun, this chain based on detectors provides precise spectral radiometric calibration and measurement to spectrometers in the reflective solar band (RSB) covering 300-2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 0.5-6 nm. It shortens the traditional chain based on lamp source and reduces the calibration uncertainty from 5% to 0.5% by using the cryogenic radiometer in space as a radiometric benchmark and trap detectors as secondary standard. This paper also gives a detailed uncertainty budget with reasonable distribution of each impact factor, including the weak spectral signal measurement with uncertainty of 0.28%. According to the peculiar design and comprehensive uncertainty analysis, it illustrates that the spectral radiance measurement uncertainty of the ISTR system can reach to 0.48%. The result satisfies the requirements of SI-traceable on-orbit calibration and has wider significance for expanding the application of the remote sensing data with high-quality. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41474161) and the National High-Technology Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA123703).

  18. Trophic transfer of trace elements in an isotopically constructed food chain from a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Costa, Valentina; Tramati, Cecilia; Gianguzza, Paola; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Trace element accumulation is particularly important in coastal and transitional environments, which act as contaminant buffers between the continental and marine systems. We compared trace element transfer to the biota in two locations with different open-sea exposures in a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Italy) using isotopically reconstructed food chains. Samples of sediment, macroalgae, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, and bird feathers were sampled in July 2006 and analysed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and trace elements (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], total mercury [THg], and lead [Pb]). Trophic magnification factors were calculated through the relationships between trace elements and δ(15)N in consumers. As and Pb were greater in organic matter sources (sediments and primary producers), whereas Cd and THg were greater in bird feathers. At the food chain level, an insignificant trophic transfer was found for all elements, suggesting biodilution rather than biomagnification. Sediments were more contaminated in the location with lower open-sea exposure. Macroalgae and seagrasses overall mirrored the spatial pattern highlighted in sediments, whereas differences between the two locations became further decreased moving toward higher trophic levels, indicating that trophic transfer of sediment and macrophyte-bound trace elements to the coastal lagoon food chain may be of relatively minor importance.

  19. Gene transfer agent (GTA) genes reveal diverse and dynamic Roseobacter and Rhodobacter populations in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanlin; Wang, Kui; Budinoff, Charles; Buchan, Alison; Lang, Andrew; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2009-03-01

    Within the bacterial class Alphaproteobacteria, the order Rhodobacterales contains the Roseobacter and Rhodobacter clades. Roseobacters are abundant and play important biogeochemical roles in marine environments. Roseobacter and Rhodobacter genomes contain a conserved gene transfer agent (GTA) gene cluster, and GTA-mediated gene transfer has been observed in these groups of bacteria. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of these two groups in Chesapeake Bay surface waters using a specific PCR primer set targeting the conserved Rhodobacterales GTA major capsid protein gene (g5). The g5 gene was successfully amplified from 26 Rhodobacterales isolates and the bay microbial communities using this primer set. Four g5 clone libraries were constructed from microbial assemblages representing different regions and seasons of the bay and yielded diverse sequences. In total, 12 distinct g5 clusters could be identified among 158 Chesapeake Bay clones, 11 fall within the Roseobacter clade, and one falls in the Rhodobacter clade. The vast majority of the clusters (10 out of 12) lack cultivated representatives. The composition of g5 sequences varied dramatically along the bay during the wintertime, and a distinct Roseobacter population composition between winter and summer was observed. The congruence between g5 and 16S rRNA gene phylogenies indicates that g5 may serve as a useful genetic marker to investigate diversity and abundance of Roseobacter and Rhodobacter in natural environments. The presence of the g5 gene in the natural populations of Roseobacter and Rhodobacter implies that genetic exchange through GTA transduction could be an important mechanism for maintaining the metabolic flexibility of these groups of bacteria.

  20. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger

  1. Concise and Efficient Fluorescent Probe via an Intromolecular Charge Transfer for the Chemical Warfare Agent Mimic Diethylchlorophosphate Vapor Detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjun; Fu, Yanyan; Xu, Wei; Fan, Tianchi; Gao, Yixun; He, Qingguo; Zhu, Defeng; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2016-02-16

    Sarin, used as chemical warfare agents (CWAs) for terrorist attacks, can induce a number of virulent effects. Therefore, countermeasures which could realize robust and convenient detection of sarin are in exigent need. A concise charge-transfer colorimetric and fluorescent probe (4-(6-(tert-butyl)pyridine-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline, TBPY-TPA) that could be capable of real-time and on-site monitoring of DCP vapor was reported in this contribution. Upon contact with DCP, the emission band red-shifted from 410 to 522 nm upon exposure to DCP vapor. And the quenching rate of TBPY-TPA reached up to 98% within 25 s. Chemical substances such as acetic acid (HAc), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PAMP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) do not interfere with the detection. A detection limit for DCP down to 2.6 ppb level is remarkably achieved which is below the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration. NMR data suggested that a transformation of the pyridine group into pyridinium salt via a cascade reaction is responsible for the sensing process which induced the dramatic fluorescent red shift. All of these data suggest TBPY-TPA is a promising fluorescent sensor for a rapid, simple, and low-cost method for DCP detection, which could be easy to prepare as a portable chemosensor kit for its practical application in real-time and on-site monitoring.

  2. Proteomic analysis and identification of the structural and regulatory proteins of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frank; Spano, Anthony; Goodman, Benjamin E; Blasier, Kiev R; Sabat, Agnes; Jeffery, Erin; Norris, Andrew; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2009-02-01

    The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (GTA) is a unique phage-like particle that exchanges genetic information between members of this same species of bacterium. Besides being an excellent tool for genetic mapping, the GTA has a number of advantages for biotechnological and nanoengineering purposes. To facilitate the GTA purification and identify the proteins involved in GTA expression, assembly and regulation, in the present work we construct and transform into R. capsulatus Y262 a gene coding for a C-terminally His-tagged capsid protein. The constructed protein was expressed in the cells, assembled into chimeric GTA particles inside the cells and excreted from the cells into surrounding medium. Transmission electron micrographs of phosphotungstate-stained, NiNTA-purified chimeric GTA confirm that its structure is similar to normal GTA particles, with many particles composed both of a head and a tail. The mass spectrometric proteomic analysis of polypeptides present in the GTA recovered outside the cells shows that GTA is composed of at least 9 proteins represented in the GTA gene cluster including proteins coded for by Orf's 3, 5, 6-9, 11, 13, and 15.

  3. [The reagents kit to detect Metyorchis biis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus--agents of opisthorchiasis using technique of polymerase chain reaction in real-time].

    PubMed

    Seredina, T A; Petrenko, V A; Tronin, A V; Sazonov, A Iu; Sapugol'tseva, O B; Katokhin, A V; Odintsova, E S

    2014-08-01

    The helminths Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis, Metorchis bilis are the agents of opisthorchiasis. The actual diagnostic of parasitic diseases based on microscope analysis of samples of human feces to detect presence of ova of parasites suffers of many shortcomings, in particular low sensitivity especially at earlier stages. The purpose of this study was to compare results of detection of parasites using both classical technique and technique of specific differentiation based on extraction of nucleic acids from samples of human feces and implementation of reaction of amplification of the chosen fragment of DNA with detection of products of polymerase chain reaction in the real time. The study detected 150 out of 165 positive samples and also 6 out of 37 negative samples both validated by coproovoscopy.

  4. Estimating side-chain order in methyl-protonated, perdeuterated proteins via multiple-quantum relaxation violated coherence transfer NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hechao; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Tugarinov, Vitali

    2012-03-01

    Relaxation violated coherence transfer NMR spectroscopy (Tugarinov et al. in J Am Chem Soc 129:1743-1750, 2007) is an established experimental tool for quantitative estimation of the amplitudes of side-chain motions in methyl-protonated, highly deuterated proteins. Relaxation violated coherence transfer experiments monitor the buildup of methyl proton multiple-quantum coherences that can be created in magnetically equivalent spin-systems as long as their transverse magnetization components relax with substantially different rates. The rate of this build-up is a reporter of the methyl-bearing side-chain mobility. Although the build-up of multiple-quantum (1)H coherences is monitored in these experiments, the decay of the methyl signal during relaxation delays occurs when methyl proton magnetization is in a single-quantum state. We describe a relaxation violated coherence transfer approach where the relaxation of multiple-quantum (1)H-(13)C methyl coherences during the relaxation delay period is quantified. The NMR experiment and the associated fitting procedure that models the time-dependence of the signal build-up, are applicable to the characterization of side-chain order in [(13)CH(3)]-methyl-labeled, highly deuterated protein systems up to ~100 kDa in molecular weight. The feasibility of extracting reliable measures of side-chain order is experimentally verified on methyl-protonated, perdeuterated samples of an 8.5-kDa ubiquitin at 10°C and an 82-kDa Malate Synthase G at 37°C.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of amide side-chain modified Agomelatine analogues as potential antidepressant-like agents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Pi, Weiyi; Ang, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Chunlong; Zheng, Jiajia; Xiong, Li; Yang, Tao; Luo, Youfu

    2014-04-01

    In this work, nineteen analogues of Agomelatine were readily synthesized through structural modification of the acetamide side-chain starting from the key common intermediate 2-(7-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl) ethanamine (3), which was prepared from commercially available compound 2-(7-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl) acetonitrile (2) in two steps. Corticosterone-induced PC12 pheochromocytoma cells phenotypic in vitro model was utilized to evaluate their potential antidepression activities. Imide compound 4a and acylamino carboxylic acid analogue 5b showed good protective effects on traumatic PC12 cells with protection rates of 34.2% and 23.2%, respectively. Further in vivo assessments in C57 mice FST (forced swim test) model demonstrated that compound 4a significantly reduced the immobility time of the tested subjects, indicating antidepressant-like activity. Preliminary toxicity assays conducted on human normal liver L02 cells and embryonic kidney 293 cells suggested a relatively low safety risk for compound 4a compared with the marketed drugs Agomelatine and Fluoxetine. The promising antidepressant-like efficacy of compound 4a, together with the relatively low toxicity to the normal tested cells and high liability of diffusion through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), presents us insights of exploration of me-better drug candidates of Agomelatine.

  6. Long Chain Alkyl Esters of Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Promising Anticancer Agents: Selective Induction of Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Menezes, José C J M D S; Edraki, Najmeh; Kamat, Shrivallabh P; Khoshneviszadeh, Mahsima; Kayani, Zahra; Mirzaei, Hossein Hadavand; Miri, Ramin; Erfani, Nasrollah; Nejati, Maryam; Cavaleiro, José A S; Silva, Tiago; Saso, Luciano; Borges, Fernanda; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2017-08-23

    Cancer is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are naturally occurring compounds and their alkyl esters may possess enhanced biological activities. We evaluated C4, C14, C16, and C18 alkyl esters of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acids (19 compounds) for their cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cells and also examined their effect on cell cycle alteration and apoptosis induction. The tetradecyl (1c) and hexadecyl (1d) esters of p-coumaric acid and tetradecyl ester of caffeic acid (4c), but not the parental HCAs, were selectively effective against MOLT-4 (human lymphoblastic leukemia) cells with IC50 values of 0.123 ± 0.012, 0.301 ± 0.069 and 1.0 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Compounds 1c, 1d, and 4c significantly increased apoptotic cells in sub-G1 phase and activated the caspase-3 enzyme in MOLT-4 cells. Compound 1c was 15.4 and 23.6 times more potent than doxorubicin and cisplatin, respectively, against the drug resistant MES-SA-DX5 uterine sarcoma cells. These p-coumarate esters were several times less effective against NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. Docking studies showed that 1c may cause cytotoxicity by interaction with carbonic anhydrase IX. In conclusion, long chain alkyl esters of p-coumaric acid are promising scaffolds for selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells.

  7. Environmental monitoring for biological threat agents using the autonomous pathogen detection system with multiplexed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Regan, John F; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Hindson, Benjamin J; Metz, Thomas R; Gutierrez, Dora M; Corzett, Todd H; Hadley, Dean R; Mahnke, Ryan C; Henderer, Bruce D; Breneman, John W; Weisgraber, Todd H; Dzenitis, John M

    2008-10-01

    We have developed and field-tested a now operational civilian biodefense capability that continuously monitors the air in high-risk locations for biological threat agents. This stand-alone instrument, called the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), collects and selectively concentrates particles from the air into liquid samples and analyzes the samples using multiplexed PCR amplification coupled with microsphere array detection. During laboratory testing, we evaluated the APDS instrument's response to Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis by spiking the liquid sample stream with viable spores and cells, bead-beaten lysates, and purified DNA extracts. APDS results were also compared to a manual real-time PCR method. Field data acquired during 74 days of continuous operation at a mass-transit subway station are presented to demonstrate the specificity and reliability of the APDS. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security recently selected the APDS reported herein as the first autonomous detector component of their BioWatch antiterrorism program. This sophisticated field-deployed surveillance capability now generates actionable data in one-tenth the time of manual filter collection and analysis.

  8. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Tramuta, Clara; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Mariella; Dondo, Alessandro; Ferroglio, Ezio; Nebbia, Patrizia; Rosati, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; mPCR5). The protocol was tested on different tissue samples collected from 50 aborted bovine fetuses, and it showed that out of the 50 fetuses, 7 (14%, mPCR2) were PCR-positive for N. caninum, 4 (8%, mPCR5) were PCR-positive for BVDV, and 2 (4%, mPCR4) were PCR-positive for U. diversum. The results obtained by using each multiplex PCR were 100% concordant with those obtained by using the respective PCR assays targeting single genes on the same specimens. Moreover, all multiplex PCR assays on clinical samples were compared with reference methods, obtaining a perfect accordance in all samples and confirming the validity of the set of multiplex PCR assays. The proposed set of multiplex PCR assays is, therefore, suitable for the simultaneous detection of the main infectious agents responsible for bovine abortion.

  9. Nucleic Acid Ligands With Protein-like Side Chains: Modified Aptamers and Their Use as Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rohloff, John C; Gelinas, Amy D; Jarvis, Thale C; Ochsner, Urs A; Schneider, Daniel J; Gold, Larry; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2014-01-01

    Limited chemical diversity of nucleic acid libraries has long been suspected to be a major constraining factor in the overall success of SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). Despite this constraint, SELEX has enjoyed considerable success over the past quarter of a century as a result of the enormous size of starting libraries and conformational richness of nucleic acids. With judicious introduction of functional groups absent in natural nucleic acids, the “diversity gap” between nucleic acid–based ligands and protein-based ligands can be substantially bridged, to generate a new class of ligands that represent the best of both worlds. We have explored the effect of various functional groups at the 5-position of uracil and found that hydrophobic aromatic side chains have the most profound influence on the success rate of SELEX and allow the identification of ligands with very low dissociation rate constants (named Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamers or SOMAmers). Such modified nucleotides create unique intramolecular motifs and make direct contacts with proteins. Importantly, SOMAmers engage their protein targets with surfaces that have significantly more hydrophobic character compared with conventional aptamers, thereby increasing the range of epitopes that are available for binding. These improvements have enabled us to build a collection of SOMAmers to over 3,000 human proteins encompassing major families such as growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, hormones, and receptors, with additional SOMAmers aimed at pathogen and rodent proteins. Such a large and growing collection of exquisite affinity reagents expands the scope of possible applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25291143

  10. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  11. Building Pathways to Transfer: Community Colleges That Break the Chain of Failure for Students of Color. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study followed all freshman community college students in California who had demonstrated the intent to transfer from 1996, 1997, and 1998. Outcomes were assessed for each of the three entering cohorts after six years (2002-2004) and students were linked with their high schools of origin and the 4-year colleges to which they transferred. The…

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of 4-substituted-cyclic sulfamidate-5-carboxylates by asymmetric transfer hydrogenation accompanied by dynamic kinetic resolution and applications to concise stereoselective syntheses of (-)-epi-cytoxazone and the taxotere side-chain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-ah; Seo, Yeon Ji; Kang, Soyeong; Han, Juae; Lee, Hyeon-Kyu

    2014-11-18

    Dynamic kinetic resolution driven, asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reactions of cyclic sulfamidate imine-5-carboxylate esters were developed. Applications of the new methodology to stereoselective syntheses of the taxotere side-chain and (-)-epi-cytoxazone are described.

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer involving eosin-tryptophan conjugates. Long-lived radical pair states for systems incorporating aromatic amino acid side chains

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II; Farahat, C.W.; Oh, C. )

    1994-07-14

    The electron-transfer photochemistry of the covalent derivatives of the dye eosin, in which the xanthene dye is covalently attached to the amino acid L-tryptophan via the thiohydantoin derivative, the tryptophan dipeptide, and an ethyl ester derivative, has been investigated. The singlet excited state of the dye is significantly quenched on attachment of the aromatic amino acid residue. Dye triplet states are also intercepted through intramolecular interaction of excited dye and amino acid pendants. Flash photolysis experiments verify that this interaction involves electron transfer from the indole side chains of tryptophan. Rate constants for electron transfer are discussed in terms of the distance relationships for the eosin chromophore and aromatic redox sites on peptide derivatives, the pathway for [sigma]-[pi] through-bond interaction between redox sites, and the multiplicity and state of protonation for electron-transfer intermediates. Selected electron-transfer photoreactions were studied under conditions of binding of the peptide derivatives in a high molecular weight, water-soluble, globular polymer, poly(vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone). 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review of the List of Select Agents and Toxins and Enhanced Biosafety Requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-19

    In accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Response Act), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has reviewed the list of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. Following the review, HHS has decided: Not to finalize the proposed changes to the list of select agents and toxins at this time; to finalize provisions to address toxin permissible limits and the inactivation of select agents; to finalize specific provisions to the section of the regulations addressing biosafety; and to clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, incident response, and records. In a companion document published in this issue of the Federal Register, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has made parallel regulatory changes.

  15. Ultrafast charge-transfer reactions of indoline dyes with anchoring alkyl chains of varying length in mesoporous ZnO solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Egmont; Minda, Iulia; Tauscher, Gabriele; Richter, Christoph; Miura, Hidetoshi; Schlettwein, Derck; Schwoerer, Heinrich

    2015-04-07

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on a mesoporous ZnO substrate were sensitized with the indoline derivatives DN91, DN216 and DN285. The chromophore is the same for each of these dyes. They differ from each other in the length of an alkyl chain, which provides a second anchor to the ZnO surface and prolongs cell lifetime. Ultrafast transient absorption measurements reveal a correlation between the length of the alkyl chain and the fastest electron-injection process. The depopulation of the excited state and the associated emergence of the oxidized molecules are dominant spectral features in the transient absorption of the dyes with shorter alkyl chains. A slower picosecond-scale decay proceeds at constant rate for all three derivatives and is assigned to electron transfer into the trap states of ZnO. All assignments are in good agreement with a higher quantum efficiency of charge injection leading to higher short-circuit currents J(sc) for dyes with shorter alkyl chains.

  16. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the phosphoryl-transfer chain of the phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase system through phylogenetic analyses and genome context

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a major role in sugar transport and in the regulation of essential physiological processes in many bacteria. The PTS couples solute transport to its phosphorylation at the expense of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and it consists of general cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins and specific enzyme II complexes which catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of solutes. Previous studies have suggested that the evolution of the constituents of the enzyme II complexes has been driven largely by horizontal gene transfer whereas vertical inheritance has been prevalent in the general phosphoryl transfer proteins in some bacterial groups. The aim of this work is to test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of the phosphoryl transfer proteins of the PTS. Results We have analyzed the evolutionary history of the PTS phosphoryl transfer chain (PTS-ptc) components in 222 complete genomes by combining phylogenetic methods and analysis of genomic context. Phylogenetic analyses alone were not conclusive for the deepest nodes but when complemented with analyses of genomic context and functional information, the main evolutionary trends of this system could be depicted. Conclusion The PTS-ptc evolved in bacteria after the divergence of early lineages such as Aquificales, Thermotogales and Thermus/Deinococcus. The subsequent evolutionary history of the PTS-ptc varied in different bacterial lineages: vertical inheritance and lineage-specific gene losses mainly explain the current situation in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes whereas horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also played a major role in Proteobacteria. Most remarkably, we have identified a HGT event from Firmicutes or Fusobacteria to the last common ancestor of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Shewanellaceae and Vibrionaceae. This transfer led to extensive changes in the metabolic and regulatory networks of these bacteria including the development of a

  17. Measuring distances within unfolded biopolymers using fluorescence resonance energy transfer: The effect of polymer chain dynamics on the observed fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen a number of investigations in which distances within unfolded proteins, polypeptides, and other biopolymers are probed via fluorescence resonance energy transfer, a method that relies on the strong distance dependence of energy transfer between a pair of dyes attached to the molecule of interest. In order to interpret the results of such experiments it is commonly assumed that intramolecular diffusion is negligible during the excited state lifetime. Here we explore the conditions under which this “frozen chain” approximation fails, leading to significantly underestimated donor-acceptor distances, and describe a means of correcting for polymer dynamics in order to estimate these distances more accurately. PMID:19725638

  18. Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-05-01

    After the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), an accidental release of a large amount of radioactive isotopes into both the air and the ocean occurred. Measurements provided by the Japanese agencies over the past 5 years show that elevated concentrations of 137Cs still remain in sediments, benthic organisms, and demersal fishes in the coastal zone around the FDNPP. These observations indicate that there are 137Cs transfer pathways from bottom sediments to the marine organisms. To describe the transfer quantitatively, the dynamic food chain biological uptake model of radionuclides (BURN) has been extended to include benthic marine organisms. The extended model takes into account both pelagic and benthic marine organisms grouped into several classes based on their trophic level and type of species: phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fishes (two types: piscivorous and non-piscivorous) for the pelagic food chain; deposit-feeding invertebrates, demersal fishes fed by benthic invertebrates, and bottom omnivorous predators for the benthic food chain; crustaceans, mollusks, and coastal predators feeding on both pelagic and benthic organisms. Bottom invertebrates ingest organic parts of bottom sediments with adsorbed radionuclides which then migrate up through the food chain. All organisms take radionuclides directly from water as well as food. The model was implemented into the compartment model POSEIDON-R and applied to the north-western Pacific for the period of 1945-2010, and then for the period of 2011-2020 to assess the radiological consequences of 137Cs released due to the FDNPP accident. The model simulations for activity concentrations of 137Cs in both pelagic and benthic organisms in the coastal area around the FDNPP agree well with measurements for the period of 2011-2015. The decrease constant in the fitted exponential function of simulated concentration for the deposit-feeding invertebrates (0.45 yr-1

  19. Mimicking the electron transfer chain in photosystem II with a molecular triad thermodynamically capable of water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Antoniuk-Pablant, Antaeres; Sherman, Benjamin D; Kodis, Gerdenis; Gervaldo, Miguel; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

    2012-09-25

    In the photosynthetic photosystem II, electrons are transferred from the manganese-containing oxygen evolving complex (OEC) to the oxidized primary electron-donor chlorophyll P680(•+) by a proton-coupled electron transfer process involving a tyrosine-histidine pair. Proton transfer from the tyrosine phenolic group to a histidine nitrogen positions the redox potential of the tyrosine between those of P680(•+) and the OEC. We report the synthesis and time-resolved spectroscopic study of a molecular triad that models this electron transfer. The triad consists of a high-potential porphyrin bearing two pentafluorophenyl groups (PF(10)), a tetracyanoporphyrin electron acceptor (TCNP), and a benzimidazole-phenol secondary electron-donor (Bi-PhOH). Excitation of PF(10) in benzonitrile is followed by singlet energy transfer to TCNP (τ = 41 ps), whose excited state decays by photoinduced electron transfer (τ = 830 ps) to yield Bi-PhOH-PF(10)(•+)-TCNP(•-). A second electron transfer reaction follows (τ < 12 ps), giving a final state postulated as BiH(+)-PhO(•)-PF(10)-TCNP(•-), in which the phenolic proton now resides on benzimidazole. This final state decays with a time constant of 3.8 μs. The triad thus functionally mimics the electron transfers involving the tyrosine-histidine pair in PSII. The final charge-separated state is thermodynamically capable of water oxidation, and its long lifetime suggests the possibility of coupling systems such as this system to water oxidation catalysts for use in artificial photosynthetic fuel production.

  20. Mimicking the electron transfer chain in photosystem II with a molecular triad thermodynamically capable of water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Megiatto, Jackson D.; Antoniuk-Pablant, Antaeres; Sherman, Benjamin D.; Kodis, Gerdenis; Gervaldo, Miguel; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2012-01-01

    In the photosynthetic photosystem II, electrons are transferred from the manganese-containing oxygen evolving complex (OEC) to the oxidized primary electron-donor chlorophyll P680•+ by a proton-coupled electron transfer process involving a tyrosine-histidine pair. Proton transfer from the tyrosine phenolic group to a histidine nitrogen positions the redox potential of the tyrosine between those of P680•+ and the OEC. We report the synthesis and time-resolved spectroscopic study of a molecular triad that models this electron transfer. The triad consists of a high-potential porphyrin bearing two pentafluorophenyl groups (PF10), a tetracyanoporphyrin electron acceptor (TCNP), and a benzimidazole-phenol secondary electron-donor (Bi-PhOH). Excitation of PF10 in benzonitrile is followed by singlet energy transfer to TCNP (τ = 41 ps), whose excited state decays by photoinduced electron transfer (τ = 830 ps) to yield . A second electron transfer reaction follows (τ < 12 ps), giving a final state postulated as BiH+-PhO•-PF10-TCNP•-, in which the phenolic proton now resides on benzimidazole. This final state decays with a time constant of 3.8 μs. The triad thus functionally mimics the electron transfers involving the tyrosine-histidine pair in PSII. The final charge-separated state is thermodynamically capable of water oxidation, and its long lifetime suggests the possibility of coupling systems such as this system to water oxidation catalysts for use in artificial photosynthetic fuel production. PMID:22566659

  1. Kinetic performance and energy profile in a roller coaster electron transfer chain: a study of modified tetraheme-reaction center constructs.

    PubMed

    Alric, Jean; Lavergne, Jérôme; Rappaport, Fabrice; Verméglio, André; Matsuura, Katsumi; Shimada, Keizo; Nagashima, Kenji V P

    2006-03-29

    In many electron-transfer proteins, the arrangement of cofactors implies a succession of uphill and downhill steps. The kinetic implications of such arrangements are examined in the present work, based on a study of chimeric photosynthetic reaction centers obtained by expressing the tetraheme subunit from Blastochloris viridis in another purple bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Site-directed mutations of the environment of heme c559, which is the immediate electron donor to the primary donor P, induced modifications of this heme's midpoint potential over a range of 400 mV. This resulted in shifts of the apparent midpoint potentials of the neighboring carriers, yielding estimates of the interactions between redox centers. At both extremities of the explored range, the energy profile of the electron-transfer chain presented an additional uphill step, either downstream or upstream from c559. These modifications caused conspicuous changes of the electron-transfer rate across the tetraheme subunit, which became approximately 100-fold slower in the mutants where the midpoint potential of c559 was lowest. A theoretical analysis of the kinetics is presented, predicting a displacement of the rate-limiting step when lowering the potential of c559. A reasonable agreement with the data was obtained when combining this treatment with the rates predicted by electron transfer theory for the individual rate constants.

  2. Probing stereoselectivity and pro-chirality of hydride transfer during short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase activity: a combined quantitative 2H NMR and computational approach.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Renata A; Ayadi, Farouk; Nemmaoui, Youssef; Silvestre, Virginie; Zhang, Ben-Li; Robins, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Different members of the alcohol oxidoreductase family can transfer the hydride of NAD(P)H to either the re- or the si-face of the substrate. The enantioselectivity of transfer is very variable, even for a range of substrates reduced by the same enzyme. Exploiting quantitative isotopic (2)H NMR to measure the transfer of (2)H from NAD(P)(2)H to ethanol, a range of enantiomeric excess between 0.38 and 0.98, depending on the origin of the enzyme and the nature of the cofactor, has been determined. Critically, in no case was only (R)-[1-(2)H]ethanol or (S)-[1-(2)H]ethanol obtained. By calculating the relative energies of the active site models for hydride transfer to the re- or si-face of short-chain aldehydes by alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus brevis, it is shown that the differences in the energy of the systems when the substrate is positioned with the alkyl group in one or the other pocket of the active site could play a role in determining stereoselectivity. These experiments help to provide insight into structural features that influence the potential catalytic flexibility of different alcohol dehydrogenase activities.

  3. Eu(III) complexes as anion-responsive luminescent sensors and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents.

    PubMed

    Hammell, Jacob; Buttarazzi, Leandro; Huang, Ching-Hui; Morrow, Janet R

    2011-06-06

    The Eu(III) complex of (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) is studied as a sensor for biologically relevant anions. Anion interactions produce changes in the luminescence emission spectrum of the Eu(III) complex, in the (1)H NMR spectrum, and correspondingly, in the PARACEST spectrum of the complex (PARACEST = paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer). Direct excitation spectroscopy and luminescence lifetime studies of Eu(S-THP) give information about the speciation and nature of anion interactions including carbonate, acetate, lactate, citrate, phosphate, and methylphosphate at pH 7.2. Data is consistent with the formation of both innersphere and outersphere complexes of Eu(S-THP) with acetate, lactate, and carbonate. These anions have weak dissociation constants that range from 19 to 38 mM. Citrate binding to Eu(S-THP) is predominantly innersphere with a dissociation constant of 17 μM. Luminescence emission peak changes upon addition of anion to Eu(S-THP) show that there are two distinct binding events for phosphate and methylphosphate with dissociation constants of 0.3 mM and 3.0 mM for phosphate and 0.6 mM and 9.8 mM for methyl phosphate. Eu(THPC) contains an appended carbostyril derivative as an antenna to sensitize Eu(III) luminescence. Eu(THPC) binds phosphate and citrate with dissociation constants that are 10-fold less than that of the Eu(S-THP) parent, suggesting that functionalization through a pendent group disrupts the anion binding site. Eu(S-THP) functions as an anion responsive PARACEST agent through exchange of the alcohol protons with bulk water. The alcohol proton resonances of Eu(S-THP) shift downfield in the presence of acetate, lactate, citrate, and methylphosphate, giving rise to distinct PARACEST peaks. In contrast, phosphate binds to Eu(S-THP) to suppress the PARACEST alcohol OH peak and carbonate does not markedly change the alcohol peak at 5 mM Eu(S-THP), 15 mM carbonate at p

  4. Generation of Novel Single-Chain Antibodies by Phage-Display Technology to Direct Imaging Agents Highly Selective to Pancreatic β- or α-Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ueberberg, Sandra; Meier, Juris J.; Waengler, Carmen; Schechinger, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Johannes W.; Tannapfel, Andrea; Schmitz, Inge; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Köller, Manfred; Klein, Harald H.; Schneider, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Noninvasive determination of pancreatic β-cell mass in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable β-cell–specific imaging agents. This report outlines an approach for the development of novel ligands homing selectively to islet cells in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To generate agents specifically binding to pancreatic islets, a phage library was screened for single-chain antibodies (SCAs) on rat islets using two different approaches. 1) The library was injected into rats in vivo, and islets were isolated after a circulation time of 5 min. 2) Pancreatic islets were directly isolated, and the library was panned in the islets in vitro. Subsequently, the identified SCAs were extensively characterized in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS We report the generation of SCAs that bind highly selective to either β- or α-cells. These SCAs are internalized by target cells, disappear rapidly from the vasculature, and exert no toxicity in vivo. Specific binding to β- or α-cells was detected in cell lines in vitro, in rats in vivo, and in human tissue in situ. Electron microscopy demonstrated binding of SCAs to the endoplasmatic reticulum and the secretory granules. Finally, in a biodistribution study the labeling intensity derived from [125I]-labeled SCAs after intravenous administration in rats strongly predicted the β-cell mass and was inversely related to the glucose excursions during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. CONCLUSIONS Our data provide strong evidence that the presented SCAs are highly specific for pancreatic β-cells and enable imaging and quantification in vivo. PMID:19592622

  5. Peptide derived from anti-idiotypic single-chain antibody is a potent antifungal agent compared to its parent fungicide HM-1 killer toxin peptide.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M Enamul; Karim, Nurul; Krishnaswamy, Senthilkumar; Selvakumar, Dakshnamurthy; Miyamoto, Masahiko; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2011-12-01

    Based on anti-idiotypic network theory in light of the need for new antifungal drugs, we attempted to identify biologically active fragments from HM-1 yeast killer toxin and its anti-idiotypic antibody and to compare their potency as an antifungal agent. Thirteen overlapping peptides from HM-1 killer toxin and six peptides from its anti-idiotypic single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies representing the complementarity determining regions were synthesized. The binding affinities of these peptides were investigated and measured by Dot blot and surface plasmon resonance analysis and finally their antifungal activities were investigated by inhibition of growth, colony forming unit assay. Peptide P6, containing the potential active site of HM-1 was highly capable of inhibiting the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae but was less effective on pathogenic fungi. However, peptide fragments derived from scFv antibody exerted remarkable inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogenic strains of Candida and Cryptococcus species in vitro. One scFv-derived decapeptide (SP6) was selected as the strongest killer peptide for its high binding affinity and antifungal abilities on both Candida and Cryptococcus species with IC(50) values from 2.33 × 10(-7) M to 36.0 × 10(-7) M. SP6 peptide activity was neutralized by laminarin, a β-1,3-glucan molecule, indicating this peptide derived from scFv anti-idiotypic antibody retains antifungal activity through interaction with cell wall β-glucan of their target fungal cells. Experimental evidence strongly suggested the possibility of development of anti-idiotypic scFv peptide-based antifungal agents which may lead to improve therapeutics for the management of varieties of fungal infections.

  6. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular diversity and transferability of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), carried on Tn916-1545 family transposons, in enterococci from a total food chain.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, Lucia; La Gioia, Federica; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, 20 enterococci belonging to the species Enterococcus faecalis (12 strains), Enterococcus faecium (4), Enterococcus durans (2), Enterococcus hirae (1) and Enterococcus mundtii (1) and originating from a total production chain of swine meat commodities were analysed to investigate the diversity of their tetracycline resistance gene tet(M). PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis showed that the tet(M) gene of most strains can be correlated with the Tn916 transposon. Conversely, tet(M) of six E. faecalis and the E. hirae strain, all isolated from pig faecal samples, may be associated with previously undescribed members of the Tn916-1545 transposon family. In vitro filter conjugation trials showed the ability of 50% of the enterococcal strains, including E. mundtii, to transfer the tet(M) gene (and the associated Tn916 and new transposons) to E. faecalis or Listeria innocua recipient strains. tet(M) gene transfer to L. innocua recipient was also directly observed in meat food products. Collectively, these sequence and conjugation data indicate that various transposons can be responsible of the spread of tetracycline resistance in enterococci and validate the opinion that Enterococcus species are important sources of antibiotic resistance genes for potentially pathogenic bacteria occurring in the food chain.

  9. Transfer and effects of cadmium in an experimental food chain involving the snail Helix aspersa and the predatory carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens.

    PubMed

    Scheifler, R; Gomot-de Vaufleury, A; Toussaint, M L; Badot, P M

    2002-08-01

    The transfer and the toxic effects of Cd were studied in an experimental food chain involving the snail Helix aspersa as prey organism and one of its natural predators, the carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens. Juvenile snails were fed plant-based food enriched with 0, 10, 50 and 100 microg g(-1) of Cd, then were offered as prey to beetle larvae from egg hatching to pupation stage. Cd concentrations in snail tissues increased with increasing Cd concentration in food and with duration of exposure. Bioaccumulation factors ranged from 1.87 to 3.39, showing that H. aspersa snails, even in their early life stages, belong to macroconcentrator species for Cd. No significant reduction of snail consumption by beetles was found in exposed groups. Cd concentrations in beetle larvae remained very low (lower than 1 microg g(-1) for all groups), demonstrating a very effective regulation capacity in beetle larvae. However, Cd concentrations in highest exposed groups were higher than those found in control groups. Cd contents in adult beetles were lower than in larvae, showing a loss of Cd during metamorphosis. Despite the low Cd concentrations found in beetles, their exposure to Cd contaminated snails led to 31% of mortality, which occurred only during pupation and for the highest exposure level. No clear sublethal effects were found. These results showed that snails inhabiting heavily polluted areas may represent a risk of secondary poisoning for predatory invertebrates and provided quantitative data on the transfer of Cd between two compartments of a terrestrial food chain.

  10. Visualizing changes in electron distribution in coupled chains of cytochrome bc1 by modifying barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c1

    PubMed Central

    Cieluch, Ewelina; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Cytochrome c1 of Rhodobacter (Rba.) species provides a series of mutants which change barriers for electron transfer through the cofactor chains of cytochrome bc1 by modifying heme c1 redox midpoint potential. Analysis of post-flash electron distribution in such systems can provide useful information about the contribution of individual reactions to the overall electron flow. In Rba. capsulatus, the non-functional low-potential forms of cytochrome c1 which are devoid of the disulfide bond naturally present in this protein revert spontaneously by introducing a second-site suppression (mutation A181T) that brings the potential of heme c1 back to the functionally high levels, yet maintains it some 100 mV lower from the native value. Here we report that the disulfide and the mutation A181T can coexist in one protein but the mutation exerts a dominant effect on the redox properties of heme c1 and the potential remains at the same lower value as in the disulfide-free form. This establishes effective means to modify a barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c1 without breaking disulfide. A comparison of the flash-induced electron transfers in native and mutated cytochrome bc1 revealed significant differences in the post-flash equilibrium distribution of electrons only when the connection of the chains with the quinone pool was interrupted at the level of either of the catalytic sites by the use of specific inhibitors, antimycin or myxothiazol. In the non-inhibited system no such differences were observed. We explain the results using a kinetic model in which a shift in the equilibrium of one reaction influences the equilibrium of all remaining reactions in the cofactor chains. It follows a rather simple description in which the direction of electron flow through the coupled chains of cytochrome bc1 exclusively depends on the rates of all reversible partial reactions, including the Q/QH2 exchange rate to/from the catalytic sites. PMID:19917265

  11. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using various long-chain fatty acids and their phase transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Aiyu; Yang, Ping; Shen, Jianxing

    2013-06-01

    Monodispersed colloidal photoluminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via an organic approach by using cadmium oxide and elemental selenium as precursors, and long-chain fatty acids as surface ligands. The hydrocarbon chain length of the fatty acid was adjusted to investigate the effect on CdSe QDs. The fatty acid ligands with different hydrocarbon chain lengths showed an apparent effect on the nanocrystal nucleation and growth which is the key controlling the size, size distribution and crystal structure of resulting CdSe QDs. This effect was attributable to the steric hindrance of different hydrocarbon length of the fatty acids, which affected the reactivity of the monomers and nanocrystals during the nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The water-soluble CdSe QDs were obtained by encapsulating the CdSe ODs in oil phase with amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA)-ethanolamine (EA) polymers, which made it possible for further applications of the CdSe QDs in aqueous environment such as surface functionalization for biological labeling and application in photocatalysis and photosensitization.

  12. A novel route to prepare a multilayer system via the combination of interface-mediated catalytic chain transfer polymerization and thiol-ene click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Adem; Caykara, Tuncer

    2017-05-01

    Herein, we have designed a novel multilayer system composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) [poly(MMA)] brush, biotin, streptavidin and protein-A on a silicon substrate to attach onanti-immunoglobulin G (anti-IgG). poly(MMA) brush with vinyl end-group was first synthesized by the interface-mediated catalytic chain transfer polymerization. The brush was then modified with cysteamine molecules to generate the polymer chains with amine end-group via a thiol-ene click chemistry. The amine end-groups of poly(MMA) chains were also modified with biotin units to ensure selective connection points for streptavidin molecules. Finally, a multilayer system on the silicon substrate was formed by using streptavidin and protein-A molecules, respectively. This multilayer system was employed to attach anti-IgG molecules in a highly oriented manner and provide anti-IgG molecular functional configuration on the multilayer. High reproducibility of the amount of anti-IgG adsorption and homogeneous anti-IgG adsorption layer on the silicon surface could be provided by this multilayer system. The multilayer system with protein A may be opened the door for designing an efficient immunoassay protein chip.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza DC; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detectLeishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmaniagenus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays. PMID:26676321

  15. Role of cellular compartmentalization in the trophic transfer of mercury species in a freshwater plant-crustacean food chain.

    PubMed

    Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Chaumot, Arnaud; Gimbert, Frédéric; Quéau, Hervé; Geffard, Olivier; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) represents an important risk for human health through the food webs contamination. Macrophytes bioaccumulate Hg and play a role in Hg transfer to food webs in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the compartmentalization of Hg within macrophytes, notably major accumulation in the cell wall and its impact on trophic transfer to primary consumers are overlooked. The present work focusses on the trophic transfer of inorganic Hg (IHg) and monomethyl-Hg (MMHg) from the intracellular and cell wall compartments of the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii - considered a good candidate for phytoremediation - to the crustacean Gammarus fossarum. The results demonstrated that Hg accumulated in both compartments was trophically bioavailable to gammarids. Besides IHg from both compartments were similarly transferred to G. fossarum, while for MMHg, uptake rates were ∼2.5-fold higher in G. fossarum fed with the cell wall vs the intracellular compartment. During the depuration phase, Hg concentrations in G. fossarum varied insignificantly suggesting that both IHg and MMHg were strongly bound to biological ligands in the crustacean. Our data imply that cell walls have to be considered as an important source of Hg to consumers in freshwater food webs when developing procedures for enhancing aquatic environment protection during phytoremediation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost savings realized by use of the PhaSeal(®) closed-system transfer device for preparation of antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael S; Solimando, Dominic A; Grollman, Franklin R; Pang, Janet L; Chasick, Ashley H; Hightman, Charlene M; Johnson, Anthony D; Mickens, Maxine G; Preston, Lorenzo M

    2013-12-01

    Medication cost is a major factor associated with increasing health care costs in the United States. Expenditures for prescription drugs in 2013 are estimated to be $283.7 billion. Closed system transfer devices are widely used for preparation of hazardous drugs. Reports indicate the Phaseal(®) closed system transfer device maintains sterility in vials for 7 days, suggesting the unused portion of single-use vials could be salvaged. This study was done to determine whether using a closed system transfer device to extend the beyond-use date of single-use vials of antineoplastic medications would result in a measurable cost saving. A list of 25 drugs available in single-use vials, with a chemical stability of at least 48 hours, was compiled. Use of these agents was recorded during a 50-day period in April through June 2012. Use from a total of 296 vials of 21 antineoplastic agents was recorded. After allowing for the initial use of each vial, the mean potential percentage of drug waste was calculated to be 57.03%. Actual savings during the study period was $96,348.70. The pharmacy avoided nearly half of the potential waste and saved a mean of 29% of each vial. The cost-saving during the study period represents a $703,047.67 annual saving; which more than offsets the $106,556.55 the pharmacy spent for the Phaseal(®) system in 2012. In addition to being a protective measure to reduce exposure to hazardous agents, use of the Phaseal(®) system results in a reduction in drug waste, and a noticeable cost saving for antineoplastic agents.

  17. 12 CFR 709.10 - Treatment by conservator or liquidating agent of financial assets transferred in connection with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... one of the four highest categories assigned to long-term debt or in an equivalent short-term category... of financial assets transferred in connection with a securitization or participation. 709.10 Section... assets transferred in connection with a securitization or participation. (a) Definitions. (1)...

  18. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds (a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  19. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-07-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds ( a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  20. Facile Synthesis of Thiol-terminated Poly(styrene-ran-vinyl phenol) (PSVPh) Copolymers via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) Polymerization and Their Use in the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Controllable Hydrophilicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Uk; Roy, Debashish; Dadmun, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    A facile approach to prepare thiol-terminated poly(styrene-ran-vinyl phenol) (PSVPh) copolymers and PSVPh-coated gold nanoparticles is reported with the goal of creating stabilizing ligands for nanoparticles with controlled hydrophilicity. Dithioester-terminated poly(styrene-ran-acetoxystyrene) copolymers were synthesized via RAFT polymerization using cumyl dithiobenzoate as a chain transfer agent. These copolymers were converted to thiol-terminated PSVPh copolymers by a one step hydrazinolysis reaction using hydrazine hydrate to simultaneously convert dithioester-terminal and acetoxypendant groups to thiol-terminal and hydroxyl-pendant groups, respectively. Spectroscopic observations including NMR and IR confirm end- and pendant-group conversion. PSVPh-coated gold nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of a mixture of thiol-terminated PSVPh and PSVPh copolymers containing disulfides as stabilizing ligands in a water/toluene, two-phase system. The size and size distribution of core gold nanoparticles were determined by TEM and image analysis. The hydrodynamic radius of PSVPh-coated gold nanoparticles was also determined by dynamic light scattering experiment, which confirms the particle analysis by TEM. This procedure provides a facile technique to control the polarity and hydrophilicity of metal nanoparticle surfaces and could prove critical in advancing the control of nanoparticle placement in biological and hierarchically ordered systems, such as diblock copolymers.

  1. Toxicity, accumulation, and trophic transfer of chemically and biologically synthesized nano zero valent iron in a two species freshwater food chain.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Kumar, Deepak; Roy, Rajdeep; Chakraborty, Susiddharthak; Parashar, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bio-remediation agent nZVI on environment is still inadequately understood, especially on aquatic food web. The study presented here has therefore considered both chemical (CS) and biological (BS) synthetic origins of nZVI and their effects on both algae and daphnia. The study is unique in its attempt to explore the possibility of trophic transfer from algae to its immediate higher niche (daphnia as the model). An equal weightage of the effects of both CS and BS nZVI on algae and daphnia has been explored here; hence it allows us to compare the capping of nZVI on toxicity. To examine the causes of observed lethality- ROS generation, effects on the activity of oxidative enzymes, membrane damage and biouptake of nZVI was analysed. The overall outcome of CS and BS nZVI on lethality was significantly different in algae and daphnia, where daphnia demonstrated relatively higher sensitivity against CS nZVI. Algae demonstrated considerable differences in CS and BS nZVI toxicity only at higher concentration. This study did not show a probable biomagnification and trophic transfer from algae to daphnia under the experimental conditions even at the highest exposure concentration. The study instigates the importance of trophic transfer to understand the possible biomagnification of nZVI among organisms of different trophic levels and eventually the consequences on environment.

  2. Dissection of the triple tryptophan electron transfer chain in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Trp382 is the primary donor in photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Byrdin, Martin; Eker, André P M; Vos, Marten H; Brettel, Klaus

    2003-07-22

    In Escherichia coli photolyase, excitation of the FAD cofactor in its semireduced radical state (FADH*) induces an electron transfer over approximately 15 A from tryptophan W306 to the flavin. It has been suggested that two additional tryptophans are involved in an electron transfer chain FADH* <-- W382 <-- W359 <-- W306. To test this hypothesis, we have mutated W382 into redox inert phenylalanine. Ultrafast transient absorption studies showed that, in WT photolyase, excited FADH* decayed with a time constant tau approximately 26 ps to fully reduced flavin and a tryptophan cation radical. In W382F mutant photolyase, the excited flavin was much longer lived (tau approximately 80 ps), and no significant amount of product was detected. We conclude that, in WT photolyase, excited FADH* is quenched by electron transfer from W382. On a millisecond scale, a product state with extremely low yield ( approximately 0.5% of WT) was detected in W382F mutant photolyase. Its spectral and kinetic features were similar to the fully reduced flavin/neutral tryptophan radical state in WT photolyase. We suggest that, in W382F mutant photolyase, excited FADH* is reduced by W359 at a rate that competes only poorly with the intrinsic decay of excited FADH* (tau approximately 80 ps), explaining the low product yield. Subsequently, the W359 cation radical is reduced by W306. The rate constants of electron transfer from W382 to excited FADH* in WT and from W359 to excited FADH* in W382F mutant photolyase were estimated and related to the donor-acceptor distances.

  3. Using the Assay Data Exchange standard with WFS to build a complete minerals exploration data-transfer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Woodcock, R.; Dent, A.; Girvan, S.; Atkinson, R.

    2005-12-01

    Assay data is a key information type used in the solid earth sciences, particularly for mineral exploration. As well as its conceptual importance it comprises a significant proportion of data transferred between organizations. In collaboration with both the commercial and regulatory sector, we have developed an XML encoding for assay data. The Assay Data Exchange (ADX) encoding is a GML Application Schema, based on the Observations and Measurements recommendation from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), extended with assay specific attributes. The model is normalized, distinguishing the observation event and result from the observation target (specimen) and procedure (instrument). ADX has been used in the deployment of standard web-service interfaces to the archives of agencies who are custodians of such data (geological surveys). The web-service interface is a profile of the standard http-based OGC Web Feature Service. Map-visualization and tabular-report web-clients have been deployed that access these services. In addition, a number of standard data processing and visualization software packages have been enhanced to act as clients to these sources. The immediate value of the standard format and interface is that it enables lossless transfer of assay data from laboratory to explorer, from explorer to regulator, and then from statutory custodian back to speculative explorer, using a common format. This represents the complete data transfer cycle relevant to the mineral exploration industry. However, the more general value of the project is that it demonstrates the efficiencies that can be gained by standardizing data access protocols, and the use of a consensus process within the appropriate community for design of technical standards constructed as profiles of more generic standards.

  4. [The transfer of 90Sr and of 137Cs radionuclides in the chain of soil-fodder-animal products in the area contaminated as a consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Spirin, E V; Aleksakhin, R M; Kalmykov, M V; Ageets, V Iu; Averin, V S; Lazarev, N M; Cavellin, G D; Biesold, H

    2006-01-01

    The database on 137Cs and or 90Sr transfer factors in the soil-fodder-animal products chain compiled in the framework of the project "Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" under the French-German Initiative was analyzed. The 137Cs transfer factors were determined into 10 fodder types for farm animals. The 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from daily diet to milk is practically independent from milk yield and season and is about 0.83% and 0.16%. 137Cs transfer factor into beef (adult animals) is about to 2.4% from the daily uptake with fodder per 1 kg meat.

  5. Anomalous charge and negative-charge-transfer insulating state in cuprate chain compound KCuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, D.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Middey, S.; Whitaker, M. J.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Freeland, J. W.; Greenblatt, M.; Chakhalian, J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that insulating KCuO2 contains Cu in an unusually high formal 3+ valence state, and the ligand-to-metal (O-to-Cu) charge-transfer energy is intriguingly negative (Δ ˜-1.5 eV) and has a dominant (˜60 % ) ligand-hole character in the ground state akin to the high Tc cuprate Zhang-Rice state. Unlike most other formal Cu3 + compounds, the Cu 2 p XAS spectra of KCuO2 exhibit pronounced 3 d8 (Cu3 +) multiplet structures, which account for ˜40 % of its ground state wave function. Ab initio calculations elucidate the origin of the band gap in KCuO2 as arising primarily from strong intracluster Cu 3 d -O 2 p hybridizations (tpd); the value of the band gap decreases with a reduced value of tpd. Further, unlike conventional negative-charge-transfer insulators, the band gap in KCuO2 persists even for vanishing values of Coulomb repulsion U , underscoring the importance of single-particle band-structure effects connected to the one-dimensional nature of the compound.

  6. The role of water and K + ion in the charge transfer between PO4- groups of DNA and the lysine + and arginine + side chains of histone proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, A.; Bogár, F.; Ladik, J.

    2008-09-01

    We have calculated the charge transfer (CT) between the PO4- group of DNA and the lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) positive side chains of histones in presence of water and K + ions. The calculations were performed at the HF + MP2 level, using the TZVP basis set. The calculations were corrected for basis set superposition error and besides Mulliken's population analysis we have introduced the - for charged systems more reliable - natural population analysis. The results show that the bare PO4--Lys and the PO4--Arg interactions become weaker, mainly, due to the presence of the K + ion. We have found 0.067 e CT for Lys and 0.050 e for Arg.

  7. Calculation of the water-cyclohexane transfer free energies of neutral amino acid side-chain analogs using the OPLS all-atom force field.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Justin L; Tieleman, D Peter

    2003-11-30

    We calculated the free energy of solvation of the neutral analogs of 18 amino acid side-chains (not including glycine and proline) using the OPLS all-atom force field in TIP4P water, SPC water, and cyclohexane by molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic integration. The average unsigned errors in the free energies of solvation in TIP4P, SPC, and cyclohexane are 4.4, 4.9, and 2.1 kJ/mol respectively. Most of the calculated hydration free energies are not favorable enough compared to experiment. The largest errors are found for tryptophan, histidine, glutamic acid, and glutamine. The average unsigned errors in the free energy of transfer from TIP4P to cyclohexane and from SPC to cyclohexane are 4.0 and 4.1 kJ/mol, respectively. The largest errors, of more than 7.5 kJ/mol, are found for histidine, glutamine, and glutamatic acid.

  8. Sugar chains of serum transferrin from patients with carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome. Evidence of asparagine-N-linked oligosaccharide transfer deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Ideo, H; Ohkura, T; Fukushima, K; Yuasa, I; Ohno, K; Takeshita, K

    1993-03-15

    The structure of over 93% of the sugar chains of serum transferrin purified from three patients with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein (CDG) syndrome was Neu5Ac alpha 2-->6Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->6 (Neu5Ac alpha 2-->6Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->3)Man beta 1-->4GlcNac beta 1-->4GlcNAc, similar to that in a healthy control. On chromatofocusing, CDG syndrome transferrin was separated into three major isoforms, S4, S2, and S0, containing 4, 2, and 0 sialic acids/molecule at pH 5.12 (5.16), 5.42, and 5.80, respectively. On 7.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular masses of transferrin isoforms S4, S2, and S0 were 80, 77, and 74 kDa, respectively. Transferrin isoforms S4 and S2 were linked to 2 and 1 mol of sialylated biantennary sugar chain/transferrin molecule, on the other hand, isoform S0 was not linked to any asparagine-N-linked oligosaccharide. Accordingly, CDG syndrome can be concluded to be an asparagine-N-linked oligosaccharide transfer deficiency, although the primary deficient enzyme has not yet been determined.

  9. Distribution and trophic transfer of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in an aquatic ecosystem receiving effluents from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Liu, Qian; Han, Shanlong; Yuan, Bo; Zhu, Nali; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are an extremely complex group of industrial chemicals and found to be potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and thus have attracted extensive concern worldwide. In this study, influent, effluent, and sludge were collected from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) in Beijing, China. Water, sediment, and aquatic species were also collected from a recipient lake that receives effluents discharged from the STP. These samples were then analyzed to investigate the effect of STP effluent on distribution and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the local aquatic ecosystem. Concentrations of total SCCPs (ΣSCCPs) in lake water and surface sediments were found in the range 162-176 ng/L and 1.1-8.7 μg/g (dry weight, dw), respectively. Vertical concentration profiles of sediment cores showed ΣSCCPs decreased exponentially with increasing depth. Specific congener composition analysis in sediment layers indicated possible in situ biodegradation might be occurring. High bioaccumulation of SCCPs was observed in the sampled aquatic species. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) generally increased with the number of chlorines in the SCCP congeners. A significantly positive correlation between lipid-normalized ΣSCCPs concentration and trophic levels (R(2) = 0.65, p < 0.05) indicate that SCCPs can biomagnify through the food chain in the effluent-receiving aquatic ecosystem.

  10. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge.

  11. Using a Commercial Ultrasound Contrast Agent for Viral-Mediated Gene Transfer In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Candace M.; Forsberg, Flemming; Liu, Ji-Bin; Merton, Daniel A.; Minimo, Corrado; Claudio, Pier P.

    2007-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of site-specific gene delivery mediated by diagnostic ultrasound using genes encapsulated in commercially available ultrasound contrast agents in vitro and in vivo. Five different commercially available contrast agents were tested in vitro for their ability to enclose an adenoviral vector carrying GFP. Prostate cancer cells (DU 145) or non small cell lung cancer cells (H23) were plated in 80 culture wells and insonified at 207 or 535 kPa peak negative pressure for 1 min after administration of 0.1 ml of bubbles reconstituted with the viral vector. Experiments were repeated with the delivery vehicle incubated with complement to inactivate unenclosed Adeno-GFP and with controls. After 24 hours transduction efficiency was demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy. In vivo 15 nude mice with 21 melanoma tumors (DB-1) implanted received 0.1 ml injections of contrast. Mice were split into 3 control and 4 active groups and ultrasound was performed for 4 min at 4 MHz using an Aplio scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA). Tumors, heart, lungs and liver were harvested 48 hours later. Specimens underwent regular and fluorescent microscopy and were stained using an antibody against GFP. In vitro all contrast agents produced more fluorescence at 207 kPa than at 535 kPa. However, only Imagent (IMCOR Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) was able to induce marked gene transduction with the inactivating agent. In vivo systemic delivery of Adeno-GFP carrying microbubbles following pre-treatment with the inactivating agent resulted in specific transduction of the tumor cells only with no uptake in heart, lungs or liver (unlike the controls). In conclusion, specific viral gene transduction has been obtained in vitro and in vivo through the use of ultrasound and Imagent microbubbles as delivery vehicles.

  12. Use of extremely short Förster resonance energy transfer probes in real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kutyavin, Igor V.

    2013-01-01

    Described in the article is a new approach for the sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. The method is based on the production of PCR amplicons, which fold into dumbbell-like secondary structures carrying a specially designed ‘probe-luring’ sequence at their 5′ ends. Hybridization of this sequence to a complementary ‘anchoring’ tail introduced at the 3′ end of a fluorescent probe enables the probe to bind to its target during PCR, and the subsequent probe cleavage results in the florescence signal. As it has been shown in the study, this amplicon-endorsed and guided formation of the probe-target duplex allows the use of extremely short oligonucleotide probes, up to tetranucleotides in length. In particular, the short length of the fluorescent probes makes possible the development of a ‘universal’ probe inventory that is relatively small in size but represents all possible sequence variations. The unparalleled cost-effectiveness of the inventory approach is discussed. Despite the short length of the probes, this new method, named Angler real-time PCR, remains highly sequence specific, and the results of the study indicate that it can be effectively used for quantitative PCR and the detection of polymorphic variations. PMID:24013564

  13. Nonlinear calibration transfer based on hierarchical Bayesian models and Lagrange Multipliers: Error bounds of estimates via Monte Carlo - Markov Chain sampling.

    PubMed

    Seichter, Felicia; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-01-25

    The calibration of analytical systems is time-consuming and the effort for daily calibration routines should therefore be minimized, while maintaining the analytical accuracy and precision. The 'calibration transfer' approach proposes to combine calibration data already recorded with actual calibrations measurements. However, this strategy was developed for the multivariate, linear analysis of spectroscopic data, and thus, cannot be applied to sensors with a single response channel and/or a non-linear relationship between signal and desired analytical concentration. To fill this gap for a non-linear calibration equation, we assume that the coefficients for the equation, collected over several calibration runs, are normally distributed. Considering that coefficients of an actual calibration are a sample of this distribution, only a few standards are needed for a complete calibration data set. The resulting calibration transfer approach is demonstrated for a fluorescence oxygen sensor and implemented as a hierarchical Bayesian model, combined with a Lagrange Multipliers technique and Monte-Carlo Markov-Chain sampling. The latter provides realistic estimates for coefficients and prediction together with accurate error bounds by simulating known measurement errors and system fluctuations. Performance criteria for validation and optimal selection of a reduced set of calibration samples were developed and lead to a setup which maintains the analytical performance of a full calibration. Strategies for a rapid determination of problems occurring in a daily calibration routine, are proposed, thereby opening the possibility of correcting the problem just in time.

  14. The cell agglutination agent, phytohemagglutinin-L, improves the efficiency of somatic nuclear transfer cloning in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Du, Fuliang; Shen, Perng-Chih; Xu, Jie; Sung, Li-Ying; Jeong, B-Seon; Lucky Nedambale, Tshimangadzo; Riesen, John; Cindy Tian, X; Cheng, Winston T K; Lee, Shan-Nan; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2006-02-01

    One of the several factors that contribute to the low efficiency of mammalian somatic cloning is poor fusion between the small somatic donor cell and the large recipient oocyte. This study was designed to test phytohemagglutinin (PHA) agglutination activity on fusion rate, and subsequent developmental potential of cloned bovine embryos. The toxicity of PHA was established by examining its effects on the development of parthenogenetic bovine oocytes treated with different doses (Experiment 1), and for different durations (Experiment 2). The effective dose and duration of PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min incubation) was selected and used to compare membrane fusion efficiency and embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer (Experiment 3). Cloning with somatic donor fibroblasts versus cumulus cells was also compared, both with and without PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min). Fusion rate of nuclear donor fibroblasts, after phytohemagglutinin treatment, was increased from 33 to 61% (P < 0.05), and from 59 to 88% (P < 0.05) with cumulus cell nuclear donors. The nuclear transfer (NT) efficiency per oocyte used was improved following PHA treatment, for both fibroblast (13% versus 22%) as well as cumulus cells (17% versus 34%; P < 0.05). The cloned embryos, both with and without PHA treatment, were subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer testing, and resulted in similar survival (approximately 90% hatching) and pregnancy rates (17-25%). Three calves were born following vitrification and embryo transfer of these embryos; two from the PHA-treated group, and one from non-PHA control group. We concluded that PHA treatment significantly improved the fusion efficiency of somatic NT in cattle, and therefore, increased the development of cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, within a determined range of dose and duration, PHA had no detrimental effect on embryo survival post-vitrification, nor on pregnancy or calving rates following embryo transfer.

  15. Iopamidol as a responsive MRI-chemical exchange saturation transfer contrast agent for pH mapping of kidneys: In vivo studies in mice at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Longo, Dario Livio; Dastrù, Walter; Digilio, Giuseppe; Keupp, Jochen; Langereis, Sander; Lanzardo, Stefania; Prestigio, Simone; Steinbach, Oliver; Terreno, Enzo; Uggeri, Fulvio; Aime, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Iopamidol (Isovue®-Bracco Diagnostic Inc.) is a clinically approved X-Ray contrast agent used in the last 30 years for a wide variety of diagnostic applications with a very good clinical acceptance. Iopamidol contains two types of amide functionalities that can be exploited for the generation of chemical exchange saturation transfer effect. The exchange rate of the two amide proton pools is markedly pH-dependent. Thus, a ratiometric method for pH assessment has been set-up based on the comparison of the saturation transfer effects induced by selective irradiation of the two resonances. This ratiometric approach allows to rule out the concentration effect of the contrast agent and provides accurate pH measurements in the 5.5-7.4 range. Upon injection of Iopamidol into healthy mice, it has been possible to acquire pH maps of kidney regions. Furthermore, it has been also shown that the proposed method is able to report about pH-changes induced in control mice fed with acidified or basified water for a period of a week before image acquisition.

  16. Momentum Distribution as a Fingerprint of Quantum Delocalization in Enzymatic Reactions: Open-Chain Path-Integral Simulations of Model Systems and the Hydride Transfer in Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Engel, Hamutal; Doron, Dvir; Kohen, Amnon; Major, Dan Thomas

    2012-04-10

    The inclusion of nuclear quantum effects such as zero-point energy and tunneling is of great importance in studying condensed phase chemical reactions involving the transfer of protons, hydrogen atoms, and hydride ions. In the current work, we derive an efficient quantum simulation approach for the computation of the momentum distribution in condensed phase chemical reactions. The method is based on a quantum-classical approach wherein quantum and classical simulations are performed separately. The classical simulations use standard sampling techniques, whereas the quantum simulations employ an open polymer chain path integral formulation which is computed using an efficient Monte Carlo staging algorithm. The approach is validated by applying it to a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and symmetric double-well potential. Subsequently, the method is applied to the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzed reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride (NADPH) to yield S-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADP(+). The key chemical step in the catalytic cycle of DHFR involves a stereospecific hydride transfer. In order to estimate the amount of quantum delocalization, we compute the position and momentum distributions for the transferring hydride ion in the reactant state (RS) and transition state (TS) using a recently developed hybrid semiempirical quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics potential energy surface. Additionally, we examine the effect of compression of the donor-acceptor distance (DAD) in the TS on the momentum distribution. The present results suggest differential quantum delocalization in the RS and TS, as well as reduced tunneling upon DAD compression.

  17. A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

  18. A gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G E

    2013-03-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes.

  19. Chain Dynamics, Relaxation Times, and Conductivities of Bithiophene--Acene Copolymers Measured Using High Frequency Saturation Transfer EPR.

    PubMed

    Fraind, Alicia M; Ryzhkov, Lev R; Tovar, John D

    2016-02-11

    We present a study to probe the formation of localized aromatic sextets and their effects on the charge transport properties in polymers with acene cores. Bithiophene-acene copolymers containing benzene, naphthalene, or anthracene as acene cores were synthesized using Yamamoto polymerization. Drop-casted polymer films were chemically doped and analyzed using high frequency saturation transfer EPR (HF ST-EPR), a method which has proven useful in the study of conducting polymers. The spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times were determined for these polymers at low temperatures (4 to 20 K) and used to obtain inter- and intrachain spin diffusion rates and conductivities. Similar interchain spin diffusion rates were seen across all polymer systems; however, anthracene containing polymer poly(hexylTTATT) was found to have the largest intrachain spin diffusion rate. The poly(hexylTTATT) intrachain spin diffusion rate may be artificially high if the anthracene ring restricts the diffusion of spin to the hexylated quaterthiophene segment in poly(hexylTTATT) whereas the spins diffuse through the acene cores in the benzene and naphthalene derivatives. Alternatively, as both the spin diffusion rates and conductivities vary unpredictably with temperature, it is possible that the π-electron localization previously seen in the anthracene core could be relieved at lower temperatures.

  20. Presence of infectious agents and co-infections in diarrheic dogs determined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based panel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoan organisms, or a combination of these. The identification of co-infections in dogs is important to determine the prognosis and to plan strategies for their treatment and prophylaxis. Although many pathogens have been individually detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a comprehensive panel of agents that cause diarrhea in privately owned dogs has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to use a real-time PCR diarrhea panel to survey the frequencies of pathogens and co-infections in owned dogs attended in a veterinary hospital with and without diarrhea, as well the frequency in different countries. Feces samples were tested for canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Salmonella spp. using molecular techniques. Results In total, 104 diarrheic and 43 control dogs that were presented consecutively at a major private veterinary hospital were included in the study. Overall, 71/104 (68.3%) dogs with diarrhea were positive for at least one pathogen: a single infection in 39/71 dogs (54.9%) and co-infections in 32/71 dogs (45.1%), including 21/32 dogs (65.6%) with dual, 5/32 (15.6%) with triple, and 6/32 (18.8%) with quadruple infections. In the control group, 13/43 (30.2%) dogs were positive, all with single infections only. The most prevalent pathogens in the diarrheic dogs were CPA (40/104 dogs, 38.5%), CPV-2 (36/104 dogs, 34.6%), and Giardia spp. (14/104 dogs, 13.5%). CPV-2 was the most prevalent pathogen in the dual co-infections, associated with CPA, Cryptosporidium spp., or Giardia spp. No statistical difference (P = 0.8374) was observed in the duration of diarrhea or the number of deaths (P = 0.5722) in the presence or absence of single or co-infections. Conclusions Diarrheic dogs showed a higher prevalence of pathogen infections than

  1. Presence of infectious agents and co-infections in diarrheic dogs determined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based panel.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, Aline Baumann da Rocha; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Leutenegger, Christian M; Estrada, Marko; Kozemjakin, Denise Adamczyk; Stedile, Rafael; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2014-01-16

    Infectious diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoan organisms, or a combination of these. The identification of co-infections in dogs is important to determine the prognosis and to plan strategies for their treatment and prophylaxis. Although many pathogens have been individually detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a comprehensive panel of agents that cause diarrhea in privately owned dogs has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to use a real-time PCR diarrhea panel to survey the frequencies of pathogens and co-infections in owned dogs attended in a veterinary hospital with and without diarrhea, as well the frequency in different countries. Feces samples were tested for canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Salmonella spp. using molecular techniques. In total, 104 diarrheic and 43 control dogs that were presented consecutively at a major private veterinary hospital were included in the study. Overall, 71/104 (68.3%) dogs with diarrhea were positive for at least one pathogen: a single infection in 39/71 dogs (54.9%) and co-infections in 32/71 dogs (45.1%), including 21/32 dogs (65.6%) with dual, 5/32 (15.6%) with triple, and 6/32 (18.8%) with quadruple infections. In the control group, 13/43 (30.2%) dogs were positive, all with single infections only. The most prevalent pathogens in the diarrheic dogs were CPA (40/104 dogs, 38.5%), CPV-2 (36/104 dogs, 34.6%), and Giardia spp. (14/104 dogs, 13.5%). CPV-2 was the most prevalent pathogen in the dual co-infections, associated with CPA, Cryptosporidium spp., or Giardia spp. No statistical difference (P = 0.8374) was observed in the duration of diarrhea or the number of deaths (P = 0.5722) in the presence or absence of single or co-infections. Diarrheic dogs showed a higher prevalence of pathogen infections than the controls. Whereas the

  2. One for All or All for One: Heterogeneous Expression and Host Cell Lysis Are Key to Gene Transfer Agent Activity in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Paul C. M.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The gene transfer agent (RcGTA) of Rhodobacter capsulatus is the model for a family of novel bacteriophage-related genetic elements that carry out lateral transfer of essentially random host DNA. Genuine and putative gene transfer agents have been discovered in diverse genera and are becoming recognized as potentially an important source of genetic exchange and microbial evolution in the oceans. Despite being discovered over 30 years ago, little is known about many essential aspects of RcGTA biology. Here, we validate the use of direct fluorescence reporter constructs, which express the red fluorescent protein mCherry in R. capsulatus. A construct containing the RcGTA promoter fused to mCherry was used to examine the single-cell expression profiles of wild type and RcGTA overproducer R. capsulatus populations, under different growth conditions and growth phases. The majority of RcGTA production clearly arises from a small, distinct sub-set of the population in the wild type strain and a larger sub-set in the overproducer. The most likely RcGTA release mechanism concomitant with this expression pattern is host cell lysis and we present direct evidence for the release of an intracellular enzyme accompanying RcGTA release. RcGTA ORF s is annotated as a ‘cell wall peptidase’ but we rule out a role in host lysis and propose an alternative function as a key contributor to RcGTA invasion of a target cell during infection. PMID:22916305

  3. Green Preparation of Epoxy/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Using a Glycidylamine Epoxy Resin as the Surface Modifier and Phase Transfer Agent of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinlei; Zhou, Yang; Peng, Mao

    2016-01-27

    In studies of epoxy/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites, organic solvents are commonly used to disperse GO, and vigorous mechanical processes and complicated modification of GO are usually required, increasing the cost and hindering the development and application of epoxy nanocomposites. Here, we report a green, facile, and efficient method of preparing epoxy/GO nanocomposites. When triglycidyl para-aminophenol (TGPAP), a commercially available glycidyl amine epoxy resin with one tertiary amine group per molecule, is used as both the surface modifier and phase transfer agent of GO, GO can be directly and rapidly transferred from water to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and other types of epoxy resins by manual stirring under ambient conditions, whereas GO cannot be transferred to these epoxy resins in the absence of TGPAP. The interaction between TGPAP and GO and the effect of the TGPAP content on the dispersion of GO in the epoxy matrix were investigated systematically. Superior dispersion and exfoliation of GO nanosheets and remarkably improved mechanical properties, including tensile and flexural properties, toughness, storage modulus, and microhardness, of the epoxy/GO nanocomposites with a suitable amount of TGPAP were demonstrated. This method is organic-solvent-free and technically feasible for large-scale preparation of high-performance nanocomposites; it opens up new opportunities for exploiting the unique properties of graphene or even other nanofillers for a wide range of applications.

  4. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p < 0.001). Ratios of invertebrate metal concentration to leaf metal concentration were in the range of 1:0.03 to 1:1.4 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:2.8 for Zn in H. aspersa and 1:0.002 to 1:3.9 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:8.8 for Zn in L. terrestris. Helix aspersa Cd and Zn tissue concentrations (15.5 and 1,220.2 mg/kg, respectively) were approximately threefold those in L. terrestris when both species were fed nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.001) and H. aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  5. Flow versus permeability weighting in estimating the forward volumetric transfer constant (K(trans)) obtained by DCE-MRI with contrast agents of differing molecular sizes.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-He; Chen, Fang-Hsin; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Lin, Yu-Shi; Hong, Ji-Hong; Liu, Ho-Ling

    2017-02-01

    To quantify the differential plasma flow- (Fp-) and permeability surface area product per unit mass of tissue- (PS-) weighting in forward volumetric transfer constant (K(trans)) estimates by using a low molecular (Gd-DTPA) versus high molecular (Gadomer) weight contrast agent in dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. DCE MRI was performed using a 7T animal scanner in 14 C57BL/6J mice syngeneic for TRAMP tumors, by administering Gd-DTPA (0.9kD) in eight mice and Gadomer (35kD) in the remainder. The acquisition time was 10min with a sampling rate of one image every 2s. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to obtain K(trans) by using Extended Tofts model (ETM). In addition, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity (AATH) model was employed to obtain the relative contributions of Fp and PS. The K(trans) values derived from DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA showed significant correlations with both PS (r(2)=0.64, p=0.009) and Fp (r(2)=0.57, p=0.016), whereas those with Gadomer were found only significantly correlated with PS (r(2)=0.96, p=0.0003) but not with Fp (r(2)=0.34, p=0.111). A voxel-based analysis showed that K(trans) approximated PS (<30% difference) in 78.3% of perfused tumor volume for Gadomer, but only 37.3% for Gd-DTPA. The differential contributions of Fp and PS in estimating K(trans) values vary with the molecular weight of the contrast agent used. The macromolecular contrast agent resulted in K(trans) values that were much less dependent on flow. These findings support the use of macromolecular contrast agents for estimating tumor vessel permeability with DCE-MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands. PMID:24185855

  7. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  8. Effect of ageing and ischemia on enzymatic activities linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacids metabolism of free and intrasynaptic mitochondria of cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2009-12-01

    The effect of ageing and the relationships between the catalytic properties of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacid metabolism of cerebral cortex, a functional area very sensitive to both age and ischemia, were studied on mitochondria of adult and aged rats, after complete ischemia of 15 minutes duration. The maximum rate (Vmax) of the following enzyme activities: citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase as total (integrated activity of Complex I-III), rotenone sensitive (Complex I) and cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV) for electron transfer chain; glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate-and glutamate-pyruvate transaminases for glutamate metabolism were assayed in non-synaptic, perikaryal mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., the light and heavy mitochondrial fraction. The results indicate that in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex, the value of the same enzyme activity markedly differs according (a) to the different populations of mitochondria, i.e., non-synaptic or intra-synaptic light and heavy, (b) and respect to ageing. After 15 min of complete ischemia, the enzyme activities of mitochondria located near the nucleus (perikaryal mitochondria) and in synaptic structures (intra-synaptic mitochondria) of the cerebral tissue were substantially modified by ischemia. Non-synaptic mitochondria seem to be more affected by ischemia in adult and particularly in aged animals than the intra-synaptic light and heavy mitochondria. The observed modifications in enzyme activities reflect the metabolic state of the tissue at each specific experimental condition, as shown by comparative evaluation with respect to the content of energy-linked metabolites and substrates. The derangements in enzyme activities due to ischemia is greater in aged than in adult animals and especially the non-synaptic and the intra-synaptic light

  9. Complexes of acridine and 9-chloroacridine with I2: formation of unusual I6 chains through charge-transfer interactions involving amphoteric I2.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, E L; Bailey, R D; Hanks, T W; Pennington, W T

    2000-11-17

    Acridine and 9-chloroacridine form charge-transfer complexes with iodine in which the nitrogen-bound I2 molecule is amphoteric; one end serves as a Lewis acid to the heterocyclic donor, while the other end acts as a Lewis base to a second I2 molecule that bridges two acridine.I2 units. In the acridine derivative [(acridine.I2)2.I2, 1], the dimer has a "zigzag" conformation, while in the 9-chloroacridine derivative [(9-Cl-acridine.I2)2.I2, 2], the dimer is "C-shaped". The thermal decomposition of the two complexes is very different. Compound 1 loses one molecule of I2 to form an acridine.I2 intermediate, which has not been isolated. Further decomposition gives acridine as the form II polymorph, exclusively. Decomposition of 2 involves the loss of two molecules of I2 to form a relatively stable intermediate [(9-Cl-acridine)2.I2, 3]. Compound 3 consists of two 9-Cl-acridine molecules bridged through N...I charge-transfer interactions by a single I2 molecule. This compound represents the first known example, in which both ends of an I2 molecule form interactions in a complex that is not stabilized by the extended interactions of an infinite chain structure. The ability of the terminal iodine of an N-bound I2 to act either as an electron donor (complexes 1 and 2) or as an electron acceptor (complex 3) can be understood through a quantum mechanical analysis of the systems. Both electrostatic interactions and the overlap of frontier molecular orbitals contribute to the observed behavior.

  10. Existence of a proton transfer chain in bacteriorhodopsin: participation of Glu-194 in the release of protons to the extracellular surface.

    PubMed

    Dioumaev, A K; Richter, H T; Brown, L S; Tanio, M; Tuzi, S; Saito, H; Kimura, Y; Needleman, R; Lanyi, J K

    1998-02-24

    Glu-194 near the extracellular surface of bacteriorhodopsin is indispensable for proton release to the medium upon protonation of Asp-85 during light-driven transport. As for Glu-204, its replacement with glutamine (but not aspartate) abolishes both proton release and the anomalous titration of Asp-85 that originates from coupling between the pKa of this buried aspartate and those of the other acidic groups. Unlike the case of Glu-204, however, replacement of Glu-194 with aspartate raises the pKa for proton release. In Fourier transform infrared spectra of the E194D mutant a prominent positive band is observed at 1720 cm-1. It can be assigned from [4-13C]aspartate and D2O isotope shifts to the C&dbd;O stretch of protonated Asp-194. Its rise correlates with proton transfer from the retinal Schiff base to Asp-85. Its decay coincides with the appearance of a proton at the surface, detected under similar conditions with fluorescein covalently bound to Lys-129 and with pyranine. Its amplitude decreases with increasing pH, with a pKa of about 9. We show that this pKa is likely to be that of the internal proton donor to Asp-194, the Glu-204 site, before photoexcitation, while 13C NMR titration indicates that Asp-194 has an initial pKa of about 3. We propose that there is a chain of interacting residues between the retinal Schiff base and the extracellular surface. After photoisomerization of the retinal the pKa's change so as to allow (i) Asp-85 to become protonated by the Schiff base, (ii) the Glu-204 site to transfer its proton to Asp-194 in E194D, and therefore to Glu-194 in the wild type, and (iii) residue 194 to release the proton to the medium.

  11. Membrane protein simulations with a united-atom lipid and all-atom protein model: lipid-protein interactions, side chain transfer free energies and model proteins.

    PubMed

    Tieleman, D Peter; Maccallum, Justin L; Ash, Walter L; Kandt, Christian; Xu, Zhitao; Monticelli, Luca

    2006-07-19

    We have reparameterized the dihedral parameters in a commonly used united-atom lipid force field so that they can be used with the all-atom OPLS force field for proteins implemented in the molecular dynamics simulation software GROMACS. Simulations with this new combination give stable trajectories and sensible behaviour of both lipids and protein. We have calculated the free energy of transfer of amino acid side chains between water and 'lipid-cyclohexane', made of lipid force field methylene groups, as a hydrophobic mimic of the membrane interior, for both the OPLS-AA and a modified OPLS-AA force field which gives better hydration free energies under simulation conditions close to those preferred for the lipid force field. The average error is 4.3 kJ mol(-1) for water-'lipid-cyclohexane' compared to 3.2 kJ mol(-1) for OPLS-AA cyclohexane and 2.4 kJ mol(-1) for the modified OPLS-AA water-'lipid-cyclohexane'. We have also investigated the effect of different methods to combine parameters between the united-atom lipid force field and the united-atom protein force field ffgmx. In a widely used combination, the strength of interactions between hydrocarbon lipid tails and proteins is significantly overestimated, causing a decrease in the area per lipid and an increase in lipid ordering. Using straight combination rules improves the results. Combined, we suggest that using OPLS-AA together with the united-atom lipid force field implemented in GROMACS is a reasonable approach to membrane protein simulations. We also suggest that using partial volume information and free energies of transfer may help to improve the parameterization of lipid-protein interactions and point out the need for accurate experimental data to validate and improve force field descriptions of such interactions.

  12. Membrane protein simulations with a united-atom lipid and all-atom protein model: lipid protein interactions, side chain transfer free energies and model proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieleman, D. Peter; MacCallum, Justin L.; Ash, Walter L.; Kandt, Christian; Xu, Zhitao; Monticelli, Luca

    2006-07-01

    We have reparameterized the dihedral parameters in a commonly used united-atom lipid force field so that they can be used with the all-atom OPLS force field for proteins implemented in the molecular dynamics simulation software GROMACS. Simulations with this new combination give stable trajectories and sensible behaviour of both lipids and protein. We have calculated the free energy of transfer of amino acid side chains between water and 'lipid-cyclohexane', made of lipid force field methylene groups, as a hydrophobic mimic of the membrane interior, for both the OPLS-AA and a modified OPLS-AA force field which gives better hydration free energies under simulation conditions close to those preferred for the lipid force field. The average error is 4.3 kJ mol-1 for water-'lipid-cyclohexane' compared to 3.2 kJ mol-1 for OPLS-AA cyclohexane and 2.4 kJ mol-1 for the modified OPLS-AA water-'lipid-cyclohexane'. We have also investigated the effect of different methods to combine parameters between the united-atom lipid force field and the united-atom protein force field ffgmx. In a widely used combination, the strength of interactions between hydrocarbon lipid tails and proteins is significantly overestimated, causing a decrease in the area per lipid and an increase in lipid ordering. Using straight combination rules improves the results. Combined, we suggest that using OPLS-AA together with the united-atom lipid force field implemented in GROMACS is a reasonable approach to membrane protein simulations. We also suggest that using partial volume information and free energies of transfer may help to improve the parameterization of lipid-protein interactions and point out the need for accurate experimental data to validate and improve force field descriptions of such interactions.

  13. Clinical pharmacokinetics in pregnancy and perinatology. I. Placental transfer and fetal side effects of local anaesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Nau, H

    1985-01-01

    Local anaesthetic agents, both of the amide type (e.g., lidocaine, bupivacaine, etidocaine) and of the ester type (e.g., 2-chloroprocaine) are widely used to relieve pain in obstetric and gynaecological practice. The pharmacokinetics of these compounds are discussed in this review, with particular emphasis on the fetal exposure and its relationship to adverse effects on the fetus. 2-Chloroprocaine is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases, and only traces of this compound reach the fetus, even following multiple injections, suggesting safety for the fetus. The main disadvantage of this compound is the short duration of action (0.5-1 h). The amide-type agents are active for longer time periods (up to several hours). The fetal/maternal total concentration ratios were approximately 0.3 for bupivacaine and etidocaine, 0.5 for lidocaine, 0.7 for mepivacaine, and 1 for prilocaine. The low ratios of bupivacaine and etidocaine result from extensive binding (90%) of these drugs to maternal alpha1-acid glycoprotein which exceeds corresponding fetal protein binding (50%). These low fetal/maternal total concentration ratios cannot be equated with fetal safety, because fetal side effects are better related to the free drug levels. Since the amide-type anaesthetics are weak bases, fetal acidosis will increase the maternal/fetal pH gradient and will result in accumulation of free drug in the fetus and possible fetal side effects. Addition of epinephrine to the injection solution reduces the maternal blood levels of the amide-type compounds, but apparently not the fetal levels to the same extent. Because of possible unwanted effects of epinephrine (decreased uterine blood flow), the addition of this compound is not generally accepted to be of advantage. Paracervical blockade may result in elevated fetal blood levels (possibly by transarterial diffusion into uterine arteries) and possibly fetal bradycardia.

  14. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-09

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers.

  15. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers.

  16. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment and determination of synthetic estrogens in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Minjun; Kong, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers have attracted significant interest because of their multifunctionality of selective recognition of target molecules and rapid magnetic response. In this contribution, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized via surface-initiated reversible addition addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using diethylstilbestrol as the template for the enrichment of synthetic estrogens. The uniform imprinted surface layer and the magnetic property of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers favored a fast binding kinetics and rapid analysis of target molecules. The static and selective binding experiments demonstrated a desirable adsorption capacity and good selectivity of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in comparison to magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers. Accordingly, a corresponding analytical method was developed in which magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction materials for the concentration and determination of four synthetic estrogens (diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, dienestrol, and bisphenol A) in fish pond water. The recoveries of these synthetic estrogens in spiked fish pond water samples ranged from 61.2 to 99.1% with a relative standard deviation of lower than 6.3%. This study provides a versatile approach to prepare well-defined magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers sorbents for the analysis of synthetic estrogens in water solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum.

  18. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  19. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  20. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi

    2013-11-21

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of α-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the α-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  1. Photoinduced electron transfer in ordered polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II.

    1990-10-20

    Photochemical studies on organic polymers or biopolymers (particularly synthetic peptides) that have been modified by covalent attachment (or other means of binding) of organic chromophores and electron transfer agents are described. Specific projects involve are: peptide conjugates bearing electroactive residues such as tryptophan and specifically labeled at the N- or C-terminus of peptide chains; the electrostatic binding of organic dyes to poly-electrolytes (polyacrylates) for which the formation of dimeric aggregates of bound dye that display unusual photophysical and electron transfer properties is important; a study of the binding of dyes and electron transfer agents to the protein mimic,'' polyvinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (PVP), in hydrophobic domains that depend on specific H-bond interaction; and completion of an earlier study having to do with the triplet state properties of charge-transfer (CT) complexes of a high potential quinone and various electron donors (investigation of the properties of triplet (contact) radical-ion pairs). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Phosphate Concentration and the Putative Sensor Kinase Protein CckA Modulate Cell Lysis and Release of the Rhodobacter capsulatus Gene Transfer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Westbye, A. B.; Leung, M. M.; Florizone, S. M.; Taylor, T. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Fogg, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a bacteriophage-like genetic element with the sole known function of horizontal gene transfer. Homologues of RcGTA genes are present in many members of the alphaproteobacteria and may serve an important role in microbial evolution. Transcription of RcGTA genes is induced as cultures enter the stationary phase; however, little is known about cis-active sequences. In this work, we identify the promoter of the first gene in the RcGTA structural gene cluster. Additionally, gene transduction frequency depends on the growth medium, and the reason for this is not known. We report that millimolar concentrations of phosphate posttranslationally inhibit the lysis-dependent release of RcGTA from cells in both a complex medium and a defined medium. Furthermore, we found that cell lysis requires the genes rcc00555 and rcc00556, which were expressed and studied in Escherichia coli to determine their predicted functions as an endolysin and holin, respectively. Production of RcGTA is regulated by host systems, including a putative histidine kinase, CckA, and we found that CckA is required for maximal expression of rcc00555 and for maturation of RcGTA to yield gene transduction-functional particles. PMID:23995641

  3. Potentiated electron transference in α-Ag2WO4 microcrystals with Ag nanofilaments as microbial agent.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valéria M; De Foggi, Camila C; Ferrer, Mateus M; Gouveia, Amanda F; André, Rafaela S; Avansi, Waldir; Vergani, Carlos E; Machado, Ana L; Andrés, Juan; Cavalcante, Laécio S; Hernandes, Antonio C; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    This study is a framework proposal for understanding the antimicrobacterial effect of both α-Ag2WO4 microcrystals (AWO) synthesized using a microwave hydrothermal (MH) method and α-Ag2WO4 microcrystals with Ag metallic nanofilaments (AWO:Ag) obtained by irradiation employing an electron beam to combat against planktonic cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results reveal that both AWO and AWO:Ag solutions have bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, but the irradiated sample is more efficient; i.e., a 4-fold of the MRSA planktonic cells as compared to the nonirradiated sample was observed. In addition, first principles calculations were performed to obtain structural and electronic properties of AWO and metallic Ag, which provides strong quantitative support for an antimicrobacterial mechanism based on the enhancement of electron transfer processes between α-Ag2WO4 and Ag nanoparticles.

  4. Identification of genes associated with prophage-like gene transfer agents in the pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira intermedia.

    PubMed

    Motro, Yair; La, Tom; Bellgard, Matthew I; Dunn, David S; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2009-03-02

    VSH-1 is an unusual prophage-like gene transfer agent (GTA) that has been described in the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The GTA does not self-propagate, but it assembles into a virus-like particle and transfers random 7.5kb fragments of host DNA to other B. hyodysenteriae cells. To date the GTA VSH-1 has only been analysed in B. hyodysenteriae strain B204, in which 11 late function genes encoding prophage capsid, tail and lysis elements have been described. The aim of the current study was to look for these 11 genes in the near-complete genomes of B. hyodysenteriae WA1, B. pilosicoli 95/1000 and B. intermedia HB60. All 11 genes were found in the three new strains. The GTA genes in WA1 and 95/1000 were contiguous, whilst some of those in HB60 were not-although in all three strains some gene rearrangements were present. A new predicted open reading frame with potential functional importance was found in a consistent position associated with all four GTAs, located between the genes for head protein Hvp24 and tail protein Hvp53, overlapping with the hvp24 sequence. Differences in the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the GTA genes in the spirochaete strains were consistent with the overall genetic distances between the strains. Hence the GTAs in the two B. hyodysenteriae strains were considered to be strain specific variants, and were designated GTA/Bh-B204 and GTA/Bh-WA1 respectively. The GTAs in the strains of B. intermedia and B. pilosicoli were designated GTA/Bint-HB60 and GTA/Bp-95/1000 respectively. Further work is required to determine the extent to which these GTAs can transfer host genes between different Brachyspira species and strains.

  5. Protein electron transfer (mechanism and reproductive toxicity): iminium, hydrogen bonding, homoconjugation, amino acid side chains (redox and charged), and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2007-03-01

    This contribution presents novel biochemical perspectives of protein electron transfer (ET) with focus on the iminium nature of the peptide link, along with relationships to reproductive toxicity. The favorable influence of hydrogen bonding on protein ET has been widely documented. Hydrogen bonding of the zwitterionic peptide enhances iminium character. A wide array of such bonding agents is available in vivo, with many reports on the peptide link itself. ET proceeds along the backbone, due in part, to homoconjugation. Redox amino acids (AAs), mainly tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Typ), histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), disulfide, and methionine (Met), are involved in the competing processes for radical formation: direct hydrogen atom abstraction versus electron and proton loss. It appears that the radical or radical cation generated during the redox process is capable of interacting with n-electrons of the backbone. Beneficial effects of cationic AAs impact the conduction process. A relationship apparently exists involving cell signaling, protein conduction, and radicals or electrons. In addition, the link between protein ET and reproductive toxicity is examined. A key element is the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by protein ET. There is extensive evidence for involvement of ROS in generation of birth defects. The radical species arise in protein mainly by ET transformations by enzymes, as illustrated in the case of alcoholism. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Validation of an Effective, Reusable Silicon-Based Transfer Agent for Room-Temperature Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides with Readily Available Aryl Lithium Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Solorio, Dionicio; Melillo, Bruno; Sanchez, Luis; Liang, Yong; Lam, Erwin; Houk, K. N.; Smith, Amos B.

    2016-01-01

    A reusable silicon-based transfer agent (1) has been designed, synthesized, and validated for effective room-temperature palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (CCRs) of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with readily accessible aryl lithium reagents. The crystalline, bench-stable siloxane transfer agent (1) is easily prepared via a one-step protocol. Importantly, this “green” CCR protocol circumvents prefunctionalization, isolation of organometallic cross-coupling partners, and/or stoichiometric waste aside from LiCl. DFT calculations support a σ-bond metathesis mechanism during transmetalation and lead to insights on the importance of the CF3 groups. PMID:26835838

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Validation of an Effective, Reusable Silicon-Based Transfer Agent for Room-Temperature Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides with Readily Available Aryl Lithium Reagents.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Solorio, Dionicio; Melillo, Bruno; Sanchez, Luis; Liang, Yong; Lam, Erwin; Houk, K N; Smith, Amos B

    2016-02-17

    A reusable silicon-based transfer agent (1) has been designed, synthesized, and validated for effective room-temperature palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (CCRs) of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with readily accessible aryl lithium reagents. The crystalline, bench-stable siloxane transfer agent (1) is easily prepared via a one-step protocol. Importantly, this "green" CCR protocol circumvents prefunctionalization, isolation of organometallic cross-coupling partners, and/or stoichiometric waste aside from LiCl. DFT calculations support a σ-bond metathesis mechanism during transmetalation and lead to insights on the importance of the CF3 groups.

  8. Electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization method for catalase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Hou, Dayin; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Tao; Menkhaus, Todd J; Fong, Hao

    2014-12-10

    In this study, an electrospun regenerated cellulose (RC) nanofibrous membrane with fiber diameters of ∼200-400 nm was prepared first; subsequently, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and acrylic acid (AA) were selected as the monomers for surface grafting of polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. Thereafter, four nanofibrous membranes (i.e., RC, RC-poly(HEMA), RC-poly(DMAEMA), and RC-poly(AA)) were explored as innovative supports for immobilization of an enzyme of bovine liver catalase (CAT). The amount/capacity, activity, stability, and reusability of immobilized catalase were evaluated, and the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) for immobilized and free catalase were determined. The results indicated that the respective amounts/capacities of immobilized catalase on RC-poly(HEMA) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) nanofibrous membranes reached 78 ± 3.5 and 67 ± 2.7 mg g(-1), which were considerably higher than the previously reported values. Meanwhile, compared to that of free CAT (i.e., 18 days), the half-life periods of RC-CAT, RC-poly(HEMA)-CAT, RC-poly(DMAEMA)-CAT, and RC-poly(AA)-CAT were 49, 58, 56, and 60 days, respectively, indicating that the storage stability of immobilized catalase was also significantly improved. Furthermore, the immobilized catalase exhibited substantially higher resistance to temperature variation (tested from 5 to 70 °C) and lower degree of sensitivity to pH value (tested from 4.0 and 10.0) than the free catalase. In particular, according to the kinetic parameters of Vmax and Km, the nanofibrous membranes of RC-poly(HEMA) (i.e., 5102 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 44.89 mM) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) (i.e., 4651 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 46.98 mM) had the most satisfactory biocompatibility with immobilized catalase. It was therefore concluded that the electrospun RC nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with 3-dimensional nanolayers of polymer chains/brushes would be

  9. DNA-directed alkylating agents. 3. Structure-activity relationships for acridine-linked aniline mustards: consequences of varying the length of the linker chain.

    PubMed

    Valu, K K; Gourdie, T A; Boritzki, T J; Gravatt, G L; Baguley, B C; Wilson, W R; Wakelin, L P; Woodgate, P D; Denny, W A

    1990-11-01

    Four series of acridine-linked aniline mustards have been prepared and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo antitumor activity, and DNA cross-linking ability. The anilines were attached to the DNA-intercalating acridine chromophores by link groups (-O-, -CH2-, -S-, and -SO2-) of widely varying electronic properties, providing four series of widely differing mustard reactivity where the alkyl chain linking the acridine and mustard moieties was varied from two to five carbons. Relationships were sought between chain length and biological properties. Within each series, increasing the chain length did not alter the reactivity of the alkylating moiety but did appear to position it differently on the DNA, since cross-linking ability (measured by agarose gel assay) altered with chain length, being maximal with the C4 analogue. The in vivo antitumor activities of the compounds depended to some extent on the reactivity of the mustard, with the least reactive SO2 compounds being inactive. However, DNA-targeting did appear to allow the use of less reactive mustards, since the S-linked acridine mustards showed significant activity whereas the parent S-mustard did not. Within each active series, the most active compound was the C4 homologue, suggesting some relationship between activity and extent of DNA alkylation.

  10. POTENTIAL OF MEAN FORCE CALCULATION FOR THE PROTON AND HYDRIDE TRANSFER REACTIONS CATALYZED BY MEDIUM CHAIN ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE: THE EFFECT OF MUTATIONS ON ENZYME CATALYSISa

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeep; Ma, Shuhua; Stankovich, Marian T.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gao, Jiali

    2008-01-01

    Potential of mean force calculations have been performed on the wild-type medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and two of its mutant forms. Initial simulation and analysis of the active site of the enzyme reveals that an arginine residue (Arg256), conserved in the substrate binding domain of this group of enzymes, exists in two alternate conformations, only one of which makes the enzyme active. This active conformation was used in subsequent computations of the enzymatic reactions. It is known that the catalytic α,β-dehydrogenation of fatty acyl-CoAs consists of two C-H bond dissociation processes: a proton abstraction and a hydride transfer. Energy profiles of the two reaction steps in the wild-type MCAD demonstrate that the reaction proceeds by a stepwise mechanism with a transient species. The activation barriers of the two steps differ by only ∼2 kcal/mol, indicating that both may contribute to the rate-limiting process. Thus this may be a stepwise dissociation mechanism whose relative barriers can be tuned by suitable alterations of the substrate and/or enzyme. Analysis of the structures along the reaction path reveals that Arg256 plays a key role in maintaining the reaction-center hydrogen-bonding network involving the thioester carbonyl group, which stabilizes transition states as well as the intervening transient species. Mutation of this arginine residue to glutamine increases the activation barrier of the hydride transfer reaction by ∼5 kcal/mol, and the present simulations predict a substantial loss of catalytic activity for this mutant. Structural analysis of this mutant reveals that the orientation of the thioester moiety of the substrate has been changed significantly as compared to that in the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, simulation of the active site of the Thr168Ala mutant shows no significant change in the relative orientation of the substrate and the cofactor in the active site; as a result, this mutation has very little effect on

  11. Bioaccumulation of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a typical freshwater food web contaminated by e-waste in south china: Bioaccumulation factors, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Tang, Bin; Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Yu; Mai, Bixian

    2017-03-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem. SCCPs were detected in all of the investigated aquatic species at concentrations of 1700-95,000 ng/g lipid weight. The calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) varied from 2.46 to 3.49. The relationship between log BAF and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for benthopelagic omnivorous fish species followed the empirical model of bioconcentration, indicating that bioconcentration plays an important role in accumulation of SCCPs. In contrast, the relationship for the benthic carnivorous fish and invertebrates was not consistent with the empirical model of bioconcentration, implying that the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in these species could be more influenced by other complex factors (e.g., habitat and feeding habit). Preferential distribution in the liver rather than in other tissues (e.g., muscle, gills, skin, and kidneys) was noted for the SCCP congeners with higher log KOW, and bioaccumulation pathway (i.e. water or sediment) can affect the tissue distribution of SCCP congeners. SCCPs underwent trophic dilution in the aquatic food web, and the trophic magnification factor (TMF) values of SCCP congener groups significantly correlated with their corresponding log KOW values (p < 0.0001). The present study results improved our understanding on the environmental behavior and fate of SCCPs in aquatic ecosystem.

  12. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites.

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2005-10-05

    Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also the main LCFA that accumulated onto the sludge. The way of palmitic acid accumulation was different in the oleic and in the palmitic acid fed reactors. When oleic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (83% as palmitic acid) were mainly adsorbed and entrapped in the sludge that became "encapsulated" by an LCFA layer. However, when palmitic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (the totality as palmitic acid) was mainly precipitated in white spots like precipitates in between the sludge, which remained "non-encapsulated." The two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and H(2)CO(2), before and after the mineralization of similar amounts of biomass-associated LCFA (4.6 and 5.2 g COD-LCFA/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), for the oleic and palmitic acid fed sludge, respectively). The "non-encapsulated," sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, with the "encapsulated" sludge only methane production from ethanol and H(2)/CO(2) was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 h. After mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA, both sludges exhibited activities of similar order of magnitude in the presence of the same individual substrates and significantly higher than before. The results evidenced that LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production. Whatever the mechanism, metabolic or physical, that is behind this inhibition, it is reversible, being eliminated after the

  14. Spectroscopic Investigation of Peridinin Analogues having Different π-electron Conjugated Chain Lengths: Exploring the Nature of the Intramolecular Charge Transfer State

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Enriquez, Miriam M.; Kajikawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shinji; Katsumura, Shigeo; Frank, Harry A.

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime of the lowest excited singlet (S1) state of peridinin and many other carbonyl-containing carotenoids and polyenes has been reported depend on the polarity of the solvent. This effect has been attributed to the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state in the manifold of excited states for these molecules. The nature of this ICT state has yet to be elucidated. In the present work, steady-state and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy have been performed on peridinin and three synthetic analogues, C33-peridinin, C35-peridinin, and C39-peridinin which have different numbers of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. Otherwise, the molecules are structurally similar in that they posses the same functional groups. The trends in the positions of the steady-state and transient spectral profiles for this systematic series of molecules allow an assignment of the spectral features to transitions involving the S0, S1, S2 and ICT states. A kinetics analysis reveals the lifetimes of the excited states and the dynamics of their excited state deactivation pathways. The most striking observation in the data is that the lifetime of the ICT state converges to the same value of 10.0 ± 2.0 ps in the polar solvent, methanol, for all the peridinin analogues regardless of the extent of π-electron conjugation. This suggests that the ICT state is highly localized on the lactone ring which is a common structural feature in all the molecules. The data further suggest that the S1 and ICT states behave independently and that the ICT state is populated both from both S1 and S2, the rate and efficiency from S1 being dependent on the length of the π-electron chain of the carotenoid and the solvent polarity. PMID:19775150

  15. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  16. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry.

  17. The SOS Response Master Regulator LexA Regulates the Gene Transfer Agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Represses Transcription of the Signal Transduction Protein CckA

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinski, Kevin S.; Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Ding, Hao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a genetic exchange element that combines central aspects of bacteriophage-mediated transduction and natural transformation. RcGTA particles resemble a small double-stranded DNA bacteriophage, package random ∼4-kb fragments of the producing cell genome, and are released from a subpopulation (<1%) of cells in a stationary-phase culture. RcGTA particles deliver this DNA to surrounding R. capsulatus cells, and the DNA is integrated into the recipient genome though a process that requires homologs of natural transformation genes and RecA-mediated homologous recombination. Here, we report the identification of the LexA repressor, the master regulator of the SOS response in many bacteria, as a regulator of RcGTA activity. Deletion of the lexA gene resulted in the abolition of detectable RcGTA production and an ∼10-fold reduction in recipient capability. A search for SOS box sequences in the R. capsulatus genome sequence identified a number of putative binding sites located 5′ of typical SOS response coding sequences and also 5′ of the RcGTA regulatory gene cckA, which encodes a hybrid histidine kinase homolog. Expression of cckA was increased >5-fold in the lexA mutant, and a lexA cckA double mutant was found to have the same phenotype as a ΔcckA single mutant in terms of RcGTA production. The data indicate that LexA is required for RcGTA production and maximal recipient capability and that the RcGTA-deficient phenotype of the lexA mutant is largely due to the overexpression of cckA. IMPORTANCE This work describes an unusual phenotype of a lexA mutant of the alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus in respect to the phage transduction-like genetic exchange carried out by the R. capsulatus gene transfer agent (RcGTA). Instead of the expected SOS response characteristic of prophage induction, this lexA mutation not only abolishes the production of RcGTA particles but also impairs the ability

  18. Exploration on natural product anibamine side chain modification toward development of novel CCR5 antagonists and potential anti-prostate cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoyan G; Zaidi, Saheem A; Zhang, Feng; Singh, Shilpa; Raborg, Thomas J; Yuan, Yunyun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death among males in the world. Prostate cancer cells have been shown to express upregulated chemokine receptor CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that relates to the inflammation process. Anibamine, a natural product containing a pyridine ring and two aliphatic side chains, was shown to carry a binding affinity of 1 μM at CCR5 as an antagonist with potential anti-cancer activity. However, it is not drug-like according to the Lipinski's rule of five mainly due to its two long aliphatic side chains. In our effort to improve its drug-like property, a series of anibamine derivatives were designed and synthesized by placement of aromatic side chains through an amide linkage to the pyridine ring. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their CCR5 affinity and antagonism, and potential anti-proliferation activity against prostate cancer cell lines. Basal cytotoxicity was finally studied for compounds showing potent anti-proliferation activity. It was found that compounds with hydrophobic substitutions on the aromatic systems seemed to carry more promising CCR5 binding and prostate cancer cell proliferation inhibition activities.

  19. Catalytic production of olefin block copolymers via chain shuttling polymerization.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Daniel J; Carnahan, Edmund M; Hustad, Phillip D; Kuhlman, Roger L; Wenzel, Timothy T

    2006-05-05

    We report a catalytic system that produces olefin block copolymers with alternating semicrystalline and amorphous segments, achieved by varying the ratio of alpha-olefin to ethylene in the two types of blocks. The system uses a chain shuttling agent to transfer growing chains between two distinct catalysts with different monomer selectivities in a single polymerization reactor. The block copolymers simultaneously have high melting temperatures and low glass transition temperatures, and therefore they maintain excellent elastomeric properties at high temperatures. Furthermore, the materials are effectively produced in economically favorable, continuous polymerization processes.

  20. Catalytic Production of Olefin Block Copolymers via Chain Shuttling Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Daniel J.; Carnahan, Edmund M.; Hustad, Phillip D.; Kuhlman, Roger L.; Wenzel, Timothy T.

    2006-05-01

    We report a catalytic system that produces olefin block copolymers with alternating semicrystalline and amorphous segments, achieved by varying the ratio of α-olefin to ethylene in the two types of blocks. The system uses a chain shuttling agent to transfer growing chains between two distinct catalysts with different monomer selectivities in a single polymerization reactor. The block copolymers simultaneously have high melting temperatures and low glass transition temperatures, and therefore they maintain excellent elastomeric properties at high temperatures. Furthermore, the materials are effectively produced in economically favorable, continuous polymerization processes.

  1. Surface initiated supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-SARA-ATRP) of 4-vinylpyridine on poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Maaz, Mohamad; Elzein, Tamara; Bejjani, Alice; Barroca-Aubry, Nadine; Lepoittevin, Bénédicte; Dragoe, Diana; Mazerat, Sandra; Nsouli, Bilal; Roger, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were modified by means of surface-initiated supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-SARA-ATRP) of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). Substrates were pretreated in order to graft chloromethylbenzene (CMB) units capable of initiating the radical polymerization reaction of 4VP units. Surface characterization techniques, including Water Contact Angle (WCA), Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed a successful grafting of a stable, smooth and homogenous layer of p4VP. This process offers the advantages of a rapid, simplified and low cost strategy to chemically modify polymer substrates with covalently bonded layer of the pH responsive p4VP for different applications. Moreover, by using TOF-SIMS profiling, we were able to track a density gradient along the z-axis generated by the interpenetrating phases of the different layers of the final modified surface. Fact that we correlated to the various positions of initiation sites within the polyethylenimine (PEI) used for PET aminolysis prior to CMB grafting. Our strategy will be used in future work to graft other polymers for different applications where industrial scale viable options are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of barley and malt lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) toward heating and reducing agents: relationships with the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Perrocheau, Ludivine; Bakan, Benedicte; Boivin, Patrick; Marion, Didier

    2006-04-19

    Barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1) is a heat-stable and protease-resistant albumin that concentrates in beer, where it participates in the formation and stability of beer foam. Whereas the barley LTP1 does not display any foaming properties, the corresponding beer protein is surface-active. Such an improvement is related to glycation by Maillard reactions on malting, acylation on mashing, and structural unfolding on brewing. The structural stability of purified barley and glycated malt LTP1 toward heating has been analyzed. Whatever the modification, lipid adduction or glycation, barley LTP1s are highly stable proteins that resisted temperatures up to 100 degrees C. Unfolding of LTP1 occurred only when heating was conducted in the presence of a reducing agent. In the presence of sodium sulfite, the lipid-adducted barley and malt LTP1 displayed higher heat stability than the nonadducted protein. Glycation had no or weak effect on heat-induced unfolding. Finally, it was shown that unfolding occurred on wort boiling before fermentation and that the reducing conditions are provided by malt extract.

  3. Determination of alkylmethylphosphonic acids, the main metabolites of organophosphorus nerve agents, in biofluids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid-liquid-solid-phase-transfer-catalyzed pentafluorobenzylation.

    PubMed

    Miki, A; Katagi, M; Tsuchihashi, H; Yamashita, M

    1999-01-01

    A simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure has been developed for the main metabolites of organophosphorus nerve agents, alkylmethylphosphonic acids (AMPAs; alkyl = Et, i-Pr, and pinacolyl) in biofluids via extractive pentafluorobenzylation. The derivatization was carried out under liquid-liquid-solid-phase-transfer conditions using a polymer-bound tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium bromide as a catalyst. AMPAs in aqueous samples were semiquantitatively extracted into a small-volume organic layer as their pentafluorobenzyl derivatives at pH 4.5 (85 degrees C). Sample pretreatments for urine, serum, and saliva were each examined to minimize matrix interference. The detection limits of APMAs by electron-impact ionization GC-MS were around 50 ng/mL and 2.5-10 ng/mL in the full-scan and selected-ion monitoring modes, respectively. In order to detect trace-level AMPAs, negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) was also employed to enhance sensitivity. The detection limits of AMPAs in biofluids were typically 60 pg/mL by GC-NICI-MS.

  4. Cerium(III), europium(III), and ytterbium(III) complexes with alcohol donor groups as chemical exchange saturation transfer agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Morrow, Janet R

    2009-08-03

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of macrocycles 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (THED) and (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) were studied as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The four hyperfine-shifted alcohol protons of these Ln(III) complexes gave rise to a single (1)H resonance in wet d(3)-acetonitrile that was separated from the bulk water resonance (Delta omega) by 8 ppm (Ce), 2 ppm (Nd), 7 ppm (Eu), or 17 ppm (Yb). A CEST peak corresponding to the alcohol protons was observed for all Ln(THED)(3+) or Ln(S-THP)(3+) complexes except Nd(III) at low water concentrations (<1%). In 100% aqueous buffered solutions, the CEST hydroxyl peak is observed for the Eu(III), Ce(III), and Yb(III) complexes over a range of pH values. The optimal pH range for the CEST effect of each complex is related to the pK(a) of the hydroxyl/water ligands of the complex. Optimum pH values for the CEST effect from alcohol proton exchange are pH = 6.0 for Ce(S-THP)(3+), pH = 4.5 for Eu(THED)(3+), and pH = 3.0 for Yb(S-THP)(3+).

  5. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to an individual or entity registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent...

  6. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to an individual or entity registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent...

  7. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to an individual or entity registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent...

  8. 7 CFR 331.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to an individual or entity registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent...

  9. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  10. Anticholinesterase therapeutics. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of side-chain substituted quaternary imidazolium salts as pretreatment agents for organophosphonate intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.N.; Koolpe, G.A.; Sanderson, R.A.; Musallam, H.A.; Engle, R.R.

    1993-05-13

    Several quaternary imidazolium salts of the general formula 1 below, with R = CH3 or CH=NOH, n = 1 or 2, and X = sulfonamide, sulfamide, amide, urea, carbamate, or phosphonamide substituent were prepared, characterized, and evaluated intramuscularly in the mouse as pretreatment agents for protection against soman. Many of the compounds exhibited activity that was comparable to or better than pyridostigmine in the 15- to 60-minute pretreatment regimen indicating a rapid onset of protection. The analog of 1 with X = (N,N-dimethylamino)carbonyloxy provided significant protection at the 120 min time point distinguishing this substituent from the others and identifying it for further study.

  11. Detection of subgenomic mRNA of feline coronavirus by real-time polymerase chain reaction based on primer-probe energy transfer (P-sg-QPCR).

    PubMed

    Hornyák, Akos; Bálint, Adám; Farsang, Attila; Balka, Gyula; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Blomberg, Jonas; Belák, Sándor

    2012-05-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis is one of the most severe devastating diseases of the Felidae. Upon the appearance of clinical signs, a cure for the infected animal is impossible. Therefore rapid and proper diagnosis for both the presence of the causative agent, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and the manifestation of feline infectious peritonitis is of paramount importance. In the present work, a novel real-time RT-PCR method is described which is able to detect FCoV and to determine simultaneously the quantity of the viral RNA. The new assay combines the M gene subgenomic messenger RNA (sg-mRNA) detection and the quantitation of the genome copies of FCoV. In order to detect the broadest spectrum of potential FCoV variants and to achieve the most accurate results in the detection ability the new assay is applying the primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET) principle. This technology was chosen since PriProET is very robust to tolerate the nucleotide substitutions in the target area. Therefore, this technology provides a very broad-range system, which is able to detect simultaneously many variants of the virus(es) even if the target genomic regions show large scale of variations. The detection specificity of the new assay was proven by positive amplification from a set of nine different FCoV strains and negative from the tested non-coronaviral targets. Examination of faecal samples of healthy young cats, organ samples of perished animals, which suffered from feline infectious peritonitis, and cat leukocytes from uncertain clinical cases were also subjected to the assay. The sensitivity of the P-sg-QPCR method was high, since as few as 10 genome copies of FCoV were detected. The quantitative sg-mRNA detection method revealed more than 10-50,000 times increase of the M gene sg-mRNA in organ materials of feline infectious peritonitis cases, compared to those of the enteric FCoV variants present in the faeces of normal, healthy cats. These results indicate the applicability of

  12. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-12-21

    Transparent TiO2/PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).

  13. Marked counteranion effects on single-site olefin polymerization processes. Correlations of ion pair structure and dynamics with polymerization activity, chain transfer, and syndioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chou; Roberts, John A S; Marks, Tobin J

    2004-04-14

    Counteranion effects on the rate and stereochemistry of syndiotactic propylene enchainment by the archetypal C(s)-symmetric precatalyst [Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe(2) (1; Cp = C(5)H(4); Flu = C(13)H(8), fluorenyl) are probed using the cocatalysts MAO (2), B(C(6)F(5))(3) (3)(,) B(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3) (4)(,) Ph(3)C(+)B(C(6)F(5))(4)(-) (5), and Ph(3)C(+)FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) (6), offering greatly different structural and ion pairing characteristics. Reaction of 1 with 3 affords [Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe(+) MeB(C(6)F(5))(3)(-) (7). In the case of 4, this reaction leads to formation the micro-methyl dinuclear diastereomers [([Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe)(2)(micro-Me)](+) MeB(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) (8). A similar reaction with 6 results in diastereomeric [Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe(+) FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) (10) ion pairs. The molecular structures of 7 and 10 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Reorganization pathways available to these species have been examined using EXSY and dynamic NMR, revealing that the cation-MeB(C(6)F(5))(3)(-) interaction is considerably weaker/more mobile than in the FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-)-derived analogue. Polymerizations mediated by 1 in toluene over the temperature range of -10 degrees to +60 degrees C and at 1.0-5.0 atm propylene pressure (at 60 degrees C) reveal that activity, product syndiotacticity, m and mm stereodefect generation, and chain transfer processes are highly sensitive to the nature of the ion pairing. Thus, the complexes activated with 4 and 5, having the weakest ion pairing, yield the highest estimated propagation rates, while with 6, having the strongest pairing, yields the lowest. The strongly coordinating, immobile FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) anion produces the highest/least temperature-dependent product syndiotacticity, lowest/least temperature-dependent m stereodefect abundance, and highest product molecular weight. These polypropylene microstructural parameters, and also M(w), are least

  14. Enzymic determination of branched-chain amino acids and 2-oxoacids in rat tissues. Transfer of 2-oxoacids from skeletal muscle to liver in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Livesey, G; Lund, P

    1980-01-01

    1. A procedure is described for the purification of leucine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.9) from Bacillus subtilis. 2. The preparation is suitable for the quantitative assay of branched-chain amino acids and their 2-oxoacid analogues. 3. The content of total branched-chain 2-oxoacids in freeze-clamped liver, kidney, heart or mammary gland of fed rats is less than 5 nmol/g fresh wt. Higher amounts are present in skeletal muscle and arterial blood (25 +/- 4 nmol per g fresh wt., and 33 +/- 6 nmol per ml respectively; means +/- S.D. of 3 and 11 animals respectively). The values are not significantly affected by starvation for 24 h. 4. Arteriovenous difference measurements show that considerable amounts of branched-chain 2-oxoacids are released by skeletal muscle into the circulation and similar amounts are removed by the liver (about 1 mmol/24 h in a 400 g rat). PMID:6781474

  15. Pre-transplantation novel agent induction predicts progression-free survival for patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis undergoing high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Andrew J; Klippel, Zandra K; Stevenson, Philip A; Hyun, Teresa S; Tuazon, Sherilyn; Becker, Pamela S; Green, Damian J; Holmberg, Leona A; Coffey, David G; Gopal, Ajay K; Libby, Edward N

    2016-12-01

    High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) is an effective treatment modality for immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis; however, its application remains restricted to patients with good performance status and limited organ involvement. In recent years, the paradigm for AL amyloidosis has changed with the introduction of novel agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs). We hypothesized that use of novel agent induction regimens has improved outcomes for patients with AL amyloidosis undergoing HDM/SCT at our center. All patients with AL amyloidosis, age ≥18 years who underwent HDM/SCT between 2001 and 2014 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington Medical Center were included in this study. Any regimen administered within 6 months prior to HDM/SCT including an IMiD or a PI was considered a novel induction regimen. Use of induction regimen was evaluated in a Cox proportional hazard model for association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Forty-five patients with AL amyloidosis underwent HDM/SCT. The median age was 57.2 years (range 39-74.4), 15 (33.3%) were women. The median number of organs involved was 2 (range 1-5), with 20 patients having only 1 (44.4%), 10 patients having 2 (22.2%), and 15 patients (33.3%) having ≥ 3 organs involved. Novel agent induction regimens were used prior to HDM/SCT in 21 patients (46.7%); these comprised PI in 13/21 (57.1%), IMiD alone in 6/21 (28.6%), PI and cyclophosphamide (CyBorD) in 3/21 (14.3%), and IMiD and PI in 3/21 (14.3%). Use of a novel agent induction regimen was associated with improved, but not OS. The 3-year PFS for patients who received a novel agent induction was 79%, while for those who did not was 53% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.317, p = 0.048). The 3-year OS for patients who received novel agent induction regimens was 95%, while for those who did not was 71% (HR = 0

  16. Polymerase chain reaction primers and probes derived from flagellin gene sequences for specific detection of the agents of Lyme disease and North American relapsing fever.

    PubMed Central

    Picken, R N

    1992-01-01

    By cloning and sequencing the flagellin gene of Borrelia hermsii and comparing this sequence with that of the corresponding gene from B. burgdorferi, I identified a central region within the two genes which showed a reduced level of sequence similarity. Oligonucleotide sequences selected from this region produced species-specific amplimers when used in polymerase chain reaction experiments. Thus, primers derived from the B. burgdorferi sequence amplified a 276-bp fragment from 22 strains of B. burgdorferi of diverse geographic origin but not from 5 strains of B. hermsii, 5 other Borrelia species, 16 Treponema, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta species, or representatives of 10 other bacterial genera. However, when the amplified fragments were tested for hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe derived from the nonhomologous region, seven strains from either Germany or Switzerland did not hybridize. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified fragments from these strains revealed that the 22 strains of B. burgdorferi tested could be divided into three groups based on the nucleic acid sequence of the central region of the flagellin gene. With this information, oligonucleotide probes that hybridized to the amplified fragments and were able to differentiate the three groups of B. burgdorferi were designed. The corresponding primers, derived from the B. hermsii gene sequence, were tested for their ability to amplify DNA from this collection of strains. Although no amplification was obtained with representatives of the three groups of B. burgdorferi or various Treponema, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta species, amplification was obtained with the five other Borrelia species (B. parkeri, B. turicatae, B. crocidurae, B. anserina, and B. coriaceae) in addition to the five strains of B. hermsii. Sequencing of the amplified fragments from one strain of B. hermsii as well as B. parkeri and B. turicatae allowed the design of oligonucleotide probes that were able to differentiate the three

  17. Organization of the electron transfer chain to oxygen in the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae: roles for cytochromes c4 and c5, but not cytochrome c2, in oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Hopper, Amanda; Overton, Tim; Squire, Derrick J P; Cole, Jeffrey; Tovell, Nicholas

    2010-05-01

    Although Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a prolific source of eight c-type cytochromes, little is known about how its electron transfer pathways to oxygen are organized. In this study, the roles in the respiratory chain to oxygen of cytochromes c(2), c(4), and c(5), encoded by the genes cccA, cycA, and cycB, respectively, have been investigated. Single mutations in genes for either cytochrome c(4) or c(5) resulted in an increased sensitivity to growth inhibition by excess oxygen and small decreases in the respiratory capacity of the parent, which were complemented by the chromosomal integration of an ectopic, isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible copy of the cycA or cycB gene. In contrast, a cccA mutant reduced oxygen slightly more rapidly than the parent, suggesting that cccA is expressed but cytochrome c(2) is not involved in electron transfer to cytochrome oxidase. The deletion of cccA increased the sensitivity of the cycB mutant to excess oxygen but decreased the sensitivity of the cycA mutant. Despite many attempts, a double mutant defective in both cytochromes c(4) and c(5) could not be isolated. However, a strain with the ectopically encoded, IPTG-inducible cycB gene with deletions in both cycA and cycB was constructed: the growth and survival of this strain were dependent upon the addition of IPTG, so gonococcal survival is dependent upon the synthesis of either cytochrome c(4) or c(5). These results define the gonococcal electron transfer chain to oxygen in which cytochromes c(4) and c(5), but not cytochrome c(2), provide alternative pathways for electron transfer from the cytochrome bc(1) complex to the terminal oxidase cytochrome cbb(3).

  18. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  19. Preparation of PEGylated polymeric nanoprobes with aggregation-induced emission feature through the combination of chain transfer free radical polymerization and multicomponent reaction: Self-assembly, characterization and biological imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qing; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Jiang, Ruming; Xu, Dazhuang; Huang, Hongye; Dai, Yanfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    Self-assembly of amphiphilic luminescent copolymers is a general route to fabricate fluorescent polymeric microparticles (FPMs). In this work, the FPMs with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature were fabricated via the combination of the chain transfer free radical polymerization and "one-pot" multicomponent reaction, which conjugated the aldehyde-containing AIE active dye AIE (CHO-An-CHO) and amino-terminated hydrophilic polymer (ATPPEGMA) using mercaptoacetic acid (MTA) as the "lock" molecule. The structure, chemical compositions, optical properties as well as biological properties of the PPEGMA-An-PPEGMA FPMs were characterized and investigated by means of a series of techniques and experiments in detail. We demonstrated the final copolymers showed amphiphilic properties, strong yellow fluorescence and high water dispersibility. Biological evaluation suggested that PPEGMA-An-PPEGMA FPMs possess low cytotoxicity and can be used for cell imaging. More importantly, many other AIE active FPMs are expected to be fabricated using the similar strategy because of the good substrate and monomer applicability of the multicomponent reaction and chain transfer living radical polymerization. Therefore, we could conclude that the strategy described in this work should be of great interest for fabrication of multifunctional AIE active nanoprobes for biomedical applications.

  20. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND TOXINS § 73.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent or toxin may only be transferred under the conditions of this...

  1. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND TOXINS § 73.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent or toxin may only be transferred under the conditions of this...

  2. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND TOXINS § 73.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent or toxin may only be transferred under the conditions of this...

  3. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND TOXINS § 73.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or transfer that agent or toxin. A select agent or toxin may only be transferred under the conditions of this...

  4. Detection of vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and Bacillus anthracis DNA by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction after autoclaving: implications for biosafety of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Espy, Mark J; Uhl, James R; Sloan, Lynne M; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Cockerill, Franklin R; Smith, Thomas F

    2002-07-01

    To determine whether autoclaving suspensions of vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Bacillus anthracis inactivate infectivity of these agents but allow detection of target DNA by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Swabs were inserted into tubes containing serial 10-fold dilutions (10(-1) to 10(-5); 500 microL; 6 samples per dilution) of vaccinia virus, HSV, VZV, or a single suspension of 10(8) colony-forming units of B anthracis (2 samples). One half of the samples were autoclaved, and the remainder were not. An aliquot of each not autoclaved sample served as a control for infectivity. Autoclaving swabs saturated with suspensions of vaccinia virus, HSV, or VZV eliminated the infectivity of these agents; however, DNA was detectable in most autoclaved samples in dilutions of 10(-1) to 10(-4) by LightCycler PCR. All not autoclaved specimens were detected by culture (infectivity) except for VZV and, in most dilutions of 10(-1) to 10(-3), by assay of target DNA by LightCycler PCR. Similarly positive results were obtained for PCR assessment of sporulated B anthracis. Standard autoclaving procedures eliminated the infectivity of viruses (and B anthracis), but target DNA was often retained for detection by LightCycler PCR. Current recommendations indicate that the laboratory diagnosis of smallpox virus infection be performed only within Biosafety Level 4 facilities. We suggest that, in addition to the requirement for immediate coordination with public health officials, the federal government consider expanding the existing guidelines for processing these specimens to encourage immediate collection, autoclaving, and testing by LightCycler PCR to differentiate smallpox virus from other dermal pathogens such as HSV and VZV by specific qualified laboratories.

  5. Transfer of spores, bacteria and yeast into toluene containing phospholipids and low amounts of water: preservation of the bacterial respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Darszon, A; Escamilla, E; Gómez-Puyou, A; Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, M

    1988-03-30

    A method that allows the transfer of spores, bacteria and yeasts into a ternary system composed of toluene, phospholipids and low amounts of water is described. Initially an emulsion is formed by sonication of cells suspended in water in presence of toluene and phospholipids. The emulsion formed was subsequently clarified by blowing N2 on its surface and transparency was achieved when the water content of the system was reduced to 1-3 microliter/ml of organic solvent. The cells in ternary systems exhibit a reduction of cell volume, but the general structure is preserved. About 1/10,000 bacilli or yeast were viable, but spores were viable after 30 days in the ternary system. Yeast cells transferred to the ternary system, and back to an all water media failed to show oxygen uptake. In contrast bacilli that remained in the ternary system for 2 days respired to 80% of their maximal capacity when returned to an aqueous media.

  6. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  7. Diagonalization of transfer matrix of supersymmetry U{sub q}(sl-caret(M+1|N+1)) chain with a boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Takeo

    2013-04-15

    We study the supersymmetry U{sub q}(sl-caret(M+1|N+1)) analogue of the supersymmetric t-J model with a boundary. Our approach is based on the algebraic analysis method of solvable lattice models. We diagonalize the commuting transfer matrix by using the bosonizations of the vertex operators associated with the quantum affine supersymmetry U{sub q}(sl-caret(M+1|N+1)).

  8. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    DOE PAGES

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; ...

    2016-02-17

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ hasmore » a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2.« less

  9. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-02-17

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ has a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2.

  10. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ has a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2. PMID:26884151

  11. Measurements of sup 129 I in human and bovine thyroids in Europe--transfer of sup 129 I into the food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Handl, J.; Pfau, A.; Huth, F.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Bovine thyroid glands from different countries in Europe and human thyroid glands from Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany) show isotopic 129I/127I ratios of 2.1 X 10(-9) to 8.2 X 10(-8) for cattle and 2.1 X 10(-9) to 8 X 10(-8) in humans. These values give information about the concentration of fallout 129I in Europe since most of these glands were collected in areas without nuclear facilities. Some of the human thyroids were collected after the Chernobyl accident between May 1986 and February 1988. Results obtained from human thyroids taken in some locations of Lower Saxony show no significant increase of the 129I during this time. Higher concentrations of 129I were only found in cattle grazing in the vicinity of a reprocessing plant in Mol, Belgium. Samples of soil, vegetation, milk, and water from this area contained higher than normal concentrations of 129I. The long-term transfer of radioiodine from the soil to the plant and the translocation within the soil were studied using a soil monolith with a 129I-contaminated surface. During the 4 y of the experiment, the transfer factor plant/soil decreased from 0.3 to 2.2 X 10(-3). Soil samples taken in 5-cm steps to a depth of 30 cm then at 40 and 50 cm depths showed that the transport of radioiodine to lower layers proceeds very slowly. In an in-vivo study with a dairy cow, the transfer of radioiodine from feed to milk to cow meat and to pig thyroid gland was followed for 53 d using 129I-labeled pasture grass contaminated via roots. A part of the milk obtained from the cow was fed to a pig as a substitute for humans. The mean value of the transfer factor milk/feed was 2.4 X 10(-3) d kg-1. The values of the transfer factor cow meat/feed obtained for different muscle cuts and organs (excluding thyroid) ranged between 3.0 X 10(-4) (kidney) and 5.4 X 10(-2) d kg-1 f.w.

  12. Silver nanoparticles well-dispersed in amine-functionalized, one-pot made vesicles as an effective antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuanming; Li, Jiefeng; Yu, Junyan; Zhao, Jinlai; Tang, Jiaoning

    2016-03-01

    We report a simple route to prepare silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) loaded amine functionalized poly-oligomeric (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate block poly-glycidyl methacrylate (POEGMA-b-PGMA) vesicles as an effective antibacterial agent. Self-assemblies of POEGMA-b-PGMA were prepared from reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization mediated by a POEGMA macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in ethanol. Amine-functionalized self-assemblies were applied for Ag NP loading by using amine and hydroxyl groups as both the coordination agent and reductant under hydrothermal condition in high-pressure steam sterilization. 12.7 wt.% content of fine Ag NP well-dispersed in vesicles showed excellent antibacterial activities with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) below 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L against Escherichia coli and 2.5 and 80 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus respectively.

  13. Comparative studies by using spectroscopic tools on the charge transfer (CT) band of a novel synthesized short-chain dyad in isotropic media and in a gel (P123)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Misra, Tapas; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2009-10-01

    In the present investigation the photophysics of the synthesized short-chain organic dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) has been studied both in isotropic media and gel (P123) environment by using steady state, time-resolved spectroscopic techniques and fluorescence anisotropy decay. From the NMR and time-resolved spectroscopic studies E-isomeric form (elongated nature) of the charge-transfer species of the dyad MNCA appears to be the only isomeric form in the ground state and this conformation retains even after photoexcitation whatever be the nature of the environment, the isotropic solution or micro-heterogeneous medium (gel phase of P123).

  14. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern antibiotic era and all the benefits that these therapeutic agents have brought, i.e., longer life spans, greater levels of public health, widespread modern surgery, and control of debilitating infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to become commercially available, and its use ushered in the age of antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin's bactericidal action had been made by Alexander Fleming in London in 1928. After publishing his observations in 1929, no further progress was made until the work was picked up in 1939 by scientists at Oxford University. The group was headed by Howard Florey, and Chain was the group's lead scientist. Chain was born and educated in Germany, and he fled in 1933 as a Jewish refugee from Nazism to England. Other important members of the Oxford research team were Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham. The team was able to produce and isolate penicillin under conditions of scarce resources and many technical challenges. Sufficient material was collected and tested on mice to successfully demonstrate penicillin's bactericidal action on pathogens, while being nontoxic to mammals. Chain directed the microbiological methods for producing penicillin and the chemical engineering methods to extract the material. This technology was transferred to US government facilities in 1941 for commercial production of penicillin, becoming an important element in the Allied war effort. In 1945, the Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by Fleming, Florey, and Chain in recognition of their work in developing penicillin as a therapeutic agent. After World War II, Chain tried to persuade the British government to fund a new national antibiotic industry with both research and production facilities. As

  15. Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticlesvia reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of electron transfer reaction of single and double chain surfactant cobalt(III) complex by Fe2+ ions in liposome (dipalmitoylphosphotidylcholine) vesicles: effects of phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Karuppiah; Senthil Murugan, Krishnan; Thangamuniyandi, Pilavadi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we report the kinetics of reduction reactions of single and double chain surfactant cobalt(III) complexes of octahedral geometry, cis-[Co(en)2(4AMP)(DA)](ClO4)3 and cis-[Co(dmp)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (en = ethylenediamine, dmp = 1,3-diaminopropane, 4AMP = 4-aminopropane, C12H25NH2 = dodecylamine) by Fe2+ ion in dipalmitoylphosphotidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles at different temperatures under pseudo first-order conditions. The kinetics of these reactions is followed by spectrophotometry method. The reactions are found to be second order and the electron transfer is postulated as outer sphere. The remarkable findings in the present investigation are that, below the phase transition temperature of DPPC, the rate decreases with an increase in the concentration of DPPC, while above the phase transition temperature the rate increases with an increase in the concentration of DPPC. The main driving force for this phenomenon is considered to be the intervesicular hydrophobic interaction between vesicles surface and hydrophobic part of the surfactant complexes. Besides, comparing the values of rate constants of these outer-sphere electron transfer reactions in the absence and in the presence of DPPC, the rate constant values in the presence of DPPC are always found to be greater than in the absence of DPPC. This is ascribed to the double hydrophobic fatty acid chain in the DPPC that gives the molecule an overall tubular shape due to the intervesicular hydrophobic interaction between vesicles surface and hydrophobic part of the surfactant complexes more suitable for vesicle aggregation which facilitates lower activation energy, and consequently higher rate is observed in the presence of DPPC. The activation parameters (ΔS# and ΔH#) of the reactions at different temperatures have been calculated which corroborate the kinetics of the reaction.

  17. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Molecular Switch Designed Using a Systematic Design Process Based on Monte Carlo Methods and Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallapalli, Arjun

    A RET network consists of a network of photo-active molecules called chromophores that can participate in inter-molecular energy transfer called resonance energy transfer (RET). RET networks are used in a variety of applications including cryptographic devices, storage systems, light harvesting complexes, biological sensors, and molecular rulers. In this dissertation, we focus on creating a RET device called closed-diffusive exciton valve (C-DEV) in which the input to output transfer function is controlled by an external energy source, similar to a semiconductor transistor like the MOSFET. Due to their biocompatibility, molecular devices like the C-DEVs can be used to introduce computing power in biological, organic, and aqueous environments such as living cells. Furthermore, the underlying physics in RET devices are stochastic in nature, making them suitable for stochastic computing in which true random distribution generation is critical. In order to determine a valid configuration of chromophores for the C-DEV, we developed a systematic process based on user-guided design space pruning techniques and built-in simulation tools. We show that our C-DEV is 15x better than C-DEVs designed using ad hoc methods that rely on limited data from prior experiments. We also show ways in which the C-DEV can be improved further and how different varieties of C-DEVs can be combined to form more complex logic circuits. Moreover, the systematic design process can be used to search for valid chromophore network configurations for a variety of RET applications. We also describe a feasibility study for a technique used to control the orientation of chromophores attached to DNA. Being able to control the orientation can expand the design space for RET networks because it provides another parameter to tune their collective behavior. While results showed limited control over orientation, the analysis required the development of a mathematical model that can be used to determine the

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer coated solid-phase microextraction fiber prepared by surface reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for monitoring of Sudan dyes in chilli tomato sauce and chilli pepper samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaogang; Fan, Yanan; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Guimei; Cai, Quanling; Cao, Yujuan; Guo, Changjuan

    2012-06-20

    Surface reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method was firstly applied to the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coated silicon solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. With Sudan I as template, an ultra-thin MIP coating with about 0.55-μm thickness was obtained with homogeneous structure and controlled composition, due to the controllable radical growing and chain propagation in surface RAFT polymerization. The MIP-coated fibers were found with enhanced selectivity coefficients (3.0-6.5) to Sudan I-IV dyes in contrast with those reported in our previous work. Furthermore, the ultra-thin thickness of MIP coating was helpful to the effective elution of template and fast adsorption/desorption kinetics, so only about 18 min was needed for MIP-coated SPME operation. The detection limits of 21-55 ng L(-1) were achieved for four Sudan dyes, when MIP-coated SPME was coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. The MIP-coated SPME-LC-MS/MS method was tested for the monitoring of ultra trace Sudan dyes in spiked chilli tomato sauce and chilli pepper samples, and high enrichment effect, remarkable matrix peaks-removing capability, and consequent high sensitivities were achieved to four Sudan dyes.

  19. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  20. Natural Leishmania infection of Lutzomyia auraensis in Madre de Dios, Peru, detected by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Hugo O; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Fernandez, Roberto; Baldeviano, G Christian; Zorrilla, Victor O; Vera, Hubert; Lucas, Carmen M; Edgel, Kimberly A; Lescano, Andrés G; Mundal, Kirk D; Graf, Paul C F

    2012-09-01

    Leishmania species of the Viannia subgenus are responsible for most cases of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis. However, little is known about the vectors involved in disease transmission in the Amazon regions of Peru. We used a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess Leishmania infections in phlebotomines collected in rural areas of Madre de Dios, Peru. A total of 1,299 non-blood fed female sand flies from 33 species were captured by using miniature CDC light traps. Lutzomyia auraensis was the most abundant species (63%) in this area. Seven of 164 pools were positive by PCR for Leishmania by kinetoplast DNA. The real-time PCR identified four Lu. auraensis pools as positive for L. (Viannia) lainsoni and L. (V.) braziliensis. The minimum infection prevalence for Lu. auraensis was estimated to be 0.6% (95% confidence interval = 0.20-1.42%). Further studies are needed to assess the importance of Lu. auraensis in the transmission of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis in hyperendemic areas of Peru.

  1. Electron transfer mediating properties of hydrocarbons as a function of chain length: a differential scanning conductive tip atomic force microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Denis; Castronovo, Matteo; Casalis, Loredana; Scoles, Giacinto

    2008-03-01

    The development of novel molecular and biomolecular devices relies on the understanding of charge transport across molecule-substrate interfaces. However, different strategies adopted so far for fabricating and studying transport through metal-molecule-metal junctions yield values for the transport coefficients that differ by up to orders of magnitude even for the same junction. Conductive tip atomic force microscopy (CT-AFM) allows for the simultaneous measurement of transport and morphological properties of molecular assemblies, but absolute transport measurements depend on the nature of the AFM tip-molecule contact. In this work we present a differential approach to the study of metal-molecule-metal junctions based on the combination of AFM-driven nanolithography and CT-AFM. We nanograft patches of alkanethiol molecules in a self-assembled monolayer of alkanethiol molecules of different chain length and measure by CT-AFM the morphology and the transport properties of the nanopatches and of the reference layer. The method allows for the determination of the differential resistance between the two molecular layers and is thus independent of environmental factors. The validity of this approach is demonstrated by measuring the tunneling decay constant of alkanethiols as a function of their length.

  2. Development and inter-laboratory transfer of a decaplex polymerase chain reaction assay combined with capillary electrophoresis for the simultaneous detection of ten food allergens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Jin; Pan, Aihu; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing; Kim, HaeYeong; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Yang, Litao

    2016-05-15

    Food allergies cause health risks to susceptible consumers and regulations on labeling of food allergen contents have been implemented in many countries and regions. To achieve timely and accurate food allergen labeling, the development of fast and effective allergen detection methods is very important. Herein, a decaplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with capillary electrophoresis was developed to detect simultaneously 10 common food allergens from hazelnut, pistachio, oat, sesame, peanut, cashew, barley, wheat, soybean and pecan. The absolute limit of detection (LODa) of this system is between 2 and 20 copies of haploid genome, and the relative LOD (LODr) is as low as 0.005% (w/w) in simulated food mixtures. The developed assay was subsequently applied to 20 commercial food products and verified the allergen ingredients stated on the labels. Furthermore, results using this decaplex PCR assay was successfully replicated in three other laboratories, demonstrating the repeatability and applicability of this assay in routine analysis of the 10 food allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and the food chain.

    PubMed

    Teale, C J

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which antibiotics given to animals contribute to the overall problem of antibiotic resistance in man is still uncertain. The development of resistance in some human pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is linked to the use of antimicrobials in man and there is no evidence for animal involvement. However, there are several good examples of transfer of resistant bacteria or bacterial resistance genes from animals to man via the food chain. A bacterial ecosystem exists with simple and complex routes of transfer of resistance genes between the bacterial populations; in addition to transfer of organisms from animals to man, there is also evidence of resistance genes spilling back from humans into the animal population. This is important because of the amplification that can occur in animal populations. The most important factor in the selection of resistant bacteria is generally agreed to be usage of antimicrobial agents and in general, there is a close association between the quantities of antimicrobials used and the rate of development of resistance. The use of antimicrobials is not restricted to animal husbandry but also occurs in horticulture (for example, aminoglycosides in apple growing) and in some other industrial processes such as oil production.

  4. [Synthesis of a novel rare earth light conversion agent and study on its compatibility in plastics].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zun-Hong; Tan, Song-Ting; Wang, Xia-Yu; Zou, Ying-Ping

    2005-01-01

    2-octyl-1, 3-diphenol-1, 3-propdione was synthesized by phase transfer catalysis and its Sm complexes were prepared. These compounds were characterized by IR, EA, UV and 1H NMR; Sm complex and its mixture doped with PE and PVC show photoluminescence at 650 nm. There is excellent compatibility between Sm complex and plastics by the addition of long carbon chain. Therefore, Sm complex with long carbon chain is a superior light conversion agent with good compatibility in resins with emission wavelength suitable to the 643 and 660 nm for plants' photosynthesis.

  5. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microemulsions composed of tripled-chain surface active ionic liquids, RTILs, and biological solvent: an excitation wavelength dependence study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kundu, Niloy; Ghosh, Surajit; Mandal, Sarthak; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-08-15

    In this article we have reported the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study in our earlier characterized surface active ionic liquids (SAILs)-containing microemulsion, i.e., N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P13][Tf2N])/[CTA][AOT]/isopropyl myristate ([IPM]) and N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([N3111][Tf2N])/[CTA][AOT]/[IPM] microemulsions (Banerjee, C.; Mandal, S.; Ghosh, S.; Kuchlyan, J.; Kundu, N.; Sarkar, N. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 3927-3934). The occurrence of effective FRET from the donor, coumarin-153 (C-153) to the acceptor rhodamine 6G (R6G) is evident from the decrease in the steady state fluorescence intensity of the donor with addition of acceptor and subsequent increase in the fluorescence intensity of the acceptor in the presence of donor. The excitation wavelength dependent FRET from C-153 to R6G has also been performed to assess the dynamic heterogeneity of these confined systems. In time-resolved experiments, the significant rise time of the acceptor in the presence of the donor further confirms the occurrence of FRET. The multiple donor-acceptor (D-A) distances, for various microemulsions, obtained from the rise times of the acceptor emission in the presence of a donor can be rationalized from the varying distribution of the donor, C-153, in the different regions of the microemulsion. Time-resolved measurement reveals that with increasing excitation wavelength from 408 to 440 nm, the contribution of the faster rise component of FRET increases significantly due to the close proximity of the C-153 and R6G in the polar region of the microemulsion where occurrence of FRET is very high. Moreover, we have also studied the FRET with variation of R (R = [room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)]/[surfactant]) and shown that the effect of excitation wavelength on FRET is similar irrespective of R values.

  6. Transfer of human genes conferring resistance to methylating mutagens, but not to UV irradiation and cross-linking agents, into Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaina, B.; Van Zeeland, A.A.; Backendorf, C.; Thielmann, H.W.; Van de Putte, P.

    1987-05-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by human DNA ligated to the bacterial gpt (xanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase) gene which was used either in its native form or after partial inactivation with methylnitrosourea. The gpt+ transfectants were screened for resistance to high doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Using this approach, we showed that Chinese hamster ovary cells can acquire N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine resistance upon transfection with DNA from diploid human fibroblasts, that this resistance is transferable by secondary transfection and is specific for methylating mutagens, and that it is not caused by increased removal of O6-methylguanine, 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from DNA.

  7. Long-term impact of sewage irrigation on soil properties and assessing risk in relation to transfer of metals to human food chain.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramu; Datta, S P; Golui, Debasis; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2016-07-01

    A case study was undertaken to assess the risk of sewage-irrigated soils in relation to the transfer of trace elements to rice and wheat grain. For this purpose, peri-urban agricultural lands under the Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme (KEIS) of Delhi were selected. These agricultural lands have been receiving irrigation through sewage effluents since 1979. Sewage effluent, groundwater, soil, and plant (rice and wheat grain) samples were collected with GPS coordinates from this peri-urban area. Under wheat crop, sewage irrigation for four decades resulted into a significant buildup of zinc (141 %), copper (219 %), iron (514 %), nickel (75.0 %), and lead (28.1 %) in sewage-irrigated soils over adjacent tube well water-irrigated ones. Under rice crop, there was also a significant buildup of phosphorus (339 %), sulfur (130 %), zinc (287 %), copper (352 %), iron (457 %), nickel (258 %), lead (136 %), and cadmium (147 %) in sewage-irrigated soils as compared to that of tube well water-irrigated soils. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of trace toxic elements by humans through consumption of rice and wheat grain grown on these sewage-irrigated soils were well within the safe permissible limit. The variation in Zn, Ni, and Cd content in wheat grain could be explained by solubility-free ion activity model (FIAM) to the extent of 50.1, 56.8, and 37.2 %, respectively. Corresponding values for rice grain were 49.9, 41.2, and 42.7 %, respectively. As high as 36.4 % variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by solubility-FIAM model. Toxic limit of extractable Cd and As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard associated with consumption of rice grain by humans was established. A similar exercise was also done in respect of Cd for wheat. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of extractable metals and metalloid in soils with respect to soil properties and human health hazard under the

  8. The process of lipid storage in insect oocytes: The involvement of β-chain of ATP synthase in lipophorin-mediated lipid transfer in the chagas' disease vector Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Fruttero, Leonardo L; Leyria, Jimena; Ramos, Fabián O; Stariolo, Raúl; Settembrini, Beatriz P; Canavoso, Lilián E

    2017-01-01

    Lipophorin is the main lipoprotein in the hemolymph of insects. During vitellogenesis, lipophorin delivers its hydrophobic cargo to developing oocytes by its binding to non-endocytic receptors at the plasma membrane of the cells. In some species however, lipophorin may also be internalized to some extent, thus maximizing the storage of lipid resources in growing oocytes. The ectopic β chain of ATP synthase (β-ATPase) was recently described as a putative non-endocytic lipophorin receptor in the anterior midgut of the hematophagous insect Panstrongylus megistus. In the present work, females of this species at the vitellogenic stage of the reproductive cycle were employed to investigate the role of β-ATPase in the transfer of lipids to the ovarian tissue. Subcellular fractionation and western blot revealed the presence of β-ATPase in the microsomal membranes of the ovarian tissue, suggesting its localization in the plasma membrane. Immunofluorescence assays showed partial co-localization of β-ATPase and lipophorin in the membrane of oocytes as well as in the basal domain of the follicular epithelial cells. Ligand blotting and co-immunoprecipitation approaches confirmed the interaction between lipophorin and β-ATPase. In vivo experiments with an anti-β-ATPase antibody injected to block such an interaction demonstrated that the antibody significantly impaired the transfer of fatty acids from lipophorin to the oocyte. However, the endocytic pathway of lipophorin was not affected. On the other hand, partial inhibition of ATP synthase activity did not modify the transfer of lipids from lipophorin to oocytes. When the assays were performed at 4°C to diminish endocytosis, the results showed that the antibody interfered with lipophorin binding to the oocyte plasma membrane as well as with the transfer of fatty acids from the lipoprotein to the oocyte. The findings strongly support that β-ATPase plays a role as a docking lipophorin receptor at the ovary of P. megistus

  9. Salicylic acid analogues as chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI contrast agents for the assessment of brain perfusion territory and blood-brain barrier opening after intra-arterial infusion.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolei; Walczak, Piotr; He, Xiaowei; Yang, Xing; Pearl, Monica; Bulte, Jeff Wm; Pomper, Martin G; McMahon, Michael T; Janowski, Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. Predicted, focal opening of the BBB through intra-arterial infusion of hyperosmolar mannitol is feasible, but there is a need to facilitate imaging techniques (e.g. MRI) to guide interventional procedures and assess the outcomes. Here, we show that salicylic acid analogues (SAA) can depict the brain territory supplied by the catheter and detect the BBB opening, through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI. Hyperosmolar SAA solutions themselves are also capable of opening the BBB, and, when multiple SAA agents were co-injected, their locoregional perfusion could be differentiated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  11. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  12. Spatial analysis of private tanker water markets in Jordan: Using a hydroeconomic multi-agent model to simulate non-observed water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim; Gawel, Erik; Sigel, Katja; Klauer, Bernd; Talozi, Samer; Lachaut, Thibaut; Selby, Philip; Knox, Stephen; Gorelick, Steven; Tilmant, Amaury; Harou, Julien; Mustafa, Daanish; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Avisse, Nicolas; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The country of Jordan is characterized by severe water scarcity and deficient public water supply networks. To address these issues, Jordan's water sector authorities have adopted a water rationing scheme implemented by interrupting piped water supply for several days per week. As in many arid countries around the world, this has led to the emergence of private markets of small-scale providers, delivering water via tanker trucks. On the one hand, these markets play a crucial role in meeting residential and commercial water demands by balancing the shortcomings of the public supply system. On the other hand, providers partially rely on illegal abstractions from rural ground and surface water sources, thereby circumventing regulatory efforts to conserve these resources. Private tanker water markets, therefore, provide a substantial contribution to consumer welfare while jeopardizing freshwater resource sustainability. Thus, a better understanding of these markets is of great importance for the formulation of policy interventions pursuing freshwater sustainability in a socially acceptable manner. Direct assessments of the size of these markets or their responses to policy interventions are, however, impeded by their partially illegal nature and the resulting lack of available information. To overcome this data collection challenge, we use a hydroeconomic multi-agent model developed in the Jordan Water Project to indirectly simulate country-wide tanker water market activities on the basis of demand and supply estimates. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. Finally, a spatial market algorithm

  13. 12 CFR 1005.35 - Acts of agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acts of agents. 1005.35 Section 1005.35 Banks...) Requirements for Remittance Transfers § 1005.35 Acts of agents. A remittance transfer provider is liable for any violation of this subpart by an agent when such agent acts for the provider. ...

  14. Synthesis of Novel μ-Star Copolymers with Poly(N-Octyl Benzamide) and Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Miktoarms through Chain-Growth Condensation Polymerization, Styrenics-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling, and Ring-Opening Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Feng; Aimi, Junko; Lai, Kuan-Yu

    2017-02-01

    Star copolymers are known to phase separate on the nanoscale, providing useful self-assembled morphologies. In this study, the authors investigate synthesis and assembly behavior of miktoarm star (μ-star) copolymers. The authors employ a new strategy for the synthesis of unprecedented μ-star copolymers presenting poly(N-octyl benzamide) (PBA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) arms: a combination of chain-growth condensation polymerization, styrenics-assisted atom transfer radical coupling, and ring-opening polymerization. Gel permeation chromatography, mass-analyzed laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy reveal the successful synthesis of a well-defined (PBA11 )2 -(PCL15 )4 μ-star copolymer (Mn,NMR ≈ 12 620; Đ = 1.22). Preliminary examination of the PBA2 PCL4 μ-star copolymer reveals assembled nanofibers having a uniform diameter of ≈20 nm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay with melting curve analysis for the detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in the feces of experimentally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-09-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus is a medically important lung fluke that causes human and animal paragonimiasis in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In the current study, a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (real-time FRET PCR) with melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated to detect P. heterotremus eggs in the feces of experimentally infected cats. The detection limit of this method for the P. heterotremus DNA sequence was 3 × 10(2) copies of the positive control plasmid and 10(-3) ng of P. heterotremus genomic DNA. The assay system could detect 10 eggs of P. heterotremus per gram of cat feces. No fluorescence signal was observed when DNA purified from 16 other organisms or genomic DNA from cats and human beings were tested. Real-time FRET PCR yielded positive results for all fecal samples from 17 P. heterotremus-infected cats and showed a negative relationship (r = -0.852, P < 0.001) between the number of parasite eggs in feces and the number of PCR cycles. The assay could detect genomic DNA from P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. macrorchis, P. siamensis, P. harinasutai, and P. bangkokensis and can differentiate P. heterotremus from the other 5 species. The 6 Paragonimus species examined were divided into 4 groups by melting peak analysis. This assay can be useful for the detection of, and epidemiological studies on, P. heterotremus infection in endemic areas.

  16. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate.

  17. Novel findings for the development of drug therapy for various liver diseases: Liver microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activator may be a possible therapeutic agent in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Imajo, Kento; Shinohara, Yoshiyasu; Nozaki, Yuichi; Wada, Koichiro; Yoneda, Masato; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Abe, Yasunobu; Inamori, Masahiko; Shimamura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The factors involved in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not fully understood and thus it is urgently needed to elucidate these factors. Steatosis is not causal in the development of NASH, but rather it sensitizes the liver to the damaging effects of second hits such that stressors innocuous to a healthy liver lead to the development of NASH in the steatotic liver. In the previous study, most of the hepatic lipid metabolite profiles were similar in the NAFL and NASH groups. However, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) synthesis, especially hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression, was impaired in the NASH group. Moreover, NASH showed significantly higher incidence of minor alley appearance compared with NAFL, indicating the possibility of association between NASH pathogenesis and decreased congenital MTP activity. MTP is one of the enzymes that transfer triglycerides to nascent apolipoprotein B, producing VLDL and removing lipid from the hepatocyte. A growing body of literature suggests that the measurement of hepatic MTP expression may be helpful for diagnosis; and moreover, hepatic MTP activator may be a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of NASH.

  18. Automatic microbial transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Device can transfer metabolites or inhibitory agents to broth cultures of bacteria, in various stages of growth, for study. It also has application in transfer of other micro-organisms, such as yeasts, and could be useful in clinical and research laboratories. Device has been used for wide variety of purposes in experimental situations.

  19. Chain Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-08-01

    35609 Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal...Ray Heathcock Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command...for Product Assurance has established a rather unique computer program for handling a variety of chain sampling schemes and is available for

  20. Draft Test Guideline: Aquatic Food Chain Transfer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  1. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  2. 19 CFR 19.42 - Application for transfer of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN... authorized agent of container station) We concur: (Signature of agent of importing carrier) transfer...

  3. Purification of the Lewis blood-group gene associated alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase from human milk: an enzyme transferring fucose primarily to type 1 and lactose-based oligosaccharide chains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Watkins, W M

    1992-10-01

    A soluble Lewis blood-group gene associated alpha-3/4-L-fucosyltransferase has been purified from human milk by a series of steps involving hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose 4B, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, affinity chromatography on GDP-hexanolamine Sepharose 4B and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The first step separated alpha-3-L-fucosyltransferase activity directed towards N-acetylglucosamine in Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R) acceptors from an alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase fraction acting on both Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc-R) and Type 2 acceptors. Further purification of this latter fraction on CM-Sephadex and GDP-hexanolamine Sepharose gave a single peak of fucosyltransferase activity that catalysed the addition of fucose to N-acetylglucosamine in both Type 1 and Type 2 acceptors and to the O-3 position of glucose in lactose-based oligosaccharides. The enzyme preparation at this stage resembled previously described alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase preparations purified from human milk. However, gel filtration of this preparation on Sephacryl S-200 or Sephadex G-150 separated further amounts of alpha-3-fucosyltransferase activity acting solely on Type 2 acceptors and left a residual alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase that retained strong alpha-4 activity with the Type 1 acceptor, lacto-N-biose 1, and alpha-3 activity with 2'-fucosyllactose, but had relatively little alpha-3 activity with N-acetyllactosamine and virtually no capacity to transfer fucose to glycoproteins with N-linked oligosaccharide chains having unsubstituted terminal Type 2 structures.

  4. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or...

  5. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.16 Transfers. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use, or...

  6. Photoinduced electron transfer in ordered polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II.

    1991-12-01

    Long range photoinduced electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor groups is of considerable current interest in terms of strategies for artificial photosynthesis and studies regarding the redox properties of proteins. As part of an extensive study of long range electron transfer involving biopolymers, we have carried out this year investigations of the assembly of electron transfer agents in a system of model short peptides. Also studied is a polyelectrolyte that can adopt a helical conformation when electrostatically complexed with organic dye counter-ions. The principal interest in these systems has to do with the well ordered secondary structures adopted by peptide polymers, and the capabilities for synthetic modification of peptide side chains and end groups with chromophores or electroactive substituents. The present report gives a brief account of the following elements of work related to photochemical electron transfer themes: (1) the synthesis and photochemical characterization of chromophore-bound peptides and amino acid model compounds based on the amino acids, tryptophan and the spacer residue, alanine (Ala); (2) the study of binding of the cationic organic dye to a peptide electrolyte, for which cooperative dye loading and helix formation is important; and (3) completion of the synthesis of a new series of acridinium chromophores that have rod-like'' arrangements of inked aryl rings for assembly of electron donor-acceptor systems that will exhibit especially long lived charge separation.

  7. Evidence that the flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain is high during gluconeogenesis from lactate in hepatocytes from starved rats. Implications for the hormonal control of gluconeogenesis and action of hypoglycaemic agents.

    PubMed

    Pryor, H J; Smyth, J E; Quinlan, P T; Halestrap, A P

    1987-10-15

    1. Increasing concentrations of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a mild respiratory-chain inhibitor [Halestrap (1987) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 927, 280-290], caused progressive inhibition of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate by hepatocytes from starved rats incubated in the presence or absence of oleate and gluconeogenic hormones. 2. No significant changes in tissue ATP content were observed, but there were concomitant decreases in ketone-body output and cytochrome c reduction and increases in NADH fluorescence and the ratios of [lactate]/[pyruvate] and [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. 3. The inhibition by DCMU of palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by isolated liver mitochondria was used to calculate a flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain towards gluconeogenesis. In the presence of 1 mM-oleate, the calculated values were 0.61, 0.39 and 0.25 in the absence of hormone and in the presence of glucagon or phenylephrine respectively, consistent with activation of the respiratory chain in situ as previously suggested [Quinlan & Halestrap (1986) Biochem. J. 236, 789-800]. 4. Cytoplasmic oxaloacetate concentrations were shown to decrease under these conditions, implying inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. 5. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis from fructose and dihydroxyacetone was also observed with DCMU and was accompanied by an increased output of lactate + pyruvate, suggesting that activation of pyruvate kinase was occurring. With the latter substrate, measurements of tissue ADP and ATP contents showed that DCMU caused a small fall in [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. 6. Two inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation, pent-4-enoate and 2-tetradecylglycidate, were shown to abolish and to decrease respectively the effects of hormones, but not valinomycin, on gluconeogenesis from lactate + pyruvate, without changing tissue ATP content. 7. It is concluded that the hormonal increase in mitochondrial matrix volume stimulates fatty acid oxidation and respiratory-chain

  8. Electron transfer in peptides.

    PubMed

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  9. D and E rings may not be indispensable for antofine: discovery of phenanthrene and alkylamine chain containing antofine derivatives as novel antiviral agents against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based on interaction of antofine and TMV RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziwen; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-10-29

    On the basis of the interaction of antofine and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA, a series of phenanthrene and alkylamine chain containing antofine derivatives 1-41 were designed, synthesized, and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV. The results showed that most of these compounds exhibited good to excellent anti-TMV activity, which indicated that the D and E rings of antofine may not be indispensable. Phenanthrene is important for these compounds, but not the more the better. Phenanthrene, benzene rings, and alkylamine chain containing compounds exhibited good antiviral activity. The optimum compounds, 10, 18, and 19, displayed higher activity than precursor antofine and commercial ribavirin, thus emerging as new lead compounds. The novel concise structure provides another new template for antiviral studies.

  10. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. Murphy/CDC OSHA's Ebola webpage provides ... OSHA offers, visit OSHA's Workers' page. In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. Murphy/CDC OSHA's Ebola webpage provides ...

  11. Technology Transfer Agents’ Perceptions of the Technology Transfer Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    7 7 1 Federal laboratories was to make available not less than 0.5% of the agency’s research and development budget to sup- port the technology...Applied to laboratories and centers, many of which have been deliberately placed under independent operation, it seems especially so. [Ref. 4: pp. 60-611... whole range of agencies at the expense of other existing and important programs. [Ref. 4: pp. 51-521 Despite these concerns from the Federal agencies

  12. Thrombolytic agents in development.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, M; Lijnen, H R; Collen, D

    1995-07-01

    The quest continues for thrombolytic agents with a higher thrombolytic potency, specific thrombolytic activity and/or a better fibrin selectivity. Several lines of research towards improvement of thrombolytic agents are being explored, including the construction of mutants and variants of plasminogen activators (PAs), chimaeric PAs, conjugates of PAs with monoclonal antibodies, and PAs from animal or bacterial origin. Some of these new thrombolytic agents have shown promise in animal models of venous or arterial thrombosis and in pilot clinical studies. Such molecules include numerous mutants of tissue-type PA (t-PA) with prolonged in vivo half-life and/or resistance to protease inhibitors, and chimaeric PAs consisting of different regions of t-PA and of urokinase-type PA (u-PA). Several molecular forms of the thrombolytic substance in the saliva of the vampire bat have been characterised and cloned. Vampire bat PA exhibits 85% homology to human t-PA but lacks kringle 2 and the plasmin-sensitive cleavage site. A thrombolytic enzyme of 203 amino acids is present in the venom of a southern copperhead snake. This polypeptide, termed fibrolase, is now produced by recombinant technology. Fibrolase does not activate plasminogen or protein C, but directly degrades the alpha and beta chains of fibrin and fibrinogen. Recombinant staphylokinase is not an enzyme, but it forms a 1:1 stoichiometric complex with plasminogen, which becomes active after conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. It is a potent and highly fibrin specific thrombolytic agent in animals and patients.

  13. Clathrin heavy chain, light chain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, F K; Stanley, K K

    1983-01-01

    Purified pig brain clathrin can be reversibly dissociated and separated into heavy chain trimers and light chains in the presence of non-denaturing concentrations of the chaotrope thiocyanate. The isolated heavy chain trimers reassemble into regular polygonal cage structures in the absence of light chains. The light chain fraction can be further resolved into its two components L alpha and L beta which give different one-dimensional peptide maps. Radiolabelled light chains bind with high affinity (KD < 10(-10) M) to heavy chain trimers, to heavy chain cages and to a 110,000 mol. wt. tryptic fragment of the heavy chain. Both light chains compete with each other and with light chains from other sources for the same binding sites on heavy chains and c.d. spectroscopy shows that the two pig brain light chains possess very similar structures. We conclude that light chains from different sources, despite some heterogeneity, have a highly conserved, high affinity binding site on the heavy chain but are not essential for the formation of regular cage structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:10872336

  14. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  15. The human element in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A transfer model composed of three roles and their linkages was considered. This model and a growing body of experience was analyzed to provide guidance in the human elements of technology transfer. For example, criteria for selection of technology transfer agents was described, and some needed working climate factors were known. These concepts were successfully applied to transfer activities.

  16. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  17. AAB-sequence living radical chain copolymerization of naturally occurring limonene with maleimide: an end-to-end sequence-regulated copolymer.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kotaro; Matsuda, Masaru; Nagai, Kanji; Kamigaito, Masami

    2010-07-28

    Sequence control in chain-growth polymerization is still one of the most challenging topics in synthetic polymer chemistry in contrast to natural macromolecules with completely sequence-regulated structures like proteins and DNA. Here, we report the quantitative and highly selective 1:2 sequence-regulated radical copolymerization of naturally occurring (+)-d-limonene (L) and a maleimide (M) in fluoroalcohol giving chiral copolymers with high glass transition temperatures (220-250 degrees C) originating from the specific rigid cyclic structures of the monomers. Furthermore, the combination with a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent (C-S) via the controlled/living radical polymerization resulted in end-to-end sequence-regulated copolymers [C-(M-M-L)(n)-M-S] with both highly sequenced chain ends and main-chain repeating units as well as controlled molecular weights.

  18. A novel anti-alpha-fetoprotein single-chain variable fragment displays anti-tumor effects in HepG2 cells as a single agent or in combination with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaonan; Shen, Yanli; Sun, Hao; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-08-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival time. The function of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a regulatory factor in the growth of HCC cells has been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a novel AFP-specific single-chain variable fragment that blocked AFP and inhibited HCC cell growth. The results indicated that the anti-AFP single-chain variable fragment (scFv) induced growth inhibition of AFP-expressing HCC cell lines in vitro through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis probably involved with blocking AFP internalization and regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling network. Moreover, the anti-AFP-scFv also effectively sensitized the HepG2 cells to paclitaxel (PTX) at a lower concentration. The combination effect of PTX and anti-AFP-scFv displayed a synergistic effect on HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that targeting AFP by specific antibodies has potential immunotherapeutic efficacy in human HCC.

  19. Electronic decay through carbon chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleff, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    Using the multielectron wave-packet propagation method the electronic decay of O2s vacancy in fluorinated cumulenones, OCnF2 , containing a chain of up to five carbons is traced in time and space. It is shown that in all studied cases this state decays non-locally by emitting an electron from the remote fluorines. Even in the pentatetraenone case, where the oxygen and the flourines are more than 7 Å apart, this non-local decay is extremely efficient, with a time constant of about 5 fs. The process can be viewed as an ultrafast energy transfer through the carbon chain and thus our systematic study allows to shed some light on the dependence of the time scale of the electron-correlation driven energy transfer through a medium.

  20. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow.

  1. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  2. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  3. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  4. Design, synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of short-chain C12-sphinganine and its 1,2,3-triazole analogs as potential antimicrobial and anti-biofilm agents.

    PubMed

    Vijai Kumar Reddy, T; Jyotsna, A; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Ganesh Kumar, C

    2016-08-08

    A conceptual synthetic approach of short-chain C12-sphinganine 1 and a small library of its 1,2,3-triazole analogs 2(a-f) has been accomplished using the commercially available and inexpensive 10-undecenoic acid as a starting material. Miyashita's C-2 selective endo mode azidolysis and Huisgen click reaction was employed for the synthesis of the designed analogs. Based on biological evaluation studies of all the synthesized compounds, it was observed that, (2S,3R)-2-(4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)dodecan-1,3-diol (2b) exhibited promising antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Furthermore, compound 2b was able to inhibit the biofilm formation of Candida albicans MTCC 227, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 2470 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 with IC50 values of 1.9, 2.1 and 2.9 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 2b increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. albicans MTCC 227. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Supreme: Supply Chain Integration by Reconfigurable Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Y.; Kasai, F.; Kamio, Y.

    This paper deals with dynamic supply chain configuration problems for one-of-a-kind production (OKP) environment. We propose an architecture named SUPREME, which supports collaborative planning and scheduling for web-based virtual enterprises. In this architecture, each system is located on the site of the network members as well as on the site of the supply chain coordinator, who performs as an agent configuring and managing the supply chain dynamically. A prototype system of SUPREME is developed and illustrated in order to evaluate effectiveness of the proposed architecture.

  6. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Method of encapsulating polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agents in liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1977-11-10

    A method is provided for transferring a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes, which liposomes will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. The chelating agent is encapsulated within liposomes by drying a lipid mixture to form a thin film and wetting the lipid film with a solution containing the chelating agent. Mixing then results in the formation of a suspension of liposomes encapsulating the chelating agent, which liposomes can then be separated.

  8. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  9. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  10. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  11. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  12. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  13. 9 CFR 121.16 - Transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section and must be authorized by APHIS or CDC prior to the transfer. 12 12 The requirements of this... proficiency testing may be transferred without prior authorization from APHIS or CDC provided that, at least 7 calendar days prior to the transfer, the sender reports to APHIS or CDC the select agent or toxin to...

  14. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  15. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  16. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  17. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  18. 48 CFR 52.232-38 - Submission of Electronic Funds Transfer Information with Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fedwire Transfer System telegraphic abbreviation of the offeror's financial agent. (7) If applicable, the... financial agent is not directly on-line to the Fedwire and, therefore, not the receiver of the wire transfer...

  19. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless the...

  20. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless the...

  1. Serum Free Light Chains

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Serum Free Light Chains Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Free Light Chains; SFLC; FLC; Kappa and Lambda Free Light ...

  2. Hemoglobin and red blood cells catalyze atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tilana B; Spulber, Mariana; Kocik, Marzena K; Seidi, Farzad; Charan, Himanshu; Rother, Martin; Sigg, Severin J; Renggli, Kasper; Kali, Gergely; Bruns, Nico

    2013-08-12

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a promiscuous protein that not only transports oxygen, but also catalyzes several biotransformations. A novel in vitro catalytic activity of Hb is described. Bovine Hb and human erythrocytes were found to display ATRPase activity, i.e., they catalyzed the polymerization of vinyl monomers under conditions typical for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) were polymerized using organobromine initiators and the reducing agent ascorbic acid in acidic aqueous solution. In order to avoid chain transfer from polymer radicals to Hb's cysteine residues, the accessible cysteines were blocked by a reaction with a maleimide. The formation of polymers with bromine chain ends, relatively low polydispersity indices (PDI), first order kinetics and an increase in the molecular weight of poly(PEGA) and poly(PEGMA) upon conversion indicate that control of the polymerization by Hb occurred via reversible atom transfer between the protein and the growing polymer chain. For poly(PEGA) and poly(PEGMA), the reactions proceeded with a good to moderate degree of control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and time-resolved ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy revealed that the protein was stable during polymerization, and only underwent minor conformational changes. As Hb and erythrocytes are readily available, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic, their ATRPase activity is a useful tool for synthetic polymer chemistry. Moreover, this novel activity enhances the understanding of Hb's redox chemistry in the presence of organobromine compounds.

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf of...

  4. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf of...

  5. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf of...

  6. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf of...

  7. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf of...

  8. New acceptor-bridge-donor strategy for enhancing NLO response with long-range excess electron transfer from the NH2...M/M3O donor (M = Li, Na, K) to inside the electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the unusual σ chain bridge (CH2)4.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-04-04

    Using the strong electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor, the NH2...M/M3O (M = Li, Na, and K) complicated donors with excess electron, and the unusual σ chain (CH2)4 bridge, we construct a new kind of electride molecular salt e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...M(+)/M3O(+) (M = Li, Na, and K) with excess electron anion inside the hole cage (to be encapsulated excess electron-hole pair) serving as a new A-B-D strategy for enhancing nonlinear optical (NLO) response. An interesting push-pull mechanism of excess electron generation and its long-range transfer is exhibited. The excess electron is pushed out from the (super)alkali atom M/M3O by the lone pair of NH2 in the donor and further pulled inside the hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the efficient long σ chain (CH2)4 bridge. Owing to the long-range electron transfer, the new designed electride molecular salts with the excess electron-hole pair exhibit large NLO response. For the e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...Na(+), its large first hyperpolarizability (β0) reaches up to 9.5 × 10(6) au, which is about 2.4 × 10(4) times the 400 au for the relative e(-)@C20F20...Na(+) without the extended chain (CH2)4-NH2. It is shown that the new strategy is considerably efficient in enhancing the NLO response for the salts. In addition, the effects of different bridges and alkali atomic number on β0 are also exhibited. Further, three modulating factors are found for enhancing NLO response. They are the σ chain bridge, bridge-end group with lone pair, and (super)alkali atom. The new knowledge may be significant for designing new NLO materials and electronic devices with electrons inside the cages. They may also be the basis of establishing potential organic chemistry with electron-hole pair.

  9. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  10. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  11. Spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Richens, Joanna L; Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Bramble, Jonathan P; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Ces, Oscar; O'Shea, Paul

    2017-10-03

    An assay to study the spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles is described. A donor/acceptor vesicle system is employed, where neutrally charged acceptor vesicles are fluorescently labelled with the electrostatic membrane probe Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE). Upon addition of charged donor vesicles, transfer of negatively charged lipid occurs, resulting in a fluorescently detectable change in the membrane potential of the acceptor vesicles. Using this approach we have studied the transfer properties of a range of lipids, varying both the headgroup and the chain length. At the low vesicle concentrations chosen, the transfer follows a first-order process where lipid monomers are transferred presumably through the aqueous solution phase from donor to acceptor vesicle. The rate of transfer decreases with increasing chain length which is consistent with energy models previously reported for lipid monomer vesicle interactions. Our assay improves on existing methods allowing the study of a range of unmodified lipids, continuous monitoring of transfer and simplified experimental procedures.

  12. Pragmatic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  13. A catalyCEST MRI contrast agent that detects the enzyme-catalyzed creation of a covalent bond.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Dina V; Randtke, Edward A; Pagel, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    CatalyCEST MRI can detect enzyme activity by employing contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). A CEST agent, Tm-DO3A-cadaverine, has been designed to detect the catalytic activity of transglutaminase (TGase), which creates a covalent bond between the agent and the side chain of a glutamine amino acid residue. CEST appeared at -9.2 ppm after TGase conjugated Tm-DO3A-cadaverine to albumin, which also caused a decrease in CEST from albumin at +4.6 ppm. Studies with model peptides revealed similar appearances and decreases in detectable CEST effects following TGase-catalyzed conjugation of the contrast agent and peptide. The MR frequencies and amplitudes of these CEST effects were dependent on the peptide sequence, which demonstrated the sensitivity of CEST agents to ligand conformations that may be exploited to create more responsive molecular imaging agents. The chemical exchange rates of the substrates and conjugated products were measured by fitting modified Bloch equations to CEST spectra, which demonstrated that changes in exchange rates can also be used to detect the formation of a covalent bond by catalyCEST MRI.

  14. Elementary excitations in single-chain magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Philipp; Aguilà, David; Mondal, Abhishake; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Marx, Raphael; Neugebauer, Petr; Fâk, Björn; Ollivier, Jacques; Clérac, Rodolphe; van Slageren, Joris

    2017-09-01

    Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are one-dimensional coordination polymers or spin chains that display slow relaxation of the magnetization. Typically their static magnetic properties are described by the Heisenberg model, while the description of their dynamic magnetic properties is based on an Ising-like model. The types of excitations predicted by these models (collective vs localized) are quite different. Therefore we probed the nature of the elementary excitations for two SCMs abbreviated Mn2Ni and Mn2Fe , as well as a mononuclear derivative of the Mn2Fe chain, by means of high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HFEPR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). We find that the HFEPR spectra of the chains are clearly distinct from those of the monomer. The momentum transfer dependence of the INS intensity did not reveal significant dispersion, indicating an essentially localized nature of the excitations. At the lowest temperatures these are modified by the occurrence of short-range correlations.

  15. Technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

  16. Gushing metal chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  17. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  18. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  19. Knitting distributed cluster-state ladders with spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Ronke, R.; D'Amico, I.; Spiller, T. P.

    2011-09-15

    Recently there has been much study on the application of spin chains to quantum state transfer and communication. Here we discuss the utilization of spin chains (set up for perfect quantum state transfer) for the knitting of distributed cluster-state structures, between spin qubits repeatedly injected and extracted at the ends of the chain. The cluster states emerge from the natural evolution of the system across different excitation number sectors. We discuss the decohering effects of errors in the injection and extraction process as well as the effects of fabrication and random errors.

  20. Analysis of CCR5-Delta 32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms in a cohort of Spanish HCV patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer technologies.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ferrer, M; Barroso, N; Antiñolo, G; Aguilar-Reina, J

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays it is clear that chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions are important in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the involvement of the CCR5-Delta 32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms in the response to the HCV infection, as well as in the histological damage and the outcome of the infection. A cohort of 139 patients with hepatitis C and 100 healthy blood donors were analysed for both polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and LightCycler technology. We have detected the CCR5-Delta 32 allele in 15 of 278 HCV chromosomes (5.4%) and 15 of 200 control chromosomes (7.5%). The CCR2-V64I allele was present in 24 of 278 HCV chromosomes (8.6%) and 19 of 200 control chromosomes (9.5%). Analysis of the histological parameters showed no statistical significance when comparing the patients carrying the variants vs the cases with the wild-type allele. Our results seem to indicate that the CCR5-Delta 32 and CCR2-V64I polymorphisms are not related to the response to HCV infection, histological damage and outcome of infection in our cohort of Spanish HCV patients.