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Sample records for challenges policies solutions

  1. Policy to support marine biotechnology-based solutions to global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Rachael J; Guy, Ken; Philp, Jim C

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in science and technology are igniting new interest in marine biotechnology. Governments are recognizing the potential of marine biotechnology to provide solutions to grand global challenges of population health, food, and energy security and sustainable industry. This paper examines some of the challenges to and policy options for the development of marine biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmaceutical policies in a crisis? Challenges and solutions identified at the PPRI Conference.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Ferrario, Alessandra; Wirtz, Veronika J; de Joncheere, Kees; Pedersen, Hanne Bak; Dedet, Guillaume; Paris, Valérie; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2016-01-01

    In October 2015, the third international Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information (PPRI) Conference was held in Vienna to foster discussion on challenges in pricing and reimbursement policies for medicines. The research presented highlighted that commonly used pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies are not sufficiently effective to address current challenges. Conference participants called for fundamental reforms to ensure access to medicines, particularly to new and potentially more effective and/or safe medicines, while safeguarding the financial sustainability of health systems and working towards universal health coverage.

  3. Resiliency Reconsidered: Policy Implications of the Resiliency Movement. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donna M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this book is to generate discussion not only about how individuals can create meaningful educational experiences for all learners, but to challenge systems that necessitate a resilient nature. Ultimately, the authors promote the need for a foundation of socially just policies and practices in all educational settings and respond to the…

  4. Tradition and Culture in the Millennium: Tribal Colleges and Universities. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue, Ed.; Gipp, Gerald E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume of The David C. Anchin Research Center Series on Educational Policy in the 21st century: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions focuses on tribal colleges and universities. As a recent member of higher education community, tribal colleges and universities provide a unique perspective on higher education policy. Policies and…

  5. Tradition and Culture in the Millennium: Tribal Colleges and Universities. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue, Ed.; Gipp, Gerald E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume of The David C. Anchin Research Center Series on Educational Policy in the 21st century: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions focuses on tribal colleges and universities. As a recent member of higher education community, tribal colleges and universities provide a unique perspective on higher education policy. Policies and…

  6. Student Governance and Institutional Policy: Formation and Implementation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T., Ed.; Nadler, Daniel P., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a variety of challenges in meeting the needs of students, and one of the greatest is their ability to respond to student needs while protecting institutional and academic integrity. For those working with students, a primary example of this challenge is the involvement of students in shared decision-making, a process…

  7. Student Governance and Institutional Policy: Formation and Implementation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T., Ed.; Nadler, Daniel P., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a variety of challenges in meeting the needs of students, and one of the greatest is their ability to respond to student needs while protecting institutional and academic integrity. For those working with students, a primary example of this challenge is the involvement of students in shared decision-making, a process…

  8. A proposed vision: the transatlantic observatory for meeting global health policy challenges through information and communications technology-enabled solutions (ARGOS).

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Nancy; De Moor, Georges; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Stroetmann, Karl

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the ARGOS project was funded by the EC (DG RELEX) to contribute to the establishement of a "Transatlantic Observatory for meeting Global Health Policy Challenges through Information and Communication Technology-enabled solutions" to develop and promote common methods for responding to global eHealth challenges in the EU and the US. The European Institute for Health Records (EuroRec) was coordinating the project. The vision is that the Transatlantic Observatory will act as an international platform for dialogue and collaboration on health policy issues and will 1. build international consensus about how to improve the access, efficiency and quality of health services through ICT, 2. promote the importance of interoperability in eHealth, 3. help to define approaches to ensure that health data are easily available where it is needed, 4. identify optimal development paths.

  9. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  10. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  11. The Challenge of Urban Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization almost invariably accompanies development, and the cities of India and China are experiencing spectacular increases in population. The concentration of millions of people in a small mass creates challenges for public policy, especially in the areas of basic infrastructure, public health, traffic congestion, and often law enforcement…

  12. The Challenge of Urban Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization almost invariably accompanies development, and the cities of India and China are experiencing spectacular increases in population. The concentration of millions of people in a small mass creates challenges for public policy, especially in the areas of basic infrastructure, public health, traffic congestion, and often law enforcement…

  13. Training Higher Education Policy Makers and Leaders: A Graduate Program Perspective. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diane, Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Education is a vibrant, changing field of study. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated…

  14. Training Higher Education Policy Makers and Leaders: A Graduate Program Perspective. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diane, Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Education is a vibrant, changing field of study. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated…

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  16. Bioanalysis: challenges and solutions seminar.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Industry challenges and solutions for bioanalysis were top of the agenda for the Spring Seminar organized by Quotient Bioresearch in Munich, Germany. The seminar was attended by representatives from pharmaceutical and biotechnology organisations across Europe and featured debates and panel discussions from leading industry speakers on new techniques and hot topics, including the latest industry guidelines.

  17. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  18. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-09

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  19. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  20. Influenza Vaccines: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291

  1. Pyoderma gangrenosum: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Ana; Pereira, Neide; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare disease, but commonly related to important morbidity. PG was first assumed to be infectious, but is now considered an inflammatory neutrophilic disease, often associated with autoimmunity, and with chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Currently, many aspects of the underlying pathophysiology are not well understood, and etiology still remains unknown. PG presents as painful, single or multiple lesions, with several clinical variants, in different locations, with a non specific histology, which makes the diagnosis challenging and often delayed. In the classic ulcerative variant, characterized by ulcers with inflammatory undermined borders, a broad differential diagnosis of malignancy, infection, and vasculitis needs to be considered, making PG a diagnosis of exclusion. Moreover, there are no definitively accepted diagnostic criteria. Treatment is also challenging since, due to its rarity, clinical trials are difficult to perform, and consequently, there is no “gold standard” therapy. Patients frequently require aggressive immunosuppression, often in multidrug regimens that are not standardized. We reviewed the clinical challenges of PG in order to find helpful clues to improve diagnostic accuracy and the treatment options, namely topical care, systemic drugs, and the new emerging therapies that may reduce morbidity. PMID:26060412

  2. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  3. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran.

    PubMed

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient.

  4. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Savadogo, Abdoul Aziz; Camara, Massaman; Toffa, Dènahin Hinnoutondji; Basse, Anna; Sow, Adjaratou Djeynabou; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline). Accurate patients’ categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. PMID:26527895

  5. Vaccine manufacturing: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Valley, Ulrich; Rappuoli, Rino

    2006-11-01

    The recent influenza vaccine shortages have provided a timely reminder of the tenuous nature of the world's vaccine supply and the potential for manufacturing issues to severely disrupt vital access to important vaccines. The application of new technologies to the discovery, assessment, development and production of vaccines has the potential to prevent such occurrences and enable the introduction of new vaccines. Gene-based vaccines, virus-like particles, plant-derived vaccines and novel adjuvants and delivery systems represent promising approaches to creating safer, more potent vaccines. As a consequence, more people will have faster access to more effective vaccines against a broader spectrum of infectious diseases. However, the increased cost of producing new vaccines and regulatory uncertainty remain challenges for vaccine manufacturers.

  6. Challenges and Solutions in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Hongzhan, Huang; Shukla, Hem D; Cathy, Wu; Satya, Saxena

    2007-01-01

    The accelerated growth of proteomics data presents both opportunities and challenges. Large-scale proteomic profiling of biological samples such as cells, organelles or biological fluids has led to discovery of numerous key and novel proteins involved in many biological/disease processes including cancers, as well as to the identification of novel disease biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. While proteomic data analysis has been greatly assisted by the many bioinformatics tools developed in recent years, a careful analysis of the major steps and flow of data in a typical highthroughput analysis reveals a few gaps that still need to be filled to fully realize the value of the data. To facilitate functional and pathway discovery for large-scale proteomic data, we have developed an integrated proteomic expression analysis system, iProXpress, which facilitates protein identification using a comprehensive sequence library and functional interpretation using integrated data. With its modular design, iProXpress complements and can be integrated with other software in a proteomic data analysis pipeline. This novel approach to complex biological questions involves the interrogation of multiple data sources, thereby facilitating hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery from the genomic-scale studies and fostering disease diagnosis and drug development. PMID:18645629

  7. The Politics of Leadership: Superintendents and School Boards in Changing Times. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, George J., Ed.; Fusarelli, Lance, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary contribution of this book, is not its advocacy of a specific position but rather, its objective analysis of cogent topics. The content prompts individuals to consider governance in relation to quality education and to ponder alternative policy strategies that have yet to be fully evaluated. As a young doctoral student more than a few…

  8. The Politics of Leadership: Superintendents and School Boards in Changing Times. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, George J., Ed.; Fusarelli, Lance, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary contribution of this book, is not its advocacy of a specific position but rather, its objective analysis of cogent topics. The content prompts individuals to consider governance in relation to quality education and to ponder alternative policy strategies that have yet to be fully evaluated. As a young doctoral student more than a few…

  9. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction.

    PubMed

    Zotos, G; Karagiannidis, A; Zampetoglou, S; Malamakis, A; Antonopoulos, I-S; Kontogianni, S; Tchobanoglous, G

    2009-05-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  10. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    SciTech Connect

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A. Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-05-15

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  11. Challenges and Solutions for Educating Migrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Edgar

    This paper overviews challenges and solutions for educating migrant students in Michigan. The majority of migrant workers in the United States are Hispanic men with families. Data indicate that only about a fifth of migrant children complete education beyond the sixth grade. Migrant students tend to fall behind in their education because they…

  12. Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki

    2008-08-07

    Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

  13. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-30

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount

  14. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    PubMed Central

    Beaglehole, Robert; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce. PMID:12904251

  15. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  16. Challenging Political Spectacle through Grassroots Policy Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Can simply talking about policy strengthen democracy? Drawing on data collected for case studies of one Canadian and two U.S. grassroots organizations, we demonstrate that taking part in policy dialogues hosted by grassroots organizations enables participants to gain greater clarity regarding policy issues, policy processes, and citizens'…

  17. A Way Forward: Cooperative Solutions to Our Climate Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, L. J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Solving the global climate crisis is a multidisciplinary challenge. The world is seeking solutions to climate change. The climate research and education community must move beyond the realm of debating the science - we MUST provide the solutions. The research community understands the science and many of the solutions very well. This project will address the specifics of solutions involving social, political and science disciplines. The content is targeted to multidisciplinary education at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels in universities and colleges. Humanity has already changed the climate and current greenhouse gas emission (GHG) projections indicate our world will warm 2-6° C within a young person's lifetime. We must coordinate societal mitigation and adaptation policies, programs and technology transformations. There is now a dramatic need for many, many highly trained multidisciplinary climate change solutions professionals that understand the complexities of the challenges and can work through the social, political and science tribulations needed to sustain communities around the world. This proposed education project: Provides an introduction to the social, political, technical, health and well-being challenges of climate change; Defines and describes the unprecedented changes to personal and community lifestyle, and consumption of energy and other resources; Examines ways and means for rapid transition of energy systems from fossil fuels to clean renewable technologies. Evaluates redevelopment of our infrastructure to withstand increasing weather extremes; Inventories possible abandonment and/or protection of infrastructure that cannot be redeveloped or reworked, particularly with respect to coastal zones where substantial populations currently live. We propose an online living textbook project. Chapter contributions will be invited from outstanding solutions research professionals from around the world. The online presence is the best means

  18. Flood Forecasting in Wales: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    How, Andrew; Williams, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    With steep, fast-responding river catchments, exposed coastal reaches with large tidal ranges and large population densities in some of the most at-risk areas; flood forecasting in Wales presents many varied challenges. Utilising advances in computing power and learning from best practice within the United Kingdom and abroad have seen significant improvements in recent years - however, many challenges still remain. Developments in computing and increased processing power comes with a significant price tag; greater numbers of data sources and ensemble feeds brings a better understanding of uncertainty but the wealth of data needs careful management to ensure a clear message of risk is disseminated; new modelling techniques utilise better and faster computation, but lack the history of record and experience gained from the continued use of more established forecasting models. As a flood forecasting team we work to develop coastal and fluvial forecasting models, set them up for operational use and manage the duty role that runs the models in real time. An overview of our current operational flood forecasting system will be presented, along with a discussion on some of the solutions we have in place to address the challenges we face. These include: • real-time updating of fluvial models • rainfall forecasting verification • ensemble forecast data • longer range forecast data • contingency models • offshore to nearshore wave transformation • calculation of wave overtopping

  19. Mastectomy skin flap necrosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Stuart A; Jeevaratnam, Johann A; Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) has a reported incidence of 5%–30% in the literature. It is often a significant and underappreciated problem. The aim of this article was to review the associated challenges and possible solutions. Methods A MEDLINE search was performed using the search term “mastectomy skin flap necrosis”. Titles and abstracts from peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance. Results MSFN is a common complication and may present as partial- or full-thickness necrosis. Predictive patient risk factors include smoking, diabetes, obesity, radiotherapy, previous scars and severe medical comorbidity. MSFN leads to a number of challenges, including wound management problems, delays to adjuvant therapy, esthetic compromise, implant extrusion, patient distress and financial loss. Careful preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique may reduce the incidence of MSFN. A number of intraoperative techniques are available to try and predict skin flaps at risk of MSFN. MSFN may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. Early intervention may reduce the morbidity of MSFN in selected cases. Topical nitroglycerin ointment may be beneficial in reducing MSFN following immediate reconstruction, but the evidence base is still limited. Conclusion MSFN can result in considerable challenges for the patient and the health care service. This review discusses the management options for this problem. PMID:28331365

  20. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C

    2016-05-01

    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents.

  1. Rational Solutions for Challenges of the New Mellennium

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Guray, P.G.

    1998-08-01

    We have reviewed ten major public problems challenging our Nation as it enters the new millennium. These are defense, healthcare costs, education, aging population, energy and environment, crime, low productivity growth services, income distribution, regulations, and infrastructure. These problems share several features. First, each is so large, if it were soIved; it would have major impact on the U.S. economy. Second, each is resident in a socioeconomic system containing non-linear feedback loops and an adaptive human element. Third, each can only be solved by our political system, yet these problems are not responsive to piecemeal problem solving, the approach traditionally used by policy makers. However, unless each problem is addressed in the context of the system in which it resides, the solution maybe worse than the problem. Our political system is immersed in reams of disconnected, unintelligible information skewed by various special interests to suggest policies favoring their particular needs. Help is needed, if rational solutions that serve public interests are to be forged for these ten probIems, The simulation and modeIing tools of physical scientists, engineers, economists, social scientists, public policy experts, and others, bolstered by the recent explosive growth in massively parallel computing power, must be blended together to synthesize models of the complex systems in which these problems are resident. These models must simulate the seemingly chaotic human element inherent in these systems and support policymakers in making informed decKlons about the future. We propose altering the policy development process by incorporating more modeling, simulation and analysis to bring about a revolution in policy making that takes advantage of the revolution in engineering emerging from simulation and modeling. While we recommend major research efforts to address each of these problems, we also observe these to be very complex, highly interdependent, multi

  2. Sustainable Policy Solutions for Space Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, J.

    2017-02-01

    I describe two sustainable policy models for the shared use of space. I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these ideas in light of existing international agreements and provide a direction for further research on space settlement policy.

  3. Local Solutions for National Challenges? Exploring Local Solutions through the Case of a National Succession Planning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The notion of localism and decentralization in national policy has come increasingly to the fore in recent years. The national succession planning strategy for headteachers in England introduced by the National College for School Leadership promoted "local solutions for a national challenge". This article deals with some aspects of the…

  4. Local Solutions for National Challenges? Exploring Local Solutions through the Case of a National Succession Planning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The notion of localism and decentralization in national policy has come increasingly to the fore in recent years. The national succession planning strategy for headteachers in England introduced by the National College for School Leadership promoted "local solutions for a national challenge". This article deals with some aspects of the…

  5. Commercialization of biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran; challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the university research findings or commercialization of the biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran and determine the challenges and propose some solutions. Results A qualitative study including 19 in-depth interviews with experts was performed in 2011 and early 2012. National Innovation System (NIS) model was employed as the study design. Thematic method was applied for the analysis. The results demonstrate that policy making, regulations and management development are considered as fundamental reasons for current commercialization practice pattern. It is suggested to establish foundation for higher level documents that would involve relating bodies and provide them operational guidelines for the implementation of commercialization incentives. Conclusions Policy, regulations and management as the most influential issue should be considered for successful commercialization. The present study, for the first time, attempts to disclose the importance of evidence input for measures in order to facilitate the commercialization process by the authorities in Iran. Overall, the NIS model should be considered and utilized as one of the effective solutions for commercialization. PMID:24568555

  6. Commercialization of biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran; challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Majdzadeh, Reza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Rashidian, Arash; Yazdi, Mojtaba Tabatabai; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2014-02-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the university research findings or commercialization of the biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran and determine the challenges and propose some solutions. A qualitative study including 19 in-depth interviews with experts was performed in 2011 and early 2012. National Innovation System (NIS) model was employed as the study design. Thematic method was applied for the analysis. The results demonstrate that policy making, regulations and management development are considered as fundamental reasons for current commercialization practice pattern. It is suggested to establish foundation for higher level documents that would involve relating bodies and provide them operational guidelines for the implementation of commercialization incentives. Policy, regulations and management as the most influential issue should be considered for successful commercialization. The present study, for the first time, attempts to disclose the importance of evidence input for measures in order to facilitate the commercialization process by the authorities in Iran. Overall, the NIS model should be considered and utilized as one of the effective solutions for commercialization.

  7. Database challenges and solutions in neuroscientific applications.

    PubMed

    Dashti, A E; Ghandeharizadeh, S; Stone, J; Swanson, L W; Thompson, R H

    1997-02-01

    In the scientific community, the quality and progress of various endeavors depend in part on the ability of researchers to share and exchange large quantities of heterogeneous data with one another efficiently. This requires controlled sharing and exchange of information among autonomous, distributed, and heterogeneous databases. In this paper, we focus on a neuroscience application, Neuroanatomical Rat Brain Viewer (NeuART Viewer) to demonstrate alternative database concepts that allow neuroscientists to manage and exchange data. Requirements for the NeuART application, in combination with an underlying network-aware database, are described at a conceptual level. Emphasis is placed on functionality from the user's perspective and on requirements that the database must fulfill. The most important functionality required by neuroscientists is the ability to construct brain models using information from different repositories. To accomplish such a task, users need to browse remote and local sources and summaries of data and capture relevant information to be used in building and extending the brain models. Other functionalities are also required, including posing queries related to brain models, augmenting and customizing brain models, and sharing brain models in a collaborative environment. An extensible object-oriented data model is presented to capture the many data types expected in this application. After presenting conceptual level design issues, we describe several known database solutions that support these requirements and discuss requirements that demand further research. Data integration for heterogeneous databases is discussed in terms of reducing or eliminating semantic heterogeneity when translations are made from one system to another. Performance enhancement mechanisms such as materialized views and spatial indexing for three-dimensional objects are explained and evaluated in the context of browsing, incorporating, and sharing. Policies for providing

  8. Policy: A challenging future for cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howey, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The rising demand for road vehicles increases Europe's oil dependency and carbon emissions. Switching to alternative cars and fuels can help energy security and climate change policy, if consumers can be persuaded.

  9. Policy challenges for wildlife management in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    Mark L. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Try as it might, wildlife management cannot make wild living things adapt to climate change. Management can, however, make adaptation more or less likely. Given that policy is a rule set for action, policy will play a critical role in society’s efforts to help wildlife cope with the challenge of climate change. To be effective, policy must provide clear goals and be...

  10. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  11. Public Policy and Community Colleges... Challenges Yet Unmet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue of State Education Leader titled "Public Policy and Community Colleges" focuses on issues of importance to community colleges. The highlighted articles in this issue discuss current legislation and reform that has impacted community colleges. In "Challenges Yet Unmet," Katherine Boswell discusses how state policy leaders look to…

  12. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  13. Challenges and solutions ensuring EUVL photomask integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brux, O.; Dreß, P.; Schmalfuß, H.; Jonckheere, R.; Koolen-Hermkens, W.

    2012-06-01

    Industry roadmaps indicate that the introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is on track for high volume manufacturing. Although, there has been significant progress in each of the individual subsets of the EUVL infrastructure, the absolute management of the process outside of the scanner and up to the point-of-exposure has been highlighted as critical requirement for the adoption of EUVL. Significant changes in the EUV system environment and mask architecture are driving a zero process tolerance level. Any unforeseen contamination introduced to the scanner environment from the EUV mask could cause considerable downtime and yield loss. Absolute mask integrity at the point-of-exposure must be guaranteed. EUV mask cleaning processes-of-record have been developed and introduced to the industry [1]. The issue is not longer "how to clean the mask" but, "how to keep it clean". With the introduction of EUVL, mask cleanliness extends out beyond the traditional mask cleaning tool. Complete control of contamination and/or particles during transportation, handling and storage will require a holistic approach to mask management. A new environment specifically for EUV mask integrity must be developed and fully tested for the sub 16nm half-pitch node introduction. The SUSS MaskTrack Pro (MTP) InSync was introduced as the solution for EUV mask integrity. SUSS demonstrated the fully automated handling of EUV masks into and out of a Dual Pod System [2]. Intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner pod (EIP) and EUV mask inside the MTP InSync Tool was investigated and reported. A target specification of a PRP <= 0.08 as criterion for the cross contamination between EIP and the EUV reticle during handling within MTP InSync has been achieved and therefore proofing the applicability for the Dual Pod automation. Moreover an appropriate automated handling, other aspects like backside particle contamination and EIP cleanliness plays a

  14. Broadened Use Of Atypical Antipsychotics: Safety, Effectiveness, And Policy Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark; Huang, Cecilia; Pincus, Harold; Gerhard, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications are increasingly used for a wide range of clinical indications in diverse populations, including privately and publicly insured youth and elderly nursing home residents. These trends heighten policy challenges for payers, patients, and clinicians related to appropriate prescribing and management, patient safety, and clinical effectiveness. For clinicians and patients, balancing risks and benefits is challenging, given the paucity of effective alternative treatments. For health care systems, regulators, and policymakers, challenges include developing the evidence base on comparative risks and benefits; defining measures of treatment quality; and implementing policies that encourage evidence-based practices while avoiding unduly burdensome restrictions. PMID:19622537

  15. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; More, S. J.; Morton, D. B.; Hanlon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. PMID:27613779

  16. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Hanlon, A

    2016-10-29

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation.

  17. BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    security after the end of the Cold War. The small Eastern European states are facing now a fundamentally altered strategic challenges. The re-emergence...the biggest challenge to the European security after the end of the Cold War. The aggression against Ukraine was not only an assault on the...solutions to vital economic issues must be accepted as a relief for the common EU policy. Otherwise, Bulgaria would not be able to sustain the consequences

  18. Ethical and public policy challenges for pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Elliot S; Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Grennan, Kay

    2014-12-01

    It is timely to consider the ethical and social questions raised by progress in pharmacogenomics, based on the current importance of pharmacogenomics for avoidance of predictable side effects of drugs, and for correct choice of medications in certain cancers. It has been proposed that the entire population be genotyped for drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms, as a measure that would prevent many untoward and dangerous drug reactions. Pharmacologic treatment targeting based on genomics of disease can be expected to increase greatly in the coming years. Policy and ethical issues exist on consent for large-scale genomic pharmacogenomic data collection, public vs corporate ownership of genomic research results, testing efficacy and safety of drugs used for rare genomic indications, and accessibility of treatments based on costly research that is applicable to relatively few patients. In major psychiatric disorders and intellectual deficiency, rare and de novo deletion or duplication of chromosomal segments (copy number variation), in the aggregate, are common causes of increased risk. This implies that the policy problems of pharmacogenomics will be particularly important for the psychiatric disorders.

  19. COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-06

    COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions Dionisio de Niz Bjorn Andersson and Lutz Wrage dionisio @sei.cmu.edu...Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wrage / Dionisio de Niz Bjorn

  20. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  1. Health inequalities policy in Korea: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-il

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible.

  2. Medication use in seniors: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Tamblyn, R

    1996-01-01

    Use of prescribed and over-the-counter medication increases with age. Although drug therapy often results in beneficial effects and improve functional status, drug related illness is a significant health problem, accounting for 5 to 23 per cent of hospitalization, 1.75 per cent of ambulatory visits and one in 1000 deaths. In most studies, drug-related illness is more common in the elderly. Four factors influence the likelihood that a patient will experience adverse effects from a drug: the type of drug prescribed, the characteristics of patients receiving the drug, the characteristics of physicians who are prescribing the medication, and health care system policy and practice. Cardiovascular drugs, psychotropic drugs and NSAIDs are the three groups of drugs that are most commonly implicated in drug related illness, probably because they are the three groups of drugs that are most commonly prescribed in the elderly. The risk of an adverse effect with drug increases with the number of drugs prescribed. Several mechanisms may account for this phenomenon including (1) increased sensitivity of diseased tissue to drug toxicity (2) potential drug interactions, and (3) difficulties in patient compliance with an increasing number of drugs. Physician prescribing habits can increase the risk of adverse drug effects through two mechanisms: (1) the prescription of drugs that are unnecessary for the treatment of ailments that might be better managed through non-pharmacologic management and (2) the inappropriate prescription of drugs that are either contraindicated or prescribed in combination with other drugs that produce potential drug interaction. Errors in prescribing accounting for 19 to 36 per cent of hospital admissions due to drug-related events and up to 72 per cent of drug related events occurring in the hospital setting. Health care system policies influence the list of drugs that are included in the formulary, the conditions under which they are accessible and payment

  3. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  4. Orff Ensembles: Benefits, Challenges, and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Playing Orff instruments provides students with a wide variety of opportunities to explore creative musicianship. This article examines the benefits of classroom instrument study, common challenges encountered, and viable teaching strategies to promote student success. The ability to remove notes from barred instruments makes note accuracy more…

  5. Orff Ensembles: Benefits, Challenges, and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Playing Orff instruments provides students with a wide variety of opportunities to explore creative musicianship. This article examines the benefits of classroom instrument study, common challenges encountered, and viable teaching strategies to promote student success. The ability to remove notes from barred instruments makes note accuracy more…

  6. Improving cold chain systems: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Ashvin; Brison, Michael; LeTallec, Yann

    2017-04-19

    While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance. Key recommendations include: Collectively, the solutions detailed in this article chart a path to substantially improving the performance of the cold chain. Combined with an enabling global and in-country environment, it is possible to eliminate cold chain issues as a substantial barrier to effective and full immunization coverage over the next few years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  8. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions.

    PubMed

    Madden, John D

    2007-11-16

    Bolted-down robots labor in our factories, performing the same task over and over again. Where are the robots that run and jump? Equaling human performance is very difficult for many reasons, including the basic challenge of demonstrating motors and transmissions that efficiently match the power per unit mass of muscle. In order to exceed animal agility, new actuators are needed. Materials that change dimension in response to applied voltage, so-called artificial muscle technologies, outperform muscle in most respects and so provide a promising means of improving robots. In the longer term, robots powered by atomically perfect fibers will outrun us all.

  9. Sleep bruxism: challenges and restorative solutions.

    PubMed

    Mengatto, Cristiane Machado; Coelho-de-Souza, Fábio Herrmann; de Souza Junior, Oswaldo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is a parafunctional activity related to clenching or grinding the teeth and tooth wear can be a consequence of sleep bruxism (SB). Management of severe tooth wear due to SB is a challenging situation because of the common reduced amount of remaining dental structure and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Rationale for the planning of oral rehabilitation of patients with SB presenting severe tooth wear should rely on evidence-based approaches; however, few studies have discussed properties of dental materials for SB rehabilitation and how to cosmetically manage severe tooth wear. This review aimed to provide an overview into bruxism cosmetic rehabilitation and how this can be implemented with good outcomes for the patient.

  10. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep bruxism: challenges and restorative solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mengatto, Cristiane Machado; Coelho-de-Souza, Fábio Herrmann; de Souza Junior, Oswaldo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is a parafunctional activity related to clenching or grinding the teeth and tooth wear can be a consequence of sleep bruxism (SB). Management of severe tooth wear due to SB is a challenging situation because of the common reduced amount of remaining dental structure and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Rationale for the planning of oral rehabilitation of patients with SB presenting severe tooth wear should rely on evidence-based approaches; however, few studies have discussed properties of dental materials for SB rehabilitation and how to cosmetically manage severe tooth wear. This review aimed to provide an overview into bruxism cosmetic rehabilitation and how this can be implemented with good outcomes for the patient. PMID:27217798

  12. Managing eosinophilic esophagitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisha A; Albert, Dustin M; Hall, Noah M; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon. PMID:27695356

  13. Management of orbital fractures: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Jennings R; Pemberton, John D; Bonilla-Velez, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists encounter and treat orbital fractures. The management of these fractures is often challenging due to the impact that they can have on vision. Acute treatment involves a thorough clinical examination and management of concomitant ocular injuries. The clinical and radiographic findings for each individual patient must then be analyzed for the need for surgical intervention. Deformity and vision impairment can occur from these injuries, and while surgery is intended to prevent these problems, it can also create them. Therefore, surgical approach and implant selection should be carefully considered. Accurate anatomic reconstruction requires complete assessment of fracture margins and proper implant contouring and positioning. The implementation of new technologies for implant shaping and intraoperative assessment of reconstruction will hopefully lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:26604678

  14. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts.

  15. Implementation of STEM Education Policy: Challenges, Progress, and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2012-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of state STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) policy over the period of the first 18 months of building a regional STEM partnership. Fullan's change theory is the framework used to determine progress and associated challenges with building a regional STEM educational partnership and…

  16. Researching Policy Borrowing: Some Methodological Challenges in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David; Ochs, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    This article considers some of the methodological challenges involved in investigating, within the traditions of comparative research in education, the complex issue of educational 'policy borrowing'. It discusses notions of 'borrowing' and 'influence' and refers to a model previously proposed by the authors for the analysis of what are seen as…

  17. Tensions and Challenges in China's Education Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Background: This article critically discusses the key tensions and challenges arising from the educational policy borrowing in China, through its current education reform. Focussing on the new curriculum reform (NCR), the paper highlights the interactions and conflicts between foreign and local ideologies and practices. Sources of evidence: The…

  18. Implementation of STEM Education Policy: Challenges, Progress, and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2012-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of state STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) policy over the period of the first 18 months of building a regional STEM partnership. Fullan's change theory is the framework used to determine progress and associated challenges with building a regional STEM educational partnership and…

  19. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  20. Challenges of building clinical data analysis solutions.

    PubMed

    Gray, George W

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, owners of clinical information systems are turning to clinical data warehouses (CDWs) to store and to analyze their data. The CDW allows institutions to make better use of their clinical data that has been collected through its information systems. A CDW extracts data from these systems, transforms it into a usable form, and then allows users to view and analyze years of data across a large cross section of patient charts. Although warehouses have existed in healthcare for some time, there are relatively few institutions that maintain patient charts in a CDW. This is, in part, because of the challenges often seen when attempting to warehouse this type of data. These include integrating a diverse set of care practices and a variety of definitions for common data elements like medications, observations, treatments, units of measure, and even unique patient identifiers. In addition, these systems often struggle with a high level of inconsistent and/or incomplete data that must be cleaned up on a regular basis. Unlike other data warehouse systems, CDWs are often expected to gather data around the clock and in a manner that has minimum impact to the performance of the source Clinical Information Systems. Finally, CDWs often have a diverse range of clinical and administrative users. This often leads to a need for a variety of applications and/or tools for viewing and analyzing the data.

  1. Dialysis-related amyloidosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Scarpioni, R; Ricardi, M; Albertazzi, V; De Amicis, S; Rastelli, F; Zerbini, L

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis refers to the extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low-molecular-weight subunits of a variety of proteins. These deposits may result in a wide range of clinical manifestations depending upon their type, location, and the amount of deposition. Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a serious complication of long-term dialysis therapy and is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils, principally composed of β2 microglobulins (β2M), in the osteoarticular structures and viscera. Most of the β2M is eliminated through glomerular filtration and subsequent reabsorption and catabolism by the proximal tubules. As a consequence, the serum levels of β2M are inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate; therefore, in end-stage renal disease patients, β2M levels increase up to 60-fold. Serum levels of β2M are also elevated in several pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, and above all, in renal dysfunction. Retention of amyloidogenic protein has been attributed to several factors including type of dialysis membrane, prolonged uremic state and/or decreased diuresis, advanced glycation end products, elevated levels of cytokines and dialysate. Dialysis treatment per se has been considered to be an inflammatory stimulus, inducing cytokine production (such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) and complement activation. The released cytokines are thought to stimulate the synthesis and release of β2M by the macrophages and/or augment the expression of human leukocyte antigens (class I), increasing β2M expression. Residual renal function is probably the best determinant of β2M levels. Therefore, it has to be maintained as long as possible. In this article, we will focus our attention on the etiology of dialysis-related amyloidosis, its prevention, therapy, and future solutions. PMID:27994478

  2. Nurses' perceptions of the challenges related to the Omanization policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, M; Fischer, I; Lopez, V

    2015-12-01

    Human resource development has become a major concern in Oman since the inception of the 'Omanization' policy in 1988. The main goal of this policy was to replace the expatriate nursing workforce with similarly qualified local nurses to develop a sustainable workforce and achieve self-reliance. The aim of this study is to explore the nurses' perceptions of Omanization policy. A qualitative research design was used and 16 Omani registered nurses and 26 student nurses were interviewed in depth. Transcribed data were analysed using content analysis. Two main themes emerged from the data: 'Challenges of sustaining the local nursing workforce' and 'Challenges of educational preparation for local nurses'. The participants agreed that Omanization benefited national development, social stability and ensuring local workforce. The challenges faced were cultural and work life balance, preparation of nurses and pace of replacement. The participants were concerned that the pace of replacement could leave behind a marked experience gap. A slow-phased approach to Omanization of the nursing workforce was recommended by the participants. Results obtained from this study reflect the perceptions and voices of student nurses and registered nurses only from the Institute of Nursing and Oman Ministry of Health. A policy of this magnitude requires gradual establishment. The upgrading of the nursing education to degree level, continuous professional development, mentoring and role modeling of expert nurses should be established to prepare local nurses for the localization of the nursing workforce. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

    2009-01-01

    During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States.

  4. Pharmaceutical policy Part 1 The challenge to pharmacists to engage in policy development.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Norman C

    2015-01-01

    Across the world medicines are the ubiquitous technology in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Pharmaceutical policy, as part of national health care policy, is concerned with the provision and use of medicines. Pharmacists are critical to the medicines management process, yet are often largely detached from policy development. Logically, they should inform Government policies which impact on their work or where their skills could be best applied to implement health care policy and medicines utilisation in particular. It therefore makes it critically important that the pharmaceutical profession engages with national policy makers and in the strategic planning for health care. This is the first of two articles directed to this specific issue. Firstly, it identifies a number of the practice challenges for pharmacy and medicines management, their implications for policy and the need for a balanced approach. Drawing from a range of international experiences some key learning points in respect of formulating and implementing national medicines policies are presented. Finally, reference is made to several authoritative evidence bases to inform the development of pharmaceutical practice and medicines management policies.

  5. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  6. Data sharing policy design for consortia: challenges for sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The field of human genomics has led advances in the sharing of data with a view to facilitating translation of research into innovations for human health. This change in scientific practice has been implemented through new policy developed by many principal investigators, project managers and funders, which has ultimately led to new forms of practice and innovative governance models for data sharing. Here, we examine the development of the governance of data sharing in genomics, and explore some of the key challenges associated with the design and implementation of these policies. We examine how the incremental nature of policy design, the perennial problem of consent, the gridlock caused by multiple and overlapping access systems, the administrative burden and the problems with incentives and acknowledgment all have an impact on the potential for data sharing to be maximized. We conclude by proposing ways in which the scientific community can address these problems, to improve the sustainability of data sharing into the future. PMID:24475754

  7. Data sharing policy design for consortia: challenges for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Jane; Hawkins, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The field of human genomics has led advances in the sharing of data with a view to facilitating translation of research into innovations for human health. This change in scientific practice has been implemented through new policy developed by many principal investigators, project managers and funders, which has ultimately led to new forms of practice and innovative governance models for data sharing. Here, we examine the development of the governance of data sharing in genomics, and explore some of the key challenges associated with the design and implementation of these policies. We examine how the incremental nature of policy design, the perennial problem of consent, the gridlock caused by multiple and overlapping access systems, the administrative burden and the problems with incentives and acknowledgment all have an impact on the potential for data sharing to be maximized. We conclude by proposing ways in which the scientific community can address these problems, to improve the sustainability of data sharing into the future.

  8. Lubrication of space systems: Challenges and potential solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Future space missions will all require advanced mechanical moving components which will require wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used today are primarily based upon a technology base that is more than 20 years old. This paper will discuss NASA's future space missions and some of the mechanism tribology challenges that will be encountered. Potential solutions to these challenges using coatings technology will be assessed.

  9. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  10. Near Earth Objects and Cascading Effects from the Policy Perspective: Implications from Problem and Solution Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of near-Earth-objects (NEOs) in regard to physical attributes and potential risk and impact factors presents a complex and complicates scientific and engineering challenge. The societal and policy risks and impacts are no less complex, yet are rarely considered in the same context as material properties or related factors. Further, NEO impacts are typically considered as discrete events, not as initial events in a dynamic cascading system. The objective of this contribution is to position the characterization of NEOs within the public policy process domain as a means to reflect on the science-policy nexus in regard to risks and multi-hazard impacts associated with these hazards. This will be accomplished through, first, a brief overview of the science-policy nexus, followed by a discussion of policy process frameworks, such as agenda setting and the multiple streams model, focusing events, and punctuated equilibrium, and their application and appropriateness to the problem of NEOs. How, too, for example, does NEO hazard and risk compare with other low probability, high risk, hazards in regard to public policy? Finally, we will reflect on the implications of alternative NEO "solutions" and the characterization of the NEO "problem," and the political and public acceptance of policy alternatives as a way to link NEO science and policy in the context of the overall NH9.12 panel.

  11. Characterization of NEOs from the Policy Perspective: Implications from Problem and Solution Definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, E.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of near-Earth-objects (NEOs) in regard to physical attributes and potential risk and impact factors presents a complex and complicates scientific and engineering challenge. The societal and policy risks and impacts are no less complex, yet are rarely considered in the same context as material properties or related factors. The objective of this contribution is to position the characterization of NEOs within the public policy process domain as a means to reflect on the science-policy nexus in regard to risks associated with NEOs. This will be accomplished through, first, a brief overview of the science-policy nexus, followed by a discussion of several policy process frameworks, such as agenda setting and the multiple streams model, focusing events, and punctuated equilibrium, and their application and appropriateness to the problem of NEOs. How, too, for example, does NEO hazard and risk compare with other low probability, high risk, hazards in regard to public policy? Finally, we will reflect on the implications of alternative NEO "solutions" and the characterization of the NEO "problem," and the political and public acceptance of policy alternatives as a way to link NEO science and policy in the context of the overall NH004 panel.

  12. Federal funding of health policy in Brazil: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes Federal funding of health policy in Brazil in the 2000s, focusing on the Ministry of Health's budget implementation. Federal spending on health was less unstable between 2000 and 2002 and has expanded since 2006. However, it fluctuated as a share of both the Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Revenue. Federal intergovernmental transfers increased, exceeding 70% in 2007. Meanwhile, the proportion of Federal investments remained low, varying from 3.4% to 6.3%. The highest absolute amount of spending was on specialized outpatient and hospital care. The decade showed a proportionally greater increase in spending on pharmaceutical care. The growing allocation of Federal funds to States in the North and Northeast, especially for primary care and epidemiological surveillance, failed to offset the sharp regional inequalities in per capita Federal spending. The main characteristics of health funding limit Federal health policy governance and pose several challenges for the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

  13. Challenges in petroleum policy for the next president of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G. )

    1994-01-17

    The next president of Mexico, who will take office on Dec. 1, 1994, faces the challenge of construction a new legal, commercial, and philosophical paradigm for the oil and gas industry in Mexico. As this review of petroleum policies and measures of the past 5 years will show, the existing paradigm has worked only imperfectly, and there are a number of items of unfinished business that the new administration must address. The paper discusses upstream developments and trends, trade issues, environmental gasoline, environmental and industrial safety, natural gas distribution, Pemex morale problems, Nafta and the presidency, project financing, regulatory risk, paradox of financial strategy and Nafta's promise.

  14. Workplace diversity and public policy: challenges and opportunities for psychology.

    PubMed

    Fassinger, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Challenges and solutions for using informatics in research.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Catherine J; Choi, Heeseung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Hershberger, Patricia E; Vincent, Catherine V; Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Zerwic, Julie J; Norr, Kathleen; Park, Hanjong; Tastan, Sevinc; Keenan, Gail M; Finnegan, Lorna; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J

    2013-07-01

    Computer technology provides innovations for research but not without concomitant challenges. Herein, we present our experiences with technology challenges and solutions across 16 nursing research studies. Issues included intervention integrity, software updates and compatibility, web accessibility and implementation, hardware and equipment, computer literacy of participants, and programming. Our researchers found solutions related to best practices for computer-screen design and usability testing, especially as they relate to the target populations' computer literacy levels and use patterns; changes in software; availability and limitations of operating systems and web browsers; resources for on-site technology help for participants; and creative facilitators to access participants and implement study procedures. Researchers may find this information helpful as they consider successful ways to integrate informatics in the design and implementation of future studies with technology that maximizes research productivity.

  16. Challenges and Solutions for Using Informatics in Research

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Catherine; Choi, Heeseung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Hershberger, Patricia; Vincent, Catherine; Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Zerwic, Julie; Norr, Kathleen; Park, Hanjong; Tastan, Sevinc; Keenan, Gail M.; Finnegan, Lorna; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology provides innovations for research but not without concomitant challenges. Herein, we present our experiences with technology challenges and solutions across 16 nursing research studies. Issues included intervention integrity, software updates and compatibility, Web accessibility and implementation, hardware and equipment, computer literacy of participants, and programming. Our researchers found solutions related to best practices for computer-screen design and usability testing, especially as they relate to the target populations' computer literacy levels and use patterns; changes in software; availability and limitations of operating systems and Web-browsers; resources for on-site technology help for participants; and creative facilitators to access participants and implement study procedures. Researchers may find this information helpful as they consider successful ways to integrate informatics in the design and implementation of future studies with technology that maximizes research productivity. PMID:23475591

  17. Future humanitarian crises: challenges for practice, policy, and public health.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    After more than three decades of preoccupation with wars and internal political conflicts, the humanitarian community has the opportunity to reevaluate what humanitarian crises will dominate both policy and practice in the future. In reality, these crises are already active and some are over the tipping point of recovery. These crises share the common thread of being major public health emergencies which, with a preponderance of excess or indirect mortality and morbidity dominating the consequences, requires new approaches, including unprecedented improvements and alterations in education, training, research, strategic planning, and policy and treaty agendas. Unfortunately, political solutions offered up to date are nation-state centric and miss opportunities to provide what must be global solutions. Public health, redefined as the infrastructure and systems necessary to allow communities, urban settings, and nation-states to provide physical and social protections to their populations has become an essential element of all disciplines from medicine, engineering, law, social sciences, and economics. Public health, which must be recognized as a strategic and security issue should take precedence over politics at every level, not be driven by political motives, and be globally monitored.

  18. Transitions: Issues, Challenges and Solutions in International Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    and division of labor among humanitarian stakeholders (Binder and Grunewald 2010)” – ALNAP Report , “ Haiti Earthquake Response: Context Analysis ...Transitions: Issues, Challenges and Solutions in International Assistance Edited by Harry R. Yarger, Ph.D. Report Documentation Page Form...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  19. Exploring challenges and solutions in the preparation of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Münter, Kristine Husum; Østergaard, Doris; Fuhrmann, Lone

    2015-10-01

    Handover of surgical patients from ward to operating room is a sensible point for information and communication failures. Guidelines were developed for preparation of surgical patients. Our aim was to explore if patients are sufficiently prepared for surgery according to local guidelines and to identify challenges and solutions for correct preparation through interactive table simulation-based workshops involving the various professions and specialties. Firstly, specific tasks in the hospital guidelines were monitored for all surgical procedures during one week. Secondly, workshops including table simulations involving the various professions and specialties were held. In total, 314 surgical procedures were performed of which 196 were eligible for analysis. Emergency procedures showed the poorest results with non-completed tasks comprising 58% of electronic patient management system tasks, 26% of anaesthesia record tasks, 24% of medication tasks, 14% of blood test tasks and 12% of patient record tasks. In two workshops held for each of four specialties, a total of 21 participants mapped the preoperative patient journey with related responsibilities, tasks and written documentation. Furthermore, challenges and suggestions for solutions were identified. Completion of mandatory tasks for surgical patient preparation was poor. Workshops with table simulations actively involved the stakeholders from various professions and specialties in describing the patient trajectory and mandatory tasks according to hospital guidelines in addition to identifying challenges and solutions for improvement. none. not relevant.

  20. Solutions to Challenges Facing a University Digital Library and Press

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Michael P.; Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Colbert, Stephana I.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Choi, Teresa A.; Aker, Brian D.; Carlson, William S.; Pelzer, Gay D.

    2000-01-01

    During the creation of a university digital library and press intended to serve as a medical reference and education tool for health care providers and their patients, six distinct and complex digital publishing challenges were encountered. Over nine years, through a multidisciplinary approach, solutions were devised to the challenges of digital content ownership, management, mirroring, translation, interactions with users, and archiving. The result is a unique, author-owned, internationally mirrored, university digital library and press that serves as an authoritative medical reference and education tool for users around the world. The purpose of this paper is to share the valuable digital publishing lessons learned and outline the challenges facing university digital libraries and presses. PMID:10833161

  1. Challenges to pharmaceutical policymaking: lessons from Australia's national medicines policy.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Day, Richard

    2014-05-01

    National medicines policies (NMP) provide a means for governments to achieve their objectives in relation to pharmaceuticals and other medicines. This research aimed to identify challenges to implementing the objectives of the Australian NMP from the perspective of key stakeholders. In 2012 and 2103, we conducted 30 semistructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the discovery, clinical testing, regulation and funding of medicines in Australia. We asked participants to describe their careers and to give their opinions on specific issues surrounding drug development, clinical research, regulation and subsidisation in Australia. Data were analysed using Morse's outline of the cognitive basis of qualitative research and Charmaz's outline of data analysis in grounded theory. The initial phase of 'open coding' revealed findings that could be mapped to three of the four objectives of the NMP. We then conducted 'focussed coding' for themes relevant to these objectives. Participants identified many issues relevant to the ongoing evolution of the NMP, relating primarily to ongoing tensions between the commercial objective of ensuring a viable medicines industry, and the non-commercial objectives of ensuring that medicines are safe, effective and affordable. There were also several other challenges identified to the achievement of both the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP. These included limits to government funding, globalisation, consumer advocacy, changing scientific paradigms and new information technologies. There are many issues that need to be addressed if policymakers are to achieve the best outcomes from the NMP. Tensions between the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP suggest the need to ensure that one stakeholder group's imperatives do not stifle those of other groups. At the same time, there are several emerging issues that are likely to concern all stakeholders equally, and these are both challenges and opportunities

  2. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier.

  3. Social security reform in Latin America: policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen J; Kritzer, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade Latin American countries have served as the world's laboratory for pension systems based on individual retirement savings accounts. Some countries have adopted defined-contribution individual accounts as a replacement for state-run pension systems; other countries have embraced mixed systems of have made individual accounts optional and supplementary. This article outlines some of the most significant elements of recent Latin American pension reforms and examines some of the most serious policy challenges faced by governments implementing the new systems of individual accounts, including the need to reduce administrative costs, limit evasion, incorporate new categories of workers into the system, and improve competition in the pension fund industry. The authors conclude that there is no single Latin America model, and that reform itself has been and will continue to be an incremental process.

  4. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Space Radiation and the Challenges Towards Effective Shielding Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulnasser

    2014-01-01

    The hazards of space radiation and their effective mitigation strategies continue to pose special science and technology challenges to NASA. It is widely accepted now that shielding space vehicles and structures will have to rely on new and innovative materials since aluminum, like all high Z materials, are poor shields against the particulate and highly ionizing nature of space radiation. Shielding solutions, motivated and constrained by power and mass limitations, couple this realization with "multifunctionality," both in design concept as well as in material function and composition. Materials endowed with effective shielding properties as well as with some degree of multi-functionality may be the kernel of the so-called "radiation-smart" structures and designs. This talk will present some of the challenges and potential mitigation ideas towards the realization of such structures and designs.

  6. Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A.S.C.

    1993-12-31

    PETROBRAS, the Brazilian/International Integrated Oil and Gas Company, is leading US$ 4 billion natural gas project. The goal of this paper is to identify Project challenges and propose solutions. It starts with fundamentals. Natural gas` share in Brazilian primary energy demand is only 2%. Economic aspects and environmental concerns, however, are changing this picture. For the Bolivian economy to be linked to a relatively huge market, in the long-term, is certainly a suitable decision. Besides, this Project will promote regional integration, within and outside Marcosur economies. Reserves, market data and economics give support to a feasible Project Financial structure is the main challenge. INTERGAS, a new subsidiary of PETROBRAS is opened for 49% stock to private sector participation. As an integrated Project, many opportunities will be generated during construction and operation. E&P, pipeline and downstream investments could bring different investors to different sectors.

  7. Challenging micro-optical applications demand diverse manufacturing solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Gregg; Weissbrodt, Peter; Schrenk, Manfred; Cumme, Matthias

    2007-02-01

    Many manufacturing techniques have been developed and implemented to fabricate a wide range of micro-optical products. The challenges of the micro-optics business are diverse and tend to resist a widely accepted manufacturing process such as has been implemented for CMOS fabrication. Many of the challenges that have been addressed with various solutions include optical waveband of operation from DUV through LWIR, material systems, cost of manufacturing for the intended application space, feature sizes based on device functionality, and fabrication technology based on the manufacturing volume. Some of the technologies to be discussed include device patterning by e-beam lithography, optical lithography, direct CNC machining and micro-polishing, and plastic replication.

  8. Spectral calibration for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer: challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagey, Nicolas; McConnachie, Alan; Szeto, Kei; Murowinski, Rick; Mignot, Shan

    2016-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) will each year obtain millions of spectra in the optical to nearinfrared, at low (R ≃ 2; 500) to high (R ≃ 40; 000) spectral resolution by observing >3000 spectra per pointing via a highly multiplexed fiber-fed system. Key science programs for MSE include black hole reverberation mapping, stellar population analysis of faint galaxies at high redshift, and sub-km/s velocity accuracy for stellar astrophysics. This requires highly precise, repeatable and stable spectral calibration over long timescales. To meet these demanding science goals and to allow MSE to deliver data of very high quality to the broad community of astronomers involved in the project, a comprehensive and efficient calibration strategy is being developed. In this paper, we present the different challenges we face to properly calibrate the MSE spectra and the solutions we are considering to address these challenges.

  9. Physical Activity Parenting Measurement and Research: Challenges, Explanations, and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mâsse, Louise C.; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D.; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A.; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  10. Going Extreme For Small Solutions To Big Environmental Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Christopher E.

    2011-03-31

    This chapter is devoted to the scale, scope, and specific issues confronting the cleanup and long-term disposal of the U.S. nuclear legacy generated during WWII and the Cold War Era. The research reported is aimed at complex microbiological interactions with legacy waste materials generated by past nuclear production activities in the United States. The intended purpose of this research is to identify cost effective solutions to the specific problems (stability) and environmental challenges (fate, transport, exposure) in managing and detoxifying persistent contaminant species. Specifically addressed are high level waste microbiology and bacteria inhabiting plutonium laden soils in the unsaturated subsurface.

  11. Perianal Crohn’s disease: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Katherine A; Kaur, Taranjeet; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L

    2017-01-01

    Perianal Crohn’s disease affects a significant number of patients with Crohn’s disease and is associated with poor quality of life. The nature of the disease, compounded by presentation of various disease severities, has made the treatment of perianal Crohn’s disease difficult. The field continues to evolve with the use of both historical and contemporary solutions to address the challenges associated with it. The goal of this article is to review current literature regarding medical and surgical treatment, as well as the future directions of therapy. PMID:28223835

  12. Emerging solutions to the water challenges of an urbanizing world.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tove A; Hoffmann, Sabine; Lüthi, Christoph; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-05-20

    The top priorities for urban water sustainability include the provision of safe drinking water, wastewater handling for public health, and protection against flooding. However, rapidly aging infrastructure, population growth, and increasing urbanization call into question current urban water management strategies, especially in the fast-growing urban areas in Asia and Africa. We review innovative approaches in urban water management with the potential to provide locally adapted, resource-efficient alternative solutions. Promising examples include new concepts for stormwater drainage, increased water productivity, distributed or on-site treatment of wastewater, source separation of human waste, and institutional and organizational reforms. We conclude that there is an urgent need for major transdisciplinary efforts in research, policy, and practice to develop alternatives with implications for cities and aquatic ecosystems alike. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Chinese Helicobacter pylori vaccine: Solution for an old challenge?

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world’s population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge. PMID:27602242

  14. Chinese Helicobacter pylori vaccine: Solution for an old challenge?

    PubMed

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-08-06

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge.

  15. Promoting Antibacterial Drug Development: Select Policies and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Aylin; Jessup, Amber; Wong, Hui-Hsing

    2017-02-01

    The development pipeline for antibacterial drugs has not met the demand of hospitals and healthcare providers struggling to cope with increasing problems of antibacterial resistance. Although the challenges associated with antibacterial drug development have been known for some time, previous efforts to address them have not been sufficient. There remains an urgent need for targeted incentives to foster antibacterial drug development while encouraging prudent use. We examine the effects of two types of incentives, a 5-year delay in competition from generics and a lump-sum US$50 million prize payment upon successful US Food and Drug Administration approval, on antibacterial drug company returns. We use the decision-tree framework developed in a study for the US Department of Health and Human Services, which models the drug company's decision process as a revenue maximizer under uncertainty. Our results show that, to maximize societal benefit, such incentives need to take into consideration the indication(s) the new antibacterial drug is designed to treat as well as the drug development stage. Optimal policies should maximize the difference between societal benefit, primarily measured as the reduction in public health burden from the development of a new antibacterial drug that treats an infectious disease while ensuring prudent use, and social cost. Here, we show that the two types of policies examined under-incentivize early-stage developers (i.e., do not achieve the desired outcome) and over-incentivize late-stage developers (i.e., achieve the desired outcome but at a cost that is higher than needed) ceteris paribus.

  16. Self-Directed Support Policy: Challenges and Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkes, Mary A.; Brown, Michael; Horsburgh, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted between September 2010 and April 2011 and published earlier in this journal, paper 1. The findings indicated that few studies of Self-Directed Support focused specifically on people with intellectual disabilities. The range of individuals' ability and distinction between adults with or without…

  17. Management of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan L; Makol, Ashima

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with significant physical disability, affects women three times more frequently than men, often in their childbearing years. Parenthood decisions can be challenging, often affected by perceptions of their disease state, health care needs, and complex pharmacological treatments. Many women struggle to find adequate information to guide them on pregnancy planning, lactation, and early parenting in relation to their chronic condition. The expanded availability and choice of pharmacotherapies have supported optimal disease control prior to conception and enhanced physical capabilities for women to successfully overcome the challenges of raising children but require a detailed understanding of their risks and safety in the setting of pregnancy and breastfeeding. This review outlines the various situational challenges faced by rheumatologists in providing care to men and women in the reproductive age group interested in starting a family. Up to date evidence-based solutions particularly focusing on the safe use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic response modifiers to assist rheumatologists in the care of pregnant and lactating women with RA are reviewed. PMID:27843367

  18. Management of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Krause, Megan L; Makol, Ashima

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with significant physical disability, affects women three times more frequently than men, often in their childbearing years. Parenthood decisions can be challenging, often affected by perceptions of their disease state, health care needs, and complex pharmacological treatments. Many women struggle to find adequate information to guide them on pregnancy planning, lactation, and early parenting in relation to their chronic condition. The expanded availability and choice of pharmacotherapies have supported optimal disease control prior to conception and enhanced physical capabilities for women to successfully overcome the challenges of raising children but require a detailed understanding of their risks and safety in the setting of pregnancy and breastfeeding. This review outlines the various situational challenges faced by rheumatologists in providing care to men and women in the reproductive age group interested in starting a family. Up to date evidence-based solutions particularly focusing on the safe use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic response modifiers to assist rheumatologists in the care of pregnant and lactating women with RA are reviewed.

  19. Consumer exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, J G M; Heinemeyer, G; Rodriguez, C

    2007-12-01

    Exposure scenarios (ES) under REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals; new EU legislation) aim to describe safe conditions of product and substance use. Both operational conditions and risk management measures (RMMs) are part of the ES. For consumer use of chemicals, one of the challenges will be to identify all of the consumer uses of a given chemical and then quantify the exposure derived from each of them. Product use categories can be established to identify in a systematic fashion how products are used. These product categories comprise products that are used similarly (e.g. paints, adhesives). They deliver information about product use characteristics, and provide an easy-to-handle tool for exchanging standardised information. For practical reasons, broad ES will have to be developed, which cover a wide range of products and use. The challenge will be to define them broadly, but not in a way that they provide such an overestimation of exposure that a next iteration or a more complex model is always needed. Tiered and targeted approaches for estimation of exposure at the right level of detail may offer the best solution. RMMs relevant for consumers include those inherent to product design (controllable) and those that are communicated to consumers as directions for use (non-controllable). Quantification of the effect of non-controllable RMMs on consumer exposure can prove to be difficult. REACH requires aggregation of exposure from all relevant identified sources. Development of appropriate methodology for realistic aggregation of exposure will be no small challenge and will likely require probabilistic approaches and comprehensive databases on populations' habits, practices and behaviours. REACH regulation aims at controlling the use of chemicals so that exposure to every chemical can be demonstrated to be safe for consumers, workers, and the environment when considered separately, but also when considered in an integrated way. This

  20. Compulsory Schooling Policy in Nunavut: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Nunavut's compulsory schooling policy as a case study to discuss the role that cultural difference plays in policy development and implementation. The central argument of the paper is that the implementation and sustainability of the compulsory schooling policy would be fraught with enormous problems, given its colonialist,…

  1. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    the United States are in areas where NOA is known to exist and therefore this issue takes on national significance. This ongoing national dilemma has raised public and business concerns. There has been continuing political and scientific debate and widespread miscommunication over perceived versus actual health risks, the validity of various analytical sampling and testing methods, the questionable necessity and escalating costs of remediation procedures, and the combined negative impact on numerous commercial and public interests. Thus, conflicting research and regulatory positions on the distinctions between and hazards of true asbestos and ordinary rock fragments is all that is presently available to the public until the differing scientific communities and government agencies arrive at a consensus on these issues. The risk assessment methodology and the analytical technology needed to support inferences drawn from existing research are available, but have not been organized and implemented in the manner needed to resolve the NOA controversy. There should exist nationally adopted and peer-reviewed NOA standards (developed jointly by the scientific community, health risk professionals, and government regulators) that establish: (1) a scientific basis for risk evaluation and assessment of NOA and rock fragments; (2) accepted analytical protocols for determining if NOA actually exists in a given area and for separating NOA from related non-asbestos rock fragments and single crystal minerals; and (3) effective public policies for managing NOA, minimizing potential hazards, and protecting public health. This article will review some of the key issues involved with the current NOA debate, propose improved analytical methodologies, describe potential solutions for dealing with NOA, and outline the benefits to be gained by creating a practical national NOA public policy.

  2. Vector Control in Developing Countries: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Allardyce, Claire S; Dyson, Paul J; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Undoubtedly, reducing vector populations or their interactions with hosts below a critical level is a practical and proven method of disease control. Introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets has significantly reduced malaria in some parts of the world. However, for many reasons, implementation of such strategies is challenging and the protection offered by particular products limited: bed nets are only effective during sleep. Other methods have been launched, but low customer appeal, high cost, low specificity, and lack of sustainability and effectiveness are often reasons for failure. The proposed solution to these problems should also consider safety and environmental impact and be forward-thinking for continued functioning in a rapidly changing local environment. To this end, a chemical system has been identified that could be used to make an autonomous trap with chemo-attractant system.

  3. Reference metrology for nanotechnology: significance, challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukraintsev, Vladimir; Banke, Bill

    2010-08-01

    Metrology and control of critical dimensions (CD) are the keys to the nanotechnology success. Modern nanotechnology and nanometrology are largely based on knowledge earned during the last 10-20 years of semiconductor technology development. Semiconductor CD metrology entered the nanotechnology age in the late 1990's. Work on 130 nm and 90 nm node technologies led to the conclusion that precision is an insufficient metric for metrology quality assessment. Other components of measurement uncertainty (MU) must be considered: (i) sample-to-sample measurement bias variation, (ii) sampling uncertainty and (iii) sample variation induced by probe-sample interaction. The first one (sample dependent systematic error) is common for "indirect" and model-based CD metrologies such as top-down and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical scatterometry (OCD). Unless special measures are taken, bias variation of CDSEM and OCD could exceed several nanometers. Variation of bias and, therefore, MU can be assessed only if reference metrology (RM) is employed. The choice of RM tools is very limited. The CD atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of a few available RM tools. The CDAFM provides sub-nanometer MU for a number of nanometrology applications. Significant challenges of CDAFM remain: (a) probe finite dimensions are limiting characterization of narrow high-aspect spaces; (b) probe flexibility complicates positioning control; (c) probe apex sharpness limits 3D AFM resolution; (d) lifetime of atomically sharp probes is too short; (e) adsorbates change properties and dimensions of nanometer-sized objects considerably, etc. We believe that solutions for the problems exist. In this paper we discuss role of RM in nanometrology, current RM choices, challenges of CDAFM, and potential solutions.

  4. Protection of Renewable-dominated Microgrids: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elkhatib, Mohamed; Ellis, Abraham; Biswal, Milan; Brahma, Sukumar; Ranade, Satish

    2016-11-01

    In this report we address the challenge of designing efficient protection system for inverter- dominated microgrids. These microgrids are characterised with limited fault current capacity as a result of current-limiting protection functions of inverters. Typically, inverters limit their fault contribution in sub-cycle time frame to as low as 1.1 per unit. As a result, overcurrent protection could fail completely to detect faults in inverter-dominated microgrids. As part of this project a detailed literature survey of existing and proposed microgrid protection schemes were conducted. The survey concluded that there is a gap in the available microgrid protection methods. The only credible protection solution available in literature for low- fault inverter-dominated microgrids is the differential protection scheme which represents a robust transmission-grade protection solution but at a very high cost. Two non-overcurrent protection schemes were investigated as part of this project; impedance-based protection and transient-based protection. Impedance-based protection depends on monitoring impedance trajectories at feeder relays to detect faults. Two communication-based impedance-based protection schemes were developed. the first scheme utilizes directional elements and pilot signals to locate the fault. The second scheme depends on a Central Protection Unit that communicates with all feeder relays to locate the fault based on directional flags received from feeder relays. The later approach could potentially be adapted to protect networked microgrids and dynamic topology microgrids. Transient-based protection relies on analyzing high frequency transients to detect and locate faults. This approach is very promising but its implementation in the filed faces several challenges. For example, high frequency transients due to faults can be confused with transients due to other events such as capacitor switching. Additionally, while detecting faults by analyzing transients

  5. Situating the Challenges in Current Languages Education Policy in Australia -- Unlearning Monolingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In situating the challenges in languages education policy in Australia in current times, I give an account of policy and curriculum development for the learning of languages in school education. In so doing, I highlight (1) the integral relationship between languages education, literacy and multiculturalism policies; (2) the meaning and…

  6. Technical challenges and solutions in merging GIESim and JSAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikus, John H.; Parisi, Thomas; Valente, Jon; Wassmer, Robert E.

    2005-05-01

    The merger of the GIESim JTIDS simulation with JSAF added tactical communications modeling to JSAF, and posed several challenges that are overviewed along with solutions and lessons learned. Tactical communications play an increasingly critical role in military operations. JSAF is a large multi-forces simulation that is often employed for war-gaming, however JSAF currently does not model tactical communications. Also the merger of the JTIDS/Link-16 capabilities from GIESim with JSAF is a first step toward applying the GIESim rapid communications modeling approach to a large simulation environment. This paper addresses the physical and logical simulation architectures, modifications of HLA interfaces and internal logic, determination of mission goals and scenario development, associated network design, and component integration associated with the GIESim-JSAF merger. Both JSAF and the GIESim JTIDS simulation were modified to allow JSAF to pass a message through the JTIDS simulation. Substantial work was required to make this happen. Perhaps the greatest challenge was that JSAF did not have logic to handle tactical communications at all. Furthermore, JSAF needed to drive platform position updates into the JTIDS simulation so that accurate radio propagation calculations and correct network transmissions would occur. M&S interoperability between JSAF and the JTIDS simulation needed to be demonstrated in a way that tested interoperation and that had a quick impact on an observer. Therefore, an operationally relevant scenario was developed to demonstrate the value of adding communications modeling to JSAF. Current success and future possibilities will be presented.

  7. Accessing seismic data through geological interpretation: Challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. W.; Clayton, S.; McCaffrey, B.

    2008-12-01

    Between them, the world's research programs, national institutions and corporations, especially oil and gas companies, have acquired substantial volumes of seismic reflection data. Although the vast majority are proprietary and confidential, significant data are released and available for research, including those in public data libraries. The challenge now is to maximise use of these data, by providing routes to seismic not simply on the basis of acquisition or processing attributes but via the geology they image. The Virtual Seismic Atlas (VSA: www.seismicatlas.org) meets this challenge by providing an independent, free-to-use community based internet resource that captures and shares the geological interpretation of seismic data globally. Images and associated documents are explicitly indexed by extensive metadata trees, using not only existing survey and geographical data but also the geology they portray. The solution uses a Documentum database interrogated through Endeca Guided Navigation, to search, discover and retrieve images. The VSA allows users to compare contrasting interpretations of clean data thereby exploring the ranges of uncertainty in the geometric interpretation of subsurface structure. The metadata structures can be used to link reports and published research together with other data types such as wells. And the VSA can link to existing data libraries. Searches can take different paths, revealing arrays of geological analogues, new datasets while providing entirely novel insights and genuine surprises. This can then drive new creative opportunities for research and training, and expose the contents of seismic data libraries to the world.

  8. Solution Sythesis Of Geranium Nanocrystals: Success And Open Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Casula, M; Galli, G; Saw, C; Zaitseva, N; Gerion, D; van Buuren, T; Fakra, S

    2003-12-15

    We present a two-steps synthesis route that yields nanometer size crystalline germanium in the form of a black powder. It relies on high temperature decomposition of tetraethylgermane (TEG) in organic solvents. The presence of pure germanium with diamond structure is unambiguously attested by powder XRD measurements. Low resolution TEM indicates that the particles are between {approx}5 to 30 nm in size depending on the synthesis conditions. The as-synthesized Ge powders can be stored in air for months and no oxidation occurs. The Ge powders are sparingly soluble in conventional solvents because Ge nanocrystals are likely embedded in a matrix, composed mainly of C=C, C-C, and C-H bonds. The presence of residual organic by-products impedes probing of the optical properties of the dots. Also, we discuss drawbacks and open challenges in high temperature solution synthesis of Ge nanocrystals that could also be faced in the synthesis of Si nanocrystals. Overall, our results call for a cautious interpretation of reported optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystals obtained by high temperature solution methods.

  9. A solution to meet new challenges on EBDW data prep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galler, R.; Melzer, D.; Nowotny, J.; Kroenert, K.; Krueger, M.; Suelzle, M.; Papenfuss, B.; Wagner, C.; Baetz, U.; Buerger, B.; Gramss, J.; Lemke, M.

    2009-01-01

    As chip design becomes more and more complex and alternative lithography technologies like EBDW get broader usage, the challenges increase with respect to all parts of the entire process. For exposure data preparation, we want to introduce a novel solution that offers new approaches to a user-friendly GUI, to exposure simulation, project definition and control, combined with proven kernels for data post-processing, fracturing and Proximity Effect Correction. This new solution has been implemented to run in an efficient 64 bit parallel computing environment and is called ePlace (eBeam Direct Write and Mask Data Preparation Layout Console). ePlace has the ability to process layout data of (in principle) unlimited size, given in various formats (GDSII, OASIS, DXF, CIF and others) and distributed over multiple files and hierarchies. Data post-processing capabilities include common Boolean functions (AND, OR, XOR, and Negation) as well as sizing, scaling, translation, rotation and overlap removal. Processed data can be fractured and formatted for e-beam writers (e.g. Vistec Shaped Beam (SB) tools). For Proximity Effect Correction both dose variations and newly developed geometry correction (EPC) algorithms are available and a simulation engine provides fast and precise results for exposure pattern predictions. In addition to the standard shape exposure, ePlace supports the latest Cell Projection (CP) feature of current Vistec's SB series as well as the upcoming Vistec Multi-Beam-Tool.

  10. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  11. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  12. Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: a Partial Solution to the Challenge and the Benefits it Produces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givan, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    Science is supposed to be about talent devoid of the bias’ and judgments generated by background, gender, ethnicity or any culturally determined discriminators. The scientific, academic, corporate and government communities have a vested interest in developing models, practices and policies that significantly increase the number of U.S. graduates in scientific disciplines. Additionally, it is crucial that these graduates possess the essential competencies and creative problem solving skills to compete in the current global economy. The stakeholders (corporations, researchers, educational practitioners, policymakers and funders) who have the common goal of producing highly qualified scientists must commit to collaborate in developing innovative strategies and solutions to this complex challenge. Volumes of research data from a variety of sources such the social and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, National Science Foundation and non-profit groups have been and are available for use enabling us to rise to the challenge we have been charged with, and are responsible for the outcome. A proposed solution to part of the challenge and discussion of the impacts of increasing diversity in science will be discussed in this paper. The paper will address one element of the issue - strategies for the recruitment and retention of under-represented groups in science focusing on the historical and current culture, climate and barriers encountered by minorities as they progress through the educational system and career pathways. The paper will examine the benefits of diversity to the individual and society as a whole.

  13. Policy research for disease prevention: challenges and practical recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Newschaffer, C J; Ali-Abarghoui, F

    1997-01-01

    Policy approaches to health promotion and disease prevention hold great potential, as several community-based projects have illustrated. Policy interventions, despite their wide-spread use, frequently lack a systematic framework for implementation and evaluation. The authors propose a four-stage framework for the formation and evaluation of public health policy. The stages are identification of health risks and preventive options; intervention development; policy development; and policy enactment and assurance. A strong focus on evaluation is included within the framework. In addition, a series of practical implications and recommendations are given under the broad headings of evaluation issues and linkages. It is hoped that the issues described will lead to more systematic implementation and evaluation of public health policy measures. PMID:9184498

  14. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach.

  15. Make in India and Challenges before Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Economic development, inclusive growth and high employability are significantly linked to education policy of a country. Beginning with Kothari Commission (1966) with its emphasis on science & technology and research to National Policy on Education (1986), several committees during the last decade have advocated for greater foreign…

  16. Challenges for Policy and Standards for Adult and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Belle S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses educational policy as a force that contemporary adult education would be required to reckon with from the point of view of an accreditor. It identifies the issues and projects shifts that are currently taking place in higher education policy at the national, state, and regional levels.

  17. Challenges for Policy and Standards for Adult and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Belle S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses educational policy as a force that contemporary adult education would be required to reckon with from the point of view of an accreditor. It identifies the issues and projects shifts that are currently taking place in higher education policy at the national, state, and regional levels.

  18. Medical management of epileptic seizures: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Anand K; Khandker, Nabil; Kurczewski, Lisa; Brophy, Gretchen M

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic illnesses. This condition afflicts 2.9 million adults and children in the US, leading to an economic impact amounting to $15.5 billion. Despite the significant burden epilepsy places on the population, it is not very well understood. As this understanding continues to evolve, it is important for clinicians to stay up to date with the latest advances to provide the best care for patients. In the last 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 15 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with many more currently in development. Other advances have been achieved in terms of diagnostic modalities like electroencephalography technology, treatment devices like vagal nerve and deep-brain stimulators, novel alternate routes of drug administration, and improvement in surgical techniques. Specific patient populations, such as the pregnant, elderly, those with HIV/AIDS, and those with psychiatric illness, present their own unique challenges, with AED side effects, drug interactions, and medical–psychiatric comorbidities adding to the conundrum. The purpose of this article is to review the latest literature guiding the management of acute epileptic seizures, focusing on the current challenges across different practice settings, and it discusses studies in various patient populations, including the pregnant, geriatric, those with HIV/AIDS, comatose, psychiatric, and “pseudoseizure” patients, and offers possible evidence-based solutions or the expert opinion of the authors. Also included is information on newer AEDs, routes of administration, and significant AED-related drug-interaction tables. This review has tried to address only some of these issues that any practitioner who deals with the acute management of seizures may encounter. The document also highlights the numerous avenues for new research that would help practitioners optimize epilepsy management. PMID:26966367

  19. Clinical Research Environment in India: Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    PubMed

    Burt, Tal; Sharma, Pooja; Dhillon, Savita; Manchanda, Mukul; Mittal, Sanjay; Trehan, Naresh

    2014-11-01

    India has compelling need and keen aspirations for indigenous clinical research. Notwithstanding this need and previously reported growth the expected expansion of Indian clinical research has not materialized. We reviewed the scientific literature, lay press reports, and ClinicalTrials.gov data for information and commentary on projections, progress, and impediments associated with clinical trials in India. We also propose targeted solutions to identified challenges. The Indian clinical trial sector grew by (+) 20.3% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) between 2005 and 2010 and contracted by (-) 14.6% CAGR between 2010 and 2013. Phase-1 trials grew by (+) 43.5% CAGR from 2005-2013, phase-2 trials grew by (+) 19.8% CAGR from 2005-2009 and contracted by (-) 12.6% CAGR from 2009-2013, and phase-3 trials grew by (+) 13.0% CAGR from 2005-2010 and contracted by (-) 28.8% CAGR from 2010-2013. This was associated with a slowing of the regulatory approval process, increased media coverage and activist engagement, and accelerated development of regulatory guidelines and recuperative initiatives. We propose the following as potential targets for restorative interventions: Regulatory overhaul (leadership and enforcement of regulations, resolution of ambiguity in regulations, staffing, training, guidelines, and ethical principles [e.g., compensation]).Education and training of research professionals, clinicians, and regulators.Public awareness and empowerment. After a peak in 2009-2010, the clinical research sector in India appears to be experiencing a contraction. There are indications of challenges in regulatory enforcement of guidelines; training of clinical research professionals; and awareness, participation, partnership, and the general image amongst the non-professional media and public. Preventative and corrective principles and interventions are outlined with the goal of realizing the clinical research potential in India.

  20. Clinical Research Environment in India: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Sharma, Pooja; Dhillon, Savita; Manchanda, Mukul; Mittal, Sanjay; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    India has compelling need and keen aspirations for indigenous clinical research. Notwithstanding this need and previously reported growth the expected expansion of Indian clinical research has not materialized. We reviewed the scientific literature, lay press reports, and ClinicalTrials.gov data for information and commentary on projections, progress, and impediments associated with clinical trials in India. We also propose targeted solutions to identified challenges. The Indian clinical trial sector grew by (+) 20.3% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) between 2005 and 2010 and contracted by (-) 14.6% CAGR between 2010 and 2013. Phase-1 trials grew by (+) 43.5% CAGR from 2005–2013, phase-2 trials grew by (+) 19.8% CAGR from 2005–2009 and contracted by (-) 12.6% CAGR from 2009–2013, and phase-3 trials grew by (+) 13.0% CAGR from 2005–2010 and contracted by (-) 28.8% CAGR from 2010–2013. This was associated with a slowing of the regulatory approval process, increased media coverage and activist engagement, and accelerated development of regulatory guidelines and recuperative initiatives. We propose the following as potential targets for restorative interventions: Regulatory overhaul (leadership and enforcement of regulations, resolution of ambiguity in regulations, staffing, training, guidelines, and ethical principles [e.g., compensation]).Education and training of research professionals, clinicians, and regulators.Public awareness and empowerment. After a peak in 2009-2010, the clinical research sector in India appears to be experiencing a contraction. There are indications of challenges in regulatory enforcement of guidelines; training of clinical research professionals; and awareness, participation, partnership, and the general image amongst the non-professional media and public. Preventative and corrective principles and interventions are outlined with the goal of realizing the clinical research potential in India. PMID:25590017

  1. Comparison of laboratories directors' and assessors' opinions on challenges and solutions of standardization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Abolhassani, Nazanin

    2015-01-26

    The quality medical laboratory services play a vital role in healthcare systems. Iran has set national standards based on the international standard ISO15189. These standards came into force in September 2007. Given the important role of both laboratories professional and assessors in the standardization, this study aims to compare and analyze medical laboratory directors' and assessors' opinions about this process, its challenges and relevant solutions. This qualitative study was conducted on two populations in 2013. The first survey population consisted of 150 assessors. The second group consisted of directors working in medical laboratory settings. From all universities of medical sciences, 258 medical laboratories were randomly selected. Data were gathered using two open-ended questionnaires and analyzed using the thematic analysis. Challenges and relevant solutions regarding the standardization and standards, the assessment process and assessor, laboratories, external entities and contextual factors across laboratories directors and assessors were derived and compared. Both groups had a positive attitude towards the standardization process. However, they expressed some concerns regarding the process and accordingly proposed solutions to overcome the challenges. This study provides insights into the challenges and solutions of the standardization from two professional groups' viewpoint. These two factors are closely related and should be considered when implementing standards since a positive perception of them increases the likelihood of successful standardization. Similarities and divergences regarding challenges and solutions of the standardization, in turn, can provide insights into how this process can be improved and deserve policy makers' attention to continue the progress.

  2. Comparison of Laboratories Directors’ and Assessors’ Opinions on Challenges and Solutions of Standardization in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Abolhassani, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The quality medical laboratory services play a vital role in healthcare systems. Iran has set national standards based on the international standard ISO15189. These standards came into force in September 2007. Given the important role of both laboratories professional and assessors in the standardization, this study aims to compare and analyze medical laboratory directors’ and assessors’ opinions about this process, its challenges and relevant solutions. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on two populations in 2013. The first survey population consisted of 150 assessors. The second group consisted of directors working in medical laboratory settings. From all universities of medical sciences, 258 medical laboratories were randomly selected. Data were gathered using two open-ended questionnaires and analyzed using the thematic analysis. Results: Challenges and relevant solutions regarding the standardization and standards, the assessment process and assessor, laboratories, external entities and contextual factors across laboratories directors and assessors were derived and compared. Both groups had a positive attitude towards the standardization process. However, they expressed some concerns regarding the process and accordingly proposed solutions to overcome the challenges. Conclusion: This study provides insights into the challenges and solutions of the standardization from two professional groups’ viewpoint. These two factors are closely related and should be considered when implementing standards since a positive perception of them increases the likelihood of successful standardization. Similarities and divergences regarding challenges and solutions of the standardization, in turn, can provide insights into how this process can be improved and deserve policy makers’ attention to continue the progress. PMID:25946940

  3. Ethical Challenges and Solutions Regarding Delirium Studies in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Lisa; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Davis, Daniel; Currow, David; Bush, Shirley H.; Barnes, Christopher; Hartwick, Michael; Agar, Meera; Simon, Jessica; Breitbart, William; MacDonald, Neil; Lawlor, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium occurs commonly in settings of palliative care (PC), in which patient vulnerability in the unique context of end-of-life care and delirium-associated impairment of decision-making capacity may together present many ethical challenges. Objectives Based on deliberations at the Studies to Understand Delirium in Palliative Care Settings (SUNDIPS) meeting and an associated literature review, this article discusses ethical issues central to the conduct of research on delirious PC patients. Methods Together with an analysis of the ethical deliberations at the SUNDIPS meeting, we conducted a narrative literature review by key words searching of relevant databases and a subsequent hand search of initially identified articles. We also reviewed statements of relevance to delirium research in major national and international ethics guidelines. Results Key issues identified include the inclusion of PC patients in delirium research, capacity determination, and the mandate to respect patient autonomy and ensure maintenance of patient dignity. Proposed solutions include designing informed consent statements that are clear, concise, and free of complex phraseology; use of concise, yet accurate, capacity assessment instruments with a minimally burdensome schedule; and use of PC friendly consent models, such as facilitated, deferred, experienced, advance, and proxy models. Conclusion Delirium research in PC patients must meet the common standards for such research in any setting. Certain features unique to PC establish a need for extra diligence in meeting these standards and the employment of assessments, consent procedures, and patient-family interactions that are clearly grounded on the tenets of PC. PMID:24388124

  4. Mobile health requires mobile security: challenges, solutions, and standardization.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Extended communication and advanced cooperation in a permanently growing healthcare and welfare domain require a well-defined set of security services provided by an interoperable security infrastructure based on international and European standards. Any communication and collaboration procedure requires a purpose. But such legal purpose-binding is definitely not the only aspect to carefully be observed and investigated. More and more, aspects of security, safety, privacy, ethics, and quality reach importance while discussing about future-proof health information systems and health networks - regardless whether local, regional or even pan-European networks. During the course of the current paradigm change from an organization-centered to a process-related and to a person-centered health system, different new technologies including mobile solutions need to be applied in order to meet challenges arising from both legal and technical circumstances. Beside the typical Information and Communication Technology systems and applications, the extended use of modern technologies includes large medical devices like, e.g., MRI and CT but also small devices like sensors worn by a person or included in clothing. Security and safety are on top of the priority list. The paper addresses the identification of some specific aspects like mobile technology and safety when moving both IT and people towards mobile health aiming at increasing citizens and patients awareness, confidence, and acceptance in future mobile care - a world often still beyond the horizon.

  5. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions.

  6. Diabetes in China: a societal solution for a personal challenge.

    PubMed

    Chan, Juliana C N; Zhang, Yuying; Ning, Guang

    2014-12-01

    China has a large burden of diabetes: in 2013, one in four people with diabetes worldwide were in China, where 11·6% of adults had diabetes and 50·1% had prediabetes. Many were undiagnosed, untreated, or uncontrolled. This epidemic is the result of rapid societal transition that has led to an obesogenic environment against a backdrop of traditional lifestyle and periods of famine, which together puts Chinese people at high risk of diabetes and multiple morbidities. Societal determinants including social disparity and psychosocial stress interact with factors such as low-grade infection, environmental pollution, care fragmentation, health illiteracy, suboptimal self-care, and insufficient community support to give rise to diverse subphenotypes and consequences, notably renal dysfunction and cancer. In the China National Plan for Non-Communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment (2012-15), the Chinese Government proposed use of public measures, multisectoral collaborations, and social mobilisation to create a health-enabling environment and to reform the health-care system. While awaiting results from these long-term strategies, we advocate the use of a targeted and proactive approach to identify people at high risk of diabetes for prevention, and of private-public-community partnerships that make integrated care more accessible and sustainable, focusing on registry, empowerment, and community support. The multifaceted nature of the societal and personal challenge of diabetes requires a multidimensional solution for prevention in order to reduce the growing disease burden.

  7. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: Evaluation challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes results of evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP), focusing on the methodological challenges faced by the evaluators and solutions implemented. Operated jointly by US DOE and NIST, ERIP is one of the longest running commercialization assistance programs in US. The evaluation suggest that ERIP is a cost-effective federal investment. By the end of 1994, 24% of ERIP technologies had entered the market, producing total cumulative sales of $961 million (1994 dollars). With $124 million in program appropriations 1975-94, ERIP has an 8:1 return. At least 757 job-years were directly supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and 6, 646 job-years of employment have been created over the past decade. The sales and employment supported by ERIP technologies are associated with $4.4 million in 1994 federal tax returns. Many issues must be addressed to fairly appraise public investments in technology commercialization programs, such as the need to track the program participants for extended periods, complexities in accounting for spinoff technologies, determining the validity of program evaluations, and dealing with performance data that are dominated by a small number of highly successful technologies.

  8. Public preferences and the challenge to genetic research policy.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Modern genetic research requires scientists to collect, store, and study DNA samples and health information from thousands of people. Longstanding policy allows researchers to use samples and information without a person's informed consent as long as the person's identity is protected. Under existing policy, researchers must neither disclose study results to interested research participants nor compensate people who contribute to genetic research. Research and ethics experts developed these policy approaches without input from the people whose contributions are essential to the genetic research enterprise. A growing body of evidence shows that many research participants and would-be participants disagree with the current policy approaches. For ethical and practical reasons, participants should have a greater role in determining how genetic research is conducted.

  9. Policy Manuals: A Challenge for the Technical Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of policy and procedure manuals. Focuses on some of the difficulties in writing these: (1) maintaining legality; (2) maintaining accuracy and consistency; (3) finding an appropriate style; and (4) handling the review and approval process. (JAD)

  10. Estimating Causal Effects in Observational Studies using Electronic Health Data: Challenges and (Some) Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; DuGoff, Eva; Abrams, Michael; Salkever, David; Steinwachs, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health data sets, including electronic health records (EHR) and other administrative databases, are rich data sources that have the potential to help answer important questions about the effects of clinical interventions as well as policy changes. However, analyses using such data are almost always non-experimental, leading to concerns that those who receive a particular intervention are likely different from those who do not in ways that may confound the effects of interest. This paper outlines the challenges in estimating causal effects using electronic health data and offers some solutions, with particular attention paid to propensity score methods that help ensure comparisons between similar groups. The methods are illustrated with a case study describing the design of a study using Medicare and Medicaid administrative data to estimate the effect of the Medicare Part D prescription drug program on individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:24921064

  11. Affect Theory and Policy Mobility: Challenges and Possibilities for Critical Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to a growing literature on policy mobilities by proposing that affect be considered in analyses of the movements and transformations of policy over time and space. In particular, collective affective conditions, the role of affect in terms of infrastructures and actors of policy apparatuses and the mediating influences of…

  12. The Importance of Science Policy and its Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    I worked for physicist and Congressman Bill Foster (D-IL) as the Mather Public Policy Intern through the American Institute of Physics and the Society of Physics Students during the summer of 2014. This internship is meant to connect undergraduate physics students with the policy process in Washington DC. As a Mather Public Policy Intern, I worked for Congressman Foster researching policy initiatives such as science funding, STEM education, and environmental regulations. This talk will discuss my experience and many of the things that I learned as an undergraduate physicist working on Capitol Hill. For example, through my experience with the internship, I attended lectures and hearings that illuminated for me how members of Congress conceive of scientific research. I also met with many physicists on Capitol Hill working to improve government interest in physics research -- AAAS Fellows, Members of Congress, and Government Relations Specialists -- and I will talk about how I saw physicists impacting governmental policies relating to scientific research and development. This internship is part of the Society of Physics Students internship program and was funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts. This work was part of the Society of Physics Students internship Program.

  13. Challenges and solutions for high performance SWIR lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, M. C.; Rogers, P. J.; Wilde, M. F.; Cook, T.; Shipton, A.

    2016-10-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) cameras are becoming increasingly attractive due to the improving size, resolution and decreasing prices of InGaAs focal plane arrays (FPAs). The rapid development of competitively priced HD performance SWIR cameras has not been matched in SWIR imaging lenses with the result that the lens is now more likely to be the limiting factor in imaging quality than the FPA. Adapting existing lens designs from the visible region by re-coating for SWIR will improve total transmission but diminished image quality metrics such as MTF, and in particular large field angle performance such as vignetting, field curvature and distortion are serious consequences. To meet this challenge original SWIR solutions are presented including a wide field of view fixed focal length lens for commercial machine vision (CMV) and a wide angle, small, lightweight defence lens and their relevant design considerations discussed. Issues restricting suitable glass types will be examined. The index and dispersion properties at SWIR wavelengths can differ significantly from their visible values resulting in unusual glass combinations when matching doublet elements. Materials chosen simultaneously allow athermalization of the design as well as containing matched CTEs in the elements of doublets. Recently, thinned backside-illuminated InGaAs devices have made Vis.SWIR cameras viable. The SWIR band is sufficiently close to the visible that the same constituent materials can be used for AR coatings covering both bands. Keeping the lens short and mass low can easily result in high incidence angles which in turn complicates coating design, especially when extended beyond SWIR into the visible band. This paper also explores the potential performance of wideband Vis.SWIR AR coatings.

  14. Ethical challenges and solutions regarding delirium studies in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lisa; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J; Davis, Daniel; Currow, David C; Bush, Shirley H; Barnes, Christopher; Hartwick, Michael; Agar, Meera; Simon, Jessica; Breitbart, William; MacDonald, Neil; Lawlor, Peter G

    2014-08-01

    Delirium occurs commonly in settings of palliative care (PC), in which patient vulnerability in the unique context of end-of-life care and delirium-associated impairment of decision-making capacity may together present many ethical challenges. Based on deliberations at the Studies to Understand Delirium in Palliative Care Settings (SUNDIPS) meeting and an associated literature review, this article discusses ethical issues central to the conduct of research on delirious PC patients. Together with an analysis of the ethical deliberations at the SUNDIPS meeting, we conducted a narrative literature review by key words searching of relevant databases and a subsequent hand search of initially identified articles. We also reviewed statements of relevance to delirium research in major national and international ethics guidelines. Key issues identified include the inclusion of PC patients in delirium research, capacity determination, and the mandate to respect patient autonomy and ensure maintenance of patient dignity. Proposed solutions include designing informed consent statements that are clear, concise, and free of complex phraseology; use of concise, yet accurate, capacity assessment instruments with a minimally burdensome schedule; and use of PC friendly consent models, such as facilitated, deferred, experienced, advance, and proxy models. Delirium research in PC patients must meet the common standards for such research in any setting. Certain features unique to PC establish a need for extra diligence in meeting these standards and the employment of assessments, consent procedures, and patient-family interactions that are clearly grounded on the tenets of PC. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research. PMID:22972972

  16. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research.

  17. Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involve substantial acoustic noise. This review covers the difficulties posed by such noise for auditory neuroscience, as well as a number of possible solutions that have emerged. Acoustic noise can affect the processing of auditory stimuli by making them inaudible or unintelligible, and can result in reduced sensitivity to auditory activation in auditory cortex. Equally importantly, acoustic noise may also lead to increased listening effort, meaning that even when auditory stimuli are perceived, neural processing may differ from when the same stimuli are presented in quiet. These and other challenges have motivated a number of approaches for collecting auditory fMRI data. Although using a continuous echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequence provides high quality imaging data, these data may also be contaminated by background acoustic noise. Traditional sparse imaging has the advantage of avoiding acoustic noise during stimulus presentation, but at a cost of reduced temporal resolution. Recently, three classes of techniques have been developed to circumvent these limitations. The first is Interleaved Silent Steady State (ISSS) imaging, a variation of sparse imaging that involves collecting multiple volumes following a silent period while maintaining steady-state longitudinal magnetization. The second involves active noise control to limit the impact of acoustic scanner noise. Finally, novel MRI sequences that reduce the amount of acoustic noise produced during fMRI make the use of continuous scanning a more practical option. Together these advances provide unprecedented opportunities for researchers to collect high-quality data of hemodynamic responses to auditory stimuli using fMRI. PMID:25191218

  18. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Big Data Implementations in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayan, J.C; García, M.J.; Almerares, A.A.; Househ, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The volume of data, the velocity with which they are generated, and their variety and lack of structure hinder their use. This creates the need to change the way information is captured, stored, processed, and analyzed, leading to the paradigm shift called Big Data. Objectives To describe the challenges and possible solutions for developing countries when implementing Big Data projects in the health sector. Methods A non-systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. The following keywords were used: “big data”, “developing countries”, “data mining”, “health information systems”, and “computing methodologies”. A thematic review of selected articles was performed. Results There are challenges when implementing any Big Data program including exponential growth of data, special infrastructure needs, need for a trained workforce, need to agree on interoperability standards, privacy and security issues, and the need to include people, processes, and policies to ensure their adoption. Developing countries have particular characteristics that hinder further development of these projects. Conclusions The advent of Big Data promises great opportunities for the healthcare field. In this article, we attempt to describe the challenges developing countries would face and enumerate the options to be used to achieve successful implementations of Big Data programs. PMID:25123719

  19. Challenges and potential solutions for big data implementations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Luna, D; Mayan, J C; García, M J; Almerares, A A; Househ, M

    2014-08-15

    The volume of data, the velocity with which they are generated, and their variety and lack of structure hinder their use. This creates the need to change the way information is captured, stored, processed, and analyzed, leading to the paradigm shift called Big Data. To describe the challenges and possible solutions for developing countries when implementing Big Data projects in the health sector. A non-systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. The following keywords were used: "big data", "developing countries", "data mining", "health information systems", and "computing methodologies". A thematic review of selected articles was performed. There are challenges when implementing any Big Data program including exponential growth of data, special infrastructure needs, need for a trained workforce, need to agree on interoperability standards, privacy and security issues, and the need to include people, processes, and policies to ensure their adoption. Developing countries have particular characteristics that hinder further development of these projects. The advent of Big Data promises great opportunities for the healthcare field. In this article, we attempt to describe the challenges developing countries would face and enumerate the options to be used to achieve successful implementations of Big Data programs.

  20. The New Europe: Challenges for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Business Lwer. 18 (Oct. 1990): 408-11. Rugman , Alan M., and Alain Verbeke. ’Trade Policy and Global Corporate Strategy.’ Journal of Global Warketins. 2.3...Sabrosky. Alan Ned, ed. Alliances in U.S. Foreign Policy: Issues in the Quest for Collective Defense. Boulder: Westview, 1988. (E 876 .A46 1988) Schear...State, 1983. (Gov Doc S 1.71/4:508) Sharm Alan B. The European Nuclear Negotiations: Paths to War or Peace? Boston: Lawyers Alliance for Nuclear Arms

  1. Implementation of Policies and Strategies for Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in Malawi: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lupafya, Phindile Chitsulo; Mwagomba, Beatrice L Matanje; Hosig, Kathy; Maseko, Lucy M; Chimbali, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Malawi is a Sub-Saharan African country experiencing the epidemiological transition from predominantly infectious to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) with dramatically increasing prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Malawi's 2011-2016 Health Sector Strategic Plan included NCDs, and an NCD Control Program was established with subsequent development of a National Action Plan for prevention and management of NCDs launched in 2013. The current study was designed to identify gaps in implementation of NCD control program policies and action plan strategies by describing current efforts toward prevention and management of NCDs in Malawi with emphasis on challenges and opportunities. Semistructured questionnaires were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from Malawi Ministry of Health personnel (senior officers, service providers, health education officers, and nutritionists) in 10 health districts and 3 central hospitals. Frequencies were generated for quantitative data. Qualitative data were used to generate themes and most common responses. Results showed that current services focus on facility-based NCD screening and clinical services rather than active screening, prevention, and community awareness and outreach, although respondents emphasized the importance of prevention, lifestyle education, and community outreach. Respondents indicated inadequate resources for NCD services including financial capital, human resources, equipment and supplies, and transportation. While Malawi has begun to address NCDs, policy and practice implications include (a) better integration of services within the existing infrastructure with emphasis on capacity building; (b) greater implementation of planned NCD activities; (c) a stronger, more comprehensive data management system; and (d) innovative funding solutions.

  2. Threats to Inclusive Education in Lesotho: An Overview of Policy and Implementation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosia, Paseka Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how the education of Learners with Special Education Needs (LSEN) has developed in Lesotho as a result of international policies on human rights and education. In particular, it explores various challenges to inclusive education such as proper understanding of inclusive education, the development of a policy on special and…

  3. Assessing California's Accountability System: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Improvement. Policy Brief 04-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Jennifer; Bitter, Catherine; Kirst, Mike; Carnoy, Martin; Woody, Elisabeth; Buttles, Melissa; Fuller, Bruce; Ruenzel, David

    2004-01-01

    During the past two years, three independent studies--conducted by Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE), American Institutes for Research (AIR), and the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)--have examined the accomplishments, shortcomings, and continuing challenges of California's Public Schools Accountability Act (PSAA).…

  4. Threats to Inclusive Education in Lesotho: An Overview of Policy and Implementation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosia, Paseka Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how the education of Learners with Special Education Needs (LSEN) has developed in Lesotho as a result of international policies on human rights and education. In particular, it explores various challenges to inclusive education such as proper understanding of inclusive education, the development of a policy on special and…

  5. Ohio's Education Reform Challenges: Lessons from the Frontlines. Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Ryan, Terry; Lafferty, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Charter schools have emerged as one of the central policy debates in U.S. education--and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute team has been a key participant in this debate since day one, both nationally and in Ohio. Despite President Obama's call for states to strengthen the charter sector and widen the options it provides to needy youngsters,…

  6. Inclusive Education in Korea: Policy, Practice, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong Wook

    2013-01-01

    Even though the Korean experience with special education in the public education system is limited, inclusive education for special education needs (SEN) students has been at the center of attention at the national policy level since the mid-1990s. Since then, Korean educators and administrators have put an emphasis on the revision and regulation…

  7. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  8. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  9. Challenges in Evaluating the EU's Lifelong Learning Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clain, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, lifelong learning has become a major policy concern for the European Union, being seen as a means for enabling individuals to be more competitive in social and economic contexts that are continually changing. After a series of white papers and strategies in the field of lifelong learning, the EU launched the Lifelong…

  10. Inclusive Education in Korea: Policy, Practice, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong Wook

    2013-01-01

    Even though the Korean experience with special education in the public education system is limited, inclusive education for special education needs (SEN) students has been at the center of attention at the national policy level since the mid-1990s. Since then, Korean educators and administrators have put an emphasis on the revision and regulation…

  11. Challenges in Evaluating the EU's Lifelong Learning Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clain, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, lifelong learning has become a major policy concern for the European Union, being seen as a means for enabling individuals to be more competitive in social and economic contexts that are continually changing. After a series of white papers and strategies in the field of lifelong learning, the EU launched the Lifelong…

  12. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  13. Facing Global Challenges: A European University Perspective. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    This EPI Policy Perspectives covers a presentation given at the European University Association Annual Convention (March 20, 2009, in Prague, Czech Republic) that addresses the Bologna process in the European Union. The process raised many questions regarding the role of the university, and the entire tertiary/postsecondary system of education.…

  14. Mathematics Education in Europe: Common Challenges and National Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveva, Teodora; Noorani, Sogol; Ranguelov, Stanislav; Motiejunaite, Akvile; Kerpanova, Viera

    2011-01-01

    Competence in mathematics is integral to a wide range of disciplines, professions and areas of life. This Eurydice report reveals crucial elements of the policies and practices that shape mathematics instruction in European education systems, focusing on reforms of mathematics curricula, teaching and assessment methods, as well as teacher…

  15. Neurobiology and Child Development: Challenging Current Interpretation and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    We are currently experiencing an exciting time in early childhood as the Federal Government attempts to develop policies and systems to improve outcomes for our children. Recent advances in research have provided us with much evidence underpinning the new thinking. However, much of this evidence is still subject to interpretation, and it is my…

  16. Bush energy policy may fuel Democratic challenger in '92

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1991-03-18

    This article describes President Bush's energy policy and the conflict with the Democrats. The plan calls for more domestic oil production from offshore oil drilling, from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and from new nuclear power plants. Little mention is made of increasing energy conservation. Democrats hope the issue will give them at least some indication of the mood of the electorate.

  17. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  18. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  19. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  20. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  1. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R

    2007-01-01

    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  2. Progress of a policy experiment: Climate challenge interim report card

    SciTech Connect

    Sturges, S.; Hewitt, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Climate Challenge is the electric utility industry`s first chance to prove it can collaborate with government to address the possibility of climate change rather than waiting for legislative fiat on an environmental issue. Initial reports suggest that utilities are taking it seriously and the program will generate significant results. The Clinton administration is faced with the challenge of meeting international environmental committments in an era of budget tightening and scientific uncertainty. To do so, it based its Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) primarily on breaking `new ground in the relationship between government and the private sector - fostoring cooperative approaches and a forward-looking agenda, rather than relying exclusively on command-and-control mandates that tend to lock technologies into place and stifel innovation.` The CCAP contains initiatives in several sectors, including electric utilities, industry, commercial and residential buildings, and agriculture. This artice is an interim report card on one of the major components of the CCAP, the Climate Challenge. Climate Challenge is a joint Department of Energy/electric utility program. In telephone surveys conducted by the authors, utilities considering participating in the program discussed their opinions of its potential success and the challenges they face in developing their participation plans. While the potential for success in generating significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is cited by a majority of participants, the prediction is not uniformly rosy. Participants cite serious challenges to achieving GHG emission reductions, including factors that seem beyond their control, such as demand growth, deregulation, and competition.

  3. Counselors as Policy Actors: Challenges to Systemic Involvement in College and Career Readiness Policy in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-Johnson, Corrie

    2015-01-01

    Enacting college and career readiness policy in secondary schools requires systemic involvement of all school professionals, but identifying the specific roles that should be played by teachers and counselors remains a challenge. The study reported in this article used qualitative interviews with counselors and teachers to describe this challenge…

  4. Drug shortages in Israel: regulatory perspectives, challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Eyal; Ainbinder, Denize; Vishkauzan, Alla; Gamzu, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug shortages (DSs) are a global problem which presents challenges to countries around the world. Shortages of pharmaceutical products may have a direct detrimental impact on public health and patients' wellbeing by causing delayed, or even lack of, treatment. Moreover, DSs may force both patients and caregivers to use unfamiliar drugs, which could lead to medication errors. The objective of our study was to analyze DSs in Israel during the years 2013-2015, assessing their etiology and exploring the steps taken for their mitigation and prevention. The database of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) on drug shortages contains all the DSs recorded in Israel since 2013, detailing the cause of the DS, its duration, steps taken in its' management and the availability of generic or therapeutic alternatives. Selected examples of DSs from the database are described in this paper in order to identify the causes of DSs, the scope of the problem and possible solutions. Additionally, we have reviewed the recent activities performed by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their efforts to minimize this problem. Several factors contributing towards DSs in Israel were identified, including quality problems in both the final drug product and in the raw materials, upgrades and improvements of the manufacturing process required by the MoH, manufacturing by a sole supplier, dramatic price decrease in off-patent medications causing the manufacturer to discontinue the distribution of the product in Israel, just-in-time inventory control, and others. One of the most important steps in managing drug shortages was identified to be early notification of the shortage by the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to the MoH. In 2013, the Israeli MoH updated the regulation on drug shortages instructing MAHs on their obligation of early notification to the MoH. Furthermore, various steps dealing with marketing withdrawal of drugs

  5. ‘Doing’ health policy analysis: methodological and conceptual reflections and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Gill; Shiffman, Jeremy; Schneider, Helen; Murray, Susan F; Brugha, Ruairi; Gilson, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    The case for undertaking policy analysis has been made by a number of scholars and practitioners. However, there has been much less attention given to how to do policy analysis, what research designs, theories or methods best inform policy analysis. This paper begins by looking at the health policy environment, and some of the challenges to researching this highly complex phenomenon. It focuses on research in middle and low income countries, drawing on some of the frameworks and theories, methodologies and designs that can be used in health policy analysis, giving examples from recent studies. The implications of case studies and of temporality in research design are explored. Attention is drawn to the roles of the policy researcher and the importance of reflexivity and researcher positionality in the research process. The final section explores ways of advancing the field of health policy analysis with recommendations on theory, methodology and researcher reflexivity. PMID:18701552

  6. SchoolDude's Affordable Solutions for Educational Operations Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 2005

    2005-01-01

    School administrators face one of the most daunting challenges in history--providing quality learning environments during a tremendous financial crisis. The crisis may seem overwhelming, but web-native operations management technology offered by SchoolDude.com can help them overcome these challenges. The Internet makes technology more affordable…

  7. Solutions for Early Childhood Directors: Real Answers to Everyday Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy

    Noting that directors of early care and education programs face numerous challenges on a daily basis, this book is designed to provide real-world answers to common situations, in a format that directors can access immediately. The book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 addresses staff-related challenges and includes a list of "how…

  8. Managing an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy team: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Halilovic, Jenana; Christensen, Cinda L; Nguyen, Hien H

    2014-01-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs should strive to deliver safe, cost effective, and high quality care. One of the keys to developing and sustaining a high quality OPAT program is to understand the common challenges or barriers to OPAT delivery. We review the most common challenges to starting and managing an OPAT program and give practical advice on addressing these issues. PMID:24971015

  9. Development of a Mental Health Nursing Simulation: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Lori I.; Morgan, Karyn I.; Savery, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education programs are proliferating rapidly in the United States in an effort to meet demand for nurse professionals. Multiple challenges arise from this rapid expansion. One challenge is finding sufficient clinical sites to accommodate students. Increased competition for scarce resources requires creativity in clinical contracting. This…

  10. Challenges Faced by Project Competition Participants and Recommended Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Turgay; Baydas, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of project competitions and interest in this kind of competition have been steadily increasing in Turkey. Accordingly, it is important to determine what challenges teachers and students may face while preparing themselves for project competitions, so that recommendations may be made to overcome these challenges. This study investigated…

  11. Solutions for Early Childhood Directors: Real Answers to Everyday Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy

    Noting that directors of early care and education programs face numerous challenges on a daily basis, this book is designed to provide real-world answers to common situations, in a format that directors can access immediately. The book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 addresses staff-related challenges and includes a list of "how…

  12. Development of a Mental Health Nursing Simulation: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Lori I.; Morgan, Karyn I.; Savery, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education programs are proliferating rapidly in the United States in an effort to meet demand for nurse professionals. Multiple challenges arise from this rapid expansion. One challenge is finding sufficient clinical sites to accommodate students. Increased competition for scarce resources requires creativity in clinical contracting. This…

  13. SchoolDude's Affordable Solutions for Educational Operations Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 2005

    2005-01-01

    School administrators face one of the most daunting challenges in history--providing quality learning environments during a tremendous financial crisis. The crisis may seem overwhelming, but web-native operations management technology offered by SchoolDude.com can help them overcome these challenges. The Internet makes technology more affordable…

  14. Confronting the Nation’s Fiscal Policy Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-13

    decisions about how quickly to implement policies to reduce budget deficits. On the one hand, cutting spending or increasing taxes slowly would lead to a...other hand, implementing spending cuts or tax increases abruptly would give families, businesses, and state and local governments little time to...plan and adjust. In addition, and particularly important given the cur- rent state of the economy, immediate spending cuts or tax increases would

  15. Becoming the Citizen Scientist: Opportunities and Challenges in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosler, T. L.

    2007-03-01

    The methodologies, creativity and intellectual capacity of today's physicists are becoming more and more relevant in the world of policy and politics. Some issues such as climate change, alternative energy and avian influenza clearly reveal the relevance of scientific knowledge and research in policy. However, the connection between science and issues such as electronic voting, government earmarks and international cooperation are not as obvious, but the role of scientists in these topics and their effects on science itself are critical. As the world becomes increasingly technological and global, the need for the involvement of scientists in the political process grows. The traditional scientific training of physicists emphasizes intense scrutiny of specific physical phenomena in the natural world but often misses the opportunity to utilize trained scientific minds on some of society's greatest problems. I will discuss the many ways in which scientists can contribute to society far beyond the academic community and the unique opportunities science policy work offers to the socially conscious scientist or even those just looking to get more grant money.

  16. The challenges in developing a rational cannabis policy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Lynskey, Michael

    2009-05-01

    A rational cannabis policy would arguably be one that minimized the harms of both cannabis use and the legal policies adopted to control its use. We, therefore, review recent epidemiological evidence on the harmful effects of cannabis use and social research on the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cannabis increases the risk of road crash injury if users drive while intoxicated. When used chronically, cannabis can produce dependence, respiratory disease and psychotic symptoms, especially in vulnerable young adults. It probably also increases poor educational outcomes and possibly increases the use of other illicit drugs, although it is debated whether these relationships are causal. Proponents of a relaxation of cannabis prohibition argue that prohibition has failed to deter cannabis use, incurs substantial economic costs, has generated a large black market, has increased the potency of cannabis and users' access to other drugs and involves foregone tax revenue from the legal sale of cannabis. Development of a more rational cannabis policy requires better evaluations of both the health consequences of regular cannabis use and of the costs and benefits of enforcing the existing prohibition on its use. It also requires the liberalization of the international control system to allow member states to experiment with different methods of regulating and controlling cannabis use.

  17. Implementing a gender policy in ACORD: strategies, constraints, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hadjipateras, A

    1997-02-01

    ACORD, a consortium of 11 nongovernmental organizations from Europe, Asia, and North America devoted to poverty alleviation in Africa, formally adopted a gender policy in 1990 aimed at reducing gender-based inequities in communities where ACORD works. A 1994-96 survey of field programs indicated that the greatest gains for women had been recorded in the areas of welfare, access to resources, conscientization (awareness of and will to alter gender inequalities), and, to a lesser extent, participation; minimal progress was noted in shifting the prevailing gender-based imbalance of power and control in public or private spheres. The research identified several programming and organizational strategies that have promoted positive outcomes for women: gender-awareness training for staff and community members, working with mixed groups, working with women-only groups, promotion of female leadership, gender-aware participatory planning and evaluation, spreading responsibility throughout the organization for implementing the gender policy, recruitment and promotion of women staff, networks for women staff, and direct field involvement in research. Also identified were internal and external factors that weakened policy implementation: a lack of clarity as to its aims, culture-based resistance, confusion regarding responsibilities and procedures, weak accountability mechanisms, lack of gender impact indicators, training inadequacies, underrepresentation of women staff, and inadequate resources. As a result of the review process, ACORD has given gender issues centrality in its current 5-year strategic plan.

  18. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Big Policies and a Small World: An Analysis of Policy Problems and Solutions in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses Ball's [1998. Big policies/small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. "Comparative Education," 34(2), 119-130] policy analysis and Bernstein's [1990. "The structuring of pedagogic discourse. Volume IV class, codes and control". London: Routledge; 2000, "Pedagogy,…

  20. Shelter from the Storm: Roles, responsibilities, and challenges in United States housing policy governance.

    PubMed

    Willison, Charley

    2017-08-17

    Housing is a critical social determinant of health. Housing policy not only affects health by improving housing quality, affordability, and insecurity; housing policy affects health upstream through the politics that shape housing policy design, implementation, and management. These politics, or governance strategies, determine the successes or failures of housing policy programs. This paper is an overview of challenges in housing policy governance in the United States. I examine the important relationship between housing and health, and emphasize why studying housing policy governance matters. I then present three cases of housing governance challenges in the United States, from each pathway by which housing affects health - housing quality, affordability, and insecurity. Each case corresponds to an arm of the TAPIC framework for evaluating governance (Krieger and Higgins) [1], to assess mechanisms of housing governance in each case. While housing governance has come a long way over the past century, political decentralization and the expansion of the submerged state have increased the number of political actors and policy conflict in many areas. This creates inherent challenges for improving accountability, transparency, and policy capacity. In many instances, too, reduced government accountability and transparency increases the risk of harm to the public and lessens governmental integrity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. VET Teachers in Europe: Policies, Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The objective of making vocational education and training (VET) globally competitive and attractive by the European Union has put vocational teachers in the spotlight. As a result, the VET teacher profession in Europe is facing many challenges and demands expressed constantly by the general public, representatives from the world of work, public…

  2. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  3. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years provides…

  4. Minority Students and College Success: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    In terms of opportunities for college, the society is not a level playing field, according to David Conley, professor and director of the research center for educational policy, University of Oregon. Middle and upper classes have far more access to the right information than others. Conley adds that when a person goes to college, he/she needs a…

  5. Policy challenges in addressing racial disparities and improving population health.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2005-01-01

    Socioeconomic status fundamentally affects most health and disease outcomes, but black Americans are doubly disadvantaged by low status, discrimination, and residential segregation. Improving health and removing disparities are essential goals, but some efforts that improve the health of blacks in important ways also increase black-white disparity ratios. People with more information, influence, resources, and social networks may be better able to take advantage of new technologies and scientific developments, initially increasing disparities. Better health and reduced mortality should be the key policy criteria, but these criteria should be linked with consideration of careful targeting to level the playing field and close disparities.

  6. Timing Aspects of GPS-Galileo Interoperability: Challenges and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex problem that has been extensively analyzed during Galileo definition studies (e.g., EU-funded projects GALILEI and GEM, ESA-funded...36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 279 TIMING ASPECTS OF GPS- GALILEO INTEROPERABILITY: CHALLENGES AND...the drivers for Galileo definition and design. This paper is dedicated to the timing aspects of the interoperability, related challenges, and

  7. Introduction: Young Fatherhood: Lived experiences and policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Neale, Bren

    2016-01-01

    The entry of young people into early parenthood has long been regarded as an issue for social policy and for professional practice in the UK and internationally. Despite a steadily falling trend, most notably since 1998, the UK still has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy in Europe, concentrated in the most socially disadvantaged areas of the country (Office for National Statistics, 2015). The majority of these pregnancies are unplanned, with about half resulting in the birth of a child, although the extent to which this should be a cause for concern is a contested issue (Duncan et al., 2010). Considerable research evidence exists on the experiences of young mothers, with a range of interventions designed to meet their needs. However, young fathers (defined as those under the age of 25, a quarter of whom are estimated to be in their teens) have, until recently, been neglected in both research and policy. Over the past decade, small pockets of research evidence on the circumstances, practices and values of young fathers have begun to coalesce into a fledgling evidence base. However, the notion of 'feckless' young men, who are assumed to be absent, or disinterested in 'being there', or, worse, regarded as a potential risk to their children, continues to hold sway, particularly in popular media and some political discourses (Neale and Davies, 2015).

  8. Insights and Opportunities: Technologies, Policies, and Markets for Clean Energy Solutions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    2009-11-01

    A presentation highlighting how strategic energy analysis can affect technologies, policies, and markets for clean energy solutions. This includes an overview of some of NREL's models and tools as well as results from laboratory analysis.

  9. Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

    2003-12-01

    Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated

  10. Big Data Analytics Solutions: The Implementation Challenges in the Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of Big Data (BD) and Big Data Analytics (BDA) have attracted disproportionately less attention than the overwhelmingly espoused benefits and game-changing promises. While many studies have examined BD challenges across multiple industry verticals, very few have focused on the challenges of implementing BDA solutions. Fewer of these…

  11. Big Data Analytics Solutions: The Implementation Challenges in the Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of Big Data (BD) and Big Data Analytics (BDA) have attracted disproportionately less attention than the overwhelmingly espoused benefits and game-changing promises. While many studies have examined BD challenges across multiple industry verticals, very few have focused on the challenges of implementing BDA solutions. Fewer of these…

  12. Barriers to Training for Older Workers and Possible Policy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Mark; VandenHeuvel, Adriana; Cully, Mark; Curtain, Richard

    This report covers a study of barriers for older workers in obtaining and benefitting from training and innovative policies to remove them. After an introduction, Chapter 2 reviews literature on incidence and determinants of older workers' participation in training; barriers to training; and employer and government initiatives to enhance older…

  13. Education Policy, Research and Neuroscience: The Final Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Taken as a whole, the findings of educational research are often inconclusive; far too many competing ideas and thus difficult for policy makers to decide what to believe, unless it says what they really want to hear. An alternative is to seek help from the much more "scientifically reliable" findings of neuroscience. Perhaps this will…

  14. Taming the Beast: Policy-based Solutions for Addressing Corporate Interference in Climate Policy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifo, F.

    2012-12-01

    Inappropriate corporate influence in science-based policy has been a persistent problem in the United States across multiple issue areas and through many administrations. Interference in climate change policy has been especially pervasive in recent years, with tremendous levels of corporate resources being utilized to spread misinformation on climate science and reduce and postpone regulatory action. Much of the influence exerted by these forces is concealed from public view. Better corporate disclosure laws would reveal who is influencing climate policy to policy makers, investors, and the public. Greater transparency in the political activity of corporate actors is needed to shed light on who is responsible for the misinformation campaigns clouding the discussion around climate change in the United States. Such transparency will empower diverse stakeholders to hold corporations accountable. Specific federal policy reforms can be made in order to guide the nation down a path of greater corporate accountability in climate change policy efforts.

  15. Challenges facing European agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps.

  16. Addressing the Challenges in Tonsillectomy Research to Inform Health Care Policy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, Rishi; Schilder, Anne G M; Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-five percent of investment in medical research has been wasted, with lack of effect on clinical practice and policy. There is increasing effort to improve the likelihood of research being used to influence clinical practice and policy. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures, and its frequency, cost, and morbidity create a clear need for evidence-based guidelines and policy. The first systematic review on tonsillectomy was conducted 40 years ago and highlighted the lack of definitive evidence for the procedure. Since that study, the body of evidence has still not been able to sufficiently inform policy. This review provides an overview of the key challenges in research to inform tonsillectomy policy and recommendations to help bridge the evidence-policy gap. The challenges in using research to inform policy can be summarized as 4 main themes: (1) non-policy-focused evidence and lack of available evidence, (2) quality of evidence, (3) communication of research findings, and (4) coordinating time frames. Researchers and decision makers should be aware of the limitations of research designs and conflicts of interest that can undermine policy decisions. Researchers must work with decision makers and patients throughout the research process to identify areas of unmet need and political priority, align research and policy time frames, and disseminate research findings. Incentives for researchers should be reorganized to promote dissemination of findings. It is important to consider why evidence gaps in tonsillectomy research have not been addressed during the past 40 years despite considerable investment in time and resources. These findings and recommendations will help produce research that is more responsive to policy gaps and more likely to result in policy changes.

  17. Implementation challenges of free maternity services policy in Kenya: the health workers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Wamalwa, Emmanuel Wekesa

    2015-01-01

    Kenya implemented the policy of free maternity services to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. For successful implementation of this policy, there is need to monitor the implementation progress, identify the challenges and mitigate them and determine better strategies for implementation based on emerging implementation issues. This study was carried out to determine the challenges facing policy implementation and strategies for better implementation. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried at the Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital (RVPGH) and Bondeni maternity. All the staff who work at Bondeni Maternity (including nursing officer in-charge) were included in the study. All the staff who work at the Maternity Unit of the RVPGH were included in the study, as well as the Medical Superintendent of the facility. A total of 110 respondents were sampled. A questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. A response rate of 91% (n=100) was achieved. Major implementation challenges include inadequate supplies (86%), inadequate funding (38%), staff shortage (92%), lack of motivation among health workers (62%), overwhelming workload (89%) and abuse of services by clients (32%). Strategies for better implementation include employment of more staff, motivation of health workers, improvement in policy financing, training of health workers and provision of adequate supplies. Implementation of free maternity services policy in Kenya is facing challenges but there exists strategies, which, if implemented, will help address these challenges.

  18. National Security Policy and Security Challenges of Maldives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    examination of the few documents available that focus on Maldives’ security challenges. These documents include: “Trouble in Paradise –Islamist Radicalism...Trouble in Paradise – Islamist Radicalism in the Maldives,” Jane’s Intelligence Review 23, no. 5 (May 2011): 1, Air University Library and Defense...www.haveeru.com.mv/opinion/41932 (accessed 2 June 2014); “Know Your Own Strength: India as a Great Power.” 90Praveen Swami, “ Paradise is Perched on

  19. Adolescence and AAC: Intervention Challenges and Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a unique developmental period, spanning the gulf between childhood and adulthood. For adolescents who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), the major physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional changes associated with adolescence may have significant implications for their use of AAC. These challenges are…

  20. Scattered Challenges, Singular Solutions: The New Latino Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton; Clonan-Roy, Katherine; Link, Holly; Martinez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new Latino diaspora has seen the arrival of Spanish-speaking students in rural and suburban America--places that had not experienced Hispanic immigration in the way the Southwest and urban centers have. This new development presents educators with challenges in meeting these students' needs. But educators also have the opportunity to draw…

  1. Adolescence and AAC: Intervention Challenges and Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a unique developmental period, spanning the gulf between childhood and adulthood. For adolescents who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), the major physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional changes associated with adolescence may have significant implications for their use of AAC. These challenges are…

  2. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Enabling Inclusion in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle; Forlin, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Children with disabilities are increasingly being included in mainstream classes in Australian schools. In addition, many children with disabilities who are currently enrolled in primary school will be moving to secondary school in the next few years. For secondary schools to meet this challenge, it is important that the reasons for their…

  3. Challenges and strategic solutions for a research emergent profession.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores some of the truisms associated with evidence-based practice. The intention is to remind the reader that evidence-based practice is a decision-making tool and not a rule; and to propose a strategic approach to overcoming the challenges we face as a research emergent profession.

  4. Preparing Culturally Diverse Special Education Faculty: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Patricia; Showalter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes why more bilingual culturally responsive special education faculty are needed to meet the needs of the increasing number of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities in the United States. In addition, the paper presents the successes and challenges in the journey to prepare university faculty leaders in…

  5. Stakeholder engagement in policy development: challenges and opportunities for human genomics.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Amy A; Harris-Wai, Julie N

    2015-12-01

    Along with rapid advances in human genomics, policies governing genomic data and clinical technologies have proliferated. Stakeholder engagement is widely lauded as an important methodology for improving clinical, scientific, and public health policy decision making. The purpose of this paper is to examine how stakeholder engagement is used to develop policies in genomics research and public health areas, as well as to identify future priorities for conducting evidence-based stakeholder engagements. We focus on exemplars in biobanking and newborn screening to illustrate a variety of current stakeholder engagement in policy-making efforts. Each setting provides an important context for examining the methods of obtaining and integrating informed stakeholder voices into the policy-making process. While many organizations have an interest in engaging stakeholders with regard to genomic policy issues, there is broad divergence with respect to the stakeholders involved, the purpose of engagements, when stakeholders are engaged during policy development, methods of engagement, and the outcomes reported. Stakeholder engagement in genomics policy development is still at a nascent stage. Several challenges of using stakeholder engagement as a tool for genomics policy development remain, and little evidence regarding how to best incorporate stakeholder feedback into policy-making processes is currently available.

  6. Stakeholder engagement in policy development: challenges and opportunities for human genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Amy A.; Harris-Wai, Julie N.

    2015-01-01

    Along with rapid advances in human genomics, policies governing genomic data and clinical technologies have proliferated. Stakeholder engagement is widely lauded as an important methodology for improving clinical, scientific, and public health policy decision making. The purpose of this paper is to examine how stakeholder engagement is used to develop policies in genomics research and public health areas, as well as to identify future priorities for conducting evidence-based stakeholder engagements. We focus on exemplars in biobanking and newborn screening to illustrate a variety of current stakeholder engagement in policy-making efforts. Each setting provides an important context for examining the methods of obtaining and integrating informed stakeholder voices into the policy-making process. While many organizations have an interest in engaging stakeholders with regard to genomic policy issues, there is broad divergence with respect to the stakeholders involved, the purpose of engagements, when stakeholders are engaged during policy development, methods of engagement, and the outcomes reported. Stakeholder engagement in genomics policy development is still at a nascent stage. Several challenges of using stakeholder engagement as a tool for genomics policy development remain, and little evidence regarding how to best incorporate stakeholder feedback into policy-making processes is currently available. PMID:25764215

  7. Integrating mercury science and policy in the marine context: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kathleen F; Evers, David C; Warner, Kimberly A; King, Susannah L; Selin, Noelle E

    2012-11-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury.

  8. Integrating Mercury Science and Policy in the Marine Context: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kathleen F.; Evers, David C.; Warner, Kimberly A.; King, Susannah L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury. PMID:22901766

  9. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Mario D; Mari, Jair J; Delgado, Pedro GG; Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Barrett, Thomas; Gerolin, Jeronimo; Goihman, Samuel; Razzouk, Denise; Rodriguez, Jorge; Weber, Renata; Andreoli, Sergio B; Saxena, Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    . However, services are unequally distributed across the regions of the country, and the growth of the elderly population, combined with an existing treatment gap is increasing the burden on mental health care. This gap may get even wider if funding does not increase and mental health services are not expanded in the country. There is not yet a good degree of integration between primary care and the mental health teams working at CAPS level, and it is necessary to train professionals to act as mental health planners and as managers. Research on service organization, policy and mental health systems evaluation are strongly recommended in the country. There are no firm data to show the impact of such policies in terms of community service cost-effectiveness and no tangible indicators to assess the results of these policies. PMID:18775070

  10. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Michael

    2011-08-16

    For children with rheumatic conditions, the available pediatric rheumatology workforce mitigates their access to care. While the subspecialty experiences steady growth, a critical workforce shortage constrains access. This three-part review proposes both national and international interim policy solutions for the multiple causes of the existing unacceptable shortfall. Part I explores the impact of current educational deficits and economic obstacles which constrain appropriate access to care. Proposed policy solutions follow each identified barrier.Challenges consequent to obsolete, limited or unavailable exposure to pediatric rheumatology include: absent or inadequate recognition or awareness of rheumatic disease; referral patterns that commonly foster delays in timely diagnosis; and primary care providers' inappropriate or outdated perception of outcomes. Varying models of pediatric rheumatology care delivery consequent to market competition, inadequate reimbursement and uneven institutional support serve as additional barriers to care.A large proportion of pediatrics residency programs offer pediatric rheumatology rotations. However, a minority of pediatrics residents participate. The current generalist pediatrician workforce has relatively poor musculoskeletal physical examination skills, lacking basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine. To compensate, many primary care providers rely on blood tests, generating referrals that divert scarce resources away from patients who merit accelerated access to care for rheumatic disease. Pediatric rheumatology exposure could be enhanced during residency by providing a mandatory musculoskeletal medicine rotation that includes related musculoskeletal subspecialties. An important step is the progressive improvement of many providers' fixed referral and laboratory testing patterns in lieu of sound physical examination skills.Changing demographics and persistent reimbursement disparities will require workplace innovation

  11. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    For children with rheumatic conditions, the available pediatric rheumatology workforce mitigates their access to care. While the subspecialty experiences steady growth, a critical workforce shortage constrains access. This three-part review proposes both national and international interim policy solutions for the multiple causes of the existing unacceptable shortfall. Part I explores the impact of current educational deficits and economic obstacles which constrain appropriate access to care. Proposed policy solutions follow each identified barrier. Challenges consequent to obsolete, limited or unavailable exposure to pediatric rheumatology include: absent or inadequate recognition or awareness of rheumatic disease; referral patterns that commonly foster delays in timely diagnosis; and primary care providers' inappropriate or outdated perception of outcomes. Varying models of pediatric rheumatology care delivery consequent to market competition, inadequate reimbursement and uneven institutional support serve as additional barriers to care. A large proportion of pediatrics residency programs offer pediatric rheumatology rotations. However, a minority of pediatrics residents participate. The current generalist pediatrician workforce has relatively poor musculoskeletal physical examination skills, lacking basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine. To compensate, many primary care providers rely on blood tests, generating referrals that divert scarce resources away from patients who merit accelerated access to care for rheumatic disease. Pediatric rheumatology exposure could be enhanced during residency by providing a mandatory musculoskeletal medicine rotation that includes related musculoskeletal subspecialties. An important step is the progressive improvement of many providers' fixed referral and laboratory testing patterns in lieu of sound physical examination skills. Changing demographics and persistent reimbursement disparities will require workplace innovation

  12. Opportunities and Challenges for Initial Implementation of Solutions Journalism Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thier, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    As journalism schools continue to respond to industry disruption, some are adding curricula about practices that reframe traditional journalism. In this article, I examined experiences of some of the first university instructors of solutions journalism--critical reporting on responses to social problems--to explore the opportunities and challenges…

  13. Opportunities and Challenges for Initial Implementation of Solutions Journalism Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thier, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    As journalism schools continue to respond to industry disruption, some are adding curricula about practices that reframe traditional journalism. In this article, I examined experiences of some of the first university instructors of solutions journalism--critical reporting on responses to social problems--to explore the opportunities and challenges…

  14. Turning science into policy: challenges and experiences from the science–policy interface

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses key issues in the science–policy interface. It stresses the importance of linking the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity to the Millennium Development Goals and to issues of immediate concern to policy-makers such as the economy, security and human health. It briefly discusses the process of decision-making and how the scientific and policy communities have successfully worked together on global environmental issues such as stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change, and the critical role of international assessments in providing the scientific basis for informed policy at the national and international level. The paper also discusses the drivers of global environmental change, the importance of constructing plausible futures, indicators of change, the biodiversity 2010 target and how environmental issues such as loss of biodiversity, stratospheric ozone depletion, land degradation, water pollution and climate change cannot be addressed in isolation because they are strongly interconnected and there are synergies and trade-offs among the policies, practices and technologies that are used to address these issues individually. PMID:15814358

  15. Uav Photogrammetry: a Practical Solution for Challenging Mapping Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatseresht, M.; Hashempour, A. H.; Hasanlou, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have observed huge attentions to application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in aerial mapping since a decade ago. Though, it has several advantages for handling time/cost/quality issues, there are a dozen of challenges in working with UAVs. In this paper, we; as the Robotic Photogrammetry Research Group (RPRG), will firstly review these challenges then show its advantages in three special practical projects. For each project, we will share our experiences through description of the UAV specifications, flight settings and processing steps. At the end, we will illustrate final result of each project and show how this technology could make unbelievable benefits to clients including 3D city realistic model in decimetre level, ultra high quality map production in several centimetre level, and accessing to a high risk and rough relief area for mapping aims.

  16. Multiple myeloma in the very elderly patient: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Willan, John; Eyre, Toby A; Sharpley, Faye; Watson, Caroline; King, Andrew J; Ramasamy, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of myeloma in the very elderly patient is challenging. Treatment options have vastly improved for elderly myeloma patients but still require the clinician to personalize therapy. In this paper, we offer evidence-based, pragmatic advice on how to overcome six of the main challenges likely to arise: 1) diagnosis of myeloma in this age group, 2) assessment of the need for treatment, and the fitness for combination chemotherapy, 3) provision of the best quality of supportive care, 4) choice of combination chemotherapy in those fit enough for it, 5) treatment of relapsed myeloma, and 6) provision of end of life care. With an increased burden of comorbidities and a reduced resilience to treatment and its associated toxicities, the management of myeloma in this age group requires a different approach to that in younger patients to maximize both quality and length of life. PMID:27143866

  17. Managing breast cancer in younger women: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Cyr, Amy; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Thomas, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer in young women is relatively rare compared to breast cancer occurring in older women. Younger women diagnosed with breast cancer also tend to have a more aggressive biology and consequently a poorer prognosis than older women. In addition, they face unique challenges such as diminished fertility from premature ovarian failure, extended survivorship periods and its attendant problems, and the psychosocial impact of diagnosis, while still raising families. It is therefore imperative to recognize the unique issues that younger women face, and plan management in a multidisciplinary fashion to optimize clinical outcomes. This paper discusses the challenges of breast cancer management for young women, as well as specific issues to consider in diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of such patients. PMID:26730210

  18. Opportunities and Challenges in Evidence-Based Social Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Metz, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Despite a robust body of evidence of effectiveness of social programs, few evidence-based programs have been scaled for population-level improvement in social problems. Since 2010 the federal government has invested in evidence-based social policy by supporting a number of new evidence-based programs and grant initiatives. These initiatives…

  19. Emerging Water Contaminants: Technical, Legal and Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, R. A.; Kresic, N.; Laugier, M. C.; Kavanaugh, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 120 new chemicals are created each year due to ever-improving industry and technology markets. Releases of new contaminants into the environment can occur during production, use and disposal of these chemicals thereby leading to potential contamination of water supply sources. Very few emerging contaminants are regulated. In addition, knowledge gaps regarding emerging contaminants include lack health effects, occurrence (either because these compounds are not measured or because concentrations are below detection limits of readily available analytical techniques) and fate and transport in the environment especially with regards to mobility and persistence. The sources of these compounds are numerous. One source is treated wastewater, which is re-injected into groundwater aquifers for indirect potable reuse purposes. Emerging compounds of concern can be classified in various classes. This presentation will focus on contaminants, which have emerged in the last 10 years including pharmaceuticals (antibiotics/drugs), personal care products (polycyclic musks), pesticides/herbicides, industrial solvents (1,4-dioxane), gasoline additives (MTBE), disinfection byproducts such as NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine), and inorganic compounds such as perchlorate and arsenic. This presentation will present technical, legal and legislative challenges posed by the presence of these contaminants in water. Background information including chemical's history of use, sources in the environments, nationwide occurrence, physical and chemical properties, behavior in the environment and technologies for removal from soil and water will be presented. In addition, case studies on MTBE, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 1,4-dioxane, arsenic and NDMA will be discussed.

  20. System- and Policy-Level Challenges to Full Implementation of the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Michael T.; Broussard, Beth; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; Krishan, Shaily; Stewart, Tarianna; Oliva, Janet R.; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model of collaboration between law enforcement and mental health is widely recognized as being “more than just training” for police officers; the core elements of CIT include a number of other components. However, several system- and policy-level obstacles can make successful implementation of CIT difficult in many communities. Three such challenges are addressed in this article: insufficient training and policies for dispatchers, poor availability of psychiatric emergency receiving facilities, and complexities related to implementation of CIT in rural settings. Collaboratively addressing these and other challenges will undoubtedly advance the goals of CIT. PMID:21113319

  1. The public health enterprise: examining our twenty-first-century policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Tilson, Hugh; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the public health enterprise and its policy challenges in the twenty-first century. Among the many challenges public health faces, we include here collaboration across a broad range of stakeholders, the public health infrastructure, agreement on public health's essential services, preparedness, accountability and measurement, workforce, and a research agenda. Two Institute of Medicine reports on the future of public health have set the context for a more in-depth review of the public health workforce and infrastructure. Policy advocates must ask, however, why, if the way and the means are so clear, the public health system is still in disarray.

  2. Bioethics, Religion, and Public Policy: Intersections, Interactions, and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications.

  3. Alcohol and healthy ageing: a challenge for alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, D; McCormack, F; Seaman, P; Bell, K; Duffy, T; Gilhooly, M

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative study of older people's use of alcohol during retirement and identifies ways that an improved understanding of older people's drinking can inform policy approaches to alcohol and active and healthy ageing. Qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with a self-selecting sample of retired people. Participants were recruited from three geographical locations in the West of Scotland. A quota sampling design was used to ensure a broad spread of participants in terms of socio-economic position, age and gender. In total 40 participants were interviewed and the data analysed thematically using Braun and Clarke's (2006) approach. Amongst those who used alcohol, it was most often framed in terms of pleasure, relaxation, socialising and as a way to mark the passage of time. Alcohol was often associated with social occasions and interactions both in private and in public spaces. There were also many examples of the use of imposed routines to limit alcohol use and of a decreasing volume of alcohol being consumed as participants aged. This suggests that older people are often active in constructing what they regard as 'healthier' routines around alcohol use. However, processes and circumstances associated with ageing can lead to risk of social isolation and/or increased alcohol consumption. Such processes include retirement from paid work and other 'biographical disruptions' such as caring for a partner, bereavement and/or loss of social networks. These findings highlight processes that can result in changes in drinking habits and routines. Whilst these processes can be associated with a reduction or cessation of alcohol use as people age, they can also be associated with increased risk of harmful alcohol consumption. Fractured or disrupted routines, particularly those associated with bereavement or the burden of caring responsibilities, through increasing the risk of loneliness and isolation, can construct increased risk of

  4. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Alston, Lee J.; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Government policies are needed when people’s behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society’s most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms. PMID:25143635

  5. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Kinzig, Ann P; Ehrlich, Paul R; Alston, Lee J; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G; Daily, Gretchen C; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Government policies are needed when people's behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society's most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms.

  6. IT challenges of Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Munoz, Jose Luis; O'Mullane, William

    2015-12-01

    The Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS) scheme is the key process in the astrometric reduction of the Gaia data. It's main purpose is to generate the astrometic part of the Gaia catalogue in a way that optimally combines all 10^12 available measurements in a globally, self-consistent manner.We will outline the technical design and chosen approaches for the distributed processing infrastructure of AGIS. An important aspect in this is the efficient reading and passing of observation data to the mathematical core algorithms.

  7. The 10G TTC-PON: challenges, solutions and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, E. B. S.; Baron, S.; Kolotouros, D. M.; Soos, C.; Vasey, F.

    2017-02-01

    The TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control system based in Passive Optical Networks) was first investigated in 2010 in order to replace the current TTC system, responsible for delivering the bunch clock, trigger and control commands to the LHC experiments. A new prototype of the TTC-PON system is now proposed, overcoming the limitations of the formerly presented solutions. A new upstream data transmission scheme relying on longer bursts is described, together with a high-resolution calibration procedure for aligning bursts in a time division multiplexing access. An error correction scheme for downstream data transmission is also discussed.

  8. International interface design for Space Station Freedom - Challenges and solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Richard E.; Bolton, Gordon R.; Laurini, Daniele

    1988-01-01

    The definition of interfaces for the International Space Station is discussed, with a focus on negotiations between NASA and ESA. The program organization and division of responsibilities for the Space Station are outlined; the basic features of physical and functional interfaces are described; and particular attention is given to the interface management and documentation procedures, architectural control elements, interface implementation and verification, and examples of Columbus interface solutions (including mechanical, ECLSS, thermal-control, electrical, data-management, standardized user, and software interfaces). Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables listing interface types are provided.

  9. Bioengineering Solutions for Manufacturing Challenges in CAR T Cells.

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Nicole J; Mueller, Katherine P; Das, Amritava; Hematti, Peiman; Murphy, William L; Palecek, Sean P; Capitini, Christian M; Saha, Krishanu

    2017-08-25

    The next generation of therapeutic products to be approved for the clinic is anticipated to be cell therapies, termed "living drugs" for their capacity to dynamically and temporally respond to changes during their production ex vivo and after their administration in vivo. Genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have rapidly developed into powerful tools to harness the power of immune system manipulation against cancer. Regulatory agencies are beginning to approve CAR T cell therapies due to their striking efficacy in treating some hematological malignancies. However, the engineering and manufacturing of such cells remains a challenge for widespread adoption of this technology. Bioengineering approaches including biomaterials, synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, process control and automation, and in vitro disease modeling could offer promising methods to overcome some of these challenges. Here, we describe the manufacturing process of CAR T cells, highlighting potential roles for bioengineers to partner with biologists and clinicians to advance the manufacture of these complex cellular products under rigorous regulatory and quality control. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. NAIMA as a solution for future GMO diagnostics challenges.

    PubMed

    Dobnik, David; Morisset, Dany; Gruden, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    In the field of genetically modified organism (GMO) diagnostics, real-time PCR has been the method of choice for target detection and quantification in most laboratories. Despite its numerous advantages, however, the lack of a true multiplexing option may render real-time PCR less practical in the face of future GMO detection challenges such as the multiplicity and increasing complexity of new transgenic events, as well as the repeated occurrence of unauthorized GMOs on the market. In this context, we recently reported the development of a novel multiplex quantitative DNA-based target amplification method, named NASBA implemented microarray analysis (NAIMA), which is suitable for sensitive, specific and quantitative detection of GMOs on a microarray. In this article, the performance of NAIMA is compared with that of real-time PCR, the focus being their performances in view of the upcoming challenge to detect/quantify an increasing number of possible GMOs at a sustainable cost and affordable staff effort. Finally, we present our conclusions concerning the applicability of NAIMA for future use in GMO diagnostics.

  11. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  12. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  13. Challenges and solutions to incorporation of nutraceuticals in foods.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers often cannot simply add a nutraceutical to a food when formulating functional foods that have acceptable sensory appeal as well as the desired health benefits. The appropriate application of microencapsulation for stabilizing nutraceuticals enables their effective delivery through food. Careful design of the delivery system helps protect sensitive nutraceuticals from the environment and processing stresses encountered during food manufacture, and prevents undesirable interactions of the nutraceutical with components in the food matrix. Microencapsulation technologies overcome hurdles associated with the successful delivery of nutraceuticals in healthy foods if due consideration is given to challenges at all stages throughout the supply chain. This encompasses stabilizing and protecting nutraceuticals from degradation in ingredient formats, during processing, in the final food product, and during intestinal transit until they are released at the desired site in the gastrointestinal tract to impart their targeted health effects.

  14. Results From the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council Physical Activity Challenge to American Business

    PubMed Central

    Berko, Jeff; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Roemer, Enid Chung; Kent, Karen; Marchibroda, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe findings from a survey of employees at 10 businesses participating in the “Building Better Health: Physical Activity Challenge,” an effort led by the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council on Health and Innovation. Methods: Employers provided employees with pedometers as part of an 8-week Physical Activity Challenge (Challenge). Employees were then asked to complete a survey about their awareness of, participation in, and satisfaction with the Challenge. Results: One hundred three thousand three hundred eighty-three employees participated in the Challenge, averaging 6886 steps per day per participant. Of the 3820 respondents to an employee survey sent to all workers, 62% reported enrolling in the program, and of those, the majority reported positive impacts on health (76%), fitness (73%), and lifestyle (70%). Conclusion: A brief, workplace-based physical activity challenge can achieve positive self-reported health impacts when supported by senior management of the company. PMID:27930485

  15. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Knight, Caroline L; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women, particularly those of childbearing age. SLE provides challenges in the prepregnancy, antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods for these women, and for the medical, obstetric, and midwifery teams who provide their care. As with many medical conditions in pregnancy, the best maternal and fetal-neonatal outcomes are obtained with a planned pregnancy and a cohesive multidisciplinary approach. Effective prepregnancy risk assessment and counseling includes exploration of factors for poor pregnancy outcome, discussion of risks, and appropriate planning for pregnancy, with consideration of discussion of relative contraindications to pregnancy. In pregnancy, early referral for hospital-coordinated care, involvement of obstetricians and rheumatologists (and other specialists as required), an individual management plan, regular reviews, and early recognition of flares and complications are all important. Women are at risk of lupus flares, worsening renal impairment, onset of or worsening hypertension, preeclampsia, and/or venous thromboembolism, and miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and/or neonatal lupus syndrome (congenital heart block or neonatal lupus erythematosus). A cesarean section may be required in certain obstetric contexts (such as urgent preterm delivery for maternal and/or fetal well-being), but vaginal birth should be the aim for the majority of women. Postnatally, an ongoing individual management plan remains important, with neonatal management where necessary and rheumatology followup. This article explores the challenges at each stage of pregnancy, discusses the effect of SLE on pregnancy and vice versa, and reviews antirheumatic medications with the latest guidance about their use and safety in pregnancy. Such information is required to effectively and safely manage each stage of pregnancy in women with SLE.

  16. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Caroline L; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women, particularly those of childbearing age. SLE provides challenges in the prepregnancy, antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods for these women, and for the medical, obstetric, and midwifery teams who provide their care. As with many medical conditions in pregnancy, the best maternal and fetal–neonatal outcomes are obtained with a planned pregnancy and a cohesive multidisciplinary approach. Effective prepregnancy risk assessment and counseling includes exploration of factors for poor pregnancy outcome, discussion of risks, and appropriate planning for pregnancy, with consideration of discussion of relative contraindications to pregnancy. In pregnancy, early referral for hospital-coordinated care, involvement of obstetricians and rheumatologists (and other specialists as required), an individual management plan, regular reviews, and early recognition of flares and complications are all important. Women are at risk of lupus flares, worsening renal impairment, onset of or worsening hypertension, preeclampsia, and/or venous thromboembolism, and miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and/or neonatal lupus syndrome (congenital heart block or neonatal lupus erythematosus). A cesarean section may be required in certain obstetric contexts (such as urgent preterm delivery for maternal and/or fetal well-being), but vaginal birth should be the aim for the majority of women. Postnatally, an ongoing individual management plan remains important, with neonatal management where necessary and rheumatology followup. This article explores the challenges at each stage of pregnancy, discusses the effect of SLE on pregnancy and vice versa, and reviews antirheumatic medications with the latest guidance about their use and safety in pregnancy. Such information is required to effectively and safely manage each stage of pregnancy in women with SLE

  17. Managing drug-resistant epilepsy: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dalic, Linda; Cook, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), ~20%–30% of people with epilepsy remain refractory to treatment and are said to have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). This multifaceted condition comprises intractable seizures, neurobiochemical changes, cognitive decline, and psychosocial dysfunction. An ongoing challenge to both researchers and clinicians alike, DRE management is complicated by the heterogeneity among this patient group. The underlying mechanism of DRE is not completely understood. Many hypotheses exist, and relate to both the intrinsic characteristics of the particular epilepsy (associated syndrome/lesion, initial response to AED, and the number and type of seizures prior to diagnosis) and other pharmacological mechanisms of resistance. The four current hypotheses behind pharmacological resistance are the “transporter”, “target”, “network”, and “intrinsic severity” hypotheses, and these are reviewed in this paper. Of equal challenge is managing patients with DRE, and this requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving physicians, surgeons, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, pharmacists, dietitians, and specialist nurses. Attention to comorbid psychiatric and other diseases is paramount, given the higher prevalence in this cohort and associated poorer health outcomes. Treatment options need to consider the economic burden to the patient and the likelihood of AED compliance and tolerability. Most importantly, higher mortality rates, due to comorbidities, suicide, and sudden death, emphasize the importance of seizure control in reducing this risk. Overall, resective surgery offers the best rates of seizure control. It is not an option for all patients, and there is often a significant delay in referring to epilepsy surgery centers. Optimization of AEDs, identification and treatment of comorbidities, patient education to promote adherence to treatment, and avoidance of triggers should be periodically performed until further

  18. Designing an Illustrated Food Web to Teach Ecological Concepts: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Celia M.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that food webs are an efficient method through which to communicate the core idea of ecology--that all living things are interconnected. Assesses the challenges and solutions to using illustrated food webs. (Author/CCM)

  19. Designing an Illustrated Food Web to Teach Ecological Concepts: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Celia M.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that food webs are an efficient method through which to communicate the core idea of ecology--that all living things are interconnected. Assesses the challenges and solutions to using illustrated food webs. (Author/CCM)

  20. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    PubMed

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Bridging policies and practice: challenges and opportunities for the governance of disability and ageing.

    PubMed

    Naue, Ursula; Kroll, Thilo

    2010-04-12

    In the context of an increasingly ageing society with a growing number of persons diagnosed with chronic disabling conditions including dementia and persons with disabilities, ageing and disability represent two policy fields which need to be jointly re-thought. So far, policymakers and other political actors have not adequately reacted to these changing demographics. The two policy fields are based upon different presuppositions. Also, disability and ageing interest groups set different agendas. As several political actor groups with diverse interests and goals operate in the political space, efforts to bridge policies and practices in ageing and disability are confronted with several challenges. In order to create a policy framework for disability and ageing, shared political priorities need to be developed. It is necessary to re-think current disability and ageing policies and the objectives formulated by diverse interest groups in both fields, and future policies should not only focus on 'active/healthy/normal ageing' vs. 'non-healthy/non-normal ageing'. Overlap of contents between disability and ageing policies exists with both fields informing one another. This mutual influence will shape policymaking and policy practices with regard to an ageing population with a growing number of persons with disabilities.

  2. Vaccines to promote and protect sexual health: policy challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Sarah; Kismödi, Eszter; Larson, Heidi; Buse, Kent

    2014-03-20

    Vaccines aim to improve the well-being of everyone and are seen as a public health success story in the prevention and control of communicable infections. However, decisions to use vaccinations are not without controversy, and the introduction of vaccines targeting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly contentious. In this paper we investigate the underlying policy challenges and opportunities for rolling out STI vaccines. Looking in detail at the experience of delivering HPV vaccine, we explore the lessons that can be learnt, including policy and human rights dimensions, for future STI vaccine introduction and scale up. Policies arise from the interaction of ideas, interests and institutions. In the case of HPV vaccine, ideas have been particularly contested, although interests and institutions have impacted on policy too. A review of human rights in relation to STI vaccine policies highlights the specific needs and rights of adolescents, and the paper details concepts of consent and evolving capacity which can be used to ensure that adolescents have full access to health interventions. Policy options for vaccines include mandatory approaches - and these have been utilized in some settings for HPV vaccines. The paper argues, and outlines the rationale, against adopting mandatory STI vaccine policy approaches. The paper concludes by identifying policy opportunities for introducing new vaccines targeting STIs.

  3. The Challenges Facing the Implementation of Early Childhood Development and Education Policy in Bungoma County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangila, Violet Muyoka

    2017-01-01

    This paper scrutinises the challenges facing the implementation of Early Childhood Development and Education policy in Bungoma County, Kenya. The study used a mixed research design and study population comprised of the QASOs, the Head teachers, ECDE teachers and the non-teaching staff in respective ECDCs. The sample size of the study comprised of…

  4. Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Head Start: A Closer Look at Program Policies and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and addressing challenging behaviors were examined. Data were gathered from six Head Start programs in the Midwest, through interviews and document analysis. The findings provide a glimpse into how Head Start programs support children's social and emotional competence and…

  5. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  6. Challenges in Evaluating Special Education Teachers and English Language Learner Specialists. Research & Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Goe, Laura; Croft, Andrew; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Current emphasis on teacher effectiveness in educational policy poses a challenge for the evaluation of special education teachers and English language learner (ELL) specialists. Most evaluation systems focus on student achievement and teacher practice; however, few systems have the capacity to differentiate among specialty area educators, address…

  7. Several Legal Issues Challenge Traditional "Melting-Pot" Idea for Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Lawrence D.

    Several variants of the "melting pot" ideology have informed the actions of those responsible for educational policy-making in the United States. This ideology has increasingly come under attack by a variety of persons. The purpose of this paper is to outline several legal grounds on which this ideology has been and will be challenged and to spell…

  8. Growth of the Proprietary Sector in Social Welfare: A Challenge to the Social Policy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Elizabeth T.

    The rapid growth of the proprietary sector in the provision of social services traditionally administered under non-profit or government auspices creates a problem and challenge for teachers of social policy. Instructors need to interpret this new trend, without much literature support, to a group of students with increasing potential for…

  9. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  10. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, F. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  11. Nuclear Data for Astrophysics: Resources, Challenges, Strategies, and Software Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Hix, William Raphael; Roberts, Luke F; Koura, Hiroyuki; Fuller, George M; Tytler, David

    2008-01-01

    One of the most exciting utilizations of nuclear data is to help unlock the mysteries of the Cosmos -- the creation of the chemical elements, the evolution and explosion of stars, and the origin and fate of the Universe. There are now many nuclear data sets, tools, and other resources online to help address these important questions. However, numerous serious challenges make it important to develop strategies now to ensure a sustainable future for this work. A number of strategies are advocated, including: enlisting additional manpower to evaluate the newest data; devising ways to streamline evaluation activities; and improving communication and coordination between existing efforts. Software projects are central to some of these strategies. Examples include: creating a virtual ''pipeline'' leading from the nuclear laboratory to astrophysics simulations; improving data visualization and management to get the most science out of the existing datasets; and creating a nuclear astrophysics data virtual (online) community. Recent examples will be detailed, including the development of two first-generation software pipelines, the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics for stellar astrophysics and the bigbangonline suite of codes for cosmology, and the coupling of nuclear data to sensitivity studies with astrophysical simulation codes to guide future research.

  12. Challenges of organ shortage for transplantation: solutions and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Saidi, R F; Hejazii Kenari, S K

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is the greatest challenge facing the field of organ transplantation today. A variety of approaches have been implemented to expand the organ donor pool including live donation, a national effort to expand deceased donor donation, split organ donation, paired donor exchange, national sharing models and greater utilization of expanded criteria donors. Increased public awareness, improved efficiency of the donation process, greater expectations for transplantation, expansion of the living donor pool and the development of standardized donor management protocols have led to unprecedented rates of organ procurement and transplantation. Although live donors and donation after brain death account for the majority of organ donors, in the recent years there has been a growing interest in donors who have severe and irreversible brain injuries but do not meet the criteria for brain death. If the physician and family agree that the patient has no chance of recovery to a meaningful life, life support can be discontinued and the patient can be allowed to progress to circulatory arrest and then still donate organs (donation after circulatory death). Increasing utilization of marginal organs has been advocated to address the organ shortage.

  13. Current and New Approaches in GMO Detection: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Taverniers, Isabel; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, genetically modified organisms (GMO) legislations have been established in order to guarantee the traceability of food/feed products on the market and to protect the consumer freedom of choice. Therefore, several GMO detection strategies, mainly based on DNA, have been developed to implement these legislations. Due to its numerous advantages, the quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for the enforcement laboratories in GMO routine analysis. However, given the increasing number and diversity of GMO developed and put on the market around the world, some technical hurdles could be encountered with the qPCR technology, mainly owing to its inherent properties. To address these challenges, alternative GMO detection methods have been developed, allowing faster detections of single GM target (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification), simultaneous detections of multiple GM targets (e.g., PCR capillary gel electrophoresis, microarray, and Luminex), more accurate quantification of GM targets (e.g., digital PCR), or characterization of partially known (e.g., DNA walking and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)) or unknown (e.g., NGS) GMO. The benefits and drawbacks of these methods are discussed in this review. PMID:26550567

  14. Current and new approaches in GMO detection: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, genetically modified organisms (GMO) legislations have been established in order to guarantee the traceability of food/feed products on the market and to protect the consumer freedom of choice. Therefore, several GMO detection strategies, mainly based on DNA, have been developed to implement these legislations. Due to its numerous advantages, the quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for the enforcement laboratories in GMO routine analysis. However, given the increasing number and diversity of GMO developed and put on the market around the world, some technical hurdles could be encountered with the qPCR technology, mainly owing to its inherent properties. To address these challenges, alternative GMO detection methods have been developed, allowing faster detections of single GM target (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification), simultaneous detections of multiple GM targets (e.g., PCR capillary gel electrophoresis, microarray, and Luminex), more accurate quantification of GM targets (e.g., digital PCR), or characterization of partially known (e.g., DNA walking and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)) or unknown (e.g., NGS) GMO. The benefits and drawbacks of these methods are discussed in this review.

  15. Emergency surgery in the elderly: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Andrew D W; Powell, Susan L; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients frequently present with surgical emergencies to health care providers, and outcomes in this group of patients remain poor. Contributing factors include frailty, preexisting comorbidity, polypharmacy, delayed diagnosis, and lack of timely and consultant-led treatment. In this review, we address common emergency surgical presentations in the elderly and highlight the specific challenges in caring for these patients. We summarize 20 years of reports by various medical bodies that have aimed to improve the care of these patients. To improve morbidity and mortality, several aspects of care need to be addressed. These include accurate and timely preoperative assessment to identify treatable pathology and, where possible, to consider and correct age-specific disease processes. Identification of patients in whom treatment would be futile or associated with high risk is needed to avoid unnecessary interventions and to give patients and carers realistic expectations. The use of multidisciplinary teams to identify common postoperative complications and age-specific syndromes is paramount. Prevention of complications is preferable to rescue treatment due to the high proportion of patients who fail to recover from adverse events. Even with successful surgical treatment, long-term functional decline and increased dependency are common. More research into emergency surgery in the elderly is needed to improve care for this growing group of vulnerable patients. PMID:27147891

  16. The contingency medical force: chronic challenge, new solution.

    PubMed

    Moloff, A L; Denny, S

    2001-03-01

    To keep pace with the changing requirements of the U.S. Army's combat doctrine, the U.S. Army Medical Department continually modifies its combat health support doctrine and unit organizations. This includes creating more capable, deployable, and mobile units. Unfortunately, as units become more capable, they become less mobile and deployable. As a result, striking a proper balance between capability, mobility, and deployability poses a significant challenge. In 1998, the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital designed a rapidly deployable, air transportable medical module capable of supporting a brigade-sized contingency force (approximately 3,000 personnel) with level or echelon I to III medical care in an austere and ambiguous environment. This module, known as the contingency medical force (CMF), also provides command and control capabilities for this initial medical force and the transition to a more robust health care structure. Conducted over an 8-month period, the design process began with a staff exercise using the deliberate planning process model and culminated in a validation exercise monitored by external observers/controllers at the Combat Maneuver Training Center in Germany. This article describes the planning process, development, and initial deployment of the CMF. The CMF was then deployed on short notice to Albania in support of Task Force Hawk, the Army component of Joint Task Force Noble Anvil.

  17. Optimal management of night eating syndrome: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed.

  18. Optimal management of night eating syndrome: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed. PMID:25834450

  19. Insuring Solar Photovoltaics: Challenges and Possible Solutions; (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, B.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2010-02-01

    Insuring solar photovoltaic (PV) systems poses certain challenges. Insurance premiums, which can represent a significant part of overall costs for PV developers, can affect market competition. The market for certain types of insurance products is limited. Historical loss data is lacking, and test data for the long-term viability of PV products under real-life conditions is limited. Insurers' knowledge about PV systems and the PV industry is uneven even as the industry introduces innovative contractual structures and business models. Interviews conducted for this report with PV project developers, insurance brokers, and underwriters suggest government actions aimed at better testing, data collection, and communication could facilitate the development of a market for PV insurance products. This report identifies actions by governments, national laboratories, and other stakeholders that could accelerate the development of insurance products in support PV systems. Such actions include: increasing understanding of the solar PV industry among insurance professionals; expanding the availability of PV historical loss data; evaluating the expansion of renewable energy business classification; developing module and component testing capabilities and services offered by federal labs; and, advancing industry standards for PV system installers.

  20. Human genomics: challenges for African Americans and policy implications for direct social work practice.

    PubMed

    Walton, Louise M

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in the scientific study of the human genome may benefit African Americans through increased knowledge of the causes and cures for diseases that disproportionately affect them. Other potential benefits are far reaching and include legal and socioeconomic importance for the African American community. Although these benefits have tremendous appeal, advancements in genomic science pose significant social issues for African Americans. Disparities in access, insensitive and discriminatory programming, a lack of appreciation of environmental factors, and misuse of genetic databases are among the challenges for African Americans. This article identifies the major benefits and challenges of human genomics cited in literature from various disciplines and discusses policy implications for direct social work practice. The author explains the importance of social work involvement in shaping genetic policies and outlines traditional roles social workers may play in establishing ethnic-sensitive public policies and agency practices to protect the interests of African Americans who interface with the rapidly expanding field of human genomics.

  1. Management of chronic pain in osteoporosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP. PMID:27099529

  2. Challenges and solutions for trench lithography beyond 65nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhijian; Ho, Chi-Chien; Mason, Mark; Anderson, Andrew; Mckee, Randy; Jackson, Ricky; Zhu, Cynthia; Terry, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Due to complex interconnect wiring scheme and constraints from process rules, systematic defects such as pattern necking and bridging are a major concern for metal layers. These systematic defects or "weak spots" can be major yield detractors in IC manufacturing if not properly addressed. These defects can occur even in cases where model-based OPC has been implemented, as well as a variety of process rules for margin insurance. Determining how to improve the marginalities or "weak spots" becomes a key factor for enhancing product yields. This paper will address several root causes for pattern induced defects and present solutions to a variety of weak spots including "T-shape," "H-shape," "Thin-Line," and "Bowling Pin" defects during 65nm product development at TI. Through case studies, we demonstrate how to successfully provide DFM (Design for Manufacturing) by using Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RET) tools to avoid and minimize the weak spots. Furthermore, process techniques to improve printability for some of the weak spots as applied to 65nm reticle sets will be discussed. An integrated scheme aiming at optimization of design rules and process rules is proposed.

  3. Management of chronic pain in osteoporosis: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP.

  4. International Graduate Students' Academic Writing Practices in Malaysia: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges faced by non-native English speaking international graduate students in their academic writing practices while they studied at a university in Malaysia as well as the solutions they employed when faced with the challenges. Academic Literacies Questionnaire was used to collect data. Based on 131 participants,…

  5. Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers Teaching in a Laboratory and Their Solution Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kadayifci, Hakki; Uner, Sinem; Turan-Oluk, Nurcan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the challenges faced by pre-service chemistry teachers teaching in a laboratory and their proposed solutions to these challenges. The study was conducted in a 13-week-long methodology course. Written statements from participants and observations from researchers were used as data sources. From these data, it was found that the…

  6. Chronic radiation-induced dermatitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Spałek, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Chronic radiation dermatitis is a late side effect of skin irradiation, which may deteriorate patients’ quality of life. There is a lack of precise data about its incidence; however, several risk factors may predispose to the development of this condition. It includes radiotherapy dose, fractionation, technique, concurrent systemic therapy, comorbidities, and personal and genetic factors. Chronic radiation dermatitis is mostly caused by the imbalance of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Clinical manifestation includes changes in skin appearance, wounds, ulcerations, necrosis, fibrosis, and secondary cancers. The most severe complication of irradiation is extensive radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). RIF can manifest in many ways, such as skin induration and retraction, lymphedema or restriction of joint motion. Diagnosis of chronic radiation dermatitis is usually made by clinical examination. In case of unclear clinical manifestation, a biopsy and histopathological examination are recommended to exclude secondary malignancy. The most effective prophylaxis of chronic radiation dermatitis is the use of proper radiation therapy techniques to avoid unnecessary irradiation of healthy skin. Treatment of chronic radiation dermatitis is demanding. The majority of the interventions are based only on clinical practice. Telangiectasia may be treated with pulse dye laser therapy. Chronic postirradiation wounds need special dressings. In case of necrosis or severe ulceration, surgical intervention may be considered. Management of RIF should be complex. Available methods are rehabilitative care, pharmacotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and laser therapy. Future challenges include the assessment of late skin toxicity in modern irradiation techniques. Special attention should be paid on genomics and radiomics that allow scientists and clinicians to select patients who are at risk of the development of chronic radiation dermatitis. Novel treatment methods and clinical

  7. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%-2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%-30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Novel

  8. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  9. Review: Coastal groundwater optimization—advances, challenges, and practical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2015-09-01

    Decision models are essential tools for coastal groundwater management (CGM). A combined simulation-optimization framework is employed to develop these models. One of the main barriers in the widespread application of these models for real-world cases is their large computational burden. Recent advances in efficient computational approaches and robust optimization methods can crack this barrier. This study surveys the scientific basis of CGM to provide an overview on this subject and reviews the-state-of-the-art to clarify recent developments and to outline ideas for improving the computational performance. Key details are presented on the performance and choice of possible robust tools such as efficient evolutionary algorithms (EAs), surrogate models, and parallel processing techniques. Then, the potential challenges remaining in this context are scrutinized, demonstrating open fields for further research, which include issues related to advances in simulating and optimizing phases such as introducing new robust algorithms and considering multi-objective purposes, implementing novel and high-performance tools, considering global concerns (e.g. climate change impacts), enhancing the existing models to fit the real world, and taking into account the complexities of real-world applications (e.g. uncertainties in the modeling parameters, and data acquisition). Finally, the outcomes of the systematic review are applied to solve a real-world CGM problem in Iran, to quantitatively examine the performance of combined implementation of some of the suggested tools. It is revealed that the required computational time is considerably reduced by as much as three orders of magnitude when correct combinations of robust EAs, surrogate model, and parallelization technique are utilized.

  10. Chronic radiation-induced dermatitis: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Spałek, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Chronic radiation dermatitis is a late side effect of skin irradiation, which may deteriorate patients' quality of life. There is a lack of precise data about its incidence; however, several risk factors may predispose to the development of this condition. It includes radiotherapy dose, fractionation, technique, concurrent systemic therapy, comorbidities, and personal and genetic factors. Chronic radiation dermatitis is mostly caused by the imbalance of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Clinical manifestation includes changes in skin appearance, wounds, ulcerations, necrosis, fibrosis, and secondary cancers. The most severe complication of irradiation is extensive radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). RIF can manifest in many ways, such as skin induration and retraction, lymphedema or restriction of joint motion. Diagnosis of chronic radiation dermatitis is usually made by clinical examination. In case of unclear clinical manifestation, a biopsy and histopathological examination are recommended to exclude secondary malignancy. The most effective prophylaxis of chronic radiation dermatitis is the use of proper radiation therapy techniques to avoid unnecessary irradiation of healthy skin. Treatment of chronic radiation dermatitis is demanding. The majority of the interventions are based only on clinical practice. Telangiectasia may be treated with pulse dye laser therapy. Chronic postirradiation wounds need special dressings. In case of necrosis or severe ulceration, surgical intervention may be considered. Management of RIF should be complex. Available methods are rehabilitative care, pharmacotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and laser therapy. Future challenges include the assessment of late skin toxicity in modern irradiation techniques. Special attention should be paid on genomics and radiomics that allow scientists and clinicians to select patients who are at risk of the development of chronic radiation dermatitis. Novel treatment methods and clinical

  11. Science-policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keune, H.; Kretsch, C.; De Blust, G.; Gilbert, M.; Flandroy, L.; Van den Berge, K.; Versteirt, V.; Hartig, T.; De Keersmaecker, L.; Eggermont, H.; Brosens, D.; Dessein, J.; Vanwambeke, S.; Prieur-Richard, A. H.; Wittmer, H.; Van Herzele, A.; Linard, C.; Martens, P.; Mathijs, E.; Simoens, I.; Van Damme, P.; Volckaert, F.; Heyman, P.; Bauler, T.

    2013-06-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human-nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem-human/public health-urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed.

  12. Pain management in patients with Parkinson's disease: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Skogar, Orjan; Lokk, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of Parkinson-related pain which is one of the more frequently reported nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Pain is ranked high by patients as a troublesome symptom in all stages of the disease. In early-stage PD, pain is rated as the most bothersome symptom. Knowledge of the correct diagnosis of pain origin and possible methods of treatments for pain relief in PD is of great importance. The symptoms have a great negative impact on health-related quality of life. Separating PD-related pain from pain of other origins is an important challenge and can be characterized as "many syndromes under the same umbrella". Among the different forms of PD-related pain, musculoskeletal pain is the most common form, accounting for 40%-90% of reported pain in PD patients. Augmentation by pathophysiological pathways other than those secondary to rigidity, tremor, or any of the other motor manifestations of the disease seems most probable. In PD, the basal ganglia process somatosensory information differently, and increased subjective pain sensitivity with lower electrical and heat-pain thresholds has been reported in PD patients. The mechanism is assumed to be diminished activity of the descending inhibitory control system of the basal ganglia. PD pain, like many of the nonmotor symptoms, remains underdiagnosed and, thus, poorly managed. A systematic collection of patient descriptions of type, quality, and duration of pain is, therefore, of utmost importance. Recent studies have validated new and more specific and dedicated pain scales for PD-related symptoms. Symptomatic treatments based on clinical pain classification include not only pharmacological but also nonpharmacological methods and, to some degree, invasive approaches. In the clinic, pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions can be effective to varying degrees - as

  13. Challenges and potential solutions for European coastal ocean modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Stanev, Emil

    2017-04-01

    Coastal operational oceanography is a science and technological platform to integrate and transform the outcomes in marine monitoring, new knowledge generation and innovative technologies into operational information products and services in the coastal ocean. It has been identified as one of the four research priorities by EuroGOOS (She et al. 2016). Coastal modelling plays a central role in such an integration and transformation. A next generation coastal ocean forecasting system should have following features: i) being able to fully exploit benefits from future observations, ii) generate meaningful products in finer scales e.g., sub-mesoscale and in estuary-coast-sea continuum, iii) efficient parallel computing and model grid structure, iv) provide high quality forecasts as forcing to NWP and coastal climate models, v) resolving correctly inter-basin and inter-sub-basin water exchange, vi) resolving synoptic variability and predictability in marine ecosystems, e.g., for algae bloom, vi) being able to address critical and relevant issues in coastal applications, e.g., marine spatial planning, maritime safety, marine pollution protection, disaster prevention, offshore wind energy, climate change adaptation and mitigation, ICZM (integrated coastal zone management), the WFD (Water Framework Directive), and the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), especially on habitat, eutrophication, and hydrographic condition descriptors. This presentation will address above challenges, identify limits of current models and propose correspondent research needed. The proposed roadmap will address an integrated monitoring-modelling approach and developing Unified European Coastal Ocean Models. In the coming years, a few new developments in European Sea observations can expected, e.g., more near real time delivering on profile observations made by research vessels, more shallow water Argo floats and bio-Argo floats deployed, much more high resolution sea level data from SWOT

  14. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    PubMed

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship.

  15. Reviewing innovative Earth observation solutions for filling science-policy gaps in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas; Rahman, Kazi; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Nativi, Stefano; Craglia, Massimo; Cripe, Douglas; Quevauviller, Philippe; Beniston, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Improved data sharing is needed for hydrological modeling and water management that require better integration of data, information and models. Technological advances in Earth observation and Web technologies have allowed the development of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) for improved data sharing at various scales. International initiatives catalyze data sharing by promoting interoperability standards to maximize the use of data and by supporting easy access to and utilization of geospatial data. A series of recent European projects are contributing to the promotion of innovative Earth observation solutions and the uptake of scientific outcomes in policy. Several success stories involving different hydrologists' communities can be reported around the World. Gaps still exist in hydrological, agricultural, meteorological and climatological data access because of various issues. While many sources of data exists at all scales it remains difficult and time-consuming to assemble hydrological information for most projects. Furthermore, data and sharing formats remain very heterogeneous. Improvements require implementing/endorsing some commonly agreed standards and documenting data with adequate metadata. The brokering approach allows binding heterogeneous resources published by different data providers and adapting them to tools and interfaces commonly used by consumers of these resources. The challenge is to provide decision-makers with reliable information, based on integrated data and tools derived from both Earth observations and scientific models. Successful SDIs rely therefore on various aspects: a shared vision between all participants, necessity to solve a common problem, adequate data policies, incentives, and sufficient resources. New data streams from remote sensing or crowd sourcing are also producing valuable information to improve our understanding of the water cycle, while field sensors are developing rapidly and becoming less costly. More recent data

  16. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  17. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  18. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  19. College Student-Athletes: Challenges, Opportunities, and Policy Implications. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Daniel B., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a critical and objective study of the contemporary college student athlete. Framed around the process of recruitment, transition, and support of student athletes in higher education, the volume is a response to societal pressures to reform college athletics. Driven by publicity and the potential for revenue gains, colleges and…

  20. College Student-Athletes: Challenges, Opportunities, and Policy Implications. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Daniel B., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a critical and objective study of the contemporary college student athlete. Framed around the process of recruitment, transition, and support of student athletes in higher education, the volume is a response to societal pressures to reform college athletics. Driven by publicity and the potential for revenue gains, colleges and…

  1. Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nicolas; Fritz, Marco; Freitas, Tiago; de Boissezon, Birgit; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy. Nature-Based Solutions can be an opportunity for innovation, and are here promoted by both policymakers and practitioners as a cost-effective way of creating a greener, more sustainable, and more competitive economy. Since 2013, the European Commission has devoted particular attention to Nature-Based Solutions through consultations and dialogues that sought to make the concept of these solutions more concrete and to define the concept's place within the spectrum of ecosystem-based approaches. In 2014, the Commission launched an expert group, which conducted further analysis, and made recommendations to help increase the use of Nature-Based Solutions and bring nature back into cities. In 2015, a survey was conducted on citizens' views and perceptions of 'Nature in Cities' to provide further insight for future work. Based on these elements and on results from running EU projects, the Commission has developed an R&I agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and has published targeted calls for proposals for large-scale demonstration projects in this field in 2016 and 2017. Additional R&I actions at EU level that promote systemic Nature-Based Solutions and their benefits to cities and territories are planned with the aim to improve the implementation capacity and evidence base for deploying Nature-Based Solutions and developing corresponding future markets. They are also expected to foster an interdisciplinary R

  2. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  3. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  4. [Health in all policies, a challenge for public health in Spain. SESPAS report 2010].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Oliva, Juan; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Zurriaga, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    The objective of SESPAS Report 2010 is to enhance the incorporation of the principle of Health in all Policies in public health in Spain. The fundamental principle behind this slogan is very simple: Health is strongly influenced by the environment, how we live, work, eat, walk or enjoy our leisure time. Moreover, these living conditions depend not only on individual decisions but are determined by social, cultural, economic or environmental factor. Consequently, policy decisions that influence the health of people not just those related to services or health policy, but primarily those taken in other public, private, political and civic contexts. SESPAS Report 2010 has four parts. It begins with and introductory chapter on the challenges of incorporating the principle of Health in all Policies in public health. The second part consists of several articles of reflection on the relationship between the health care system and public health. The third part focuses on cross-sectoral public health policies. The report ends with several articles on cross-cutting issues such as public health education, information, research, evaluation and ethics in public health policies.

  5. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-05-02

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.

  6. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

  7. [Challenges and opportunities for the development of a national pharmaceutical policy in México].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Dreser, Anahí; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Unlike many other Latin American countries Mexico has no coherent and explicit national pharmaceutical policy (NPP). Other national challenges are: high out-of-pocket expenditure on medicines despite the implementation of universal health care coverage through Seguro Popular, high prices of medicines in the private sector in comparison to other countries when adjusted for income level, and the lack of clear strategies to improve safety and efficiency in the use of medicines, in particular interventions aimed at private physicians, pharmacies and consumers. The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges and opportunities to (1) consolidate the processes of formulating, implementing and evaluating NPP, and (2) define the policy content with regard to access and use of medicines.

  8. Emerging nutrition challenges: policies to tackle under-nutrition, obesity and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Denise Costa; Rivera, Juan A; Uauy, Ricardo; Ding, Zong-Yi; Ruel, Marie T; Svensson, Per-Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    On 19 May, 2008, Mexico's Secretary of Health, Dr José Angel Córdova Villalobos, hosted an event entitled Emerging Nutrition Challenges: Policies to Tackle Under-nutrition, Obesity and Chronic Diseases. Held in conjunction with the World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, nearly 100 delegates from over 30 countries attended. The International Association of Infant Food Manufacturers and the International Hospital Federation supported Mexico in its sponsorship of this event. Dr Villalobos provided opening remarks including an overview of Mexico's public policies to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. Dr. Mauricio Hernández, Mexico's Undersecretary of Health, moderated as six experts from around the world spoke on issues relating to the nutrition "double burden" (i.e. malnourishment and obesity), successful interventions and policy opportunities for improving nutrition, preventing obesity and enhancing health outcomes. Following are abstracts from their presentations.

  9. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. PMID:28812811

  10. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings.

  11. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    PubMed

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  12. Meeting the Needs of the Growing Very Old Population: Policy Implications for a Global Challenge.

    PubMed

    Pin, Stephanie; Spini, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Very old adults are one of the fastest-growing age groups worldwide. Yet they rarely constitute a targeted group for public policies. Drawing on the results of the centenarian studies presented in this special issue, we highlight major challenges that arise from the increase of this population. We outline several promising approaches for policy makers and professionals to develop evidence-based policies and programs that are tailored to the needs of very old adults and their families. We focus our discussion on three key topics essential to life care: the importance of integrated care to meet the complex care needs of the very old; the balance between formal and informal care; and the development of suitable places for living. Besides more specific measures, we propose that policies promoting the social integration of very old adults in their communities would be particularly helpful, as these may benefit not only the very old and their families but also individuals of all ages. We conclude that the development of suitable policies addressing the needs of the very old will benefit from future investigation of cross-cultural similarities and differences in centenarians' characteristics, available services, as well as life conditions they encounter in communities and institutional contexts.

  13. Five Policy Levers To Meet The Value Challenge In Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara

    2015-09-01

    The burden of cancer on public finances is a serious concern for policy makers. More people are developing cancer, and as standards of care have risen, more are surviving and requiring longer-term care. Precision medicine promises better outcomes but demands commensurately higher payments for care. As both incidence and per case costs rise, we suggest that the task of expanding access to high-quality cancer care poses a "value challenge" that policies in many countries are inadequate to meet. Policy makers should respond with a new approach. We explore questions that policy makers will need to consider regarding objectives, barriers, and levers for policy development. We use transparency and accountability as cornerstones of a new approach to promote value-based decision making. Although barriers to advancing this agenda are formidable, we recommend that governments define common standards for value-based accounting; serve as information brokers for evidence development; pioneer value-based procurement of goods and services; engage in deliberative democracy in cancer care; and educate communities to facilitate knowledge sharing between communities of patients, their caretakers, and researchers.

  14. Public involvement in health priority setting: future challenges for policy, research and society.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David James; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Staniszewska, Sophie; Tumilty, Emma; Weale, Albert; Williams, Iestyn

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the findings of this special issue and discusses the future challenges for policy, research and society. The findings suggest that challenges emerge as a result of legitimacy deficits of both consensus and contestatory modes of public involvement in health priority setting. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the discussions and findings presented in this special issue. It seeks to bring the country experiences and case studies together to draw conclusions for policy, research and society. Findings - At least two recurring themes emerge. An underlying theme is the importance, but also the challenge, of establishing legitimacy in health priority setting. The country experiences suggest that we understand very little about the conditions under which representative, or authentic, participation generates legitimacy and under which it will be regarded as insufficient. A second observation is that public participation takes a variety of forms that depend on the opportunity structures in a given national context. Given this variety the conceptualization of public participation needs to be expanded to account for the many forms of public participation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that the challenges of public involvement are closely linked to the question of how legitimate processes and decisions can be generated in priority setting. This suggests that future research must focus more narrowly on conditions under which legitimacy are generated in order to expand the understanding of public involvement in health prioritization.

  15. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory: 21st century solutions to urgent national challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Mcbranch, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been called upon to meet urgent national challenges for more than 65 years. The people, tools, and technologies at Los Alamos are a world class resource that has proved decisive through our history, and are needed in the future. We offer expertise in nearly every science, technology, and engineering discipline, a unique integrated capability for large-scale computing and experimentation, and the proven ability to deliver solutions involving the most complex and difficult technical systems. This white paper outlines some emerging challenges and why the nation needs Los Alamos, the premier National Security Science Laboratory, to meet these challenges.

  17. Towards interprofessional networking in medication management of the aged: current challenges and potential solutions in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Sonja; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne; Järvensivu, Timo; Mäntylä, Antti; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja

    2016-12-01

    The Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) initiated a programme in 2012 for enhancing interprofessional networking in the medication management of the aged. The goal is to develop national guidelines for interprofessional collaboration with respect to medication management. This study aims to explore the challenges and potential solutions experienced by existing health care teams in managing medication of the aged: (1) at the individual and team level (micro level), (2) organisational level (meso level) and (3) structural level (macro level). Group discussions (n = 10), pair (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 2). Abductive content analysis combining data and theory was applied. Networking was used as a theoretical framework. Meetings (n = 15) organised by Fimea in the formation phase of the interprofessional network in 2012. Health care professionals (n = 55). Challenges and solutions in the medication management of the aged at the micro, meso and macro levels. Challenges in interprofessional collaboration, problems with patient record systems, and the organisation of work and lack of resources were present at all the levels contributing to patients' medication problems. Participants suggested multiple potential solutions to improve interprofessional collaboration, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, better exploitation of pharmaceutical knowledge and developing tools as being the most commonly mentioned. Optimising medication use of the aged requires new systemic solutions within and between different system levels. The main challenges can be solved by clarifying responsibilities, enhancing communication and applying operational models that involve pharmacists and the use of information technology in medication management. KEY POINTS An interprofessional team approach has been suggested as a solution to promote rational medicine use among the aged. Fragmented health care system and lack of coordinated patient care are reasons for medication

  18. Challenges and Solutions for Latin American-Trained International Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Residency

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Hauser, David; Carvajal, Carlos; Mejia, Carlina; Nieves, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry face multiple challenges that go beyond their medical training. These challenges call for innovative problem-solving. Although the professional development of IMGs has been discussed in the professional literature, little is written about their experiences. In this case study report, a group of IMGs reflect on their experiences and describe how they solved challenges. Method Using cogenerative ethnography, four IMGs trained in Colombia, Dominican Republic and Mexico provided insights on their challenges and solutions while adapting to psychiatric residency training. Individual interviews, focused discussion, focus groups, and written reports were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing techniques. Results We illustrate the challenges of IMG training in psychiatry using their reflections and stories. We categorized these challenges into three domains: immigration and acculturation; social adjustment; and medical training. Quotes were selected to illustrate IMGs’ challenges and coping strategies. Conclusion Some of the combined cultural, social and academic challenges of Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry are described. Recognizing and planning for the personal challenges of IMGs in psychiatry can enhance the transition into psychiatric training. Ultimately, improvements in IMG training converts into improved healthcare for all patients. PMID:25673899

  19. Challenges and Solutions for Latin American-Trained International Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Residency.

    PubMed

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Hauser, David; Carvajal, Carlos; Mejia, Carlina; Nieves, Delia

    Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry face multiple challenges that go beyond their medical training. These challenges call for innovative problem-solving. Although the professional development of IMGs has been discussed in the professional literature, little is written about their experiences. In this case study report, a group of IMGs reflect on their experiences and describe how they solved challenges. Using cogenerative ethnography, four IMGs trained in Colombia, Dominican Republic and Mexico provided insights on their challenges and solutions while adapting to psychiatric residency training. Individual interviews, focused discussion, focus groups, and written reports were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing techniques. We illustrate the challenges of IMG training in psychiatry using their reflections and stories. We categorized these challenges into three domains: immigration and acculturation; social adjustment; and medical training. Quotes were selected to illustrate IMGs' challenges and coping strategies. Some of the combined cultural, social and academic challenges of Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry are described. Recognizing and planning for the personal challenges of IMGs in psychiatry can enhance the transition into psychiatric training. Ultimately, improvements in IMG training converts into improved healthcare for all patients.

  20. Methodological Issues in the Collection, Analysis, and Reporting of Granular Data in Asian American Populations: Historical Challenges and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nadia Shilpi; Khan, Suhaila; Kwon, Simona; Jang, Deeana; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2011-01-01

    There are close to 15 million Asian Americans living in the United States, and they represent the fastest growing populations in the country. By the year 2050, there will be an estimated 33.4 million Asian Americans living in the country. However, their health needs remain poorly understood and there is a critical lack of data disaggregated by Asian American ethnic subgroups, primary language, and geography. This paper examines methodological issues, challenges, and potential solutions to addressing the collection, analysis, and reporting of disaggregated (or, granular) data on Asian Americans. The article explores emerging efforts to increase granular data through the use of innovative study design and analysis techniques. Concerted efforts to implement these techniques will be critical to the future development of sound research, health programs, and policy efforts targeting this and other minority populations. PMID:21099084

  1. Challenges in implementing individual placement and support in the Australian mental health service and policy context.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Yolande; Higgins, Kate; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-01-20

    Objective Although Australia's service and policy context differs from that of the US, studies have highlighted potential for individual placement and support (IPS) to support competitive employment outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to explore why the model is not yet widely available.Methods A document analysis was conducted to discern reasons for challenges in implementation of IPS practice principles within the Australian service context.Results The document analysis illustrated that although policy acknowledges the importance of increasing employment rates for people with severe and persistent mental illness, consistent measures, change indicators, direction and time frames are lacking in policy and strategy documentation. Further, IPS principles are not consistently evident in guiding operational documentation that government-funded Disability Employment Services (DES) programs are mandated to adhere to.Conclusions For IPS to be readily implemented, it is necessary for government to offer support to agencies to partner and formal endorsement of the model as a preferred approach in tendering processes. Obligations and processes must be reviewed to ensure that model fidelity is achievable within the Australian Commonwealth policy and service context for programs to achieve competitive employment rates comparable to the most successful international programs.What is known about the topic? The IPS model has been established as the most efficacious approach to support people with severe and persistent mental ill health to gain and sustain employment internationally, yet little is known as to why this model has had very limited uptake in the Australian adult mental health service and policy context.What does this paper add? This paper provides an investigation into the achievability of IPS within DES philosophical and contractual arrangements.What are the implications for practitioners? Mental health

  2. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many countries have enacted legislation to protect animals. In the 1800's the primary concern was to protect animals from cruelty but more recent legislative changes also seek to ensure that human beings uphold a duty of care towards those animals for which they are responsible. Today animal welfare concerns all aspects of our interaction with other animals. Although, the diversity of views in society can present challenges, the whole community needs to be engaged in the development and implementation of policies and initiatives so as to achieve sustainable improvements in animal welfare. Abstract Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted

  3. Women's reproductive rights in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: challenges for transforming policy into practice.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; San Sebastián, Miguel; Wulff, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances made by Ecuador in developing policies on reproductive and sexual rights, implementation, and oversight remain a challenge, affecting in particular those living in the Amazon basin. This paper reports on an evaluation of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Orellana, Ecuador, the basis of which was the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument, which was altered to focus on government obligations, the reality of access and utilization of services, and the inequities and implementation challenges between the two. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006 served to document the current status of SRHR Local female field workers interviewed 2025 women on three areas of womens reproductive health: delivery care, family planning, and pregnancy among adolescent girls age 10-19. The results suggest a reality more dismal than that of the official information for the area. Skilled delivery care, modern contraceptive use, and wanted pregnancies were conspicuously lower among indigenous women living in rural areas. Access to reproductive health services varied between rural and urban women. These significant differences in care--amongst others documented--raise concerns over the utility of national-level data for addressing inequities. The gaps evident in the validity of available information for monitoring policies and programs, and between national policy and action reveal that much still needs to be done to realize SRHR for women in the Amazon basin, and that current accountability mechanisms are inadequate.

  4. The challenges of eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities: inescapable realities? Perplexing science? Ineffective policy?

    PubMed

    Vines, Anissa I; Godley, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    Despite the accomplishments of American medical science and the impressive array of healthcare facilities and service delivery models available in this country, the existence of significant health disparities is a matter of urgent national and state health policy priority. Policies to address these issues should address fundamental problems having to do with access to care (such as health insurance coverage and the availability and the geographic and culturally-appropriate accessibility of personal health services), the educational preparation of healthcare professionals for the challenge of caring for the increasing diversity of patients in a truly "patient-centered" healthcare system of the future, efforts to deal with widespread problems of health literacy that reduce the likely impact and effectiveness of healthcare, and a more aggressive effort to assure that future medial science continues to include minorities and women (and they continue to participate) as subjects in clinical trials of innovative therapeutic interventions. The policy agenda to address these issues is both broad and demanding, as would be expected of any set of problems which is so widespread and complex. But, America is no stranger to challenges, and few are more worthy of the effort than this.

  5. The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-11-04

    Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use

  6. Troubling the Boundaries: Overcoming Methodological Challenges in a Multi-Sectoral and Multi-Jurisdictional HIV/HCV Policy Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Kathleen A.; Dubé, Anik; Marshall, Zack; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Harris, Gregory E.; Tucker, Maryanne; Dykeman, Margaret; MacDonald, Jo-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Policy scoping reviews are an effective method for generating evidence-informed policies. However, when applying guiding methodological frameworks to complex policy evidence, numerous, unexpected challenges can emerge. This paper details five challenges experienced and addressed by a policy trainee-led, multi-disciplinary research team, while…

  7. Troubling the Boundaries: Overcoming Methodological Challenges in a Multi-Sectoral and Multi-Jurisdictional HIV/HCV Policy Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Kathleen A.; Dubé, Anik; Marshall, Zack; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Harris, Gregory E.; Tucker, Maryanne; Dykeman, Margaret; MacDonald, Jo-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Policy scoping reviews are an effective method for generating evidence-informed policies. However, when applying guiding methodological frameworks to complex policy evidence, numerous, unexpected challenges can emerge. This paper details five challenges experienced and addressed by a policy trainee-led, multi-disciplinary research team, while…

  8. The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: An interdisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Nesshöver, Carsten; Assmuth, Timo; Irvine, Katherine N; Rusch, Graciela M; Waylen, Kerry A; Delbaere, Ben; Haase, Dagmar; Jones-Walters, Lawrence; Keune, Hans; Kovacs, Eszter; Krauze, Kinga; Külvik, Mart; Rey, Freddy; van Dijk, Jiska; Vistad, Odd Inge; Wilkinson, Mark E; Wittmer, Heidi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. We conclude that: To realise their full potential, NBS must be developed by including the experience of all relevant stakeholders such that 'solutions' contribute to achieving all dimensions of sustainability. As NBS are developed, we must also moderate the expectations placed on them since the precedent provided by other initiatives whose aim was to manage nature sustainably demonstrates that we should not expect NBS to be cheap and easy, at least not in the short-term.

  9. Designing better methane mitigation policies: the challenge of distributed small sources in the natural gas sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-04-01

    Methane—a short-lived and potent greenhouse gas—presents a unique challenge: it is emitted from a large number of highly distributed and diffuse sources. In this regard, the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended periodic leak detection and repair surveys at oil and gas facilities using optical gas imaging technology. This regulation requires an operator to fix all detected leaks within a set time period. Whether such ‘find-all-fix-all’ policies are effective depends on significant uncertainties in the character of emissions. In this work, we systematically analyze the effect of facility-related and mitigation-related uncertainties on regulation effectiveness. Drawing from multiple publicly-available datasets, we find that: (1) highly-skewed leak-size distributions strongly influence emissions reduction potential; (2) variations in emissions estimates across facilities leads to large variability in mitigation effectiveness; (3) emissions reductions from optical gas imaging-based leak detection programs can range from 15% to over 70%; and (4) while implementation costs are uniformly lower than EPA estimates, benefits from saved gas are highly variable. Combining empirical evidence with model results, we propose four policy options for effective methane mitigation: performance-oriented targets for accelerated emission reductions, flexible policy mechanisms to account for regional variation, technology-agnostic regulations to encourage adoption of the most cost-effective measures, and coordination with other greenhouse gas mitigation policies to reduce unintended spillover effects.

  10. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  11. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  12. Re-thinking hate crime: fresh challenges for policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Hate crime has become an increasingly familiar term in recent times as the harms associated with acts of bigotry and prejudice continue to pose complex challenges for societies across the world. However, despite the greater recognition now afforded to hate crimes by scholars, policy makers and law enforcers, uncertainty continues to cloud the scope and legitimacy of existing policy frameworks. This article draws from an emerging body of inter-disciplinary scholarship and empirical research to highlight a series of important realities about hate crime victimization and perpetration that tend to remain peripheral to the process of policy formation. It suggests that the focus on particular strands of victims and particular sets of motivations has overshadowed a range of significant issues, including the experiences of "marginal" groups of victims, and the way in which identity characteristics intersect with one another--and with other situational factors and context--to leave some targets of hate crime especially vulnerable. The article calls for a more fluid and multi-layered approach to policy formation, which engages with these realities, and which maximizes the real-life value of hate crime discourse.

  13. Achievements and challenges on policies for allied health professionals who use telehealth in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hailey, D; Foerster, V; Nakagawa, B; Wapshall, T M; Murtagh, J A; Smitten, J; Steblecki, J A; Wong, G

    2005-01-01

    We formulated policies and procedures for allied health professionals (AHPs) who provide services using telehealth in Nunavut, Canada's newest Arctic territory. These are a supplement to the clinical policies and procedures already established for Nunavut physicians and nurses. The services were in the areas of audiology, dietetics/nutrition, midwifery, occupational therapy, ophthalmic services, pharmacy, physiotherapy, psychology, respiratory therapy, social work and speech therapy. Documents specific to each of the services were developed, drawing on information from Government of Nunavut data, Nunavut healthcare providers and links made through the Internet. Topics included the scope and limitations of telehealth services, staff responsibilities, training and reporting, professional standards and cultural considerations. We also considered generic policies covering common issues such as jurisdiction, licensing and liability. The policies and procedures for AHPs will enhance and expand the successes already achieved with telehealth in Nunavut. The challenges are to balance the preferred approaches to service provision with the realities of health care and communications in an Arctic setting.

  14. Health policy in Asia and the Pacific: Navigating local needs and global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Asia and the Pacific are undergoing a remarkable economic transformation which is occurring at an exceptional pace. There is clear evidence of an equally rapid epidemiological transition in the region. This paper sets out the policy challenges of building healthy societies in the context of rapid economic change. The region’s location at the crossroads of contemporary globalization, resulting in intensified population mobility, large-scale trade and investment, and pressures to take collective action on shared problems, adds to the complexity of this task. The paper argues that health is integral to building stable and sustainable societies, and that there are opportunities to develop more holistic approaches that bring together hitherto separate policy spheres. PMID:24592312

  15. The role of PV in demand-site management: Policy and industry challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, John; Hadjilambrinos, Constantine; Wang, Young-Doo

    1992-12-01

    Most electric utility planners consider photovoltaics to be a frontier technology which is not yet mature enough to contribute to the U.S. electric generation market. Over the past decade, utilities and their regulators have begun to emphasize demand-side management (DMS) to meet an increasing proportion of their service needs. For PV to be a valued technology in the electricity sector, DSM applications need to be identified that can provide a significant market for this technology. DSM programs of 20 of the most active utilities in the DSM market are analyzed in this research to determine the size, prices, demand, and impact of policy. Target PV-DSM markets are identified and the policy and industry challenges that must be met are defined.

  16. A parametric programming solution to the F-policy queue with fuzzy parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Yuh; Chang, Po-Kai

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates the F-policy queue using fuzzy parameters, in which the arrival rate, service rate, and start-up rate are all fuzzy numbers. The F-policy deals with the control of arrivals in a queueing system, in which the server requires a start-up time before allowing customers to enter. A crisp F-policy queueing system generalised to a fuzzy environment would be widely applicable; therefore, we apply the α-cuts approach and Zadeh's extension principle to transform fuzzy F-policy queues into a family of crisp F-policy queues. This study presents a mathematical programming approach applicable to the construction of membership functions for the expected number of customers in the system. Furthermore, we propose an efficient solution procedure to compute the membership function of the expected number of customers in the system under different levels of α. Finally, we give an example of the proposed system as applied to a case in the automotive industry to demonstrate its practicality.

  17. Shifting Community-Based Participatory Infrastructure from Education/Outreach to Research: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Edward E; Hardy, Claudia M; Baskin, Monica L; Fouad, Mona; Willis, Lillie; James, Garrett; Wynn, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    For 10 years, the Deep South Network for Cancer Control (DSNCC) focused on training and deploying community health advisors (CHAs) to promote cancer screening and healthy lifestyle through education/outreach activities. In 2009, the request for application (RFA) for renewal of the DSNCC required a controlled research intervention. Converting from education/outreach to research proved more problematic than expected. The objective of this article was to describe the challenges and solutions during this conversion and to describe the importance of education/outreach to community infrastructure. This is a qualitative assessment of the challenges and solutions encountered in conducting a controlled weight loss trial in a community setting in which education/outreach had been the priority. The DSNCC provides a model for overcoming the unique challenges of converting a longstanding education/outreach program into a controlled research program. Although multiple challenges were encountered in conducting a community-based participatory research (CBPR) controlled trial, solutions were developed and the trial continues as proposed.

  18. Speakers Discuss Science Policy Challenges in the Water-Energy Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Water and energy are linked in the ever-increasing demand for these resources in the United States. Most energy production requires an abundant, reliable, and predictable source of water, a resource that is, unfortunately, already in short supply throughout large portions of the United States. In addition, developing water supplies can require large amounts of energy for their extraction, transportation, treatment, and distribution. As such, the ­water-­energy nexus presents a significant challenge for America's water resource and energy developers and distributers as well as for policy makers.

  19. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors’ clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants’ ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. Discussion To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. Summary This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that

  20. Addressing the challenges to health sector decentralization in Nepal: an inquiry into the policy and implementation processes.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, R; Ratanawijitrasin, S; Srithamrongsawat, S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the status and explore the challenges to decentralization policy implementation in Nepal. Thirty seven key informants rich in experience and knowledge, seven focus group discussions, observation of six health facilities and analysis of about 25 key policy documents provided the data for this study. The study identified the challenges to the implementation of decentralization reforms in the public health sector as: (i) centralised and weak management and programming practices of the government; (ii) weak legal and institutional framework; (iii) conflicting policy objectives; (iv) lack of implementation strategy; (v) poor financial and human resource management system; (vi) lack of adequate preparation for managing the reform; (vii) weak capacity at all levels; (viii) political instability. It was revealed that the implementation of the policy in Nepal was extremely poor as many of the important policy measures were either never initiated or they were only partially implemented. The challenges lie both at - policy design and implementation phase. Clear policy objectives, appropriate structure, sound planning, financing and human resources policy, adequate capacity, responsive information system, defined service packages, active participation of stakeholders and a conducive socio-political environment are considered imperative for successful implementation of the policy. Preparation for managing reform implementation at national and district levels is prerequisite for decentralization to work. Pushing for decentralization in a politically fragile environment may rather lead to further fragmentation, instead of strengthening government legitimacy.

  1. Challenges to promoting health for amateur athletes through anti-doping policy.

    PubMed

    Henning, April

    2017-01-01

    Anti-doping regulations are intended, at least in part, to promote the health of athletes. While most anti-doping efforts target elite and professional competitors, there have been recent moves by sport governing bodies to expand anti-doping testing to include amateur athletes. Drawing on previous critiques of anti-doping policies and illustrating cases, this article outlines five of the challenges to health promotion of applying the current detect and ban model to the amateur level of sport. I argue that the current approach is not effective and, in some ways, may undermine the goal of health promotion at the amateur level. In order to address these challenges, I propose alternative, health-centred strategies that focus on athlete empowerment and choice through critical awareness of a variety of substances, associated risks and rewards, and the role of expertise in decision-making.

  2. Reviewing education challenges and solutions for health professionals in community care.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Mary

    2015-10-01

    The biggest asset of the NHS is its staff. Health professionals working in the community are faced with a number of challenges to maintain and develop their knowledge and skills in their clinical practice. NHS England's Five Year Forward View describes the need for change, identifying the necessity to reshape care delivery, harnessing technology, and driving down variations in quality and safety of care. This article explores some of the challenges faced by community health-care providers and reviews possible solutions to meet community health-care needs for now as well as the future.

  3. Implementing Mobile Phone Solutions for Health in Resource Constrained Areas: Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Tiwonge Davis; Herstad, Jo

    This paper presents results from a study on mobile phone use to connect two rural hospitals in Malawi with community health workers (CHWs), the hospitals work with. Mobile phone use at the hospitals has helped reduce the need for face-to-face communication to permit patient information exchange, meetings and appointments scheduling, as well as work coordination. On the other hand mobile phone use has proved paradoxical as it has introduced users to challenges, like recharging of phone batteries, they did not anticipate. The paper highlights use context-centric and solution based opportunities and challenges associated with mobile phone use in rural settings.

  4. Personal genomic information management and personalized medicine: challenges, current solutions, and roles of HIM professionals.

    PubMed

    Alzu'bi, Amal; Zhou, Leming; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term personalized medicine has received more and more attention in the field of healthcare. The increasing use of this term is closely related to the astonishing advancement in DNA sequencing technologies and other high-throughput biotechnologies. A large amount of personal genomic data can be generated by these technologies in a short time. Consequently, the needs for managing, analyzing, and interpreting these personal genomic data to facilitate personalized care are escalated. In this article, we discuss the challenges for implementing genomics-based personalized medicine in healthcare, current solutions to these challenges, and the roles of health information management (HIM) professionals in genomics-based personalized medicine.

  5. Practical solutions to challenges in research ethics proceedings of Bangalore conference

    PubMed Central

    Speers, Marjorie A.; Bairy, Laxminarayana K.

    2013-01-01

    On November 3rd and 4th, 2012, Manipal Hospital, Bangalore and Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs co-hosted a regional conference titled “Practical Solutions to Challenges in Research Ethics.” This paper is a synthesis of the major themes of the conference. The authors discuss the current state of the clinical research in India today, need to focus on human research protection programs rather than Ethics Committees or institutional review boards, the factors that influence high-quality research and some practical solutions to improving the quality of research and the protection of research participants. PMID:24312891

  6. Tipping Points and Balancing Acts: Grand Challenges and Synergistic Opportunities of Integrating Research and Education, Science and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The "Grand Challenges" to address Global Change identified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) and its partners through the Earth System Sustainability Initiative-improving forecasting, enhancing and integrating observation systems, confining and minimizing global environmental change, responding effectively to change, as well as innovating and evaluating these efforts-require an integrative approach that engages and inspires society in general and young people in particular. What are some of the effective strategies-and stumbling blocks-in being able to make Earth System science and related sustainability efforts relevant and practical to non-technical audiences? Recent climate education projects have pioneered new strategies toward linking and infusing research with education, science with solutions. For example, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), a National Science Digital Library Pathway funded by NSF, has approached this integral approach by "closing the loop" between climate and energy topics, identifying and annotating high quality online resources relating to the carbon cycle and related topics. The Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) project, funded by NASA, offers professional development for teachers that infuses climate science with solutions as an emerging "best practice" while being sensitive to the emotional, psychological and political aspects of avoiding "gloom and doom" on one hand or advocating for particular policy solutions on another. Other examples includes NASA's climate website (http://climate.nasa.gov ), which serves as a robust, engaging portal for climate research and data, especially for educators. The recent PBS series Earth: The Operators' Manual and related book and website are other recent example of how climate science research, education and solutions can be incorporated in a way that is appealing and informative. The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has given assemblies in

  7. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  8. The management and policy challenges of the globalisation effect of informatics and telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Rigby, M

    1999-01-01

    Managers and policy makers face new and as yet unrecognised challenges--particularly loss of control--through the application of new information technologies in healthcare. Whilst informatics and telemedicine are important developments, the potential for adverse organisational and societal effects should be recognised and anticipated. Health organisations are frequently seen as circumscribed networks, and these in turn form local alliances with related organisations. Information technologies are frequently construed as relating to operational systems within organisations, not least electronic patient record systems and diagnostic systems. These can then be linked to new generation health business systems, to provide accurate management information at low additional cost. However, this pair of assumptions is now seriously flawed, due to the effects of the latest developments in health informatics and telemedicine. In particular, telecommunications and Internet technologies render ineffectual previous external barriers of distance and national boundaries, whilst within the organisation the combination of knowledge bases with information technologies creates tendencies towards internal autonomy. Organisational and national policy control of health care face direct and radical challenges through perverse effects of otherwise beneficial developments, and early action is needed.

  9. Advancing geriatrics research, education, and practice: policy challenges after the great recession.

    PubMed

    Zerzan, Judy T; Rich, Eugene C

    2014-06-01

    The series of articles in this JGIM issue provides a number of policy-relevant recommendations for advancing geriatrics research, education and practice. Despite the unprecedented pressure to reduce state and federal spending, policymakers must concurrently address the challenges of a growing population of older individuals with increasingly complex health care problems. Thus, there may be opportunities to advance this agenda in creative ways. For example, without new spending, federal research agencies can make changes to encourage needed new directions in aging research, and the ACA provides new funding opportunities such as the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute. States and the federal government have an increasing need for the health professions workforce to have collaborative care skills and geriatrics clinical competencies, and are finding ways to invest in relevant initiatives. On the clinical program side, state and federal governments are initiating programs to promote delivery system changes that improve the care of older adults. Nonetheless, in the face of the policy challenges that have persisted after the "great recession," academic geriatrics and general internal medicine will need to join forces with public and private interests to secure the resources needed to advance this ambitious agenda for geriatrics research, education and practice.

  10. Integrating precision cancer medicine into healthcare-policy, practice, and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertier, Gabrielle; Carrot-Zhang, Jian; Ragoussis, Vassilis; Joly, Yann

    2016-10-24

    Precision medicine (PM) can be defined as a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory healthcare service delivery model. Recent developments in molecular biology and information technology make PM a reality today through the use of massive amounts of genetic, 'omics', clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data. With cancer being one of the most prominent public health threats in developed countries, both the research community and governments have been investing significant time, money, and efforts in precision cancer medicine (PCM). Although PCM research is extremely promising, a number of hurdles still remain on the road to an optimal integration of standardized and evidence-based use of PCM in healthcare systems. Indeed, PCM raises a number of technical, organizational, ethical, legal, social, and economic challenges that have to be taken into account in the development of an appropriate health policy framework. Here, we highlight some of the more salient issues regarding the standards needed for integration of PCM into healthcare systems, and we identify fields where more research is needed before policy can be implemented. Key challenges include, but are not limited to, the creation of new standards for the collection, analysis, and sharing of samples and data from cancer patients, and the creation of new clinical trial designs with renewed endpoints. We believe that these issues need to be addressed as a matter of priority by public health policymakers in the coming years for a better integration of PCM into healthcare.

  11. E-learning policies, practices and challenges in two Norwegian organizations.

    PubMed

    Welle-Strand, Anne; Thune, Taran

    2003-05-01

    This article reports a pilot study on the uses of technology to enable learning within a formal educational setting in a higher education institution and within a corporation. These two Norwegian cases were selected due to their commitment to technology-enabled learning, as expressed in policy and strategy documents. The aim was to investigate the commitment and actual use of information and communications technology (ICT) for learning as well as what key actors think are the major challenges for successful large scale implementation of ICT for learning. The findings indicate that there is insufficient follow-up on e-learning policies and that there is a general lack of strategic direction and leadership in this area. The key challenges respondents highlight relate to the need for a systematic and pedagogical approach to e-learning in which three equally important considerations must be balanced: organization, pedagogy and technology. Key perspectives of a coherent pedagogical and organizational framework for planning e-learning are discussed.

  12. Cellular Therapies for Heart Disease: Unveiling the Ethical and Public Policy Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amish N.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Hogle, Linda F.

    2008-01-01

    Cellular therapies have emerged as a potential revolutionary treatment for cardiovascular disease. Promising pre-clinical results have resulted in a flurry of basic research activity and spawned multiple clinical trials world-wide. However, the optimal cell type and delivery mode have not been determined for target patient populations. Nor has the mechanisms of benefit for the range of cellular interventions been clearly defined. Experiences to date have unveiled a myriad of ethical and public policy challenges which will affect the way researchers and clinicians make decisions for both basic and clinical research. Stem cells derived from embryos are at the forefront of the ethical and political debate, raising issues of which derivation methods are morally and socially permissible to pursue, as much as which are technically feasible. Adult stem cells are less controversial; however, important challenges exist in determining study design, cell processing, delivery mode, and target patient population. Pathways to successful commercialization and hence broad accessibility of cellular therapies for heart disease are only beginning to be explored. Comprehensive, multi-disciplinary and collaborative networks involving basic researchers, clinicians, regulatory officials and policymakers are required to share information, develop research, regulatory and policy standards and enable rational and ethical cell-based treatment approaches. PMID:18155721

  13. From Rosalind Franklin to Barack Obama: Data Sharing Challenges and Solutions in Genomics and Personalised Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Mark; Maughan, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, a worldwide coalition of researchers, healthcare professionals, patients and industry partners, is developing innovative solutions to support the responsible and effective sharing of genomic and clinical data. This article identifies the challenges that a data sharing culture poses and highlights a series of practical solutions that will benefit patients, researchers and society. PMID:28517986

  14. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  15. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-02-12

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of 'the other' and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  16. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality. PMID:21917767

  17. Implementation, barriers and challenges of smoke-free policies in hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ghada Nasr; Loffredo, Christopher A; Aziz, Rasha; Abdel-Aziz, Nagah; Labib, Nargis

    2012-10-15

    Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in North Africa, and health professionals play a vital role in tobacco control. In Egypt, limited data are available on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers regarding tobacco control policies. Such data are especially relevant due to Egypt's tobacco control laws, adopted in 2007, prohibiting smoking in hospitals and other public places. This study surveyed 49 senior administrative staff, 267 physicians, 254 nurses, and 109 administrative employees working in El-Kasr El-Aini Hospital in Cairo, assessing their knowledge and attitudes regarding Egypt's tobacco control laws and barriers to their effective implementation in health care facilities. We also investigated the hospital's compliance with smoke-free policies. The majority (>90%) of the hospital workers knew that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful to health. Physicians and nurses had a more favorable attitude towards the smoking ban when compared to administrative employees. Hospital staff identified the following barriers to successfully implementing the smoking ban: lax enforcement of tobacco control laws, the lack of penalties for violators, the lack of cessation programs, and the prevalence of smoking among physicians. Overall, smoke-free policies were poorly enforced in this large teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Interventions to address the identified barriers to their implementation could include the provision of cessation training and services as well as effective communication programs to educate health care workers at all levels regarding the dangers of second-hand smoke exposure and effective measures for protection.

  18. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Karlawish, Jason

    2011-10-11

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality.

  19. Towards interprofessional networking in medication management of the aged: current challenges and potential solutions in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Sonja; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne; Järvensivu, Timo; Mäntylä, Antti; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) initiated a programme in 2012 for enhancing interprofessional networking in the medication management of the aged. The goal is to develop national guidelines for interprofessional collaboration with respect to medication management. This study aims to explore the challenges and potential solutions experienced by existing health care teams in managing medication of the aged: (1) at the individual and team level (micro level), (2) organisational level (meso level) and (3) structural level (macro level). Design Group discussions (n = 10), pair (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 2). Abductive content analysis combining data and theory was applied. Networking was used as a theoretical framework. Setting Meetings (n = 15) organised by Fimea in the formation phase of the interprofessional network in 2012. Subjects Health care professionals (n = 55). Main outcome measures Challenges and solutions in the medication management of the aged at the micro, meso and macro levels. Results Challenges in interprofessional collaboration, problems with patient record systems, and the organisation of work and lack of resources were present at all the levels contributing to patients’ medication problems. Participants suggested multiple potential solutions to improve interprofessional collaboration, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, better exploitation of pharmaceutical knowledge and developing tools as being the most commonly mentioned. Conclusions Optimising medication use of the aged requires new systemic solutions within and between different system levels. The main challenges can be solved by clarifying responsibilities, enhancing communication and applying operational models that involve pharmacists and the use of information technology in medication management. KEY POINTSAn interprofessional team approach has been suggested as a solution to promote rational medicine use among the aged.Fragmented health

  20. The Governor's Challenge: "Building a Stronger Virginia Today": Transportation Visions and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Using STM(Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) education, this emerging workforce will have the chance to creatively solve one of Virginia's biggest challenges: TRANSPORTATION. - Students will be asked to develop alternative transportation systems for the state. This competition will enable teams to work with business mentors to design creative solutions for regional gridlocks and develop other transportation systems to more easily and expediently reach all parts of the Commonwealth.

  1. Implementing Evidence-Based Psychotherapies in Settings Serving Older Adults: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Arean, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses challenges in the implementation of psychotherapy interventions in settings serving older adults and provides solutions for ensuring older Americans have access to effective mental health services. There is considerable movement toward developing the geriatric mental health workforce, and it is important that these efforts include a discussion of implementation issues with regard to evidence-based psychotherapies as they are provided in aging services. PMID:22638006

  2. Implementing evidence-based psychotherapies in settings serving older adults: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Arean, Patricia A; Raue, Patrick J; Sirey, Jo Anne; Snowden, Mark

    2012-06-01

    This Open Forum addresses challenges--insurance limitations, staff and setting limitations, and training and sustainability issues--in the implementation of psychotherapy interventions in settings serving older adults and provides solutions for ensuring that they have access to effective mental health services. There is considerable movement toward developing the geriatric mental health workforce, and it is important that these efforts include a discussion of implementation issues with regard to evidence-based psychotherapies as they are provided in services for aging populations.

  3. Rural hospitals: trends, challenges, and a future research and policy analysis agenda.

    PubMed

    Moscovice, Ira; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Previous reviews of the status of rural hospitals conclude that rural hospitals play a major role in ensuring the provision of health services in rural areas, are an essential part of the social and economic identity of rural communities, have had mixed success in their ability to respond to environmental threats, and are very sensitive to public policies due, in part, to their small size. The evolving hospital paradigm in the United States and a turbulent economic and health care environment have created an uncertain future for the rural hospital. Hospitals are being forced to shift their emphasis from filling acute inpatient care beds to providing a more diversified set of services through linkages with other institutions and provider groups. This presents challenges for rural hospitals, which often serve as the foundation for health care delivery in rural communities yet struggle to overcome the effects of troubled local economies, shortages of health professionals, and public policy inequities. This article reviews key trends and challenges facing rural hospitals from the perspective of their structure and organization, financial sustainability, quality of care provided, and strategic linkages with other entities. It concludes with the presentation of a research and policy analysis agenda that addresses the feasibility of the role of the rural hospital as the hub or coordinator of the rural health care delivery system, the fiscal viability of the rural hospital in the post-Balanced Budget Act period, strategies for measuring and improving the quality of care provided by rural hospitals, and the structure and value of horizontal and vertical linkages of rural hospitals.

  4. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Srisookwatana, Orapan; Pinprateep, Poldej; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-01-01

    Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors. Capacity development at individual, institutional and system level to generate evidence and ensure it is used by multisectoral agencies is as critical as strengthening the health literacy of people and the overall good governance of a

  5. Domestic wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds for irrigation in Mendoza, Argentina: policies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, O R; Fasciolo, G E; Bertrano, A V

    2002-01-01

    Arid areas call for imaginative water management solutions to avoid the dangers of water shortages. Growing demands of water for domestic and industrial uses decrease the availability of water for agriculture. It therefore becomes necessary to set up a policy for the use of domestic effluents. For the province of Mendoza, Argentina, with 1,500,000 inhabitants, a master plan was designed as of 1991 for the treatment of domestic effluents and subsequent disposal for irrigation. The guidelines set up by WHO for the use of wastewater in agricultural applications were taken into consideration. At present, the Province of Mendoza has available projects which are either complete, in execution or in the bidding process, entailing secondary treatment capacity with reuse of 320,000 cubic metres/day and an estimated possible irrigation area of 10,000 hectares. With this infrastructure, some strategic lines of action are recommended to establish a policy for the agricultural use of wastewater: (a) to program the use of treated wastewater to avoid discharges to irrigation flows; (b) to develop an institutional scheme for the efficient and safe use of these waters; and (c) develop scientific and technologic know-how to accompany the updated policies.

  6. Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity (PorGrow) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Ciok, J; Dolna, A; Oltarzewski, M

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of stakeholders towards a range of policy options to respond to obesity in Poland, a multi-criteria mapping method was used. During structured interviews, stakeholders were invited to appraise policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. They also provided relative weightings to their criteria, generating overall rankings of the policy options in relation to each other. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria deemed most important. There was most consensus in favour of options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at modifying the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity, modifying the supply and demand for food products, and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. There was broad consensus that to reverse the rising trend in the incidence of obesity, it will be necessary to implement a portfolio of measures, but options related to behaviour change through education are most highly regarded. It will also be necessary to invest in improved surveillance and monitoring of Polish dietary practices, levels of physical activity and obesity in terms of data on height, weight and body mass indexes.

  7. Early lessons and challenges from the healthy Mendocino community of solution.

    PubMed

    Baird Kanaan, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Northern California's Mendocino County is joining the national movement to upgrade the quantity and quality of local data available for assessing and improving local health. A broad-based coalition in the county has successfully engaged 20 community partners in funding a web-based tool for this purpose. HealthyMendocino.org, launched in January 2013, is designed to support setting local priorities, planning and evaluating the program, and building community by giving easy access to timely data on 90 indicators of local health and its determinants compiled from a range of state and federal sources. This article, written before the site's launch by the Chair of the Healthy Mendocino Steering Committee, describes the community of solution that came together to envision, publicize, raise support for, and bring to fruition this new resource. Mendocino is a rural county with limited financial capacity but rich social assets, including a strong collaborative tradition and an infrastructure of dynamic coalitions. This article outlines the anticipated benefits, early lessons, and challenges of the initiative and explains how the organizers leveraged connections with other communities of solution that already are working to improve the quality of life in the area. The article also notes ways in which this local initiative illustrates and aligns with several of the grand challenges outlined in the modern Folsom Report-specifically, challenges 7, 8, 11, 12, and above all 13, which concerns the use of health information technology to enable the flow of knowledge to the community of solution.

  8. Conducting Biobehavioral Research in Patients With Advanced Cancer: Recruitment Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson-White, Stephanie; Bohr, Nicole; Wickersham, Karen E

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and symptom management interventions over the last decade, patients continue to struggle with cancer-related symptoms. Adequate baseline and longitudinal data are crucial for designing interventions to improve patient quality of life and reduce symptom burden; however, recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in longitudinal research is difficult. Our purpose is to describe challenges and solutions to recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in two biobehavioral research studies examining cancer-related symptoms. Study 1: Symptom data and peripheral blood for markers of inflammation were collected from newly diagnosed patients receiving chemotherapy on the first day of therapy and every 3-4 weeks for up to 6 months. Study 2: Symptom data, blood, and skin biopsies were collected from cancer patients taking epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors at specific time points over 4 months. Screening and recruitment results for both studies are summarized. Timing informed consent with baseline data collection prior to treatment initiation was a significant recruitment challenge for both the studies. Possible solutions include tailoring recruitment to fit clinic needs, increasing research staff availability during clinic hours, and adding recruitment sites. Identifying solutions to these challenges will permit the conduct of studies that may lead to identification of factors contributing to variability in symptoms and development of tailored patient interventions for patients with advanced cancer.

  9. Preoperative psychological assessment of patients seeking weight-loss surgery: identifying challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Edwards-Hampton, Shenelle A; Wedin, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative psychosocial assessment is the standard of care for patients seeking weight-loss surgery (WLS). However, the assessment procedure varies widely by surgery site. Comprehensive assessments can provide a wealth of information that assists both the patient and the treatment team, anticipate and prepare for challenges associated with extensive behavioral and lifestyle changes that are required postsurgery. In this review, we provide an overview of the purpose of the preoperative psychosocial assessment and domains to be included. Challenges commonly identified in the assessment are discussed, including maladaptive eating behaviors, psychiatric comorbidities, and alcohol use. Potential solutions and approaches to these challenges are provided. Additionally, patient populations requiring special consideration are presented to include adolescents, those with cognitive vulnerabilities, and aging adults. PMID:26604844

  10. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  11. Challenges in global biodiversity conservation and solutions that cross sociology, politics, economics and ecology.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Sean; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2012-12-23

    The study and practice of conservation biology is inherently interdisciplinary, addresses short and long time-scales and occurs within complex human-natural interfaces. Zoos and aquaria, in partnership with researchers, other non-government organizations, government, industry and educators, are combining knowledge of species and ecosystems with economics, psychology and law to create solutions for conserving biodiversity. From 22 to 25 May, the Conservation Forum of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria was a venue for discussing conservation research, education and interventions, from the scale of villages to global policy.

  12. Challenges in global biodiversity conservation and solutions that cross sociology, politics, economics and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Hoban, Sean; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    The study and practice of conservation biology is inherently interdisciplinary, addresses short and long time-scales and occurs within complex human–natural interfaces. Zoos and aquaria, in partnership with researchers, other non-government organizations, government, industry and educators, are combining knowledge of species and ecosystems with economics, psychology and law to create solutions for conserving biodiversity. From 22 to 25 May, the Conservation Forum of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria was a venue for discussing conservation research, education and interventions, from the scale of villages to global policy. PMID:22832128

  13. Minimally invasive surgery in gastrointestinal cancer: benefits, challenges, and solutions for underutilization.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Osama H; Gusani, Niraj J; Kimchi, Eric T; Kavic, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future.

  14. Partnerships and communities in English drug policy: the challenge of deprivation.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, Susanne; Thickett, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    performance. The emphasis was on the most dangerous drugs and most disadvantaged areas. There is local variation in the pattern of problems and in implementation of national policies. In UK after 1997, New Labour policy aimed to promote a fair and cost-effective distribution of resources and improved availability and quality of treatment services and local policing. Tensions appeared between the drive to meet national targets and local perceptions of need. Ideas of localism, promoting market solutions and flexibility in provision, are now gaining ground in English social policy with the arrival of a Coalition (Conservative/Liberal Democrat) Government. These, together with an emphasis on abstinence and recovery, raise questions about the future adequacy of (a) attention to marginalised problems and stigmatised groups and (b) the distribution of resources in a context of severe fiscal restraint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges and solutions for clinical development of new antibacterial agents: results of a survey among pharmaceutical industry professionals.

    PubMed

    Bettiol, Esther; Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Schmitt, Nicola; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of antibacterial medicines in the pipeline remains low, we anonymously surveyed pharmaceutical industry professionals on challenges and solutions for clinical development of these agents. Challenges were reported primarily as financial and regulatory. For multidrug-resistant organisms, there are needs for rapid diagnostic tests, new regulatory guidance, and adaptation of endpoints/trial designs. Regulators and public/private initiatives are addressing these challenges to help ensure that proposed solutions have the support of all involved stakeholders.

  16. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Koduah, Augustina; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene A.; Ansah, Evelyn; van Dijk, Han; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2) that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented. Design Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008) were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges. Results Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively. Conclusion Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality. Implementing neonatal

  17. E-referral Solutions: Successful Experiences, Key Features and Challenges- a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Naseriasl, Mansour; Adham, Davoud; Janati, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: around the world health systems constantly face increasing pressures which arise from many factors, such as an ageing population, patients and providers demands for equipment’s and services. In order to respond these challenges and reduction of health system’s transactional costs, referral solutions are considered as a key factor. This study was carried out to identify referral solutions that have had successes. Methods: relevant studies identified using keywords of referrals, consultation, referral system, referral model, referral project, electronic referral, electronic booking, health system, healthcare, health service and medical care. These searches were conducted using PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Scopus, Emerald, Web of Knowledge, Springer, Science direct, Mosby’s index, SID, Medlib and Iran Doc data bases. 4306 initial articles were obtained and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: we identified seventeen e-referral systems developed in UK, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Denmark, Scotland, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and U.S. Implemented solutions had variant degrees of successes such as improved access to specialist care, reduced wait times, timeliness and quality of referral communication, accurate health information transfer and integration of health centers and services. Conclusion: each one of referral solutions has both positive and changeable aspects that should be addressed according to sociotechnical conditions. These solutions are mainly formed in a small and localized manner. PMID:26236167

  18. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  19. Considering the cumulative risk of mixtures of chemicals – A challenge for policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current paradigm for the assessment of the health risk of chemical substances focuses primarily on the effects of individual substances for determining the doses of toxicological concern in order to inform appropriately the regulatory process. These policy instruments place varying requirements on health and safety data of chemicals in the environment. REACH focuses on safety of individual substances; yet all the other facets of public health policy that relate to chemical stressors put emphasis on the effects of combined exposure to mixtures of chemical and physical agents. This emphasis brings about methodological problems linked to the complexity of the respective exposure pathways; the effect (more complex than simple additivity) of mixtures (the so-called 'cocktail effect'); dose extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of the validity of dose-response data to dose ranges that extend beyond the levels used for the derivation of the original dose-response relationship; the integrated use of toxicity data across species (including human clinical, epidemiological and biomonitoring data); and variation in inter-individual susceptibility associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Methods In this paper we give an overview of the main methodologies available today to estimate the human health risk of environmental chemical mixtures, ranging from dose addition to independent action, and from ignoring interactions among the mixture constituents to modelling their biological fate taking into account the biochemical interactions affecting both internal exposure and the toxic potency of the mixture. Results We discuss their applicability, possible options available to policy makers and the difficulties and potential pitfalls in implementing these methodologies in the frame of the currently existing policy framework in the European Union. Finally, we suggest a pragmatic solution for policy/regulatory action that would facilitate the evaluation of

  20. Key Challenges for Tertiary Education Policy and Research--An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedegebuure, Leo; Schoen, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Australia has had a mixed history in the way in which policy research has related to higher education policy. Recognising a history of policy-related research and to some extent research-informed policy-making, Australia has followed the trend of other New Public Management-driven systems of de-emphasising policy-oriented independent research. In…

  1. Key Challenges for Tertiary Education Policy and Research--An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedegebuure, Leo; Schoen, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Australia has had a mixed history in the way in which policy research has related to higher education policy. Recognising a history of policy-related research and to some extent research-informed policy-making, Australia has followed the trend of other New Public Management-driven systems of de-emphasising policy-oriented independent research. In…

  2. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or “cross-border reproductive care”, is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client’s countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored. PMID:26316832

  3. Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy.

    PubMed Central

    Asch, A

    1999-01-01

    Professionals should reexamine negative assumptions about the quality of life with prenatally detectable impairments and should reform clinical practice and public policy to improve informed decision making and genuine reproductive choice. Current data on children and families affected by disabilities indicate that disability does not preclude a satisfying life. Many problems attributed to the existence of a disability actually stem from inadequate social arrangements that public health professionals should work to change. This article assumes a pro-choice perspective but suggests that unreflective uses of prenatal testing could diminish, rather than expand, women's choices. This critique challenges the view of disability that lies behind the social endorsement of such testing and the conviction that women will or should end their pregnancies if they discover that the fetus has a disabling trait. PMID:10553384

  4. Challenges to building capacity for evidence-based new vaccine policy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Jon Kim; Jauregui, Barbara; De Oliveira, Lúcia Helena; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2011-06-01

    There are many challenges to ensuring that people in developing countries have equitable access to new vaccines. Two of the most important are having the capacity to make evidence-based new vaccine policy decisions in developing countries, and then when appropriate actually distributing those new vaccines to those who will most benefit from them. Based on our review of the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative in the Americas, we found that when national governments in developing countries develop the expertise to make the best technical decisions about immunization programs; take responsibility for helping to pay for and distribute vaccines; and are supported by strong partnerships with international organizations, they succeed in saving more lives more quickly.

  5. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy.

    PubMed

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or "cross-border reproductive care", is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client's countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored.

  6. MO-DE-207-04: Imaging educational program on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, R.

    2015-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children’s hospitals. The educational program will begin with a detailed discussion of the optimal configuration of fluoroscopes for general pediatric procedures. Following this introduction will be a focused discussion on the utility of Dual Energy CT for imaging children. The third lecture will address the substantial challenge of obtaining consistent image post -processing in pediatric digital radiography. The fourth and final lecture will address best practices in pediatric MRI including a discussion of ancillary methods to reduce sedation and anesthesia rates. Learning Objectives: To learn techniques for optimizing radiation dose and image quality in pediatric fluoroscopy To become familiar with the unique challenges and applications of Dual Energy CT in pediatric imaging To learn solutions for consistent post-processing quality in pediatric digital radiography To understand the key components of an effective MRI safety and quality program for the pediatric practice.

  7. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling Joint Climate and Bioenergy Policies: Challenges of integrating economic and environmental data. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwinckel, C. M.; West, T. O.; de La Torre Ugarte, D.; Perlack, R.

    2010-12-01

    In the coming decades agriculture will be asked to play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions and reducing our use of foreign oil. The Renewable Fuels Standard combined with possible climate legislation will alter the economic landscape effecting agricultural land use decisions. The joint implementation of these two policies could potentially work against one another. We have integrated biogeophysical data into the POLYSYS economic model to analyze the effects of climate change and bioenergy legislation upon regional land-use change, soil carbon, carbon emissions, biofuel production, and agricultural income. The purpose of the analysis was to use the integrated model to identify carbon and bioenergy policies that could act synergistically to meet Renewable Fuel Standard goals, reduce net emissions of carbon, and increase agricultural incomes. The heterogeneous nature of soils, crop yields, and management practices presented challenges to the modeling process. Regional variation in physical data can significantly affect economic land use decisions and patterns. For this reason, we disaggregated the economic component of the model to the county level, with sub-county soils and land-use data informing the county level decisions. Modeling carbon offset dynamics presented unique challenges, as the physical responses of local soils impact the economic incentives offered, and conversely, the resulting land-use changes impact characteristics of local soils. Additionally, using data from different resolution levels led to questions of appropriate scale of analysis. This presentation will describe the integrated model, present some significant results from our analysis, and discuss appropriate steps forward given what we learned.

  9. Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Stilwell, Barbara; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Dal Poz, Mario R; Adams, Orvill; Buchan, James

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that in 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world's population, were living outside their country of birth, compared to 100 million, or 1.8% of the total population, in 1995. As the global labour market strengthens, it is increasingly highly skilled professionals who are migrating. Medical practitioners and nurses represent a small proportion of highly skilled workers who migrate, but the loss of health human resources for developing countries can mean that the capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably is compromised. However, data to support claims on both the extent and the impact of migration in developing countries is patchy and often anecdotal, based on limited databases with highly inconsistent categories of education and skills. The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed. The paper is divided into six sections. In the first, the different types of migration are reviewed. Some global trends are depicted in the second section. Scarcity of data on health worker migration is one major challenge and this is addressed in section three, which reviews and discusses different data sources. The consequences of health worker migration and the financial flows associated with it are presented in section four and five, respectively. To illustrate the main issues addressed in the previous sections, a case study based mainly on the United Kingdom is presented in section six. This section includes a discussion on policies and ends by addressing the policy options from a broader perspective. PMID:14613524

  10. Implementation, barriers and challenges of smoke-free policies in hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in North Africa, and health professionals play a vital role in tobacco control. In Egypt, limited data are available on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers regarding tobacco control policies. Such data are especially relevant due to Egypt’s tobacco control laws, adopted in 2007, prohibiting smoking in hospitals and other public places. This study surveyed 49 senior administrative staff, 267 physicians, 254 nurses, and 109 administrative employees working in El-Kasr El-Aini Hospital in Cairo, assessing their knowledge and attitudes regarding Egypt’s tobacco control laws and barriers to their effective implementation in health care facilities. We also investigated the hospital’s compliance with smoke-free policies. Results The majority (>90%) of the hospital workers knew that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful to health. Physicians and nurses had a more favorable attitude towards the smoking ban when compared to administrative employees. Hospital staff identified the following barriers to successfully implementing the smoking ban: lax enforcement of tobacco control laws, the lack of penalties for violators, the lack of cessation programs, and the prevalence of smoking among physicians. Conclusions Overall, smoke-free policies were poorly enforced in this large teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Interventions to address the identified barriers to their implementation could include the provision of cessation training and services as well as effective communication programs to educate health care workers at all levels regarding the dangers of second-hand smoke exposure and effective measures for protection. PMID:23069011

  11. Sugar and health in South Africa: Potential challenges to leveraging policy change.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alex; Fig, David; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mandle, Jessie; Myers, Jonathan; Hofman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive sugar consumption is driving epidemics of obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) around the world. South Africa (SA), a major consumer of sugar, is also the third most obese country in Africa, and 40% of all deaths in the country result from NCDs. A number of fiscal, regulatory, and legislative levers could reduce sugar consumption in SA. This paper focuses on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the challenges that government might anticipate. Policies cannot be enacted in a vacuum and discussion is focused on the industrial, economic, and societal context. The affected industry actors have been part of the SA economy for over a century and remain influential. To deflect attention, the sugar industry can be expected either to advocate for self-regulation or to promote public-private partnerships. This paper cautions against both approaches as evidence suggests that they will be ineffective in curbing the negative health impacts caused by excessive sugar consumption. In summary, policy needs to be introduced with a political strategy sensitive to the various interests at stake. In particular, the sugar industry can be expected to be resistant to the introduction of any type of tax on SSBs.

  12. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France.

  13. Effective CKD care in European countries: challenges and opportunities for health policy.

    PubMed

    Bello, Aminu K; Levin, Adeera; Manns, Braden J; Feehally, John; Drueke, Tilman; Faruque, Labib; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Kernahan, Charles; Mann, Johannes; Klarenbach, Scott; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tonelli, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global public health problem that is associated with adverse health outcomes and high health care costs. Effective and cost-effective treatments are available for slowing the progression of CKD and preventing its complications, including cardiovascular disease. Although wealthy nations have highly structured schemes in place to support the care of people with kidney failure, less consideration has been given to health systems and policy for the much larger population of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Further, how to integrate such strategies with national and international initiatives for control of other chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) merits attention. We synthesized the various approaches to CKD control across 17 European countries and present our findings according to the key domains suggested by the World Health Organization framework for NCD control. This report identifies opportunities to strengthen CKD-relevant health systems and explores potential mechanisms to capitalize on these opportunities. Across the 17 countries studied, we found a number of common barriers to the care of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD: limited work force capacity, the nearly complete absence of mechanisms for disease surveillance, lack of a coordinated CKD care strategy, poor integration of CKD care with other NCD control initiatives, and low awareness of the significance of CKD. These common challenges faced by diverse health systems reflect the need for international cooperation to strengthen health systems and policies for CKD care. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health in all policies: the role of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and present and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Bostic, Raphael W; Thornton, Rachel L J; Rudd, Elizabeth C; Sternthal, Michelle J

    2012-09-01

    The link between federal housing policy and public health has been understood since the nineteenth century, when housing activists first sought to abolish slums and create healthful environments. This article describes how the Obama administration-building on these efforts and those that followed, including the Great Society programs of President Lyndon Johnson-has adopted a cross-sector approach that takes health considerations into account when formulating housing and community development policy. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development fully embraces this "health in all policies" approach. Nonetheless, the administration's strategy faces challenges, including fiscal and political ones. Some of these challenges may be overcome by conducting quality research on how housing and community development policies affect health outcomes, and by developing a federal budget strategy that takes into account how investments in one sector contribute to cost savings in another.

  15. Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science.

    PubMed

    Grey, D; Garrick, D; Blackmore, D; Kelman, J; Muller, M; Sadoff, C

    2013-11-13

    Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable water-related risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower water-related risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous science-based approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society. Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs.

  16. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  17. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  18. GODAN Local Farming Challenge 2017 - Encourage Geo-Innovation Solutions for Zero Hunger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suchith; Hogan, Patrick; Brovelli, Maria; Schaap, Ben; Musker, Ruthie; Laperrière, André

    2017-04-01

    The initial ideas for Open Geospatial Science [1] were presented nearly a decade ago. They build upon the proposition of Open science which argues that scientific knowledge develops more rapidly and productively if openly shared (as early as is practical in the discovery process). The key ingredients that make Open Geospatial Science possible are enshrined in Open Principles, i.e.: open source geospatial software, open data, open standards, open educational resources, and open access to research publications. OpenCitySmart[2] is an initiative of Geo for All [3] that aims to develop a suite of tools for city-related infrastructure management (utilities, traffic, services, etc.). Its purpose will be to continually refine and add functionality that not only streamlines operational efficiency but also considers the need for sustainability and quality of urban life. OpenCitySmart employs Open solutions to build richer tools that empower organisations and individuals to utilizespatial and non-spatial data alike. This will create opportunities for innovation both globally and locally. As the population of cities grow, the concern of food security will shift from rural to urban areas. Currently, nearly 800 million people struggle with debilitating hunger and malnutrition and can be found in every corner of the globe. That's one in every nine people, with the majority being women and children. The Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) [4] supports the proactive sharing of open data to make information about agriculture and nutrition available, accessible and usable to deal with the urgent challenge of ensuring world food security. A core principle behind GODAN is that a solution to Zero Hunger lies within existing, but often unavailable, agriculture and nutrition data. Through an online survey, GODAN found that the most needed data type across its 430+ partner network was geospatial data. Through the GODAN Europa Challenge we want to bring together

  19. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34) were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of non-state actors can

  20. Part-time employment in Jordan as a nursing policy solution.

    PubMed

    Al-Motlaq, M; Azar, N; Squires, A

    2017-03-01

    Explore the potential of a part-time work option for nurses as a strategy for managing domestic markets in Jordan by examining perceptions of working nurses and nursing students in the context of current social and cultural variables. Unemployment among Jordanian nurses has become a reality in recent years. However, labor markets literature in nursing rarely studies what kind of policy responses should occur during a surplus of nurses. A cross-sectional design structured the study. The perceptions of nurses and students were measured through a questionnaire developed specifically for the purpose of this exploratory study. Both nurses (n = 51) and students (n = 56) supported the introduction of the new suggested part-time option. However, students were more willing to start working or transfer into part-time work, take payment on hourly basis, and support colleagues to transfer into part-time work. Different solutions were also suggested by participants. The results were useful for providing the foundational data to further study the viability of a part-time work option for Jordanian nurses. The results show how optimistic current and future Jordanian nurses are regarding this employment option. For countries that may need to diversify their employment models due to excess supply of nurses and to address gender imbalances, this work may help inform policy development. Both employed and unemployed nurses will benefit if health care managers consider its application. The flexibility of this option may help improve the quality of life of many nurses. The results of this study provide nursing leaders and managers with foundational evidence that may be applicable in the Jordanian health sector. Although further studies are recommended, nursing leaders and policy makers should consider such a solution. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend, J. G., II; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  2. Challenges and solutions of remote sensing at offshore wind energy developments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T A; West, T E; Davenport, J K

    2009-11-01

    Radar is becoming an important tool used to gather data on bird and bat activity at proposed and existing land-based wind energy sites. Radar will likely play an even more important role at the increasing development of wind energy offshore, given both the lack of knowledge about bird and bat activity offshore and the increased difficulty in obtaining offshore information. Most radar studies to date have used off-the-shelf or modified marine radars. However, there are several issues that continue to hinder the potential usefulness of radar at wind energy sites, with offshore sites providing a particular suite of challenges. We identify these challenges along with current or developing solutions.

  3. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend II, J. G.; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  4. Personal Genomic Information Management and Personalized Medicine: Challenges, Current Solutions, and Roles of HIM Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Alzu'bi, Amal; Zhou, Leming; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term personalized medicine has received more and more attention in the field of healthcare. The increasing use of this term is closely related to the astonishing advancement in DNA sequencing technologies and other high-throughput biotechnologies. A large amount of personal genomic data can be generated by these technologies in a short time. Consequently, the needs for managing, analyzing, and interpreting these personal genomic data to facilitate personalized care are escalated. In this article, we discuss the challenges for implementing genomics-based personalized medicine in healthcare, current solutions to these challenges, and the roles of health information management (HIM) professionals in genomics-based personalized medicine. PMID:24808804

  5. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Srisookwatana, Orapan; Pinprateep, Poldej; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-05-16

    Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors. Capacity development at individual, institutional and system level to generate evidence and ensure it is used by multisectoral agencies is as critical as strengthening the health literacy of people and the overall good governance of a

  6. Establishing institutional ethics committees: challenges and solutions - a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuyare, Mukta S; Taur, Santosh R; Thatte, Urmila M

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature was conducted to identify the challenges faced while establishing institutional ethics committees (IECs) as well as to suggest some solutions. The search of the literature was carried out with the help of the PubMed search engine, using “research ethics committees” (MeSH] and “India” (MeSH]) as the key words for articles published between 2004 and 2012. We found 31 articles related to the topic, and the most common challenge mentioned was inappropriate functioning of IECs (n=17), followed by inappropriate structure (n=14). The authors identified many challenges related to the lack of oversight by regulatory bodies (n=14) as well as issues pertaining to the ethical training of IEC members and investigators (n=13). It is evident from the multitude of papers on the issue that the challenges related to the constitution and functioning of IECs must be given the attention they deserve to ensure that research participants in India are better protected.

  7. PET-MRI: a review of challenges and solutions in the development of integrated multimodality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Marsden, Paul K.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been an ongoing research topic for the last 20 years. This paper gives an overview of the different developments and the technical problems associated with combining PET and MRI in one system. After explaining the different detector concepts for integrating PET-MRI and minimising interference the limitations and advantages of different solutions for the detector and system are described for preclinical and clinical imaging systems. The different integrated PET-MRI systems are described in detail. Besides detector concepts and system integration the challenges and proposed solutions for attenuation correction and the potential for motion correction and resolution recovery are also discussed in this topical review.

  8. Challenges and potential solutions to educating learners about pediatric complex care.

    PubMed

    Bogetz, Jori F; Bogetz, Alyssa L; Bergman, David; Turner, Teri; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Ballantine, Allison

    2014-01-01

    To identify existing challenges and potential strategies for providing complex care training to future pediatricians from a national group of educators. Data were collected from pediatric educators involved in complex care at the Pediatric Educational Excellence Across the Continuum national meeting. Participants completed an anonymous 15-item survey adapted from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Best Practices for Better Care initiative and participated in a focus group to understand the challenges and potential solutions to pediatric complex care education. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Of the 15 participants, 9 (60%) were in educational leadership positions. All participants provided care to children with medical complexity (CMC), although 80% (n = 12) reported no formal training. Thematic analysis revealed learners' challenges in 2 domains: 1) a lack of ownership for the patient because of decreased continuity, decision-making authority, and autonomy, as a result of the multitude of care providers and parents' distrust; and 2) a sense of being overwhelmed as a result of lack of preparedness and disruptions in work flow. Participants suggested 3 mitigating strategies: being candid about the difficulties of complex care, discussing the social mandate to care for CMC, and cultivating humility among learners. Residency education must prepare pediatricians to care for all children, regardless of disease. Training in complex care involves redefining the physician's role so that they are better equipped to participate in collaboration, empathy and advocacy with CMC. This study is the first to identify specific challenges and offer potential solutions to help establish training guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobilis in mobili: wireless health solutions for a morphing medical challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    We face the challenge of providing adequate medical attention to a growing and aging population. Even societies with the best healthcare standards are not prepared to provide adequate medical attention to a growing population. Globally, these problems are magnified as medical care is a mélange ranging from obsolete techniques to state-of-the-art care. A solution to providing proper healthcare in every society, and closing the gap between developed and underserved communities, is the implementation of wireless based preventive medicine. The key components to universalize wireless health care are device miniaturization, increased shelf-life of bio-reagents, and low production cost of medical devices.

  10. Language barriers within primary care consultations: an increasing challenge needing new solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangyu; Pearson, David; Escott, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    International migration is an increasing global phenomenon, particularly noticeable in the UK where removing barriers to travel and residence within an expanded European Union has brought a huge increase in new arrivals. Migration has increased the number of medical consultations where language barriers occur. This paper summarises findings from a review of the literature and explores the challenges posed within these medical consultations, particularly those in primary care. It highlights limitations to current consultation models and educational interventions to improve consultations across language barriers, and suggests future solutions to those problems.

  11. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa: challenges, opportunities, and policy priority areas.

    PubMed

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Bromberg, Mel; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa has drawn attention to global health inequalities, in particular the inadequacies of health care systems in sub-Saharan African countries for appropriately managing and containing infectious diseases. The purpose of this article is to examine the sociopolitical and economic conditions that created the environment for the Ebola epidemic to occur, identify challenges to and opportunities for the prevention and control of Ebola and future outbreaks, and discuss policy recommendations and priority areas for addressing the Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks in West Africa. Articles in peer-reviewed journals on health system reforms in developing countries and periodicals of international organizations were used to gather the overview reported in this article. We identify individual, structural, and community challenges that must be addressed in an effort to reduce the spread of Ebola in West Africa. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for the overhaul and transformation of African health care systems to build the capacity in these countries to address infectious diseases. Public-private partnerships for investment in developing countries' health care systems that involve the international community are critical in addressing the current Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks.

  12. Current situation and future challenges of tobacco control policy in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Ketchoo, Chittawet

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand, the prevalence of smoking has steadily declined over the past 20 years, suggesting an effective tobacco control policy. However, the prevalence has recently stabilised and youth smoking now appears to be on the rise. Tobacco use is the third highest risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in the country. This is an issue of concern and led to the present review of tobacco control measures in Thailand. The present evidence-based review shows that Thailand's tobacco control measures are relatively strong and comply well with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in terms of taxation, advertisement through popular media, and warning labels on cigarettes and other tobacco product packages. However, challenges remain in dealing with highly prevalent roll-your-own cigarettes, strict prohibition of tobacco sale to underage youths, household smoking, illicit trade of tobacco products, viable tobacco crop diversification for domestic tobacco growers and liability. If these challenges are met, the prevalence of tobacco consumption could possibly be further reduced.

  13. Ethics of the heart: ethical and policy challenges in the treatment of advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fields, Anjali V; Kirkpatrick, James N

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, accounting for immense health-care costs. Advanced therapies such as transplantation, ventricular assist devices, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators have had great success in significantly improving life expectancy and morbidity, however these advances have contributed substantially to the economic burden associated with this epidemic. Concomitantly, the accessibility of these advanced therapies is limited, due to a finite number of available organs for heart transplantation and, in the future, the economic costs associated with both transplant and device therapy. This article discusses ethical and policy challenges in the treatment of advanced heart failure, including decisions regarding procurement of hearts for transplant and allocation to recipients; and the complex issues surrounding the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and ventricular assist devices, including quality of life, advanced directive planning in the context of these devices, and resource utilization. Based on these challenges, we recommend that a discussion of these complex matters be incorporated into cardiovascular training programs.

  14. Immunizing health care workers against influenza: a glimpse into the challenges with voluntary programs and considerations for mandatory policies.

    PubMed

    Quach, Susan; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quan, Sherman; Crowe, Lois; Guay, Maryse; Bettinger, Julie A

    2013-11-01

    Vaccination of health care workers (HCWs) is an important patient safety initiative. It prevents influenza infection among patients and reduces staff illness and absenteeism. Despite these benefits, HCW influenza immunization uptake is low. Therefore, strategies to achieve high immunization coverage in HCWs, barriers to uptake, and perceptions of mandatory influenza immunization policies were discussed in key informant interviews with influenza immunization program planners. We conducted telephone interviews with 23 influenza immunization program planners from 21 organizations (7 acute care hospitals, 6 continuing care facilities, and 8 public health organizations) across Canada. We used content analysis to identify themes from the interviews. Participants used a variety of promotional and educational activities, and many vaccine delivery approaches, to support HCW immunization programs. Barriers to achieving high coverage in HCWs included misconceptions about the safety and effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, negative personal experiences associated with the vaccine, and antivaccine sentiments. Participants mentioned mandatory influenza immunizations as a solution to low coverage. However, they identified challenges with this approach such as obtaining support from stakeholders, enforcement, and limiting personal autonomy. Participants believed immunization coverage in health care organizations will continue to be suboptimal using existing program strategies. Although participants discussed mandatory immunization as a way to improve uptake, potential obstacles will need to be addressed for this to be implemented successfully. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SU-E-E-03: Developing Solutions to Critical Radiation Oncology Challenges in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Kenton, O; Dachi, J; Metz, J; Avery, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Develop solutions to critical medical physics challenges in Tanzania. Methods: In September of 2013 we began working with Jumaa Bin Dachi, a Therapy Physicist at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We developed a bi-lateral learning partnership over the course of eight qualitative Skype meetings with Jumaa. From these meetings we have ascertained that there is a gap between the installation of new equipment and treating patients. This gap has often been overlooked by international partners attempting to improve radiation therapy access. Relationships with academic institutions abroad can fill these gaps, and lead to sustained care of patients needing radiation. Results: Our efforts are best given in a supporting role to help develop solutions and new technology that can reduce the burden on the Medical Physicist. Solutions may include: training material, support for radiation therapy classes, development of appropriate local protocols, and peer-review on documents being produced. New technology needs to focus around simple and easy field shaping, improved patient imaging systems, and systems for patient set-up. We believe our work can help alleviate some of the burdens faced by this institute. Conclusion: While we are just in the beginning stage of this partnership, we believe there is great potential for success between both parties. We hope that the Ocean Road Cancer Institute will benefit from potential funding and resources by partnering with a High Income Country to develop affordable solutions to clinical problems in Tanzania.

  16. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    PubMed

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented.

  17. The European Water Framework Directive: Challenges For A New Type of Social and Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.

    Water resources managment is facing increasing uncertainties in all areas. Socio- economic boundary conditions change quickly and require more flexible management strategies. Climate change, for example results in an increase in uncertainties, in par- ticular extreme events. Given the fact that current management practices deal with extreme events by designing the technical systems to manage the most extreme of all cases (e.g. higher dams for the protection against extreme floods, larger water reser- voirs for droughts and to meet daily peak demand) a serious problem is posed for long-term planning and risk management. Engineering planning has perceived the hu- man dimension as exogenous boundary conditions. Legislation focused largely on the environmental and technological dimensions that set limits and prescribe new tech- nologies without taking the importance of institutional change into account. However, technology is only the "hardware" and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the "software", the social dimension, has to become part of planning and management processes. Hence, the inclusion of the human dimension into integrated models and processes will be valuable in supporting the introduction of new elements into plan- ning processes in water resources management. With the European Water Framework Directive environmental policy enters a new era. The traditional approach to solving isolated environmental problems with technological fixes and end-of-pipe solutions has started to shift towards a more thoughtful attitude which involves the development of integrated approaches to problem solving. The WFD introduces the river basin as the management unit, thus following the experience of some European countries (e.g. France) and the example of the management of some international rivers (e.g. the Rhine). Overall the WFD represents a general shift towards a polycentric understand- ing of policy making that requires the involvement of stakeholders as active

  18. Challenges and Possible Solutions to Colorectal Cancer Screening for the Underserved

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates. We identify four key policy and research priorities to increase screening among underserved populations: 1) actively promote the message, “the best test is the one that gets done”; 2) develop and implement methods to identify unscreened individuals within underserved population groups for screening interventions; 3) develop and implement approaches for organized screening delivery; and 4) fund and enhance programs and policies that provide access to screening, diagnostic follow-up, and CRC treatment for underserved populations. This commentary represents the consensus of a diverse group of experts in cancer control and prevention, epidemiology, gastroenterology, and primary care from across the country who formed the Coalition to Boost Screening among the Underserved in the United States. The group was organized and held its first annual working group meeting in conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization’s annual Colorectal Cancer Screening Committee meeting during Digestive Disease Week 2012 in San Diego, California. PMID:24681602

  19. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  20. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  1. Dynamic Consent: a potential solution to some of the challenges of modern biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Teare, Harriet J A; Kaye, Jane; Beck, Stephan; Bentzen, Heidi Beate; Caenazzo, Luciana; Collett, Clive; D'Abramo, Flavio; Felzmann, Heike; Finlay, Teresa; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Jones, Erica; Katić, Višnja; Simpson, Amy; Mascalzoni, Deborah

    2017-01-25

    Innovations in technology have contributed to rapid changes in the way that modern biomedical research is carried out. Researchers are increasingly required to endorse adaptive and flexible approaches to accommodate these innovations and comply with ethical, legal and regulatory requirements. This paper explores how Dynamic Consent may provide solutions to address challenges encountered when researchers invite individuals to participate in research and follow them up over time in a continuously changing environment. An interdisciplinary workshop jointly organised by the University of Oxford and the COST Action CHIP ME gathered clinicians, researchers, ethicists, lawyers, research participants and patient representatives to discuss experiences of using Dynamic Consent, and how such use may facilitate the conduct of specific research tasks. The data collected during the workshop were analysed using a content analysis approach. Dynamic Consent can provide practical, sustainable and future-proof solutions to challenges related to participant recruitment, the attainment of informed consent, participant retention and consent management, and may bring economic efficiencies. Dynamic Consent offers opportunities for ongoing communication between researchers and research participants that can positively impact research. Dynamic Consent supports inter-sector, cross-border approaches and large scale data-sharing. Whilst it is relatively easy to set up and maintain, its implementation will require that researchers re-consider their relationship with research participants and adopt new procedures.

  2. Studies on Nurse staffing and Healthcare Associated Infection: Methodological Challenges and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jingjing; Stone, Patricia; Larson, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have been studying hospital nurse staffing in relation to healthcare associated infections (HAIs) for over two decades, and the results have been mixed. We summarized published research examining these issues, critically analyzed the commonly used approaches, identified methodologic challenges, proposed potential solutions, and suggested the possible benefits of applying an electronic health record (EHR) system. Method A scoping review was conducted using Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature since 1990. Original research studies examining relationships between nurse staffing and HAIs in the hospital setting and published in peer-reviewed English-language journals were selected. Results A total of 125 articles/abstracts were identified and 45 met inclusion criteria. Findings from these studies were mixed. The methodologic challenges identified included database selection, variable measurement, methods to link the nurse staffing and HAI data and addressing temporality. Administrative staffing data were often not precise or specific. The most common method to link staffing and HAI data did not assess the temporal relationship. We proposed using daily staffing information 2–4 days prior to HAI onset linked to individual patient HAI data. Discussion To assess the relationships between nurse staffing and HAIs, methodological decisions are necessary based on what data are available and feasible to obtain. National efforts to promote EHR may offer solutions for future studies by providing more comprehensive data on HAIs and nurse staffing. PMID:26042847

  3. Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-02-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

  4. Studies on nurse staffing and health care-associated infection: methodologic challenges and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jingjing; Stone, Patricia; Larson, Elaine

    2015-06-01

    Researchers have been studying hospital nurse staffing in relation to health care-associated infections (HAIs) for >2 decades, and the results have been mixed. We summarized published research examining these issues, critically analyzed the commonly used approaches, identified methodologic challenges, proposed potential solutions, and suggested the possible benefits of applying an electronic health record (EHR) system. A scoping review was conducted using MEDLINE and CINAHL from 1990 onward. Original research studies examining relationships between nurse staffing and HAIs in the hospital setting and published in peer-reviewed English-language journals were selected. A total of 125 articles and abstracts were identified, and 45 met inclusion criteria. Findings from these studies were mixed. The methodologic challenges identified included database selection, variable measurement, methods to link the nurse staffing and HAI data, and temporality. Administrative staffing data were often not precise or specific. The most common method to link staffing and HAI data did not assess the temporal relationship. We proposed using daily staffing information 2-4 days prior to HAI onset linked to individual patient HAI data. To assess the relationships between nurse staffing and HAIs, methodologic decisions are necessary based on what data are available and feasible to obtain. National efforts to promote an EHR may offer solutions for future studies by providing more comprehensive data on HAIs and nurse staffing. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Financial sustainability versus access and quality in a challenged health system: an examination of the capitation policy debate in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-11-01

    Policy makers in low and middle-income countries are frequently confronted with challenges of increasing health access for poor populations in a sustainable manner. After several years of trying out different health financing mechanisms, health insurance has recently emerged as a pro-poor health financing policy. Capitation, a fixed fee periodically paid to health service providers for anticipated services, is one of the payment policies in health insurance. This article examines claims and counter-claims made by coalitions and individual stakeholders in a capitation payment policy debate within Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme. Using content analysis of public and parliamentary proceedings, we situate the debate within policy making and health insurance literature. We found that the ongoing capitation payment debate stems from challenges in implementation of earlier health insurance claims payment systems, which reflect broader systemic challenges facing the health insurance scheme in Ghana. The study illustrates the extent to which various sub-systems in the policy debate advance arguments to legitimize their claims about the contested capitation payment system. In addition, we found that the health of poor communities, women and children are being used as surrogates for political and individual arguments in the policy debate. The article recommends a more holistic and participatory approach through persuasion and negotiation to join interests and core evidence together in the capitation policy making in Ghana and elsewhere with similar contexts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Identifying the Challenges of Iran’s Health Houses and Presenting a Solution

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Seyed Hossein; Alimehr, Mostafa; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Seyednezhad, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction After more than three decades of network system design, epidemiological transition, as well as the change in needs and expectations of rural communities, have brought some challenges for Iran’s health houses. So, this study is aimed at identifying these challenges through a qualitative study. Methods This was a qualitative and phenomenological study which was carried out in three phases in Iran in 2015. In the first phase, the required data was collected through semi-structured interviews with selected experts, health workers and referrals to Iran’s health houses, so that all were selected purposefully. In the second phase, two expert panels were conducted to provide solutions. In the third phase the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated using the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) method. The data of the first two phases were analyzed using the Collaizi method. Results Fourteen subthemes under five themes of ; quality of provided services, human resources, infrastructure, inter-sectorial and intra-sectorial relations, and contextual factors were identified as the challenges of Iran’s health houses, and consist of fourteen sub themes. Continuous education of health workers, equipping and renovating old buildings, improving inter and intra-sectorial relationships and the proportionating workload with a number of workers, were the most important solutions. Conclusion The study showed that, over time, many of the functions of Iran’s health houses have been faced with problems, therefore, training the manpower, equipping Iran’s health houses and creating better public spaces and building culture are recommended to enhance the effectiveness and revisions based on the study. PMID:27957313

  7. Securing a Better Living Environment for Left-Behind Children: Implications and Challenges for Policies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Theodora; Ee, Miriam; Anh, Hoang Lan; Yeoh, Brenda S A

    2013-12-01

    Migration is an increasingly significant driver of transformations in family configurations and caregiving practices as well as living arrangements. The sustainability of geographically-split family formations is dependent on several factors, including the presence and strength of care support networks among migrants and their left-behind families, access to communication infrastructure and the stability of the families' financial resources. Drawing on both a selective review of relevant academic literature as well as key findings from the CHAMPSEA Project, the article first examines the effects of these three factors on the well-being of migrants' left-behind family members, especially children. The article also considers major implications of the project's findings, as well as possible challenges for migration and development policies. One area of concern for migration and development policy arising from our research findings is the need to provide better support for left-behind caregivers or carers who are substituting for the absent migrant in childcare and domestic work but who may also need care and support themselves. Another area relates to the need to improve communication infrastructure to help migrants and their families maintain their relationships across transnational spaces; while a third lies with the importance of minimizing migrant families' economic stress stemming from the cycle of debts resulting from exorbitant broker fees and the mismanagement of remittances. By acknowledging both the social and economic costs of international labor migration on families, governments of labor-sending countries can create a more effective legal and institutional framework as well as design suitable supporting mechanisms for left-behind families. There is then a stronger possibility that migration can become a sustainable development strategy for transnational families in South-East Asia.

  8. Continued challenges in the policy and legal framework for collaborative water planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Poh-Ling; Bowmer, K. H.; Baldwin, C.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe consider the implementation of Australian water reform over the last two decades and into the future. Reform was to provide security for consumptive users and adequate rights for the environment. Overallocation, a key threat to both these aims, continues to challenge planners particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin and cannot be addressed without community support. We draw from four major studies to provide insights on how implementation needs to be underpinned by theory. From the perspective of institutional design for collaborative and sustainable water planning, seven major improvements are required: (1) Provision of detailed policy guidelines to support general legal requirements, particularly practical advice for interpreting and applying the precautionary principle. (2) Tools to identify and engage unorganised or neglected community sectors, for example Indigenous peoples and youth. (3) Procedural fairness and transparent decision making, to build confidence in reform; use of independent experts and visual tools to improve the quality of discussion and increase the acceptability of trade-offs. (4) Clearer documentation and language in planning, as more litigation is likely. (5) In accord with international literature, the development of comprehensive policy and legislative framework allowing a systems approach to consensus building, especially when the science is contested. (6) Information on exactly how much water is required and where, by capturing societal choices on environmental assets. (7) Planning for sustainable contraction where cutbacks to water use is required, as an additional strategy to the current emphasis on buying water or building infrastructure. In summary we advocate collaborative water planning processes to engender community confidence in planning.

  9. Securing a Better Living Environment for Left-Behind Children: Implications and Challenges for Policies

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Theodora; Ee, Miriam; Anh, Hoang Lan; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an increasingly significant driver of transformations in family configurations and caregiving practices as well as living arrangements. The sustainability of geographically-split family formations is dependent on several factors, including the presence and strength of care support networks among migrants and their left-behind families, access to communication infrastructure and the stability of the families’ financial resources. Drawing on both a selective review of relevant academic literature as well as key findings from the CHAMPSEA Project, the article first examines the effects of these three factors on the well-being of migrants’ left-behind family members, especially children. The article also considers major implications of the project’s findings, as well as possible challenges for migration and development policies. One area of concern for migration and development policy arising from our research findings is the need to provide better support for left-behind caregivers or carers who are substituting for the absent migrant in childcare and domestic work but who may also need care and support themselves. Another area relates to the need to improve communication infrastructure to help migrants and their families maintain their relationships across transnational spaces; while a third lies with the importance of minimizing migrant families’ economic stress stemming from the cycle of debts resulting from exorbitant broker fees and the mismanagement of remittances. By acknowledging both the social and economic costs of international labor migration on families, governments of labor-sending countries can create a more effective legal and institutional framework as well as design suitable supporting mechanisms for left-behind families. There is then a stronger possibility that migration can become a sustainable development strategy for transnational families in South-East Asia. PMID:24954965

  10. Policies for agricultural nitrogen management—trends, challenges and prospects for improved efficiency in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hansen, Birgitte; Hasler, Berit; Hertel, Ole; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Kronvang, Brian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Schjørring, Jan K.; Sillebak Kristensen, Ib; Graversgaard, Morten; Termansen, Mette; Vejre, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    With more than 60% of the land farmed, with vulnerable freshwater and marine environments, and with one of the most intensive, export-oriented livestock sectors in the world, the nitrogen (N) pollution pressure from Danish agriculture is severe. Consequently, a series of policy action plans have been implemented since the mid 1980s with significant effects on the surplus, efficiency and environmental loadings of N. This paper reviews the policies and actions taken and their ability to mitigate effects of reactive N (Nr) while maintaining agricultural production. In summary, the average N-surplus has been reduced from approximately 170 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to below 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during the past 30 yrs, while the overall N-efficiency for the agricultural sector (crop + livestock farming) has increased from around 20-30% to 40-45%, the N-leaching from the field root zone has been halved, and N losses to the aquatic and atmospheric environment have been significantly reduced. This has been achieved through a combination of approaches and measures (ranging from command and control legislation, over market-based regulation and governmental expenditure to information and voluntary action), with specific measures addressing the whole N cascade, in order to improve the quality of ground- and surface waters, and to reduce the deposition to terrestrial natural ecosystems. However, there is still a major challenge in complying with the EU Water Framework and Habitats Directives, calling for new approaches, measures and technologies to mitigate agricultural N losses and control N flows.

  11. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Ip, Stanley; Lee, Jounghee; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Raman, Gowri; Trikalinos, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lau, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization suggested that incorporating systematic (evidence) reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would provide a comprehensive and distilled evidence document to decision makers and enhance the transparency of the decision-making process the IOM used in recommending the Dietary Reference Intake values (DRIs) for US and Canadian populations. At the request of the US and Canadian government sponsors of the ongoing review of the 1997 vitamin D and calcium DRI values, the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center performed a systematic review for the current DRI Committee to use early in its deliberations. We described the approach used to include systematic review into the IOM process for updating nutrient reference values and highlighted major challenges encountered along with the solutions used. The challenges stemmed from the need to review and synthesize a large number of primary studies covering a broad range of outcomes. We resolved these challenges by 1) working with a technical expert panel to prioritize and select outcomes of interest, 2) developing methods to use existing systematic reviews and documenting the limitations by doing so, 3) translating results from studies not designed to address issues of interest by using a transparent process, and 4) establishing tailored quality-assessment tools to assist in decision making. The experiences described in this article can serve as a basis for future improvements in systematic reviews of nutrients and to better integrate systematic review into development of future nutrient reference values.

  12. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  13. Smartphone-based solutions for fall detection and prevention: challenges and open issues.

    PubMed

    Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-04-22

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems.

  14. Smartphone-Based Solutions for Fall Detection and Prevention: Challenges and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S.; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems. PMID:24759116

  15. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The United States pediatric population with chronic health conditions is expanding. Currently, this demographic comprises 12-18% of the American child and youth population. Affected children often receive fragmented, uncoordinated care. Overall, the American health care delivery system produces modest outcomes for this population. Poor, uninsured and minority children may be at increased risk for inferior coordination of services. Further, the United States health care delivery system is primarily organized for the diagnosis and treatment of acute conditions. For pediatric patients with chronic health conditions, the typical acute problem-oriented visit actually serves as a barrier to care. The biomedical model of patient education prevails, characterized by unilateral transfer of medical information. However, the evidence basis for improvement in disease outcomes supports the use of the chronic care model, initially proposed by Dr. Edward Wagner. Six inter-related elements distinguish the success of the chronic care model, which include self-management support and care coordination by a prepared, proactive team. United States health care lacks a coherent policy direction for the management of high cost chronic conditions, including rheumatic diseases. A fundamental restructure of United States health care delivery must urgently occur which places the patient at the center of care. For the pediatric rheumatology workforce, reimbursement policies and the actions of health plans and insurers are consistent barriers to chronic disease improvement. United States reimbursement policy and overall fragmentation of health care services pose specific challenges for widespread implementation of the chronic care model. Team-based multidisciplinary care, care coordination and self-management are integral to improve outcomes. Pediatric rheumatology demand in the United States far exceeds available workforce supply. This article reviews the career choice decision-making process

  16. Public policy and breast-feeding: a straightforward and significant solution.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jody; Kramer, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring working mothers' ability to breast-feed is crucial given that breast-feeding substantially reduces infant morbidity and mortality while promoting maternal health. Working conditions, rules on the job, supervisors and co-workers can all raise or lower barriers to breast-feeding. Around the world, 127 countries guarantee working women the right to breast-feed. Canada does not provide this assurance, despite the fact that the majority of infants are born to women in the labour force. This has profound implications for the health of infants and mothers alike. Solutions exist: extending current policies to ensure adequate maternity leave is available for all Canadians, legislating a right to breast-feed while working, and adapting workplaces to make this practical.

  17. Debate-Proof Grades: Experiences and Challenges of Using a Grading Rubric in a Social Welfare Policy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, Christson A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences and challenges of a graduate teaching assistant in using a grading rubric in a social welfare policy course. Using a grading rubric as a debate-proof strategy against the grade entitlement of students is expatiated. In addition, the benefits of using grading rubrics to achieve CSWE/EPAS competency…

  18. Population policies and programmes in the post-ICPD era: can the Pacific Island countries meet the challenge?

    PubMed

    Chee, S; House, W J; Lewis, L

    1999-03-01

    This article describes prospective population policies and programs that may be implemented in the Pacific Island Countries during the post-International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) era (i.e., by the year 2005, the target date of the ICPD Program of Action). Some of the positive indicators in the Pacific Islands are a high annual average income level, high average life expectancy by world standards, absence of absolute poverty, high overall literacy rates, universality of primary education, low infant mortality rate, availability of modern transportation and communication infrastructure, and accessibility of safe water supplies and health services. The challenge is to maintain the overall high standard of living in the Islands without taxing their resources. Addressing this challenge will require innovative population-accommodating and population-influencing policies; these would be incorporated into comprehensive national population and development policies and programs targeting reproductive health. The greatest challenge will be to integrate population issues fully into the development and planning process at time when national development policy options are very limited. National governments and donors should respond to this challenge to ensure the maintenance of past achievements and current progress in the quality of life of Pacific Islanders.

  19. Debate-Proof Grades: Experiences and Challenges of Using a Grading Rubric in a Social Welfare Policy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, Christson A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences and challenges of a graduate teaching assistant in using a grading rubric in a social welfare policy course. Using a grading rubric as a debate-proof strategy against the grade entitlement of students is expatiated. In addition, the benefits of using grading rubrics to achieve CSWE/EPAS competency…

  20. Le défi climatique : les limites des politiques publiquesThe Climate Challenge: the limits of public policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, Dominique

    2003-06-01

    Can democratic societies organise the energy diet imposed by the prevention of climate change? What would be the difficulties to overcome? This challenge could not be met without changing the nature of public policies and without learning how to determine collectively new individual lifestyles, not separable from duties. To cite this article: D. Bourg, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  1. Applying the 5-Step Method to Children and Affected Family Members: Opportunities and Challenges within Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwin, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to consider how the 5-Step Method could be developed to meet the needs of affected family members (AFMs) with children under the age of 18. This would be an entirely new development. This article examines opportunities and challenges within practice and policy and makes suggestions on how the Method could be taken…

  2. A policy hackathon for analysing impacts and solutions up to 20 metres sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Bouwer, Laurens; Kwadijk, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    We organised a policy hackathon in order to quantify the impacts accelerated and high-end sea-level rise up to 20 metres on the coast of the Netherlands, and develop possible solutions. This was done during one day, with 20 experts that had a wide variety of disciplines, including hydrology, geology, coastal engineering, economics, and public policy. During the process the problem was divided up into several sub-sets of issues that were analysed and solved within small teams of between 4 to 8 people. Both a top-down impact analysis and bottom-up vulnerability analysis was done by answering the questions: What is the impact of sea level rise of x meter?; and How much sea level rise can be accommodated with before transformative actions are needed? Next, adaptation tipping points were identified that describe conditions under which the coastal system starts to perform unacceptably. Reasons for an adaptation tipping point can be technical (technically not possible), economic (cost-benefits are negative), or resources (available space, sand, energy production, financial). The results are presented in a summary document, and through an infographic displaying different adaptation tipping points and milestones that occur when the sea level rises up to 20 m. No technical limitations were found for adaptation, but many important decisions need to be taken. Although accelerated sea level rise seems far away it can have important consequences for short-term decisions that are required for transformative actions. Such extensive actions require more time for implementation. Also, other action may become ineffective before their design life. This hackathon exercise shows that it is possible to map within a short time frame the issues at hand, as well as potentially effective solutions. This can be replicated for other problems, and can be useful for several decision-makers that require quick but in-depth analysis of their long-term planning problems.

  3. Brazil's policy on healthcare for government workers: players, paths and challenges.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Oliveira, Simone Santos; Andrade, Elsa Thomé de; Strauzz, Maria Cristina; Castro, Larisse Caroline Ferreira de; Azambuja, Aline de

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to analyze the extent to which Brazil's public sector has made progress in institutionalizing an integral and participative model for the healthcare of government workers, based on the principles of universality, integrality and workers' participation. Based on documents produced by the Rio de Janeiro Permanent Forum on Workers' Health, the paper analyses the process of implantation of the Integrated Public Workers' Healthcare Sub-System (SIASS) in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro over the period 2009-2016, based on the historical institutionalism. Although it was conceived as an integrated system referenced to the principles of workers' health, as from 2013 an inflexion was observed in this Subsystem, in the direction of a conservative model of occupational health, such as had been traditional and hegemonic in labor relations in Brazil. One factor that emerges is the loss of the universal character of the system due to the flexibility of employment relations in the public sector. There are various challenges: the need to expand the dialogue, and integration of the Policies on health, employment relations and management of the public administration, in such a way as to guarantee the principles of workers' health and the universality of the system, evolving from the concept of the 'public servant' to that of the 'public employee'.

  4. Lessons learned and new challenges for integrated assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the first government-sponsored demands for integrated assessment to support decision making in the United States is embodied in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Over the past 25 years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported federal agencies` in evaluating health and environmental impacts as required by NEPA. Many of ORNL`s efforts have focused on complex, programmatic assessments that break new ground and require and integrate expertise from a wide range of technical disciplines. Examples of ORNL projects that illustrate the use of integrated assessment approaches include environmental documentation for: (1) the Department of the Army`s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s licensing activities related to the Owens River Basin in eastern California and along a 500-mile reach of the upper Ohio River, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s decision regarding restart of the undamaged reactor (Unit 1) at Three Mile Island. Our discussion of these examples illustrates successful integrated assessment approaches and identifies new challenges facing integrated assessment activities.

  5. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system.

  6. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  7. Parents' perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence: implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L

    2006-05-01

    This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.

  8. State Science and Technology Policy Advice: Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges: Summary of a National Convocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The federal government plays the predominant role in supporting research and development (R&D) and in establishing public policies that affect science and technology (S&T) in the United States. However, the federal government is no longer the sole focus of R&D funding and S&T policy making. State and local policy makers are…

  9. State Science and Technology Policy Advice: Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges: Summary of a National Convocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The federal government plays the predominant role in supporting research and development (R&D) and in establishing public policies that affect science and technology (S&T) in the United States. However, the federal government is no longer the sole focus of R&D funding and S&T policy making. State and local policy makers are…

  10. Russia's Uncertain Transition: Challenges for U.S. Policy. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhowe, Mary, Ed.

    This unit is part of a continuing series on current foreign policy issues. The first section asks students to join the debate on U.S. policy toward Russia and its neighbors in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Background readings provide information to help students address policy issues and include: (1) "Two Centuries of U.S.-Russian…

  11. Progress and Challenges for Language Policy Implementation at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande-Hlongwa, Nobuhle; Balfour, Robert J.; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Engelbrecht, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The University of KwaZulu-Natal approved its bilingual language policy in 2006 based on the framework of the National Language Policy for Higher Education of 2002. The guiding principles of this policy suggest that the university develops the use of isiZulu as a language of instruction and communication, in line with recommendations of the…

  12. Progress and Challenges for Language Policy Implementation at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande-Hlongwa, Nobuhle; Balfour, Robert J.; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Engelbrecht, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The University of KwaZulu-Natal approved its bilingual language policy in 2006 based on the framework of the National Language Policy for Higher Education of 2002. The guiding principles of this policy suggest that the university develops the use of isiZulu as a language of instruction and communication, in line with recommendations of the…

  13. Russia's Uncertain Transition: Challenges for U.S. Policy. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhowe, Mary, Ed.

    This unit is part of a continuing series on current foreign policy issues. The first section asks students to join the debate on U.S. policy toward Russia and its neighbors in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Background readings provide information to help students address policy issues and include: (1) "Two Centuries of U.S.-Russian…

  14. Social Promotion and Students with Disabilities: Issues and Challenges in Developing State Policies. Synthesis Report 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel F.; Lehr, Camilla A.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Thompson, Sandra J.; Bolt, Sara

    This policy study looks at existing and emerging state policies on social promotion to determine the extent to which students with disabilities are included or excluded. Results reflect the status of state polices at one point in time, as determined from publicly available state documents and statutes of 14 states with promotion policies. The…

  15. Controlling sources of preanalytical variability in doping samples: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    The use of illicit substances and methods contravenes the ethics of sports and may be associated with side effects. Antidoping testing is an essential tool for preventing or limiting the consequences of cheating in sports. As for conventional laboratory testing, major emphasis has been placed on analytical quality, overlooking the inherent risks that may arise from analysis of unsuitable doping samples. The adherence to scrupulous criteria for collection, handling, transportation and storage of samples, especially blood and urine samples, is essential. The leading preanalytical variables that influence doping sample quality include biological variability, sample collection, venous stasis, spurious hemolysis and presence of other interfering substances, sample manipulation and degradation, and inappropriate conditions for transportation and storage. This article provides a personal overview about the current challenges in preanalytical management of doping samples, as well as potential solutions for preventing the negative impact of preanalytical variables on sample quality and test results.

  16. Be my guest! Challenges and practical solutions of undertaking interviews with children in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Gibson, Faith; Horstman, Maire; Milnes, Linda; Randall, Duncan; Carter, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to share critical debate on undertaking interviews with children in the home setting and draws on the authors' extensive research fieldwork. The article focuses on three key processes: planning entry to the child's home, conducting the interviews and exiting the field. In planning entry, we include children's engagement and issues of researcher gender. In conducting the interviews, we consider issues such as the balance of power, the importance of building a rapport, the voluntary nature of consent and the need for a flexible interview structure. Finally, we address exiting from the child's home with sensitivity at the end of the interview and/or research study. Undertaking research in the child's home provides a known and familiar territory for the child, but it means that the researcher faces a number of challenges that require solutions whilst they are a guest in a child's home.

  17. Millimetre-Wave Backhaul for 5G Networks: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Chen, Sheng

    2016-06-16

    The trend for dense deployment in future 5G mobile communication networks makes current wired backhaul infeasible owing to the high cost. Millimetre-wave (mm-wave) communication, a promising technique with the capability of providing a multi-gigabit transmission rate, offers a flexible and cost-effective candidate for 5G backhauling. By exploiting highly directional antennas, it becomes practical to cope with explosive traffic demands and to deal with interference problems. Several advancements in physical layer technology, such as hybrid beamforming and full duplexing, bring new challenges and opportunities for mm-wave backhaul. This article introduces a design framework for 5G mm-wave backhaul, including routing, spatial reuse scheduling and physical layer techniques. The associated optimization model, open problems and potential solutions are discussed to fully exploit the throughput gain of the backhaul network. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the potential benefits of the proposed method for the 5G mm-wave backhaul design.

  18. Engagement and retention of suicide attempters in clinical research: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Carly J; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2010-01-01

    High attrition rates in longitudinal research can limit study generalizability, threaten internal validity, and decrease statistical power. Research has demonstrated that there can be significant differences between participants who complete a research study and those who drop out prematurely, and that treatment outcomes may be dependent on retention in a treatment protocol. The current paper describes the challenges encountered when implementing a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts and the solutions developed to overcome these problems. Problems unique to suicide attempters are discussed, and strategies successfully implemented to boost retention rates are provided. The methods implemented appeared to increase retention rates in the randomized controlled trial. Many steps can be taken to work with this difficult population, and researchers are encouraged to be as involved and flexible with participants as possible.

  19. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  20. The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, Marion, Ed.

    This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

  1. Unique Challenges for Modeling Defect Dynamics in Concentrated Solid-Solution Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shijun; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-07-01

    Recently developed concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) are shown to have improved performance under irradiation that depends strongly on the number of alloying elements, alloying species, and their concentrations. In contrast to conventional dilute alloys, CSAs are composed of multiple principal elements situated randomly in a simple crystalline lattice. As a result, the intrinsic disorder has a profound influence on energy dissipation pathways and defect evolution when these CSAs are subjected to energetic particle irradiation. Extraordinary irradiation resistance, including suppression of void formation by two orders of magnitude at an elevated temperature, has been achieved with increasing compositional complexity in CSAs. Unfortunately, the loss of translational invariance associated with the intrinsic chemical disorder poses great challenges to theoretical modeling at the electronic and atomic levels. Based on recent computer simulation results for a set of novel Ni-containing, face-centered cubic CSAs, we review theoretical modeling progress in handling disorder in CSAs and underscore the impact of disorder on defect dynamics. We emphasize in particular the unique challenges associated with the description of defect dynamics in CSAs.

  2. Limited resources of genome sequencing in developing countries: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Mohamed; Awad, Mohamed; Mosa, Kareem A

    2016-06-01

    The differences between countries in national income, growth, human development and many other factors are used to classify countries into developed and developing countries. There are several classification systems that use different sets of measures and criteria. The most common classifications are the United Nations (UN) and the World Bank (WB) systems. The UN classification system uses the UN Human Development Index (HDI), an indicator that uses statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita for countries' classification. While the WB system uses gross national income (GNI) per capita that is calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. According to the UN and WB classification systems, there are 151 and 134 developing countries, respectively, with 89% overlap between the two systems. Developing countries have limited human development, and limited expenditure in education and research, among several other limitations. The biggest challenge facing genomic researchers and clinicians is limited resources. As a result, genomic tools, specifically genome sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming indispensable, are not widely available. In this report, we explore the current status of sequencing technologies in developing countries, describe the associated challenges and emphasize potential solutions.

  3. Transitioning sediment quality assessment into regulations: Challenges and solutions in implementing California's sediment quality objectives.

    PubMed

    Beegan, Chris; Bay, Steven M

    2012-10-01

    Development and promulgation of sediment quality criteria represents a substantial challenge for water quality agencies. Unlike water quality programs that rely on individual chemical thresholds to assess water quality, the complex processes affecting contaminant bioavailability in sediments preclude the use of contaminant concentrations to independently assess impacts or identify cause. Various multiple line of evidence approaches (e.g., sediment quality triad) have been developed for sediment quality assessment, but such frameworks are rarely fully incorporated into statewide regulatory programs due to a lack of standardized and validated tools. In 2003, California's State Water Resources Control Board (State Water Board) initiated development of sediment quality criteria and an assessment framework that required the developers to resolve many challenging technical and policy related issues to the satisfaction of stakeholders, scientists, and the general public. The first part of this multiyear effort has been completed and resulted in the development and validation of an integrated collection of tools, thresholds, and a data interpretation framework for assessing sediment contamination impacts on benthic community condition. The State Water Board's narrative sediment quality criteria and assessment framework became effective in 2009, following US Environmental Protection Agency approval. The results of this effort are described in a series of 6 articles published in this issue of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. The articles describe: 1) a multiple line of evidence framework for data integration and assessment, 2) calibration and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for predicting toxic responses, 3) development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines with respect to benthic macrofauna responses, 4) selection of toxicity test methods and thresholds, 5) identification and characterization of benthic community assemblages, 6) the

  4. Development of the Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): Interoperability challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker Johnson, G.; Gaylord, Allison G.; Franco, Juan C.; Cody, Ryan P.; Brady, Jerald J.; Manley, William; Dover, Mike; Garcia-Lavigne, Diana; Score, Roberta; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2011-11-01

    Ensuring interoperability between WebGIS applications is essential for maximizing access to data, data sharing, and data manipulation. Interoperability is maximized through the adoption of best practices, use of open standards, and utilization of spatial data infrastructure (SDI). While many of the interoperability challenges like infrastructure, data exchange, and file formats are common between applications, some regions like the Arctic present specific challenges including the need for presenting data in one or more polar projections. This paper describes the Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) suite of online interactive maps, web services, and virtual globes (the ARMAP suite; http://armap.org/) and several of the interoperability challenges and solutions encountered in development to date. ARMAP is a unique science and logistic tool supporting United States and international Arctic science by providing users with the ability to access, query, and browse information and data. Access to data services include a text-based search utility, an Internet Map Server client (ArcIMS), a lightweight Flex client, ArcGIS Explorer and Google Earth virtual globes, and Open Geospatial Consortium ( OGC) compliant web services, such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS). Through the ARMAP suite, users can view a variety of Arctic map layers and explore pertinent information about United States Arctic research efforts. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the informational underpinning of ARMAP. Avoiding duplication of effort has been a key priority in the development of the ARMAP applications. The ARMAP suite incorporates best practices that facilitate interoperability such as Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata standards, web services for embedding external data and serving framework layers, and open standards such as Open Geospatial Consortium ( OGC) compliant web services. Many of the features and

  5. [Paradigms in the analysis of public health policies: limitations and challenges].

    PubMed

    Salas-Zapata, Walter; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo; Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Alvarez-Del Castillo, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Research on health policies is considered essential to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of public policies. Analyses of public health policies have various objectives, including helping to solve the problems for which the policy was originated. That objective faces two large obstacles: (1) the ambiguity and heterogeneity of the models applied for the analysis of public policies, conditions that hinder the selection of analytical methods and the assessment of the scope of the objective; and (2) the traditional methodological approaches that limit the capacity of analyses to help solve the problems detected. This paper reviews the epistemology of the predominant models of public health policy analysis in order to assess their scope and limitations. It concludes that the development of new conceptual approaches could improve the quality of research on public policies and their ability to favorably impact decisions.

  6. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  7. Electronic Health Record Challenges, Workarounds, and Solutions Observed in Practices Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Maribel; Davis, Melinda; Fernald, Doug; Gunn, Rose; Dickinson, Perry; Cohen, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the electronic health record (EHR)-related experiences of practices striving to integrate behavioral health and primary care using tailored, evidenced-based strategies from 2012 to 2014; and the challenges, workarounds and initial health information technology (HIT) solutions that emerged during implementation. This was an observational, cross-case comparative study of 11 diverse practices, including 8 primary care clinics and 3 community mental health centers focused on the implementation of integrated care. Practice characteristics (eg, practice ownership, federal designation, geographic area, provider composition, EHR system, and patient panel characteristics) were collected using a practice information survey and analyzed to report descriptive information. A multidisciplinary team used a grounded theory approach to analyze program documents, field notes from practice observation visits, online diaries, and semistructured interviews. Eight primary care practices used a single EHR and 3 practices used 2 different EHRs, 1 to document behavioral health and 1 to document primary care information. Practices experienced common challenges with their EHRs' capabilities to 1) document and track relevant behavioral health and physical health information, 2) support communication and coordination of care among integrated teams, and 3) exchange information with tablet devices and other EHRs. Practices developed workarounds in response to these challenges: double documentation and duplicate data entry, scanning and transporting documents, reliance on patient or clinician recall for inaccessible EHR information, and use of freestanding tracking systems. As practices gained experience with integration, they began to move beyond workarounds to more permanent HIT solutions ranging in complexity from customized EHR templates, EHR upgrades, and unified EHRs. Integrating behavioral health and primary care further burdens EHRs. Vendors, in cooperation with

  8. mHealth Clinic Appointment PC Tablet: Implementation, Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carol E.; Spaulding, Ryan; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Hooper, Dedrick; Moore, Tyson; Gilroy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients requiring daily intravenous (IV) home parenteral nutrition (HPN) would benefit from in-home professional observation to improve self-care, to assess, detect and prevent serious complications. Aims The study aims are to assess the viability and utility of conducting mobile healthcare (mHealth) videoconference assessments with patients managing lifelong daily 12-hour IV nutrition infusions in their homes. The challenges and solutions to implementing mobile personal computer (PC) tablet based clinic appointments are described. Methods A wireless Apple iPad Mini™ mobile touch-screen tablet computer with 5 mega-pixel camera was loaned to patients. Each tablet had Polycom RealPresence software and a fourth generation (4G) mobile telecommunications data plan. These supported audio-visual mobile videoconferencing encrypted connections between health professionals in their offices and HPN patients and their family members in their homes. Patients’ and professionals’ evaluations of their mHealth clinic experiences are collected. Results Patients (mean age = 41.9, SD = 2.8 years) had been prescribed 12-hour home parenteral nutrition (HPN) infusions daily due short bowel disorders. Patients had been on HPN from 1 to 10 years (M=4, SD=3.6). Evaluation of clinic appointments revealed that 100% of the patients (n=45) and the professionals (n=6) indicated that they can clearly hear and easily see one another. The mHealth audio-visual interactions were highly rated by patients and family members. Professionals highly rated their ability to obtain a medical history and visual inspection of patients. Several challenges were identified and recommendations for resolutions are described. Discussion All patients and professionals highly rated the iPad mHealth clinic appointments for convenience and ease of communicating between homes and offices. An important challenge for all mHealth visits is the clinical professional’s ability to make clinically accurate

  9. A mixed-methods study of the implementation of medication adherence policy solutions: how do European countries compare?

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy; McLachlan, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We describe a key informant study that invited national medicines policy leads for the European Union member states to self-assess the level of implementation of medicines adherence initiatives in their country and the adequacy of that implementation. Interviews with medicines policy leads enabled in-depth understanding of the variation in adherence support across nations and the ways in which different nations prioritize, plan, and implement medicines adherence systems and services. Methods Ten national policy leads (Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, and the Netherlands) completed a self-assessment survey, and seven (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, and the Netherlands) engaged in a follow-up interview. Key findings Policy leads varied in the level of implementation of medication adherence solutions that they reported in their nations; most initiatives were aimed directly at patients with few initiatives at government or health care commissioner levels of action. Policy leads reported insufficient implementation of medication adherence initiatives across all potential domains. Barriers to implementation included lack of resources, strategic planning, evidence to support action, the “hidden” nature of medication adherence within policy work, and dispersed responsibility for medication adherence as a policy and practice theme. Conclusion This study has international significance and summarizes the emergent characteristics of nations with and without coordinated medication adherence activity. We highlight the importance of sharing good practice in policy formulation and implementation for medication adherence. PMID:26604703

  10. Participation of Children in Medical Decision-Making: Challenges and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Jeremic, Vida; Sénécal, Karine; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Vears, Danya F

    2016-12-01

    Participation in healthcare decision-making is considered to be an important right of minors, and is highlighted in both international legislation and public policies. However, despite the legal recognition of children's rights to participation, and also the benefits that children experience by their involvement, there is evidence that legislation is not always translated into healthcare practice. There are a number of factors that may impact on the ability of the child to be involved in decisions regarding their medical care. Some of these factors relate to the child, including their capacity to be actively involved in these decisions. Others relate to the family situation, sociocultural context, or the underlying beliefs and practices of the healthcare provider involved. In spite of these challenges to including children in decisions regarding their clinical care, we argue that it is an important factor in their treatment. The extent to which children should participate in this process should be determined on a case-by-case basis, taking all of the potential barriers into account.

  11. Heightened Attention to Medical Privacy: Challenges for Unbiased Sample Recruitment and a Possible Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nattinger, Ann B.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Sparapani, Rodney A.; Neuner, Joan M.; King, Toni K.; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2010-01-01

    Subject recruitment for epidemiologic studies is associated with major challenges due to privacy laws now common in many countries. Privacy policies regarding recruitment methods vary tremendously across institutions, partly because of a paucity of information about what methods are acceptable to potential subjects. The authors report the utility of an opt-out method without prior physician notification for recruiting community-dwelling US women aged 65 years or older with incident breast cancer in 2003. Participants (n = 3,083) and possibly eligible nonparticipants (n = 2,664) were compared using characteristics derived from billing claims. Participation for persons with traceable contact information was 70% initially (2005–2006) and remained over 90% for 3 follow-up surveys (2006–2008). Older subjects and those living in New York State were less likely to participate, but participation did not differ on the basis of socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, underlying health, or type of cancer treatment. Few privacy concerns were raised by potential subjects, and no complaints were lodged. Using opt-out methods without prior physician notification, a population-based cohort of older breast cancer subjects was successfully recruited. This strategy may be applicable to population-based studies of other diseases and is relevant to privacy boards making decisions about recruitment strategies acceptable to the public. PMID:20660123

  12. Heightened attention to medical privacy: challenges for unbiased sample recruitment and a possible solution.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Ann Butler; Pezzin, Liliana E; Sparapani, Rodney A; Neuner, Joan M; King, Toni K; Laud, Purushottam W

    2010-09-15

    Subject recruitment for epidemiologic studies is associated with major challenges due to privacy laws now common in many countries. Privacy policies regarding recruitment methods vary tremendously across institutions, partly because of a paucity of information about what methods are acceptable to potential subjects. The authors report the utility of an opt-out method without prior physician notification for recruiting community-dwelling US women aged 65 years or older with incident breast cancer in 2003. Participants (n = 3,083) and possibly eligible nonparticipants (n = 2,664) were compared using characteristics derived from billing claims. Participation for persons with traceable contact information was 70% initially (2005-2006) and remained over 90% for 3 follow-up surveys (2006-2008). Older subjects and those living in New York State were less likely to participate, but participation did not differ on the basis of socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, underlying health, or type of cancer treatment. Few privacy concerns were raised by potential subjects, and no complaints were lodged. Using opt-out methods without prior physician notification, a population-based cohort of older breast cancer subjects was successfully recruited. This strategy may be applicable to population-based studies of other diseases and is relevant to privacy boards making decisions about recruitment strategies acceptable to the public.

  13. Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy

  14. Challenges in assessing the implementation and effectiveness of physical activity and nutrition policy interventions as natural experiments.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, S; Allison, K R; Faulkner, Guy; Dwyer, John J M

    2008-09-01

    The Ontario (Canada) government has instituted a policy requiring elementary schools to offer at least 20 min of daily physical activity for students in Grades 1-8 and replace non-nutritious vending machine foods with healthier choices. These policy interventions represent 'natural experiments' offering unique opportunities for conducting research and evaluation. The use of natural experiments to contribute evidence on the effectiveness of policy interventions is identified as an underused tool for public health [Tudor-Locke, C., Ainsworth, B. E. and Popkin, B. M. (2001) Active commuting to school: an overlooked source of children's physical activity? Sports Medicine, 31, 309-313; Petticrew, M., Cummins, S., Ferrell, C., Findlay, A., Higgins, C., Hoy, C. et al. (2005) Natural experiments: an underused tool for public health? Public Health, 119, 751-757]. To date, some Canadian school-based food and nutrition policies are being monitored, but their impact on child and youth obesity is unknown [Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2006) Improving the Health of Canadians: Promoting Healthy Weights, Ottawa, ON]. There are a number of challenges to the evaluation of policy interventions as natural experiments. Often, there are little or no baseline data available to use as the basis for assessing change. Government policies that result in the adoption of particular approaches across large jurisdictions, such as provinces, may result in wide variation in the design and implementation of interventions. Thus, in some cases, natural experiments may be at risk of having low potential to be adequately evaluated on key outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the context of these challenges in relation to the Ontario government school physical activity and nutrition policies.

  15. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  16. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  17. Policy challenges facing integrated community case management in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara; George, Asha; Rodriguez, Daniela; Shearer, Jessica; Diallo, Brahima; Konate, Mamadou; Dalglish, Sarah; Juma, Pamela; Namakhoma, Ireen; Banda, Hastings; Chilundo, Baltazar; Mariano, Alda; Cliff, Julie

    2014-07-01

    To report an in-depth analysis of policy change for integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) in six sub-Saharan African countries. We analysed how iCCM policies developed and the barriers and facilitators to policy change. Qualitative retrospective case studies drawing from document reviews, semi-structured interviews and in-country validation workshops were conducted in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique and Niger. These countries were selected to maximise variation in iCCM policy status, community health worker (CHW) models and different African regions. Country iCCM policies evolved in an ad hoc fashion, but were substantially influenced by the history of primary health care and the nature of CHW programmes. Technical officers within Ministries of Health led iCCM policy change with support from international donors, but neither communities nor political leadership was mobilised. Concerns about achieving the Millennium Development Goals, together with recognition of the shortcomings of existing child health programmes, led to the adoption of iCCM policies. Availability of external financing played a critical role in facilitating policy change. iCCM policy change has been promoted by international agencies, but national governments have struggled to align iCCM with country health systems. Greater investment is needed in tailoring global policy initiatives to match country needs. High-level, political ownership of iCCM policies could facilitate policy change, as could clearer strategies for ensuring the long-term sustainability of such policies. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Policy Challenges in Building the Medical Home: Do We Have a Shared Blueprint?

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Robert J.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The notion of a patient-centered medical home features prominently in policy reform initiatives across the country, with both state and federal legislation focusing on this new model. We sought to understand the views of key stakeholders and to examine the challenging landscape facing policymakers and practitioners as they attempt to translate the medical home concept into widespread practice change. Methods We reviewed legislative documents from state legislative sessions in the year 2007 to identify pieces of legislation that included the medical home concept. Concurrently we conducted an in-depth qualitative analysis of de-identified field notes from a purposeful sample of semistructured interviews conducted with key stakeholders in Oregon after the passage of health reform legislation in 2007. Results Legislation that further defined and expounded on the medical home concept was introduced in states across the country in 2007, and some federal and state demonstration projects were already underway. However, we identified a number of barriers to widespread implementation of the medical home, most notably lack of a clear operational definition. Key stakeholders had widely disparate views about elements central to the success of medical home demonstrations, including delivery system reform, payment reform, and performance incentives for providers. Conclusions Since 2007 the concept of the medical home has gained increasing attention in health care reform debates. Our findings suggest that translating this concept into successful, widespread reform will require that policymakers build further consensus among key stakeholders and require them to address critical barriers to avoid repeating pitfalls of past reform efforts. PMID:20453185

  19. Incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into fishery management: comparing policy challenges and potentials from Alaska and Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawai'i community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawai'i to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  20. Commonalities and challenges: a review of Australian state and territory maternity and child health policies.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Virginia; Donovan, Jenny; Kruske, Sue; Kemp, Lynn; Homer, Caroline; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-12-01

    Nurses and midwives play a key role in providing universal maternal, child and family health services in Australia. However, the Australian federation of states and territories has resulted in policy frameworks that differ across jurisdictions and services that are fragmented across disciplines and sectors. This paper reports the findings of a study that reviewed and synthesised current Australian service policy or frameworks for maternity and child health services in order to identify the degree of commonality across jurisdictions and the compatibility with international research on child development. Key maternity and child health service policy documents in each jurisdiction were sourced. The findings indicate that current policies were in line with international research and policy directions, emphasising prevention and early intervention, continuity of care, collaboration and integrated services. The congruence of policies suggests the time is right to consider the introduction of a national approach to universal maternal, child health services.

  1. Meeting the challenge of policy-relevant science: lessons from a water resource project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton L.

    1986-01-01

    Water resource scientists face complex tasks in evaluating aspects of water projects, but relatively few assessment procedures have been applied and accepted as standard applications. Decision-makers often rely on environmental assessments to evaluate the value and operation of projects. There is often confusion about scientists' role in policy decisions. The scientist can affect policy-making as an expert withess, an advocate or a surrogate. By understanding the policy process, scientists can make their work more “policy relevant.” Using the Terror Lake hydro project in Alaska as a guide, three lessons are discussed: (1) not all problems are able to be solved with technology; (2) policy-relevant technology is rarely imposed on a problem; and (3) the scientist need not just react to the policy process, but can have an impact on how that process unfolds.

  2. Immigrant and Refugee ESL Students' Challenges to Accessing Four-Year College Education: From Language Policy to Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko; Varghese, Manka M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on English as a second language (ESL) students in higher education has traditionally focused on their academic writing, leaving larger issues of their college access and success unexplored. This article examines the challenges that first-generation immigrant and refugee ESL students face in accessing four-year college education through a…

  3. Implementing LCFF: Possible Solutions to Emergent LCAP Challenges. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Jarah; Knudson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) represents a sea change in the way California funds public education. By directing resources to the students in greatest need, freeing districts from the constraints of categorical programs, and inviting stakeholder participation, the new funding system creates the conditions for districts to advance goals…

  4. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  5. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    . The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

  6. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  7. Staff Governance and Institutional Policy Formation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John W., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The number of staff members serving American higher education institutions has more than doubled in the past twenty years, as occupations in technology, development, government relations, and even athletic administration have grown as never before in the history of the academy. As the number, variety, and importance of these positions have grown,…

  8. Staff Governance and Institutional Policy Formation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John W., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The number of staff members serving American higher education institutions has more than doubled in the past twenty years, as occupations in technology, development, government relations, and even athletic administration have grown as never before in the history of the academy. As the number, variety, and importance of these positions have grown,…

  9. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Grace, Delia; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Jones, Kate E; de Balogh, Katinka; Waltner-Toews, David; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C; Mumford, Elizabeth; Dzingirai, Vupenyu

    2017-07-19

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a 'One Health' approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; de Balogh, Katinka; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C.; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a ‘One Health’ approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584180

  11. The Unite for Diabetes campaign: Overcoming constraints to find a global policy solution

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karen; Narayan, KM Venkat

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that diabetes and other non-communicable diseases represent a significant proportion of the global burden of disease, proportionate global action has not occurred. A 2003 article reported on global constraints to the implementation of effective policies to curb non-communicable disease epidemics. These constraints include a lack of global advocacy, insufficient attention from funding agencies and governments, partnerships and interactions, capacity and resources, and global norms and standards, as well as orientation of health services to acute care. Building on these ideas, this paper will review the progress that has been made with regards to each constraint, focusing on the International Diabetes Federation's Unite for Diabetes campaign and United Nations resolution on diabetes to show how this event – driven by globalization – has helped remove some of these barriers. Additional progress in diabetes and NCD prevention and control is also highlighted. The paper concludes by outlining what still needs to happen for globalization to be an effective solution for diabetes and non-communicable disease prevention and control. PMID:18284685

  12. Challenges, Solutions, and Quality Metrics of Personal Genome Assembly in Advancing Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wenming; Wu, Leihong; Yavas, Gokhan; Simonyan, Vahan; Ning, Baitang; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Even though each of us shares more than 99% of the DNA sequences in our genome, there are millions of sequence codes or structure in small regions that differ between individuals, giving us different characteristics of appearance or responsiveness to medical treatments. Currently, genetic variants in diseased tissues, such as tumors, are uncovered by exploring the differences between the reference genome and the sequences detected in the diseased tissue. However, the public reference genome was derived with the DNA from multiple individuals. As a result of this, the reference genome is incomplete and may misrepresent the sequence variants of the general population. The more reliable solution is to compare sequences of diseased tissue with its own genome sequence derived from tissue in a normal state. As the price to sequence the human genome has dropped dramatically to around $1000, it shows a promising future of documenting the personal genome for every individual. However, de novo assembly of individual genomes at an affordable cost is still challenging. Thus, till now, only a few human genomes have been fully assembled. In this review, we introduce the history of human genome sequencing and the evolution of sequencing platforms, from Sanger sequencing to emerging “third generation sequencing” technologies. We present the currently available de novo assembly and post-assembly software packages for human genome assembly and their requirements for computational infrastructures. We recommend that a combined hybrid assembly with long and short reads would be a promising way to generate good quality human genome assemblies and specify parameters for the quality assessment of assembly outcomes. We provide a perspective view of the benefit of using personal genomes as references and suggestions for obtaining a quality personal genome. Finally, we discuss the usage of the personal genome in aiding vaccine design and development, monitoring host immune

  13. Religion in Education Policy in South Africa: A Challenge of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntho-Ntho, Albertina Maitumeleng; Nieuwenhuis, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1995, the National Department of Education has developed a number of policies to give effect to the proposed transformation outlined in White Paper 1 (Notice 196 of 1995) and in subsequent legislation. A range of Acts and policies were introduced, many of them dealing with how religion should be dealt with in schools and it culminated in the…

  14. Policy Perspective: Meeting the Challenge of the DOE Order 436.1 Departmental Sustainability - 12527

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Jennifer C.

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Sustainability Performance Office is working to meet sustainability goals at DOE by implementing Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) and legislation related to sustainability. Through implementation of Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the SSPP, statutory requirements and regular reporting, analysis and communication, DOE's SPO is working to maintain and expand DOE's leadership in sustainability. (authors)

  15. Challenges and Opportunities of Information Technology in the 90s. Track IV: Policy and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1990 CAUSE conference's Track IV, Policy and Standards are presented. Topics addressed in this track include data administration, computing access, involvement of constituencies in policy making and enforcement, and institutional standards for departmental systems. Papers and their authors are as follows: "Evolution of a…

  16. Adult Education in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: Challenges for Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, J.; Rampedi, M.; de Jong, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report and reflect on a study about the problems encountered in the implementation of adult education policies in the Limpopo province of South Africa. We used the model of intergovernmental policy implementation of Van Horn and Van Meter as a theoretical framework. We reflect on this study and link the findings with more recent…

  17. Headteacher Critique and Resistance: A Challenge for Policy, and for Leadership/Management Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Educational leadership/management scholars have undertaken work which documents the difficulties particular headteachers face when implementing policy. Some have suggested that headteachers mediate policy, ensuring the best possible outcomes for their schools, but there is also critique of this argument and a counter-suggestion that heads ought to…

  18. Putting the Young in Business: Policy Challenges for Youth Entrepreneurship. Territorial Development. LEED Notebook No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Robert

    Policies and practices promoting youth entrepreneurship in Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) member countries were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following issues: youth unemployment; contrasting employment situations and policy approaches in individual OECD countries; a definition of self-employment; and the…

  19. Connecting Policy Aspirations with Principled Progress? An Analysis of Current Physical Education Challenges in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Jess, Mike; Atencio, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Various recent politically driven policy interventions have outlined the increased importance of school physical education programmes as a contributor towards realising active lifelong learning targets. This paper explains the origins of the new policy emphasis and describes some of the opportunities which now exist for reviewing many curriculum…

  20. The Challenges of Global Citizenship: Some Issues for Policy and Practice in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory

    2006-01-01

    The recent rise in terrorism around the world has caused families, educators, and indeed everyone to consider again how to help young children grow up tolerant, accepting, and, above all, non-violent. Policies that support a tolerant, inclusive curriculum are essential if children are to survive in the years ahead. Curriculum policies must be…