Science.gov

Sample records for changing environment workshop

  1. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  2. Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim; And Others

    2001-01-01

    Four articles suggest ways to create good child care environments: (1) "What Kind of Place for Child Care in the 21st Century?" (Greenman); (2) "Strategies for Enhancing Children's Use of the Environment" (Curtis); (3) "Designing the Family Child Care Environment" (Osborn); (4) "Imagine! Child Care--A Great Place for Teachers, Too" (Haack,…

  3. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

  4. Visual Computing Environment Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The Visual Computing Environment (VCE) is a framework for intercomponent and multidisciplinary computational simulations. Many current engineering analysis codes simulate various aspects of aircraft engine operation. For example, existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes can model the airflow through individual engine components such as the inlet, compressor, combustor, turbine, or nozzle. Currently, these codes are run in isolation, making intercomponent and complete system simulations very difficult to perform. In addition, management and utilization of these engineering codes for coupled component simulations is a complex, laborious task, requiring substantial experience and effort. To facilitate multicomponent aircraft engine analysis, the CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the VCE system. This system, which is part of NASA's Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) program, can couple various engineering disciplines, such as CFD, structural analysis, and thermal analysis.

  5. Energy and the Environment. Citizens' Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge, TN.

    This publication was produced for the Citizens' Workshop Program on Energy and the Environment. Included in this monograph are sections on: (1) energy and the environment; (2) the energy problem (amount remaining, how it is used); (3) Environmental problems of energy use; an energy-environmental quiz; (4) energy for the future (types, sources,…

  6. Environment, Education and Sustainable Development: Workshop Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the 7th World Assembly of the International Council of Adult Education. It also presents a workshop proposal on Environment, Ecology and Sustainable Development, based mainly on the Treaty of Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility. The proposal emphasizes on an inclusive, permanent and…

  7. Workshop III: Improving the Workplace Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Igle; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, participants heard about initiatives taking place in Canada, the UK, Japan, and India to improve the workplace environment and shared good practices from around the world. Some of the less tangible aspects of the workplace environment, such as unconscious bias and accumulation of advantage and disadvantage, were explored.

  8. International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, Ted W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research.

  9. Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.

    2012-11-01

    Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can

  10. International lighting in controlled environments workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research. There are a number of established guidelines for lighting in human and animal environments. Development of new lighting guidelines is necessary for three reasons: (1) recent scientific discoveries show that in addition to supporting the sensation of vision, light has profound nonvisual biological and behavioral effects in both animals and humans; (2) federal regulations (EPACT 1992) are requiring all indoor environments to become more energy efficient with a specific emphasis on energy conservation in lighting; (3) lighting engineers and manufacturers have developed a wealth of new light sources and lighting products that can be applied in animal and human environments. The workshop was aimed at bringing together plant scientists and physical scientists to interact in the discussions. It involved participation of biological scientists involved in studying mechanisms of light reactions and those involved in utilizing lighting for production of plants and maintenance of animals in controlled environments. It included participation of physical scientists from universities and government involved in research as well as those from industry involved in producing lamps and in construction of controlled growth facilities. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Light in Thermal Environments (LITE) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Light emitted from high temperature black smokers (350 C) at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers has been documented, but the source of this light and its photochemical and biological consequences have yet to be investigated. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone might account for the 'glow' and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this 'glow.' A more controversial question is whether there may be sufficient photon flux of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally-driven photosynthesis (GDP) by microorganisms. Although only a very low level of visible and near infrared light may be emitted from any single hydrothermal vent, several aspects of the light make it of more than enigmatic interest. First, the light is clearly linked to geophysical (and perhaps geochemical) processes; its attributes may serve as powerful index parameters for monitoring change in these processes. Second, while the glow at a vent orifice is a very local phenomenon, more expansive subsurface environments may be illuminated, thereby increasing the spatial scale at which biological consequences of this light might be considered. Third, in contrast to intermittent bioluminescent light sources in the deep sea, the light emitted at vents almost certainly glows or flickers continuously over the life of the individual black smokers (years to decades); collectively, light emitted from black smokers along the ocean's spreading centers superimposed on background Cerenkov radiation negates the concept of the deep sea as an environment devoid of abiotic light. Finally, the history of hydrothermal activity predates the origin of life; light in the deep sea has been a continuous phenomenon on a geological time scale and may have served either as a seed or refugium for the evolution of biological photochemical reactions or adaptations.

  12. PREFACE: Soil Change Matters International Workshop - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwan, R.; Alexander, J.

    2015-07-01

    Soils change in response to land use, land management and climate. Understanding the mechanisms and rates of change in fundamental soil properties, their extent across landscapes, and the drivers of change, is critical for management of soil and land to ensure enduring productivity and the provision of ecosystem services. A reliable evidence base for soil change can be created through research into fundamental soil properties and processes, which coupled with monitoring, can be used to develop models to support management and policy decisions. Soil scientists, land managers and policy makers occupy different intellectual domains and each can contribute to a soil change dialogue focussed on providing the best science for managers, policy and decision-making. Clarity is needed concerning the knowledge needs of policy makers and the latter need to understand what is achievable by science and at what cost. However, communication is often limited by the discipline-specific language used by each group. Facilitated communication would improve the impact of science on policy by enabling scientists to better understand policy maker needs and enabling policy makers to better understand scientific data interpretations, limitations, and gaps. The international workshop 'Soil Change Matters' in Bendigo, Australia 24-27 March 2014, brought together 200 delegates across these intellectual domains to talk to each other, share conclusions, questions and data, and to learn about scenarios for soil change and for soil policies.

  13. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1998. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1999

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.; ZWEIBEL,K.; MOSKOWITZ,P.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the workshop ``Photovoltaics and the Environment'' was to bring together PV manufacturers and industry analysts to define EH and S issues related to the large-scale commercialization of PV technologies.

  14. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-08-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated.

  15. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors—together with their interfaces in the transponder—are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27490546

  16. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27490546

  17. Changing Teachers' Feedback Practices: A Workshop Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Jesuína; Carvalho, Carolina; Conboy, Joseph; Valente, Maria Odete; Gama, Ana Paula; Salema, Maria Helena; Fiúza, Edite

    2015-01-01

    Feedback can promote teacher-student relations and student academic involvement, performance and self-regulation. However, some research indicates that teachers do not always employ feedback effectively. There is a need to promote teachers' appropriate use of feedback in the classroom. We describe a long-term workshop designed to enhance teachers'…

  18. Workshop on Mercury: Space Environment, Surface, and Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Mercury: Space Environment, Surface, and Interior, October 4-5, 2001. The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of Mark Robinson (Northwestern University), Marty Slade (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Jim Slavin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), Sean Solomon (Carnegie Institution), Ann Sprague (University of Arizona), Paul Spudis (Lunar and Planetary Institute), G. Jeffrey Taylor (University of Hawai'i), Faith Vilas (NASA Johnson Space Center), Meenakshi Wadhwa (The Field Museum), and Thomas Watters (National Air and Space Museum). Logistics, administrative, and publications support were provided by the Publications and Program Services Departments of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  19. Recommendations from the Workshop: Environment, Ecology and Sustainable Development ICAE 7th World Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezzer, Moema L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the workshops presented at the 7th International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) Assembly was focused on environment, ecology, and sustainable development. The workshop had participants from Asia, Africa, Europe, South America, North America and the South Pacific. This article presents a list of recommendations from the workshop.

  20. Workshop Report on Virtual Worlds and Immersive Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephanie R.; Cowan-Sharp, Jessy; Dodson, Karen E.; Damer, Bruce; Ketner, Bob

    2009-01-01

    The workshop revolved around three framing ideas or scenarios about the evolution of virtual environments: 1. Remote exploration: The ability to create high fidelity environments rendered from external data or models such that exploration, design and analysis that is truly interoperable with the physical world can take place within them. 2. We all get to go: The ability to engage anyone in being a part of or contributing to an experience (such as a space mission), no matter their training or location. It is the creation of a new paradigm for education, outreach, and the conduct of science in society that is truly participatory. 3. Become the data: A vision of a future where boundaries between the physical and the virtual have ceased to be meaningful. What would this future look like? Is this plausible? Is it desirable? Why and why not?

  1. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01,1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists fiom government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally-appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  2. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #15: WORKSHOP ON ANCILLARY BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Global Change Research Program is co-sponsoring a three-day workshop to examine possible ancillary benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The goals of the workshop are: (1)to establish a common basis of understanding about the conceptual and empiric...

  3. Changes in knowledge after attending a community pharmacists’ asthma workshop

    PubMed Central

    García Corpas, Jose P; Ocaña Arenas, Ana; González García, Lorena; López Domínguez, Estefania; García Jiménez, Emilio; Amariles, Pedro; Faus, Maria J.

    Background Pharmacists can play an important role in both the detection of asthma and its monitoring in patients with asthma. Objective To assess the change in asthma knowledge, and associated variables, of pharmacists attending the “Pharmacotherapy follow- up of Adult Bronchial Asthma” workshops run by the Pharmaceutical Care Center of Stada Laboratories. Methods All participants in the “Pharmacotherapy follow-up of Adult Bronchial Asthma” workshops completed a pre-test and a post-test. Those who left the workshop and those who did not complete the tests were not included in the analysis. Tests were scored from 0 to 10, and the change in scores was analyzed. Results Of the 90 participating pharmacists, 79 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 81% (64) were female, and their average age was 38.8 years [CI95%= 36.65-40.81]. The average pre-test score was 3.65 [CI95%=3.29-4.01]; 72.2% of the pharmacists scored less than 5 points. The average post-test score was 7.33 [CI95%=7.01-7.65]. The average change in scores was 3.68 [CI95%=3.29-4.07]. No statistical significance was found between this change in scores and other variables analyzed (age, gender, previous training, or position in the pharmacy). Conclusion CAF Stada “Adult Bronchial Asthma” workshops increased pharmacists’ general knowledge. PMID:25214901

  4. Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R.; Dixon, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

  5. Designing ee-Learning Environments: Lessons from an Online Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Lindsey; Kaplan, Soren

    2008-01-01

    Based on their work leading three experiential, online workshops with over 180 participants from around the world, Lindsey Godwin and Soren Kaplan share reflections on designing and conducting successful ee-learning courses. The workshops sought to translate a popular face-to-face seminar in appreciative inquiry, an increasingly popular…

  6. Workshop on the Impacts of Aviation on Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Don; Gupta, Mohan; Ko, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Projections indicate that demand for aviation transportation will increase by more than two fold over the next few decades. Timely action is needed to understand and quantify the potential climate impacts of aviation emissions particularly given the sustained lapse over the last several years in U.S. research activities in this area. In response to the stated needs, a group of international experts participated in the Workshop on the Impacts of Aviation on Climate Change during June 7-9, 2006 in Boston, MA. The workshop focus was on the impacts of subsonic aircraft emissions in the UT/LS region and on the potential response of the climate system. The goals of the workshop were to assess and document the present state of scientific knowledge, to identify the key underlying uncertainties and gaps, to identify ongoing and further research needed, to explore the development of climate impact metrics, and to help focus the scientific community on the aviation-climate change research needs. The workshop concluded that the major ways that aviation can affect climate, in agreement with the 1999 assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), are the direct climate effects from CO2 and water vapor emissions, the indirect forcing on climate resulting from changes in the distributions and concentrations of ozone and methane as a primary consequence of aircraft nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, the direct effects (and indirect effects on clouds) from emitted aerosols and aerosol precursors, and the climate effects associated with contrails and cirrus cloud formation. The workshop was organized in three subgroups: (1) Effects of aircraft emissions on the UT/LS chemical composition, (2) Effects of water and particle emissions on contrails and on cirrus clouds, and (3) Impacts on climate from aircraft emissions and identification of suitable metrics to measure these impacts. The workshop participants acknowledged the need for focused research specifically to

  7. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    SciTech Connect

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-08-19

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vaccum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10/sup 9/ to 5 x 10/sup 10/ particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10/sup -6/ tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorbtion pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described.

  8. Does a brief workshop change clinical associate students’ resilience?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical associates resilience is important as many will work in adverse circumstances. There is some evidence that educational interventions can improve health care student resilience although it is conflicting. There is no previously published research on educational interventions for resilience in clinical associate students. Objective To investigate whether a brief resilience workshop could improve resilience in clinical associate students. Methods A single cohort pre-post design was used. Resilience scores were calculated using the Connor-Davidson 25-item resilience scale in a cohort of clinical associate students before and 8 weeks after a brief resilience workshop. Results Although no statistically significant changes were observed after a brief resilience workshop, this study adds to the existing body of knowledge on resilience in African health care training. Conclusion The evidence for education interventions to improve resilience is conflicting and complex. Given the relevance to health care workers and their educators, interventions to improve resilience should continue to be evaluated and the outcomes should be reported.

  9. Does a brief workshop change clinical associate students’ resilience?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical associates resilience is important as many will work in adverse circumstances. There is some evidence that educational interventions can improve health care student resilience although it is conflicting. There is no previously published research on educational interventions for resilience in clinical associate students. Objective To investigate whether a brief resilience workshop could improve resilience in clinical associate students. Methods A single cohort pre-post design was used. Resilience scores were calculated using the Connor-Davidson 25-item resilience scale in a cohort of clinical associate students before and 8 weeks after a brief resilience workshop. Results Although no statistically significant changes were observed after a brief resilience workshop, this study adds to the existing body of knowledge on resilience in African health care training. Conclusion The evidence for education interventions to improve resilience is conflicting and complex. Given the relevance to health care workers and their educators, interventions to improve resilience should continue to be evaluated and the outcomes should be reported. PMID:27796118

  10. Writing Workshop as Carnival: Reflections on an Alternative Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    Mikhail Bakhtin's understanding of the medieval carnival--a time when life is turned upside down, social hierarchies are lifted, and the lines between performer and participant are blurred--provides a useful framework for understanding both liberatory and potentially threatening aspects of writing workshops in elementary schools. An experimental…

  11. East Africa seminar and workshop of remote sensing of natural resources and environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    Report on total program covering East Africa Seminar and Workshop on remote sensing of natural resources and the environment held in Nairobi, Kenya, March 21 April 3, 1974, attended by participants from 10 English-speaking African nations. Appendices are included for Seminar proceedings, workshop lectures and outlines, field trip reports and critiques by participants, and reports on potential applications of an operational earth resources satellite for the participating countries.

  12. Potential of extension workshops to change farmers' knowledge and awareness of IPM.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Mokhtarnia, Muhammad; Erbaugh, J Mark; Asadi, Ali

    2008-12-15

    Farmers' knowledge of IPM has been considered, as prerequisites to IPM adoption. In Iran the most prevalent extension method for training farmers in different fields like IPM is extension workshops. The main purpose of this study was to investigate workshop effectiveness to change farmer's knowledge of IPM through assessing and comparing farmer's knowledge of IPM. A survey was conducted among 90 farmers in Karaj City in 2007--08 that included 30 workshop participants, 30 farmers who had exposed to workshop participants, and 30 randomly selected farmers, which were outside of this community. A questionnaire including open and close ended questions was designed. Data was collected through personal structured interviews with respondents at their farms. The study found that workshop participants (10.38) had significantly higher knowledge scores than their non workshop counterparts (5.90). Data also showed very little diffusion of workshop-acquired knowledge from workshop participants to other community members.

  13. Plants and the changing environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this Special Issue of Plant Biology, current trends in research on plant responses to the changing environment are highlighted. Several studies consider plant responses to the mixture of interacting stresses that will accompany climate change, including drought, heat, high light and increased CO2...

  14. Proceedings of the Workshop on Change of Representation and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the third Workshop on Change of representation and Problem Reformulation is presented. In contrast to the first two workshops, this workshop was focused on analytic or knowledge-based approaches, as opposed to statistical or empirical approaches called 'constructive induction'. The organizing committee believes that there is a potential for combining analytic and inductive approaches at a future date. However, it became apparent at the previous two workshops that the communities pursuing these different approaches are currently interested in largely non-overlapping issues. The constructive induction community has been holding its own workshops, principally in conjunction with the machine learning conference. While this workshop is more focused on analytic approaches, the organizing committee has made an effort to include more application domains. We have greatly expanded from the origins in the machine learning community. Participants in this workshop come from the full spectrum of AI application domains including planning, qualitative physics, software engineering, knowledge representation, and machine learning.

  15. Key enablers to facilitate healthy behavior change: workshop summary.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Aldag, Matt; Centola, Damon; Edinborough, Elton; Ghannadian, Jason D; Haught, Andrea; Jackson, Theresa; Kinn, Julie; Kunkler, Kevin J; Levine, Betty; Martindale, Valerie E; Neal, David; Snyder, Leslie B; Styn, Mindi A; Thorndike, Frances; Trabosh, Valerie; Parramore, David J

    2014-05-01

    The increases in preventable chronic diseases and the rising costs of health care are unsustainable. The US Army Surgeon General's vision to transition from a health care system to a system of health requires the identification of key health enablers to facilitate the adoption of healthy behaviors. In support of this vision, the US Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center hosted a workshop in April 2013 titled "Incentives to Create and Sustain Change for Health." Members of government and academia participated to identify key health enablers that could ultimately be leveraged by technology. The key health enablers discussed included (1) public health messaging, (2) changing health habits and the environmental influence on health, (3) goal setting and tracking, (4) the role of incentives in behavior-change intervention, and (5) the role of peer and social networks on change. This report summarizes leading evidence and the group consensus on evidence-based practices with respect to the key enablers in creating healthy behavior change.

  16. 77 FR 8324 - Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop; Notice of Public...: Real- Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Program and solicit user needs for its Transformative Concepts... program is to generate and acquire environmentally-relevant real-time transportation data, and use...

  17. Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change: A Workshop for State and Local Decision-Makers--Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    From November 8/9, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted a workshop titled "Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change." The Office of Research and Development (ORD) organized the meeting, which was held in Research Triangle Park, Nort...

  18. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  19. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  20. Workshop on Strategies for Calibration and Validation of Global Change Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James; Ardanuy, Philip

    1997-01-01

    The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) Task Force on Observations and Data Management hosted a Global Change Calibration/Validation Workshop on May 10-12, 1995, in Arlington, Virginia. This Workshop was convened by Robert Schiffer of NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., for the CENR Secretariat with a view toward assessing and documenting lessons learned in the calibration and validation of large-scale, long-term data sets in land, ocean, and atmospheric research programs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) hosted the meeting on behalf of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)/Working Group on Calibration/walidation, the Global Change Observing System (GCOS), and the U. S. CENR. A meeting of experts from the international scientific community was brought together to develop recommendations for calibration and validation of global change data sets taken from instrument series and across generations of instruments and technologies. Forty-nine scientists from nine countries participated. The U. S., Canada, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Russia, and Kenya were represented.

  1. Changing polar environments: Interdisciplinary challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepson, Paul B.; Ariya, Parisa A.; Deal, Clara J.; Donaldson, D. James; Douglas, Thomas A.; Loose, Brice; Maksym, Ted; Matrai, Patricia A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Saenz, Benjamin; Stefels, Jacqueline; Steiner, Nadja

    2012-03-01

    In the past few decades, there has been enormous growth in scientific studies of physical, chemical, and biological interactions among reservoirs in polar regions. This has come, in part, as a result of a few significant discoveries: There is dramatic halogen chemistry that occurs on and above the sea ice in the springtime that destroys lower tropospheric ozone and mercury [Simpson et al., 2007; Steffen et al., 2008], the sunlit snowpack is very photochemically active [Grannas et al., 2007], biology as a source of organic compounds plays a pivotal role in these processes, and these processes are occurring in the context of rapidly changing polar regions under climate feedbacks that are as of yet not fully understood [Serreze and Barry, 2011]. Stimulated by the opportunities of the International Polar Year (IPY, 2007-2009), a number of large-scale field studies in both polar environments have been undertaken, aimed at the study of the complex biotic and abiotic processes occurring in all phases (see Figure 1). Sea ice plays a critical role in polar environments: It is a highly reflective surface that interacts with radiation; it provides a habitat for mammals and micro-organisms alike, thus playing a key role in polar trophic processes and elemental cycles; and it creates a saline environment for chemical processes that facilitate release of halogenated gases that contribute to the atmosphere's ability to photochemically cleanse itself in an otherwise low-radiation environment. Ocean-air and sea ice-air interfaces also produce aerosol particles that provide cloud condensation nuclei.

  2. Acadia National Park Climate Change Scenario Planning Workshop summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Star, Jonathan; Fisichelli, Nicholas; Bryan, Alexander; Babson, Amanda; Cole-Will, Rebecca; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes outcomes from a two-day scenario planning workshop for Acadia National Park, Maine (ACAD). The primary objective of the workshop was to help ACAD senior leadership make management and planning decisions based on up-to-date climate science and assessments of future uncertainty. The workshop was also designed as a training program, helping build participants' capabilities to develop and use scenarios. The details of the workshop are given in later sections. The climate scenarios presented here are based on published global climate model output. The scenario implications for resources and management decisions are based on expert knowledge distilled through scientist-manager interaction during workgroup break-out sessions at the workshop. Thus, the descriptions below are from these small-group discussions in a workshop setting and should not be taken as vetted research statements of responses to the climate scenarios, but rather as insights and examinations of possible futures (Martin et al. 2011, McBride et al. 2012).

  3. Recruiting student in Sciences in Rural Environment: The Air Pollution Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubatova, A.; Pedersen, D.

    2011-12-01

    The number of students in sciences is declining and thus it is critical to employ a variety of initiatives to familiarize students with various topics in sciences as well as the university environment. In particular, this is a challenge in rural communities where many students do not have easy access to university campuses. Therefore, we have implemented a workshop for junior and senior high school students. We decided to run this workshop on the campus, as this provided not only exposure of the students to scientific and lecturing facilities, but also to life at the university. Holding the workshop on the university campus also enabled faculty and graduate students from several departments to participate, thus allowing for presentation of a wide variety of topics within atmospheric sciences. Our experiences with the continuously growing workshops - from 50 to 180 participating students - will be shared. Participants were students from both rural and urban areas. These workshops, therefore, contributed to our outreach and service to the local community and to students coming from the rural communities of the upper Midwest and Western states. The workshops are organized annually over the spring break, thus ensuring availability of facilities on the campus. The one-day workshop includes a short cycle of presentations focused on the characterization of atmospheric PM and several critical issues connected with it. The expert faculty members from several departments involved in such research present on global warming, air pollution, aerosol formation, measurement using an aircraft, the relation of emissions and energy production, and on modeling of atmospheric processes. This lecture series (each no longer than 15 min) was broken down by fun demonstrations to break the ice and attract students' attention. Following the presentations, students participated in demonstrations performed in the Chemistry Department. The demonstrations included several hands-on activities

  4. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  5. Population change, resources and environment.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of crisis proportions in today's world, presently more visible in technologically advanced than in the developing countries. Progress and affluence in the technologically developed countries has been achieved at the expense of depletion of natural resources and deterioration of the environment at the global level. Each of the 3 important factors responsible for environmental pollution--population growth, increase in affluence, and industrialization--are reviewed. There are direct and indirect effects of population growth on the environment. Other things being equal, the greater the population, the more significant are the changes brought about in the environment. More people increases demands on food, energy, housing, clothing, and transportation, all of which lead to environmental pollution. Poor quality or insufficiency of food supply, sanitation, water supply, housing, employment, and health and other services are common problems in countries with high rates of population increase. Problems of domestic sewage and solid waste disposal are directly related to the number of people. Economic growth means more consumption of resources. The effect of affluence can possibly be better understood in the context of the problem of food. With the improved economic status of the peole in many countries, the composition of their diet has been changing. Examining the grain requirements in different countries is a way to understand the effect of increased affluence on the demand for food. During 1969-70 the high income countries with 30% of the world population accounting for 51% of the total consumption of cereals. The higher rate of consumption of cereals in the developed countries is due to indirect utilization. Cereals which can be directly consumed by humans are fed to cattle. The per capita amount of direct and indirect grain consumption continues to increase as per capita income climbs. Developing countries, in their anxiety to

  6. Connecting Changes in Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge to Their Experiences in a Professional Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Melissa D.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation describes secondary mathematics teachers' learning and instructional change following their participation in a professional development workshop, the Enhancing Secondary Mathematics Teacher Preparation Project (ESP) (2004-2005), specifically focused on the selection and implementation of cognitively challenging mathematical…

  7. Workshop on Radar Investigations of Planetary and Terrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Salt Kinematics and InSAR. SAR Interferometry as a Tool for Monitoring Coastal Changes in the Nile River Delta of Egypt. Modem Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples. WISDOM Experiment on the EXOMARS ESA Mission. An Ice Thickness Study Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar on the Lower Jamapa. Probing the Martian Subsurface with Synthetic Aperture Radar. Planetary Surface Properties from Radar Polarimetric Observations. Imaging the Sub-surface Reflectors : Results From the RANETA/NETLANDER Field Test on the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strategy for Selection of Mars Geophysical Analogue Sites. Observations of Low Frequency Low Altitude Plasma Oscillations at Mars and Implications for Electromagnetic Sounding of the Subsurface. Ionospheric Transmission Losses Associated with Mars-orbiting Radar. A Polarimetric Scattering Model for the 2-Layer Problem. Radars for Imaging and Sounding of Polar Ice Sheets. Strata: Ground Penetrating Radar for Mars Rovers. Scattering Limits to Depth of Radar Investigation: Lessons from the Bishop Tuff.

  8. Life In Far-out Environments (LIFE): an IDEA Sponsored Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, B. W.; Alletto, J. J.; Byrant, F. D.; Carini, M. T.; Elliott, L. P.; Gelderman, R.; Mason, W. M.; McDaniel, K. L.; McGruder, C. H., III; Rinehart, C. R.; Tyler, R. T.

    1999-05-01

    The Biology and Physics & Astronomy departments of Western Kentucky University are collaborating to host an IDEA sponsored workshop for high-school students and their teachers. The goal of our workshop is to use activities and hands-on experiences to allow the participants to explore the question "what is life?". This workshop will be held on two weekends in the Fall of 1999. Up to 20 participants are being recruited as teacher-student teams. We are recruiting academically motivated high school students from Kentucky and surrounding states, with a goal of a 50 qualified minority students. It is our expectation that the teacher-student teams will take their favorite activities back to their home classroom and spread their experience among their peers. Activities will include: inspecting cultures of fingerprints to visualize microbial life on human bodies, researching and discussing the answer to "what is life?", constructing and using a 2-inch refracting telescope, collection and culture of terrestrial microbiota, discussing the harshness of space environments, experiments on microbes in extreme environments, constructing and using a van Leeuwenhoek type microscope and a discussion of problems related to constructing a Lunar base.

  9. The energetic particle environment of the solar probe mission: As estimated by the participants of the Solar Probe Environment Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Fisk, L. A.; Gold, R. E.; Lin, R. P.; Newkirk, G.; Simpson, J. A.; Vanhollebeke, M. A. I.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's long-range plan for the study of solar-terrestrial relations includes a Solar Probe Mission in which a spacecraft is placed in an eccentric orbit with perihelion at four solar radii. Possible radiation damage to the spacecraft and mission from energetic particles was discussed at a Solar Probe Environment Workshop which concluded that it would be unlikely for such a spacecraft to suffer fatal radiation damage, although a severe problem exists in limiting the neutron flux from a radioactive power supply enough to allow solar neutrons to be detected.

  10. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  11. Promoting instructional change in new faculty: An evaluation of the physics and astronomy new faculty workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles

    2008-02-01

    An important finding of physics and astronomy education research (PAER) is that traditional, transmission-based instructional approaches are not effective in promoting meaningful student learning. Instead, PAER research suggests that physics and astronomy should be taught using more interactive instructional methods. These ways of teaching require significant changes in the way faculty think about teaching and learning and corresponding changes in their teaching behavior. Although the research base and corresponding pedagogies and strategies are well documented and widely available, widespread changes in physics and astronomy teaching at the college level has yet to occur. The Workshop for New Physics and Astronomy Faculty has been working to address this problem since 1996. This workshop, which is jointly administered by the American Association of Physics Teachers, the American Astronomical Society, and the American Physical Society, has attracted approximately 25% of all new physics and astronomy faculty each year to a four-day workshop designed to introduce new faculty to PAER-based instructional ideas and materials. This paper describes the impact of the Workshop as measured by surveys of Workshop participants and physics and astronomy department chairs. The results indicate that the Workshop is successful in meeting its goals and might be significantly contributing to the spread and acceptance of PAER-based instructional ideas and materials.

  12. Looking for Life in Extreme Environments on Earth and Beyond: Professional Development Workshop for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droppo, R.; Pratt, L.; Suchecki, P. C.

    2010-08-01

    The Looking for Life in Extreme Environments workshop held at Indiana University Bloomington in July of 2009 was the first in a series of workshops for high-school teachers that are currently in development. The workshops' modules are based on the research of faculty members in the Departments of Geological Sciences, Biology, and Astronomy, the School of Education, and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University Bloomington; the modules use lessons from Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life. Earth Analogues for Possible Life on Mars: Lessons and Activities, curricular materials that were produced and edited by Lisa Pratt and Ruth Droppo and published by NASA in 2008. Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life is a workbook, a DVD (with closed-captioning), and a CD with the lessons in digital text format for adaptation to classroom needs and printing. Each lesson includes the National Education Standards that apply to the materials. The workbook's lessons are written with three considerations: Life Domains, Cellular Metabolism, and Extreme Environments and Microbes. Students are challenged to build, draw, measure, discuss, and participate in laboratory processes and experiments that help them understand and describe microbes and their environments. In the Capstone, the students write a grant proposal based on the three lessons' analogues. The DVD is collection of videotaped interviews with scientists in laboratories at Michigan State, Princeton, and Indiana University, who are working on water and gas samples they collected from deep gold mines in South Africa and the Canadian Arctic. The interview materials and some animated graphics are compiled into four video pieces that support and compliment the accompanying workbook lessons and activities, and offer students insight into the excitement of scientific discovery.

  13. Workshop on the Space Environment: The Effects on the Optical Properties of Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B. (Editor); Clark, B. (Editor); Benedix, G. (Editor); Domingue, D. (Editor); Cintala, M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Reflectance spectrophotometry and polarimetry are major tools in remote sensing studies of surfaces of solar system bodies. The interpretations of such measurements are often based on laboratory studies of meteoritic, lunar, and terrestrial materials. However, the optical properties of regoliths are known to be affected by the space environment. Thus, some of the major questions addressed in the workshop include identity of the soil component responsible for alteration of the optical properties, the process that produced this component, and how reliably the effects of these processes could be extrapolated to other bodies of the solar system.

  14. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  15. A Continuing Medical Education Lecture and Workshop, Physician Behavior, and Barriers To Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paprockas, Ken; Parochka, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    A 6-month follow-up study of 176 physicians who attended a breast cancer lecture/workshop found that 92 changed practice regarding tamoxifen; many now performed risk assessments on all patients. Barriers to change included lack of colleague consensus, lack of time for assessment and patient counseling, and lack of insurance reimbursement. (SK)

  16. Workshop on the preparation of climate change action plans. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-24

    Over 130 participants from more than 27 countries shared experiences of developing and transition countries in preparation and development of their climate change national action plans. International experts guided countries in preparation of their climate change national action plans.

  17. PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2012-04-01

    The 'India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation' (IJWBME 2011) will be held on 7-10 December 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan. This workshop was held for the first time on 17-19 December 2009 at NPL, New Delhi. Keeping in mind the importance of organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation and their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world, IJWBME 2009 was jointly organized by the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science & Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Much progress in the field of biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation is expected for the 21st Century. Organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic electroluminescent devices, organic thin-film transistors, organic sensors, biological systems and so on have especially attracted much attention. The main purpose of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for researchers interested in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation, to come together in an informal and friendly atmosphere and exchange technical knowledge and experience. We are sure that this workshop will be very useful and fruitful for all participants in summarizing the recent progress in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation and preparing new ground for the next generation. Many papers have been submitted from India and Japan and more than 30 papers have been accepted for presentation. The main topics of interest are as follows: Bioelectronics Biomolecular Electronics Fabrication Techniques Self-assembled Monolayers Nano-sensors Environmental Monitoring Organic Devices

  18. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans.

  19. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  20. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohring, George; Wielicki, Bruce; Spencer, Roy; Emery, Bill; Datla, Raju

    2005-09-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. The satellite instruments must be capable of observing atmospheric and surface temperature trends as small as 0.1°C decade-1, ozone changes as little as 1% decade-1, and variations in the sun's output as tiny as 0.1% decade-1. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Integrated Program Office (NPOESS-IPO), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized a workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, Maryland, 12 14 November 2002. Some 75 scientists participated including researchers who develop and analyze long-term datasets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state-of-the-art calibration sources and standards.The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate datasets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these dataset accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a road map for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, intercalibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. The workshop also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the road map developed at this workshop.


  1. The Challenge to Change: From Vision to Action in Canadian Education. 2014 Regional Workshop Follow Up Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To answer the question: "What's Standing in the Way of Change in Education?", the Canadian Education Association convened a series of Regional Workshops designed to expand the conversation about change in Canada's education systems. Using a qualitative approach, practically every word written in each of the workshops was entered, coded,…

  2. Engendering Behavior Change through Single-Session Workshops: Lessons Learned from Extension's Private well Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Alyson; Gold, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a follow-up mail survey conducted in 2009, we found that structured, one-time workshops can influence and impact participant behavior change. Survey results suggest that brief workshops, staffed by key resource personnel, can have a powerful influence on participant behavior change and fill an important gap in rural drinking water…

  3. Educational Technology Training Workshops for Mathematics Teachers: An Exploration of Perception Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Wilfred Wing Fat; Yuen, Allan Hoi Kau

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of educational technology training workshops on perception changes of mathematics teachers. Three perceptions, namely, pedagogical orientation, efficacy, and liking in relation to technology integration, were explored in this study. Two research questions were addressed: Do educational technology training workshops…

  4. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, James; McCord, Raymond; Sisterson, Doug; Voyles, Jimmy

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  5. Workshop on Two-Phase Fluid Behavior in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Editor); Juhasz, AL (Editor); Long, W. Russ (Editor); Ottenstein, Laura (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-phase systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer fluids, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-phase flow in a space environment.

  6. 77 FR 20872 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Research Workshop; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Research Workshop; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program Office, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department...

  7. Florida-focused climate change lesson demonstrations from the ASK Florida global and regional climate change professional development workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of Florida-focused climate change activities will be featured as part of the ASK Florida global and regional climate change professional development workshops. In a combined effort from Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and University of South Florida's Coalition for Science Literacy (CSL), and supported by NASA's NICE initiative, the ASK Florida professional development workshops are a series of workshops designed to enhance and support climate change information and related pedagogical skills for middle school science teachers from Title-I schools in Florida. These workshops took place during a two-year period from 2011 to 2013 and consisted of two cohorts in Hillsborough and Volusia counties in Florida. Featured activities include lab-style exercises demonstrating topics such as storm surge and coastal geometry, sea level rise from thermal expansion, and the greenhouse effect. These types of labs are modified so that they allow more independent, inquiry thinking as they require teachers to design their own experiment in order to test a hypothesis. Lecture based activities are used to cover a broad range of topics including hurricanes, climate modeling, and sink holes. The more innovative activities are group activities that utilize roll-playing, technology and resources, and group discussion. For example, 'Climate Gallery Walk' is an activity that features group discussions on each of the climate literacy principles established by the United States Global Change Research Program. By observing discussions between individuals and groups, this activity helps the facilitators gather information on their previous knowledge and identify possible misconceptions that will be addressed within the workshops. Furthermore, 'Fact or Misconception' presents the challenge of identifying whether a given statement is fact or misconception based on the material covered throughout the workshops. It serves as a way to

  8. Advancing Women Scientists: Exploring a Theoretically Grounded Climate Change Workshop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Barbara; Prochaska, Janice; Mederer, Helen; Harlow, Lisa; Sherman, Karen

    Universities in the United States have an increasing need to recruit the best and the brightest faculty to remain globally competitive, but the majority of schools share a profile that includes a low percentage of women in most of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines. Changes in university culture are needed to enable departmental diversity growth, to expand offerings and perspectives, and to strengthen the view that STEM is an attractive choice for female students and prospective faculty. This paper describes the theoretical models used to develop a prototype workshop series implemented in departments to help faculty progress in their readiness to advance women scientists, defined as collaborating, mentoring, sharing resources, and generating support through community. The three theoretical underpinnings are the gender-as-structure theory of organizational change, Appreciative Inquiry, and the Transtheoretical Model. These workshops are one aspect of the climate change efforts implemented by the ADVANCE program of the University of Rhode Island.

  9. A Seismic Shift: Evaluating Changes in Scientists' Attitudes Regarding Journalists and Science Communication After Media Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, S.; Herbulock, D.

    2015-12-01

    Providing natural hazards scientists the opportunity to question and engage directly with journalists in a workshop setting proved effective at shifting scientists' attitudes on their role in media and public communication during natural disasters. Scientists surveyed after the encounter expressed a more responsive attitude to communicating during crises, increased willingness to support scientific peers' communication efforts and more realistic perspectives on journalists' needs and objectives. Geoscientists experienced unprecedented and intensive media and public scrutiny during the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes of 2010-2012. Following major quakes and aftershocks, there was a sustained high level of public demand for information and expert analysis of the underlying geological events and ongoing hazards and risks. Once the crisis ended, a period of reflection gave rise to understanding of the need for further media and communication training amongst natural hazards scientists. A workshop designed to explore scientists' attitudes to public communication during disasters and challenge their views on media, press offices and the expectations of the public was developed and implemented by the Science Media Centre, New Zealand and Massey University. This research was developed as an evaluation of this workshop. Quantitative analysis with some qualititive analysis were the methods used. Some findings include: a shift in how journalists were perceived by scientists after the workshop, largely influenced by perspectives shared during a panel where invited journalists reflected on their own experiences and answered questions from scientists. discussions on different spokespeople from different science institutions contributing to the public discussion showed a change in perception from a preference for one central spokesperson to increased support for a variety of perspectives from multiple scientists. This was influenced by insight provided by journalists during

  10. Volcano deformation and gravity workshop synopsis and outcomes: the 2008 volcano deformation and temporal gravity change workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lu, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A volcano workshop was held in Washington State, near the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cascades Volcano Observatory. The workshop, hosted by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program (VHP), included more than 40 participants from the United States, the European Union, and Canada. Goals were to promote (1) collaboration among scientists working on active volcanoes and (2) development of new tools for studying volcano deformation. The workshop focused on conventional and emerging techniques, including the Global Positioning System (GPS), borehole strain, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), gravity, and electromagnetic imaging, and on the roles of aqueous and magmatic fluids.

  11. Teaching about Climate Change and Energy with Online Materials and Workshops from On the Cutting Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, K. B.; Manduca, C. A.; Myers, J. D.; Loxsom, F.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change and energy use are among the most relevant and pressing issues in today’s science curriculum, yet they are also complex topics to teach. The underlying science spans multiple disciplines and is quickly evolving. Moreover, a comprehensive treatment of climate change and energy use must also delve into perspectives not typically addressed in geosciences courses, such as public policy and economics. Thus, faculty attempting to address these timely issues face many challenges. To support faculty in teaching these subjects, the On the Cutting Edge faculty development program has created a series of websites and workshop opportunities to provide faculty with information and resources for teaching about climate and energy. A web-based collection of teaching materials was developed in conjunction with the On the Cutting Edge workshops “Teaching about Energy in Geoscience Courses: Current Research and Pedagogy.” The website is designed to provide faculty with examples, references and ideas for either incorporating energy topics into existing geoscience courses or for designing or refining a course about energy. The website contains a collection of over 30 classroom and lab activities contributed by faculty and covering such diverse topics as renewable energy, energy policy and energy conservation. Course descriptions and syllabi for energy courses address audiences ranging from introductory courses to advanced seminars. Other materials available on the website include a collection of visualizations and animations, a catalog of recommended books, presentations and related references from the teaching energy workshops, and ideas for novel approaches or new topics for teaching about energy in the geosciences. The Teaching Climate Change website hosts large collections of teaching materials spanning many different topics within climate change, climatology and meteorology. Classroom activities highlight diverse pedagogic approaches such as role

  12. Regional Climate Variations and Change for Terrestrial Ecosystems Workshop Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with the U.S. Department of the Interior Southeast Climate Science Center (SECSC), hosted the Regional Climate Variations and Change for ...

  13. Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George

    1999-01-11

    A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

  14. Sex and adaptation in a changing environment.

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, D; Peck, J R

    1999-01-01

    In this study we consider a mathematical model of a sexual population that lives in a changing environment. We find that a low rate of environmental change can produce a very large increase in genetic variability. This may help to explain the high levels of heritability observed in many natural populations. We also study asexuality and find that a modest rate of environmental change can be very damaging to an asexual population, while leaving a sexual population virtually unscathed. Furthermore, in a changing environment, the advantages of sexuality over asexuality can be much greater than suggested by most previous studies. Our analysis applies in the case of very large populations, where stochastic forces may be neglected. PMID:10511577

  15. The Changing Environment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shires, Michael A.; And Others

    This paper describes the national demographic and economic context of higher education and offers interpretations of what it portends, in order to illuminate the changing environment of higher education. The discussion focuses on: (1) demographic trends, such as the projected annual enrollment growth in the 1990s of 1.2 percent and the increasing…

  16. Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

  17. PROCEEDINGS AND SUMMARY REPORT: WORKSHOP ON THE FATE, TRANSPORT, AND TRANSFORMATION OF MERCURY IN AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS, MAY 8-10, 2001, WEST PALM BEACH, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop on the Fate, Transport, and Transformation of Mercury in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments was held on May 8-10, 2001 in West Palm Beach, Florida. The workshop was conducted by the USEPA's Office of Research and Development and cosponsored by the U.S. Geological S...

  18. Multidisciplinary views in modeling response to climate change: A workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.; Heath, L.S.

    1998-09-01

    The report summarizes presentations at a workshop jointly sponsored by the Interdisciplinary Climate Systems Section of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the Northern Global Change Research Program of the USDA Forest Service. This year`s title was Moving from Equilibrium to Transient GCMs (general circulation models): Linking Physiological Responses, Community Responses, and Ecological Rates of Change with Social-Economic Factors. Topics included global-scale climate simulations, continental-scale biotic models, ecosystem-level research, and issues associated with developing large-scale assessments.

  19. Report of the Cyberinfrastructure for Environment Observationa, Analysis and Forecasting workshop: toward collaborative VEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, P. L.; Lawrence, K.; Fox, P.

    2008-12-01

    In May 2008, NCAR hosted a workshop to assist the US National Science Foundation in considering how it might most effectively craft programs to support the creation and use of new cyberinfrastructure capabilities to support environmental research and education over the next decade. The workshop continued a succession of discussions that were identifying key issues and the means of addressing them. Although the aim was not to build a consensus for a fully defined proposal or plan, the workshop did identify opportunities through stimulating a constructive dialogue among environmental scientists, information scientists, educators, and technologists from multiple disciplinary and environmental communities. The product of the workshop is a white paper that examines opportunities for applying cyberinfrastructure in environmental research and education, identifies significant issues, and provides a roadmap for addressing key questions. In this presentation we will present this report and indicate key outcomes and future directions.

  20. Protective barrier climate-change impacts: Technical workshop findings and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.

    1988-12-01

    A workshop was convened to define key issues regarding the impacts of climatic variability on the performance of protective layered soil and rock barriers proposed for possible use at Hanford. Workshop participants concluded that the sensitivity of vegetation and evapotranspiration to climate must be better understood before climate-change impacts on drainage through the barrier and groundwater recharge can be adequately modeled. As a result of this conclusion, workshop participants proposed measuring evapotranspiration and other water balance parameters in lysimeters constructed around monoliths of undisturbed soil and mature vegetation, and located at sites analogous to late-Quaternary pluvial and altithermal conditions. Climate-analog sites would be selected based on reconstructions of late-Quaternary vegetational patterns and model projections of future climatic variability in the region. The lysimeter data would be input into a simulation model of soil-water movement in barriers. The distribution of pedogenic carbonates and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing fallout would be analyzed as independent indicators of past water movement in analog-site soil profiles. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Adaptive path planning in changing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1993-10-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses previous experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm extends our previous work for stationary environments in two directions: For minor environmental change, an object-attached experience abstraction scheme is introduced to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, an on-demand experience repair scheme is also introduced to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. In addition to presenting this algorithm, we identify three other variants with different repair strategies. To compare these algorithms, we develop an analytic model to compare the costs and benefits of the corresponding repair processes. Using this model, we formalize the concept of incremental change, and prove the optimality of our proposed algorithm under such change. Empirically, we also characterize the performance curve of each variant, confirm our theoretical optimality results, and demonstrate the practicality of our algorithm.

  2. G x E: a NIAAA workshop on gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Goldman, David

    2003-03-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a May 2002 workshop on gene-environment interaction (G x E) research to identify potential roadblocks to further research and to propose solutions to those roadblocks, to optimize investigative opportunities and multidisciplinary or multi-institution collaborations, and to explore ways that NIAAA can facilitate G x E studies. Sessions included panels on animal models; phenotypes; genetic findings in humans; study designs and analytical methods; and assessment of environmental risk. Key among the identified challenges to progress in G x E research were issues of study design and sampling strategies; logistic and methodological costs and constraints; availability and understanding of data analysis techniques; potential stigmatization of study populations; and organizational/bureaucratic structures that are inadequate to address the unique needs of large-scale, multicenter, longitudinal projects. Participants proposed a series of recommendations to address these issues. Session coordinators included: Gayle Boyd, Kendall Bryant, Page Chiapella, Vivian Faden, David Goldman, and Antonio Noronha. Session participants included: Laura Almasy, Henri Begleiter, Raul Caetano, Bruce Dudek, Mary Dufour, Cindy Ehlers, Mary-Anne Enoch, Joel Gelernter, David Goldman, Bridget Grant, Lorraine Gunzerath, Deborah Hasin, Andrew Heath, Victor Hesselbrock, J. Dee Higley, Shirley Hill, Kerry Jang, Raynard S. Kington, Rick Kittles, George Koob, Kenneth Leonard, Ting-Kai Li, Jeffrey Long, William McBride, Matthew McGue, Kathleen Merikangas, Tamara Phillips, Bernice Porjesz, Carol Prescott, Theodore Reich, John Rice, Richard Rose, Charmaine Royal, Arnold Sameroff, Marc Schuckit, Kenneth Sher, Renee Sieving, Robert Taylor, Michael Windle, and Robert Zucker. PMID:12658122

  3. G x E: a NIAAA workshop on gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Goldman, David

    2003-03-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a May 2002 workshop on gene-environment interaction (G x E) research to identify potential roadblocks to further research and to propose solutions to those roadblocks, to optimize investigative opportunities and multidisciplinary or multi-institution collaborations, and to explore ways that NIAAA can facilitate G x E studies. Sessions included panels on animal models; phenotypes; genetic findings in humans; study designs and analytical methods; and assessment of environmental risk. Key among the identified challenges to progress in G x E research were issues of study design and sampling strategies; logistic and methodological costs and constraints; availability and understanding of data analysis techniques; potential stigmatization of study populations; and organizational/bureaucratic structures that are inadequate to address the unique needs of large-scale, multicenter, longitudinal projects. Participants proposed a series of recommendations to address these issues. Session coordinators included: Gayle Boyd, Kendall Bryant, Page Chiapella, Vivian Faden, David Goldman, and Antonio Noronha. Session participants included: Laura Almasy, Henri Begleiter, Raul Caetano, Bruce Dudek, Mary Dufour, Cindy Ehlers, Mary-Anne Enoch, Joel Gelernter, David Goldman, Bridget Grant, Lorraine Gunzerath, Deborah Hasin, Andrew Heath, Victor Hesselbrock, J. Dee Higley, Shirley Hill, Kerry Jang, Raynard S. Kington, Rick Kittles, George Koob, Kenneth Leonard, Ting-Kai Li, Jeffrey Long, William McBride, Matthew McGue, Kathleen Merikangas, Tamara Phillips, Bernice Porjesz, Carol Prescott, Theodore Reich, John Rice, Richard Rose, Charmaine Royal, Arnold Sameroff, Marc Schuckit, Kenneth Sher, Renee Sieving, Robert Taylor, Michael Windle, and Robert Zucker.

  4. Comparative endocrinology, environment and global change.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, John C

    2008-07-01

    All organisms respond to environmental cues that allow them to organize the timing and duration of life history stages that make up their life cycles. Superimposed on this predictable life cycle are unpredictable events that have the potential to be stressful. Environmental and social stresses have deleterious effects on life history stages such as migration, reproductive function and molt in vertebrates. Global climate change, human disturbance and endocrine disruption from pollutants are increasingly likely to pose additional stresses that could have a major impact on organisms. Such impacts have great relevance to conservation as well as basic biology. Although some populations of vertebrates temporarily resist environmental and social stresses, and breed successfully, many show varying decrees of failure sometimes resulting in marked population decline. Alternatively, many aspects of global change may not be overtly stressful but timing of life history events becomes out of step with phenology because pertinent environmental signals normally used have been changed. There is much we do not know about how organisms respond to their natural environment, particularly how salient signals are perceived and then transduced into neuroendocrine and endocrine secretions. Comparative endocrinology has a key role to play in resolving mechanisms underlying responses to the environment. In the face of increasing human disturbance and global climate change there is an urgent need for more integration of ecological, evolutionary and mechanistic studies on stress biology of organisms in their natural world. PMID:18558405

  5. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  6. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  7. Survival strategies in a changing practice environment.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Bruce M; Blau, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    A number of forces disrupt normal referral patterns to physicians, driving hospital consolidation, and changing the way medicine is practiced in the United States. Strategies have been implemented to keep services in-network and stem "leakage"-all in the name of population health management, reducing unit costs, and spreading financial risk among the insurers, hospitals, and physicians. To survive in the changing medical environment, independent unintegrated physicians need to consider different practice models. These models include accountable care organizations (ACOs), super groups, specialty networks, co-management agreements, professional service agreements (PSAs), and partnering with local hospitals. Each physician and physician group need to decide what works best for them and their geographical area. Physicians and physician groups may find that one or more of these models will improve their chance of economic survival. PMID:24650460

  8. Sustaining Change in Upper Level Courses: Peer-Led Workshops in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Terry; Roth, Vicki; Kampmeier, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Our peer-led collaborative learning groups, called Workshops, have now had extended success in two upper-level courses in chemistry and biochemistry. These Workshops are in turn supported by a third upper-level course for training peer-leaders. Our data confirm that the initial positive results from the introduction of Workshops in organic…

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY: INTRODUCTION TO A SETAC INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Ralph G; Hooper, Michael J; Balbus, John M; Clements, William; Fritz, Alyce; Gouin, Todd; Helm, Roger; Hickey, Christopher; Landis, Wayne; Moe, S Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled “The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.” The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer the following question: How will global climate change influence the environmental impacts of chemicals and other stressors and the way we assess and manage them in the environment? While more detail is found in the complete series of articles, some key consensus points are as follows: (1) human actions (including mitigation of and adaptation to impacts of global climate change [GCC]) may have as much influence on the fate and distribution of chemical contaminants as does GCC, and modeled predictions should be interpreted cautiously; (2) climate change can affect the toxicity of chemicals, but chemicals can also affect how organisms acclimate to climate change; (3) effects of GCC may be slow, variable, and difficult to detect, though some populations and communities of high vulnerability may exhibit responses sooner and more dramatically than others; (4) future approaches to human and ecological risk assessments will need to incorporate multiple stressors and cumulative risks considering the wide spectrum of potential impacts stemming from GCC; and (5) baseline/reference conditions for estimating resource injury and restoration/rehabilitation will continually shift due to GCC and represent significant challenges to practitioners. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:13–19. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23097130

  10. Creating dialogue: a workshop on "Uncertainty in Decision Making in a Changing Climate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Tracy; Addor, Nans; Johnson, Leigh; Coltekin, Arzu; Derungs, Curdin; Muccione, Veruska

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty is present in all fields of climate research, spanning from projections of future climate change, to assessing regional impacts and vulnerabilities, to adaptation policy and decision-making. In addition to uncertainties, managers and planners in many sectors are often confronted with large amounts of information from climate change research whose complex and interdisciplinary nature make it challenging to incorporate into the decision-making process. An overarching issue in tackling this problem is the lack of institutionalized dialogue between climate researchers, decision-makers and user groups. Forums that facilitate such dialogue would allow climate researchers to actively engage with end-users and researchers in different disciplines to better characterize uncertainties and ultimately understand which ones are critically considered and incorporated into decisions made. We propose that the introduction of students to these challenges at an early stage of their education and career is a first step towards improving future dialogue between climate researchers, decision-makers and user groups. To this end, we organized a workshop at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, entitled "Uncertainty in Decision Making in a Changing Climate". It brought together 50 participants, including Bachelor, Master and PhD students and academic staff, and nine selected speakers from academia, industry, government, and philanthropy. Speakers introduced participants to topics ranging from uncertainties in climate model scenarios to managing uncertainties in development and aid agencies. The workshop consisted of experts' presentations, a panel discussion and student group work on case studies. Pedagogical goals included i) providing participants with an overview of the current research on uncertainty and on how uncertainty is dealt with by decision-makers, ii) fostering exchange between practitioners, students, and scientists from different backgrounds, iii) exposing

  11. Seabed change detection in challenging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Sternlicht, Daniel D.

    2011-06-01

    Automatic Change Detection (ACD) compares new and stored terrain images for alerting to changes occurring over time. These techniques, long used in airborne radar, are just beginning to be applied to sidescan sonar. Under the right conditions ACD by image correlation-comparing multi-temporal image data at the pixel or parcel level-can be used to detect new objects on the seafloor. Synthetic aperture sonars (SAS)-coherent sensors that produce fine-scale, range-independent resolution seafloor images-are well suited for this approach; however, dynamic seabed environments can introduce "clutter" to the process. This paper explores an ACD method that uses salience mapping in a global-to-local analysis architecture. In this method, termed Temporally Invariant Saliency (TIS), variance ratios of median-filtered repeat-pass images are used to detect new objects, while deemphasizing modest environmental or radiometric-induced changes in the background. Successful tests with repeat-pass data from two SAS systems mounted on autonomous undersea vehicles (AUV) demonstrate the feasibility of the technique.

  12. Specific immune responses in changed gaseous environments.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, I V; Lebedev, K A; Zemskov, V M; Zazhirey, V D; Ganina, V I

    1971-01-01

    The capacity of lymphoid cells to participate in immunity reactions was evaluated by blast transformation of lymphocytes under the influence of phytohemagglutinin. Blast transformation was measured by cytologic analysis and autoradiographic investigation of the rate of RNA synthesis in cells (tritiated uridin used as label). An analysis of the material taken from the three test subjects during the year-long experiment showed that various situations affected significantly the blast transformation level of lymphocytes. The reaction was substantially reduced 10 days after a simulated emergency situation which involved a change in the atmosphere, increase of physical load, etc. The level of blast transformation increased 1.5 to 2 months after the simulation, exceeding the average value, then to be normalized. Atmospheric variations appear to be one of the factors that may change the activity of lymphoid cells. A parallel experiment was performed in which three subjects lived 10 days in a hyperoxic enclosed environment (53% O2). They showed a considerable intensification of blast transformation (by 2.2-2.6 times) and pronounced activation of the RNA synthesis. Investigations give evidence that a long-term enclosure exerts an effect on the reactivity of the systems involved in the development of basic immune reactions.

  13. Drosophila larvae: Thermal ecology in changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, George

    Temperature affects almost all aspects of life. Although much work has been done to assess the impact of temperature on organismal performance, relatively little is known about how organisms behaviorally regulate temperature, how these behaviors effect population fitness, or how changing climate may interact with these behaviors. I explore these questions with the model system Drosophila larvae. Larvae are small, with a low thermal mass and limited capacity for physiological thermoregulation. Mortality is generally high in larvae, with large potential impacts on population growth rate. Thus behavioral thermoregulation in larvae should be of critical selective importance. I present a review of the current knowledge of Drosophila thermal preference. I describe quantifiable thermoregulatory behaviors ( TMV and TW) unique to larvae. I show interspecific variation of these behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster and several close relatives, and intraspecific variation between populations collected from different environments. I also investigate these behaviors in two mutant lines, ssa and biz, to investigate the genetic basis of these behaviors. I show that larval thermoregulatory systems are independent of those of adults. Further these thermoregulatory behaviors differ between two sister species, D. yakuba and D. santomea. Although these two species readily hybridize in laboratory conditions, very few hybrids are observed in the field. The surprising result that hybrids of D. yakuba and D. santomea seem to inherit TMV from D. yakuba suggests a novel extrinsic isolation mechanism between the two species. I explore how fitness is the result of the interaction between genetics and the environment. I utilize Monte Carlo simulation to show how non-linear norms of reaction generate variation in populations even in the absence of behavior or epigenetic evolutionary mechanisms. Finally I investigate the global distribution of temperatures in which these organisms exist using

  14. System Software and Tools for High Performance Computing Environments: A report on the findings of the Pasadena Workshop, April 14--16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, T.; Messina, P.; Chen, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Pasadena Workshop on System Software and Tools for High Performance Computing Environments was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from April 14 through April 16, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by a number of Federal agencies committed to the advancement of high performance computing (HPC) both as a means to advance their respective missions and as a national resource to enhance American productivity and competitiveness. Over a hundred experts in related fields from industry, academia, and government were invited to participate in this effort to assess the current status of software technology in support of HPC systems. The overall objectives of the workshop were to understand the requirements and current limitations of HPC software technology and to contribute to a basis for establishing new directions in research and development for software technology in HPC environments. This report includes reports written by the participants of the workshop`s seven working groups. Materials presented at the workshop are reproduced in appendices. Additional chapters summarize the findings and analyze their implications for future directions in HPC software technology development.

  15. The influence of global climate change on the scientific foundations and applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Introduction to a SETAC international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stahl, Ralph G.; Hooper, Michael J.; Balbus, John M.; Clements, William; Fritz, Alyce; Gouin, Todd; Helm, Roger; Hickey, Christopher; Landis, Wayne; Moe, S. Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled “The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.” The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer the following question: How will global climate change influence the environmental impacts of chemicals and other stressors and the way we assess and manage them in the environment? While more detail is found in the complete series of articles, some key consensus points are as follows: (1) human actions (including mitigation of and adaptation to impacts of global climate change [GCC]) may have as much influence on the fate and distribution of chemical contaminants as does GCC, and modeled predictions should be interpreted cautiously; (2) climate change can affect the toxicity of chemicals, but chemicals can also affect how organisms acclimate to climate change; (3) effects of GCC may be slow, variable, and difficult to detect, though some populations and communities of high vulnerability may exhibit responses sooner and more dramatically than others; (4) future approaches to human and ecological risk assessments will need to incorporate multiple stressors and cumulative risks considering the wide spectrum of potential impacts stemming from GCC; and (5) baseline/reference conditions for estimating resource injury and restoration/rehabilitation will continually shift due to GCC and represent significant challenges to practitioners.

  16. The influence of global climate change on the scientific foundations and applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: introduction to a SETAC international workshop.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Ralph G; Hooper, Michael J; Balbus, John M; Clements, William; Fritz, Alyce; Gouin, Todd; Helm, Roger; Hickey, Christopher; Landis, Wayne; Moe, S Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled "The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry." The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer the following question: How will global climate change influence the environmental impacts of chemicals and other stressors and the way we assess and manage them in the environment? While more detail is found in the complete series of articles, some key consensus points are as follows: (1) human actions (including mitigation of and adaptation to impacts of global climate change [GCC]) may have as much influence on the fate and distribution of chemical contaminants as does GCC, and modeled predictions should be interpreted cautiously; (2) climate change can affect the toxicity of chemicals, but chemicals can also affect how organisms acclimate to climate change; (3) effects of GCC may be slow, variable, and difficult to detect, though some populations and communities of high vulnerability may exhibit responses sooner and more dramatically than others; (4) future approaches to human and ecological risk assessments will need to incorporate multiple stressors and cumulative risks considering the wide spectrum of potential impacts stemming from GCC; and (5) baseline/reference conditions for estimating resource injury and restoration/rehabilitation will continually shift due to GCC and represent significant challenges to practitioners.

  17. Summary Report for National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (C3P) 2011 International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The C3P &. NASA International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy was held on November 15-18, 2011 at the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The theme of the workshop was "Global Collaboration in Environmental and Alternative Energy Strategies". The workshop was held at ESTEC's conference center. More than 110 individuals from eleven countries attended the workshop. For the first time since the inception of NASA-C3P workshops, a full day was dedicated to a student session. Fifteen students from around the globe gave oral presentations along with poster displays relating to the latest technologies in environmental and alternative energy strategies. Judges from NASA, C3P and ESA awarded plaques to the top three students. In addition to the students, thirty eight U.S. and international subject matter experts presented on the following general environmental-related topics: (1) Hazardous materials management and substitution in support of space operations (2) Emerging renewable and alternative energy technologies (3) Sustainable development and redevelopment (4) Remediation technologies and strategies The workshop also included a panel discussion on the topic of the challenges of operating installations across borders. Throughout the workshop, attendees heard about the scope of environmental and energy challenges that industry and governments face. They heard about technologies for increasing energy efficiency and increasing use of renewable energy. They learned about ways companies and government agencies are using materials, processes, goods and services in a manner more respectful with the environment and in compliance with health and safety rules. The concept of partnerships and their inherent benefits was evidenced throughout the workshop. Partnering is a key aspect of sustainability because sustainable development is complicated. Through formal presentations and side discussions, attendees

  18. Cardiovascular state changes in simulated work environments

    PubMed Central

    Stuiver, Arjan; Mulder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of cardiovascular measures as indicators of changes in cognitive workload has been addressed in several studies. In this paper the question is explored whether cardiovascular patterns in heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity and HRV that are found are consistent within and between two simulated working environments. Two studies, were performed, both with 21 participants: one in an ambulance dispatch simulation and one in a driving simulator. In the ambulance dispatcher task an initial strong increase in blood pressure is followed by a moderate on-going increase in blood pressure during the next hour of task performance. This pattern is accompanied by a strong increase in baroreflex sensitivity while heart rate decreases. In the driving simulator study, blood pressure initially increases but decreases almost to baseline level in the next hour. This pattern is accompanied by a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, while heart rate decreases. Results of both studies are interpreted in terms of autonomic control (related to both sympathetic and para-sympathetic effects), using a simplified simulation of a baroreflex regulation model. Interpretation of the results leads to the conclusion that the cardiovascular response patterns in both tasks are a combination of an initial defensive reaction, in combination with compensatory blood pressure control. The level of compensatory blood pressure control, however, is quite different for the two tasks. This helps to understand the differences in response patterns between the two studies in this paper and may be helpful as well for understanding differences in cardiovascular response patterns in general. A substantial part of the effects observed during task performance are regulatory effects and are not always directly related to workload manipulations. Making this distinction may also contribute to the understanding of differences in cardiovascular response patterns during cognitive workload. PMID

  19. Climate Change Education: Preparing Future and Current Business Leaders--A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses challenges as well as opportunities for businesses and, broadly speaking for the entire economy. Businesses will be challenged to provide services or products with less harmful influence on the climate; respond to a changing policy, regulatory, and market environment; and provide new services and products to help address the…

  20. EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Allen, Heather C.; Bertram, Allan K.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Martin, Scot T.; Penner, Joyce E.; Prather, Kimberly; Rasch, Philip J.; Signorell, Ruth; Smith, James N.; Wyslouzil, Barbara; Ziemann, Paul; Dabdub, Donald; Furche, Filipp; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Tobias, Douglas J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    This report contains the workshop scope and recommendations from the workshop attendees in identifying scientific gaps in new particle formation, growth and properties of particles and reactions in and on particles as well as the laboratory-focused capabilities, field-deployable capabilities and modeling/theory tools along with linking of models to fundamental data.

  1. Reclaiming Power in the Writers' Workshop: Defending Curricula, Countering Narratives, and Changing Identities in Prekindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Brian T.; Miller, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how young writers and their teachers transformed the language arts curriculum by asserting their power within a familiar framework--the writer's workshop. We present three narratives in which multiple pre-kindergarten agents (students, teachers, and administrators) used their power within the Writer's Workshop to a)…

  2. Putting Research into Practice: Pedagogy Development Workshops Change the Teaching Philosophy of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter J. T.; Syncox, David; Heppleston, Audrey; Isaac, Siara; Alters, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teaching competence is an important skill for graduate students to acquire and is often considered a precursor to an academic career. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a multi-day teaching workshop on graduate teaching philosophies by surveying 200 graduate students, 79 of whom had taken the workshops and 121 who had not. We found no…

  3. Faculty Development in a Changing Academic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Clyde H.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional model for medical faculty development is inadequate in the face of shrinking government support, changes in biomedical research, changes in reimbursement systems, loss of respect for medical professions, and radical changes in the structure of the health care delivery system. Implications of changes in the health care system for…

  4. Fourth annual workshop on management in basic and applied research environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1993-11-01

    The struggle to develop quality management concepts that ``map`` onto the cultural and work practices found in basic and applied research environments has been (for better or for worse) an attempt to differentiate basic and applied research from the nuclear industry. In the first (1990) edition of this ``Music Book`` proceedings, almost every laboratory that participated had a quality program that was traceable to, based on, influenced by, or in reaction to the nuclear quality standard ASME-NQA-1. This 1993 edition of the ``Music Book`` is very different in that almost every laboratory has developed a quality program that is based on, traceable to, or heavily influenced by DOE 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) and the DOE Standard; Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). In order to construct a context for what follows and properly introduce the contents of this book, we want to briefly recount some of the highlights of the events that brought about this change, from the perspective of one who participated in the process.

  5. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. Methods The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. Results It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. Conclusions The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and

  6. Management Education for the Changing International Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, John

    1983-01-01

    Today's managers should be well acquainted with world events, for the operation of the enterprise can no longer be understood in isolation from them. Post-experience management development programs can provide excellent opportunities for the exposure of managers to the international environment. (MEAD Subscriptions, CSML, University of Lancaster,…

  7. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass.

  8. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass. PMID:24874505

  9. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  10. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-03-13

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change.

  11. Transition Management in a Changing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Harold

    1978-01-01

    This case study of organizational change, with transition guidelines, describes how an organization development consultant helped surplus line managers to adjust to reassignments when company retrenchment caused reductions in the number of production workers. (MF)

  12. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  13. The Changing Work Environment and Skills Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, June S.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the National Business Education Association's National Standards for Business Education and the Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States' Administrative Support Occupations Skills Standards. Discusses their use in preparing secondary and postsecondary students for the changing workplace. (SK)

  14. Results of an adaptive environmental assessment modeling workshop concerning potential impacts of drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Marmorek, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Drilling fluids or "muds" are essential components of modern drilling operations. They provide integrity for the well bore, a medium for removal of formation cuttings, and lubrication and cooling of the drill bit and pipe. The modeling workshop described in this report was conducted September 14-18, 1981 in Gulf Breeze, Florida to consider potential impacts of discharged drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment. The broad goals of the workshop were synthesis of information on fate and effects, identification of general relationships between drilling fluids and the marine environment, and identification of site-specific variables likely to determine impacts of drilling muds and cuttings in various marine sites. The workshop was structured around construction of a model simulating fate and effects of discharges from a single rig into open water areas of the Gulf of Mexico, and discussion of factors that might produce different fate and effects in enclosed areas such as bays and estuaries. The simulation model was composed of four connected submodels. A Discharge/Fate submodel dealt with the discharge characteristics of the rig and the subsequent fate of discharged material. Three effects submodels then calculated biological responses at distances away from the rig for the water column, soft bottom benthos (assuming the rig was located over a soft bottom environment), and hard bottom benthos (assuming the rig was located over a hard bottom environment). The model focused on direct linkages between the discharge and various organisms rather than on how the marine ecosystem itself is interconnected. Behavior of the simulation model indicated relatively localized effects of drilling muds and cuttings discharged from a single platform into open water areas. Water column fate and effects were dominated by rapid dilution. Effects from deposition of spent mud and cuttings were spatially limited with relatively rapid recovery, especially in soft bottom benthic

  15. Phytoplankton adapt to changing ocean environments.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Andrew J; Finkel, Zoe V; Müller-Karger, Frank E; Troccoli Ghinaglia, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Model projections indicate that climate change may dramatically restructure phytoplankton communities, with cascading consequences for marine food webs. It is currently not known whether evolutionary change is likely to be able to keep pace with the rate of climate change. For simplicity, and in the absence of evidence to the contrary, most model projections assume species have fixed environmental preferences and will not adapt to changing environmental conditions on the century scale. Using 15 y of observations from Station CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean), we show that most of the dominant species from a marine phytoplankton community were able to adapt their realized niches to track average increases in water temperature and irradiance, but the majority of species exhibited a fixed niche for nitrate. We do not know the extent of this adaptive capacity, so we cannot conclude that phytoplankton will be able to adapt to the changes anticipated over the next century, but community ecosystem models can no longer assume that phytoplankton cannot adapt.

  16. Role of proline under changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Hayat, Qaiser; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wani, Arif Shafi; Pichtel, John; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to stressful conditions, plants accumulate an array of metabolites, particularly amino acids. Amino acids have traditionally been considered as precursors to and constituents of proteins, and play an important role in plant metabolism and development. A large body of data suggests a positive correlation between proline accumulation and plant stress. Proline, an amino acid, plays a highly beneficial role in plants exposed to various stress conditions. Besides acting as an excellent osmolyte, proline plays three major roles during stress, i.e., as a metal chelator, an antioxidative defense molecule and a signaling molecule. Review of the literature indicates that a stressful environment results in an overproduction of proline in plants which in turn imparts stress tolerance by maintaining cell turgor or osmotic balance; stabilizing membranes thereby preventing electrolyte leakage; and bringing concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within normal ranges, thus preventing oxidative burst in plants. Reports indicate enhanced stress tolerance when proline is supplied exogenously at low concentrations. However, some reports indicate toxic effects of proline when supplied exogenously at higher concentrations. In this article, we review and discuss the effects of exogenous proline on plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. Numerous examples of successful application of exogenous proline to improve stress tolerance are presented. The roles played by exogenous proline under varying environments have been critically examined and reviewed. PMID:22951402

  17. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  18. Building Strong Geoscience Departments Through the Visiting Workshop Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Bralower, T. J.; Clemens-Knott, D.; Doser, D. I.; Feiss, P. G.; Rhodes, D. D.; Richardson, R. M.; Savina, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project focuses on helping geoscience departments adapt and prosper in a changing and challenging environment. From 2005-2009, the project offered workshop programs on topics such as student recruitment, program assessment, preparing students for the workforce, and strengthening geoscience programs. Participants shared their departments' challenges and successes. Building on best practices and most promising strategies from these workshops and on workshop leaders' experiences, from 2009-2011 the project ran a visiting workshop program, bringing workshops to 18 individual departments. Two major strengths of the visiting workshop format are that it engages the entire department in the program, fostering a sense of shared ownership and vision, and that it focuses on each department's unique situation. Departments applied to have a visiting workshop, and the process was highly competitive. Selected departments chose from a list of topics developed through the prior workshops: curriculum and program design, program elements beyond the curriculum, recruiting students, preparing students for the workforce, and program assessment. Two of our workshop leaders worked with each department to customize and deliver the 1-2 day programs on campus. Each workshop incorporated exercises to facilitate active departmental discussions, presentations incorporating concrete examples drawn from the leaders' experience and from the collective experiences of the geoscience community, and action planning to scaffold implementation. All workshops also incorporated information on building departmental consensus and assessing departmental efforts. The Building Strong Geoscience Departments website complements the workshops with extensive examples from the geoscience community. Of the 201 participants in the visiting workshop program, 140 completed an end of workshop evaluation survey with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.8 out of a possible 10

  19. Improving User Notification on Frequently Changing HPC Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fuson, Christopher B; Renaud, William A

    2016-01-01

    Today s HPC centers user environments can be very complex. Centers often contain multiple large complicated computational systems each with their own user environment. Changes to a system s environment can be very impactful; however, a center s user environment is, in one-way or another, frequently changing. Because of this, it is vital for centers to notify users of change. For users, untracked changes can be costly, resulting in unnecessary debug time as well as wasting valuable compute allocations and research time. Communicating frequent change to diverse user communities is a common and ongoing task for HPC centers. This paper will cover the OLCF s current processes and methods used to communicate change to users of the center s large Cray systems and supporting resources. The paper will share lessons learned and goals as well as practices, tools, and methods used to continually improve and reach members of the OLCF user community.

  20. Controlling risk in a changing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Keaten, R.W. ); Rone, A.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Competitive pressures in the electric utility industry today demand an unprecedented focus on improving efficiency and cost effectiveness. Work processes and practices that, in some cases, have been in place for years are now being examined and changed in attempts to achieve better results. When such changes are made in nuclear plant work processes, however, the resulting impact on nuclear risk is a potential concern. Two types of risk must be considered: (a) the direct impact of new processes that might inadvertently introduce new safety concerns and (b) the indirect effects on safety due to worker morale and motivation. Work processes and practices at the GPU nuclear stations at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) were developed and put in place in the period following the TMI-2 accident. During this period, great emphasis was placed on installing work processes that attempted to avoid errors through a multiplicity of checks and overchecks. During 1991, GPUN senior management initiated a substantial effort to achieve major improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of key work processes, while maintaining and even enhancing nuclear safety.

  1. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  2. Reuseable Objects Software Environment (ROSE): Introduction to Air Force Software Reuse Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottrell, William L.

    1994-01-01

    The Reusable Objects Software Environment (ROSE) is a common, consistent, consolidated implementation of software functionality using modern object oriented software engineering including designed-in reuse and adaptable requirements. ROSE is designed to minimize abstraction and reduce complexity. A planning model for the reverse engineering of selected objects through object oriented analysis is depicted. Dynamic and functional modeling are used to develop a system design, the object design, the language, and a database management system. The return on investment for a ROSE pilot program and timelines are charted.

  3. "Sometimes the Perspective Changes": Reflections on a Photography Workshop with Multicultural Students in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzak, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates an 8-week photography workshop, FotoLab, conducted in Italy at an afterschool-tutoring program for students acquiring Italian as an additional language. Seventeen students, age 8-17 and originating from 9 countries, participated. Co-facilitated by three international educator-researchers, FotoLab's purpose was…

  4. The "Chemistry Is in the News" Project: Can a Workshop Induce a Pedagogical Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Carson, Kathleen M.; Zoller, Uri

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry Is in the News (CIITN) is an innovative project aimed at enhancing higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) via connecting university-level chemistry to everyday life and real-world issues. The CIITN project and its related Web tools were presented in a workshop to illustrate their conceptual framework, educational potential, and…

  5. Coming Together for Change: Workshops for Women in the Nursing Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Janet; Carr, Marylea Benware

    1994-01-01

    Describes series of therapeutic and educational workshops conducted with women nursing home residents with twin goals of improving self-esteem and self-reliance and facilitating community building and networking. Also notes that nursing home staff trainings were conducted whereby staff were encouraged to articulate their needs and those of…

  6. NASA Partnership with JSU and MSU to Promote Remote Sensing Applications and Global Climate Change Education: 2013 Summer Course/Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) is a competitive project to promote climate and Earth system science literacy and seeks to increase the access of underrepresented minority groups to science careers and educational opportunities. A three year funding was received from NASA to partnership with JSU and MSU under cooperative agreement "Strengthening Global Climate Change education through Remote Sensing Application in Coastal Environment using NASA Satellite Data and Models". The goal is to increase the number of undergraduate students at Jackson State University, a Historically Black University, who are prepared to pursue higher academic degrees and careers in the fields relevant to earth system science global climate change, marine and environmental sciences. A two week summer course/workshop was held during May 20-31, 2013 at JSU, focusing on historical and technical concepts of remote sensing technology and applications to climate and global climate change. Nine students from meteorology, biology, industrial technology and computer science/engineering of JSU participated in the course/workshop. The lecture topics include: introduction to remote sensing and GIS, introduction to atmospheric science and climate, introduction to NASA innovations in climate education, introduction to remote sensing technology for bio-geosphere, introduction to earth system science, principles of paleoclimatology and global change, daily weather briefing, satellite image interpretation and so on. In addition to lectures, lab sessions were held for hand-on experiences for remote sensing applications to atmosphere, biosphere, earth system science and climate change using ERDAS/ENVI GIS software and satellite tools. Field trip to Barnett reservoir and National weather Service (NWS) was part of the workshop. Some of the activities of the sessions will be presented. Basics of Earth System Science is a non-mathematical introductory course designed for high school seniors, high

  7. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of satisfactory techniques for detecting change in coastal zone environments is required before operational monitoring procedures can be established. In an effort to meet this need a study was directed toward developing and evaluating different types of change detection techniques, based upon computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data, to monitor these environments. The Matagorda Bay estuarine system along the Texas coast was selected as the study area. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. Each of the four techniques was used to analyze a LANDSAT MSS temporal data set to detect areas of change of the Matagorda Bay region.

  8. Arthropods as disease vectors in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Sutherst, R W

    1993-01-01

    Arthropod vectors need to acquire energy, moisture, hosts and shelter from their environment. Changing human populations and industrialization affect almost every aspect of the environment. In particular, the prospects of climatic warming, urbanization and vegetation changes have the potential to materially affect global patterns of vector-borne diseases. Global warming will enable the expansion of the geographical distributions of vectors. The population dynamics of vectors will change in response to extended seasons suitable for development followed by less severe winters. The incidence of epidemics is likely to change in response to an expected disproportionate increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events. The impact of such changes on each of the major vector-borne diseases is reviewed and projections are made on the likely global areas at risk from spread of disease vectors. Research needs are identified and response strategies are suggested in the context of the ever-increasing impact of human populations and industrial activity on the environment.

  9. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  10. The Changing Information Needs of Users in Electronic Information Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebede, Gashaw

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the information needs of users that are changing as a results of changes in the availability of information content in electronic form. Highlights the trend and nature of the physical form in which information content is currently being made available for users' access and use in electronic information environments. (Author/LRW)

  11. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  12. Educating to manage the accelerated change environment effectively: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Menix, K D

    2001-01-01

    Without appropriate educational preparation, nurse managers may not have the competencies to manage accelerated change effectively. Part 1 of this two-part series provided the condensed findings from an extensive review of nursing, business, and higher education literature. Part 2 describes the results of a Delphi study whereby baccalaureate-prepared nurse manager experts and nurse educator experts in baccalaureate nursing programs validated what linear and nonlinear change management concepts they believed were relevant in managing change in today's dynamic environment. Staff development educators and administrators, as organizational change agents, can use the validated concepts to develop educational offerings to promote effective change management. PMID:12759940

  13. 76 FR 38360 - Workshop-Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... website at https://sites.google.com/a/noaa.gov/severe-storms-workshop/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... available, they may be found at https://sites.google.com/a/noaa.gov/severe-storms-workshop/ . Topics To...

  14. Vegetation change in dryland environments: understanding changes in fluvial fluxes via changes in hydrological connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. The transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage. Functional change is characterised by an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. Connectivity is a key concept in understanding the hydrological response to this vegetation change, with reduced vegetation coverage in woody environments being associated with longer and more connected overland flow pathways. This increase in hydrological connectivity results in an accentuated rainfall-runoff response and increased fluvial fluxes of eroded sediment and associated soil organic carbon and other nutrients. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, characterising ecological structure and monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over bounded plots with different vegetation covering the transitions from C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 creosote (Larrea tridentate) shrubland and C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand woodland. Data collected quantifies

  15. The Shuttle Environment Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Results of shuttle environmental measurement programs were presented. The implications for plasma, infrared and ultraviolet experiments were discussed. The prelaunch environmental conditions, results of key environmental measurements made during the flights of STS 1, 2, 3, 4, and postlanding environmental conditions were covered.

  16. Windows of Opportunity, Strategies for Organizational Change. Proceedings of the Annual Health Promotion Division Workshop (10th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, September 27, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Pat, Comp.

    The workshop "Windows of Opportunity: Strategies for Organizational Change" was designed to help health professionals from a variety of community settings share their experiences and knowledge and become better informed about organizational change. The session began with a keynote address by David Morley, a professor of environmental studies at…

  17. [Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone. PMID:26434099

  18. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  19. [Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone.

  20. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Xu, Jing-Bo; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed.

  1. Impact of Globalization on Sugarcane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment: A Review of the 2009 Entomology Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7th International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT) Entomology Workshop was held from 20 to 24 April 2009 in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina under the theme: “Impact of Globalization on Sugar Cane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment”. Technical sessions held over three days were g...

  2. Diaper industry workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The report is the product of a one-day workshop on the diaper industry that was sponsored by the U.S. EPA. Four topics covered during the workshop were public health and safety, recycling, composting, and product life cycle analysis. The primary objective of the workshop was to identify areas within the diaper industry that need further research in order to lessen the adverse impacts that diapers have on the environment. Summaries of each of the four topics as well as summaries of discussion comments and research needs identified during the workshop are included in the report. A large number of research ideas were generated during the workshop. These ideas included determining the health risks associated with handling diapers, developing methods for improving the recyclability of plastics used in diapers, determining where diaper-related life cycle analysis should begin and end, and determining the economic viability of composting.

  3. Quality of Undergraduate Management Studies in a Changing University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudiene, Vida

    2005-01-01

    The environment for teaching management in Baltic States' universities has undergone profound changes. The factors involved are: greater interaction between classroom teaching and the "real world", market expansion, internationalization, and increasingly diverse students. The author reports on the survey findings from the three management higher…

  4. Astrobiology Workshop: Leadership in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. (Editor); Briggs, G.; Cohen, M.; Cuzzi, J.; DesMarais, D.; Harper, L.; Morrison, D.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    Astrobiology is defined in the 1996 NASA Strategic Plan as 'The study of the living universe.' At NASA's Ames Research Center, this endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. The first Astrobiology Workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss the following general questions: Where and how are other habitable worlds formed? How does life originate? How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time? Can terrestrial life be sustained beyond our planet? How can we expand the human presence to Mars? The objectives of the Workshop included: discussing the scope of astrobiology, strengthening existing efforts for the study of life in the universe, identifying new cross-disciplinary programs with the greatest potential for scientific return, and suggesting steps needed to bring this program to reality. Ames has been assigned the lead role for astrobiology by NASA in recognition of its strong history of leadership in multidisciplinary research in the space, Earth, and life sciences and its pioneering work in studies of the living universe. This initial science workshop was established to lay the foundation for what is to become a national effort in astrobiology, with anticipated participation by the university community, other NASA centers, and other agencies. This workshop (the first meeting of its kind ever held) involved life, Earth, and space scientists in a truly interdisciplinary sharing

  5. Shaped by the environment--adaptation in plants: meeting report based on the presentations at the FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants' 2009 (Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Siomos, Maria F

    2009-09-01

    As sessile organisms that are unable to escape from inhospitable environments, plants are at the mercy of the elements. Nonetheless, plants have managed to adapt, evolve and survive in some of the harshest conditions on earth. The FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants', held at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Vienna, Austria from 19 to 21 March 2009, provided a forum (including 18 invited talks, 8 selected short talks and 69 posters) for about 100 plant biologists from 32 countries, working in the diverse fields of genetics, epigenetics, stress signalling, and growth and development, to come together and discuss adaptation potential in plants at all its levels.

  6. Autonomous photogrammetric network design based on changing environment genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Lu, Nai-Guang; Dong, Mingli

    2008-10-01

    In order to get good accuracy, designer used to consider how to place cameras. Usually, cameras placement design is a multidimensional optimal problem, so people used genetic algorithms to solve it. But genetic algorithms could result in premature or convergent problem. Sometime we get local minimum and observe vibrating phenomenon. Those will get inaccurate design. So we try to solve the problem using the changing environment genetic algorithms. The work proposes giving those species groups difference environment during difference stage to improve the property. Computer simulation result shows the acceleration in convergent speed and ability of selecting good individual. This work would be used in other application.

  7. Anticipating Changing in Environments: Adaptation in Fluctuating Environments in A Heterogeneous Microbial Communites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belete, Merzu; Bálazsi, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    The environments in which micro-organisms grow often fluctuate. To survive in temporally changing environments, cells have evolved mechanisms to survive environmental changes. One survival mechanism is generating phenotypic differences among identical cells in a given environment, with cells randomly switching between phenotypes. Such cells form subpopulations that proliferate at different rates. Optimal population fitness was attributed before to matching cellular and environmental switching rates. However, the conditions for this optimum are not well understood. In particular, it is unknown how the growth rates of the phenotypes affect the optimum. We use mathematical models to address this question. We find that the existence of the predicted optimum depends on cell growth rates in each phenotype. The predicted optimum exists for wider parameter regimes if the environmental durations are long. In addition, we study how mutants arising among such phenotypically heterogeneous cells spread in the population.

  8. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds.

  9. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin’s hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds. PMID:26553987

  10. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds. PMID:26553987

  11. Expert panel workshop consensus statement on the role of the environment in the development of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christine G; Miller, Frederick W; Pollard, Kenneth Michael; Selmi, Carlo; Germolec, Dori; Joyce, Kelly; Rose, Noel R; Humble, Michael C

    2014-08-15

    Autoimmune diseases include 80 or more complex disorders characterized by self-reactive, pathologic immune responses in which genetic susceptibility is largely insufficient to determine disease onset. In September 2010, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) organized an expert panel workshop to evaluate the role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases, and the state of the science regarding relevant mechanisms, animal models, and human studies. The objective of the workshop was to analyze the existing data to identify conclusions that could be drawn regarding environmental exposures and autoimmunity and to identify critical knowledge gaps and areas of uncertainty for future study. This consensus document summarizes key findings from published workshop monographs on areas in which "confident" and "likely" assessments were made, with recommendations for further research. Transcribed notes and slides were reviewed to synthesize an overview on exposure assessment and questions addressed by interdisciplinary panels. Critical advances in the field of autoimmune disease research have been made in the past decade. Collaborative translational and interdisciplinary research is needed to elucidate the role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases. A focus on exposure assessment methodology is needed to improve the effectiveness of human studies, and more experimental studies are needed to focus on causal mechanisms underlying observed associations of environmental factors with autoimmune disease in humans.

  12. Technology transfer in a changing national security environment. Final report May-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Finkler, R.A.; Boezer, G.L.; Foss, E.J.; Jorstad, N.D.; Ramsbotham, A.J.

    1990-12-01

    This paper examines U.S. export control, with particular emphasis on technology transfer as it affects our relationship with Japan. It describes the evolution of export control in the United States, including the Bucy Report, the impact of Afghanistan, and policy changes regarding the People's Republic of China. U.S. control mechanisms for critical technology currently in place are described; these include the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), and the Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL). The evolution of Japan's technology base and export control mechanisms are discussed, as well as its military capabilities. Japan and the United States have had different philosophies regarding export control, with the United States more likely to use controls as part of its foreign policy. However, U.S. export control policy is increasingly seen as having an important economic security aspect in addition to its national security objectives. Changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union have placed the issue of export control in a new perspective. Therefore, the paper also examines in some detail the major developments in the European community which will affect the future technology environment and its relationship to national security. This paper was originally presented at a workshop of the Japan-U.S. Joint Study Group on Trade, Finance and Technology in East-West Economic Relations. A primary purpose of the paper was to enhance mutual understanding between the United States and Japan, and to facilitate the resolution of differences in the technology security arena.

  13. Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society (CLICHE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckström, J.; Korhola, A.; Väliranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Luoto, M.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Leppäranta, M.; Kahilainen, K.; Saarinen, J.; Heikkinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The predicted climate warming has raised many questions and concerns about its impacts on the environment and society. As a respond to the need of holistic studies comprising both of these areas, The Academy of Finland launched The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) in spring 2010 with the main aim to focus on the interaction between the environment and society. Ultimately 11 national consortium projects were funded (total budget 12 million EUR). Here we shortly present the main objectives of the largest consortium project "Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society" (CLICHE). The CLICHE consortium comprises eight interrelated work packages (treeline, diversity, peatlands, snow, lakes, fish, tourism, and traditional livelihoods), each led by a prominent research group and a team leader. The research consortium has three main overall objectives: 1) Investigate, map and model the past, present and future climate change-induced changes in central ecosystems of the European Arctic with unprecedented precision 2) Deepen our understanding of the basic principles of ecosystem and social resilience and dynamics; identify key taxa, structures or processes that clearly indicate impending or realised global change through their loss, occurrence or behaviour, using analogues from the past (e.g. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Warm Period), experiments, observations and models 3) Develop adaptation and mitigation strategies to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on local communities, traditional livelihoods, fisheries, and tourism industry, and promote sustainable development of local community structures and enhance the quality of life of local human populations. As the project has started only recently no final results are available yet. However, the fieldwork as well as the co-operation between the research teams has thus far been very successful. Thus, the expectations for the final outcome of the project

  14. Cosmic Rays Variation Before Changes in Sun-Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2011-12-01

    Influence of cosmic rays variations on the Sun-Earth Environment has been observed before the changes in the atmospheric temperature, outbreak of influenza, cyclone, earthquake and tsunami. It has been recorded by Sun Observatory Heleospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Before the earthquake and tsunami the planetary indices (Kp) and Electron flux (E-flux) shows sudden changes followed by the atmospheric perturbations including very high temperature rise to sudden fall resulting snowfall in high altitude and rainfall in tropical areas. The active fault zones shows sudden faulting after the sudden drop in cosmic ray intensity and rise in Kp and E-flux. Besides the geo-environment the extraterrestrial influence on outbreak of H1N1 influenza has also been recorded based on the Mexico Cosmic ray data and its correlation with SOHO records. Distant stars have the potential to influence the heliophysical parameters by showering cosmic rays.

  15. Selection, adaptation, and predictive information in changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltgen, Quentin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation by means of natural selection is a key concept in evolutionary biology. Individuals better matched to the surrounding environment outcompete the others. This increases the fraction of the better adapted individuals in the population, and hence increases its collective fitness. Adaptation is also prominent on the physiological scale in neuroscience and cell biology. There each individual infers properties of the environment and changes to become individually better, improving the overall population as well. Traditionally, these two notions of adaption have been considered distinct. Here we argue that both types of adaptation result in the same population growth in a broad class of analytically tractable population dynamics models in temporally changing environments. In particular, both types of adaptation lead to subextensive corrections to the population growth rates. These corrections are nearly universal and are equal to the predictive information in the environment time series, which is also the characterization of the time series complexity. This work has been supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  16. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  17. Plasticity-Mediated Persistence in New and Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Baldwin's synthesis of the Organicist position, first published in 1896 and elaborated in 1902, sought to rescue environmentally induced phenotypes from disrepute by showing their Darwinian significance. Of particular interest to Baldwin was plasticity's mediating role during environmental change or colonization—plastic individuals were more likely to successfully survive and reproduce in new environments than were nonplastic individuals. Once a population of plastic individuals had become established, plasticity could further mediate the future course of evolution. The evidence for plasticity-mediated persistence (PMP) is reviewed here with a particular focus on evolutionary rescue experiments, studies on invasive success, and the role of learning in survival. Many PMP studies are methodologically limited, showing that preexistent plasticity has utility in new environments (soft PMP) rather than directly demonstrating that plasticity is responsible for persistence (hard PMP). An ideal PMP study would be able to demonstrate that (1) plasticity preexisted environmental change, (2) plasticity was fortuitously beneficial in the new environment, (3) plasticity was responsible for individual persistence in the new environment, and (4) plasticity was responsible for population persistence in succeeding generations. Although PMP is not ubiquitous, Baldwin's hypotheses have been largely vindicated in theoretical and empirical studies, but much work remains. PMID:25386380

  18. Climate Change Education: Goals, Audiences, and Strategies--A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Sherrie; Feder, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The global scientific and policy community now unequivocally accepts that human activities cause global climate change. Although information on climate change is readily available, the nation still seems unprepared or unwilling to respond effectively to climate change, due partly to a general lack of public understanding of climate change issues…

  19. Predicting biotic interactions and their variability in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Kohmei; Barbera, Claire G; Godsoe, William; Delsuc, Frédéric; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Global environmental change is altering the patterns of biodiversity worldwide. Observation and theory suggest that species' distributions and abundances depend on a suite of processes, notably abiotic filtering and biotic interactions, both of which are constrained by species' phylogenetic history. Models predicting species distribution have historically mostly considered abiotic filtering and are only starting to integrate biotic interaction. However, using information on present interactions to forecast the future of biodiversity supposes that biotic interactions will not change when species are confronted with new environments. Using bacterial microcosms, we illustrate how biotic interactions can vary along an environmental gradient and how this variability can depend on the phylogenetic distance between interacting species. PMID:27220858

  20. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  1. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  2. Implications of climate change for northern Canada: the physical environment.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Melling, Humfrey; Smith, Sharon L

    2009-07-01

    The physical environment of the Canadian North is particularly sensitive to changes in climate because of a large concentration of cryospheric elements including both seasonal and multiyear forms of freshwater and sea ice, permafrost, snow, glaciers, and small ice caps. Because the cryosphere responds directly to changes in air temperature and precipitation, it is a primary indicator of the effects of climate variability and change. This article reviews the major changes that have occurred in the recent historical record of these cryospheric components at high latitudes in Canada. Some changes have been less pronounced in the Canadian North than elsewhere, such as changes in sea-ice coverage, whereas others have been potentially more significant, such as ablation of the extensive alpine and high-Arctic small glaciers and ice caps. Projections of future changes are also reviewed for each cryospheric component. Discussion about two other physical components of the North intrinsically linked to the cryosphere is also included, specifically: i) freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean via major river networks that are fed primarily by various forms of snow and ice, and ii) the related rise in sea level, which is strongly influenced by ablation of the cryosphere, and coastal stability, which also depends on the thermal integrity of coastal permafrost.

  3. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage. PMID:19640500

  4. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage.

  5. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  6. Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote

  7. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  8. Changing Patterns in Educational Facilities. An REFP Workshop Conducted at the CEFPI 1998 Vancouver Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackney, Jeffery A.; Fielding, Randall; Magney, Tammy; Menzel, Richard

    Planners are increasingly focusing on the future of society, education, and the impact these social forces may have on school facilities and learning environments. This report examines patterns in societal trends, educational approaches, and facility design. Both historical trends and cutting edge approaches were explored. Participants worked in…

  9. Climate Change Education in Formal Settings, K-14: A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is occurring, is very likely caused by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems. Each additional ton of greenhouse gases emitted commits us to further change and greater risks. In the judgment of the Committee on America's Climate Choices, the environmental, economic, and…

  10. Dynamic membrane protein topological switching upon changes in phospholipid environment

    PubMed Central

    Vitrac, Heidi; MacLean, David M.; Jayaraman, Vasanthi; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental objective in membrane biology is to understand and predict how a protein sequence folds and orients in a lipid bilayer. Establishing the principles governing membrane protein folding is central to understanding the molecular basis for membrane proteins that display multiple topologies, the intrinsic dynamic organization of membrane proteins, and membrane protein conformational disorders resulting in disease. We previously established that lactose permease of Escherichia coli displays a mixture of topological conformations and undergoes postassembly bidirectional changes in orientation within the lipid bilayer triggered by a change in membrane phosphatidylethanolamine content, both in vivo and in vitro. However, the physiological implications and mechanism of dynamic structural reorganization of membrane proteins due to changes in lipid environment are limited by the lack of approaches addressing the kinetic parameters of transmembrane protein flipping. In this study, real-time fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the rates of protein flipping in the lipid bilayer in both directions and transbilayer flipping of lipids triggered by a change in proteoliposome lipid composition. Our results provide, for the first time to our knowledge, a dynamic picture of these events and demonstrate that membrane protein topological rearrangements in response to lipid modulations occur rapidly following a threshold change in proteoliposome lipid composition. Protein flipping was not accompanied by extensive lipid-dependent unfolding of transmembrane domains. Establishment of lipid bilayer asymmetry was not required but may accelerate the rate of protein flipping. Membrane protein flipping was found to accelerate the rate of transbilayer flipping of lipids. PMID:26512118

  11. Summary Report for the Workshop on Integrating Climate Change Adaption into Air Quality Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past few decades, air quality planners have forecasted future air pollution levels based on information about changing emissions from stationary and mobile sources, population trends, transportation demand, natural sources of emissions, and other pressures on air quality...

  12. Detecting Changes of Thermal Environment over the Bohai Coastal Region by Spectral Change Vector Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

    2009-12-01

    Change vector analysis (CVA) is an effective approach for detecting and characterizing land-cover change by comparing pairs of multi-spectral and multi-temporal datasets over certain area derived from various satellite platforms. NDVI is considered as an effective detector for biophysical changes due to its sensitivity to red and near infrared signals, while land surface temperature (LST) is considered as a valuable indicator for changes of ground thermal conditions. Here we try to apply CVA over satellite derived LST datasets to detect changes of land surface thermal properties parallel to climate change and anthropogenic influence in a city cluster since 2001. In this study, monthly land surface temperature datasets from 2001-2008 derived from MODIS collection 5 were used to examine change pattern of thermal environment over the Bohai coastal region by using spectral change vector analysis. The results from principle component analysis (PCA) for LST show that the PC 1-3 contain over 80% information on monthly variations and these PCA components represent the main processes of land thermal environment change over the study area. Time series of CVA magnitude combined with land cover information show that greatest change occurred in urban and heavily populated area, featured with expansion of urban heat island, while moderate change appeared in grassland area in the north. However few changes were observed over large plain area and forest area. Strong signals also are related to economy level and especially the events of surface cover change, such as emergence of railway and port. Two main processes were also noticed about the changes of thermal environment. First, weak signal was detected in mostly natural area influenced by interannual climate change in temperate broadleaf forest area. Second, land surface temperature changes were controlled by human activities as 1) moderate change of LST happened in grassland influenced by grazing and 2) urban heat island was

  13. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  14. Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Bagby, John (Editor); Race, Margaret (Editor); Rummel, John (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol (QP) Workshop was convened to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent uncontrolled release of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of live organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. During the first part of the Workshop, several tutorials were presented on topics related to the workshop in order to give all participants a common basis in the technical areas necessary to achieve the objectives of the Workshop.

  15. Coastal changes in sedimentary environments on Disko Island, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Nielsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change affects Arctic coasts. A rising sea level, increasing fresh water fluxes from glaciers, and decreasing sea-ice extent increase the pressure on the sedimentary areas in these high-latitude regions. In Arctic coastal environments, permafrost, sea-ice, and fluvial input from glacial melt water have an impact in controlling the evolution of the coast. In this study we present the results of annual to decadal coastal changes (rates of change in shoreline positions) along the southern Disko Island in Greenland. These changes are detected and quantified using rectified aerial photos and satellite images. The oldest images used are from the 1940's and the most recent one was 2012. Additional field-measurements are made to identify the responsible processes that cause the coastal development in more detail. The southern coast of Disko Island includes two distinct sedimentary deltas: Skansen and Tuapaat. They consist of sandy, gravelly, and pebbly material. Lagoons, spits, and beaches are present on these deltas and our analyses reveal that these characteristic coastal features have undergone significant morphological changes within the last 60 years: The identified changes within the deltas show a migration of the delta mouths over more than 400 m in an eastward direction, and thus closure of the former inlets. These rapid coastal responses are probably caused by a combination of a shift in channel lobe on the delta plain after 1985, combined with a predominant wave-driven alongshore sediment transport to the east. The shift in delta channels is often recognized as the main responsible agent in controlling the evolution of the sedimentary sites.

  16. Workshop 2 (synthesis): driving forces and incentives for change towards sustainable water development.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; de los Angeles, M; Kuylenstierna, J

    2002-01-01

    Water is a key resource in attaining sustainability--in social and economic development as well as in the long-term carrying capacity of the planet's life support systems, but consensus on the meaning and priority of these terms is still needed. Amongst the key points identified for water professionals: it is necessary to challenge compartmentalisation in water policy and management; water management strategies must focus clearly on the interdependence of the environment and socio-economic development; water professionals have a key role but must package the information and insight they can provide in a way that is attractive to intended recipients such as policy makers. PMID:12019812

  17. Exploring Changes to a Teacher's Teaching Practices and Student Learning through a Volleyball Content Knowledge Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Insook

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how improving a teacher's content knowledge changes his teaching practices and its subsequent effects on student learning during a middle school volleyball instructional unit. The study was designed to challenge teacher educators' thinking about the importance of in-depth content knowledge for effective teaching by…

  18. Workshop 6 (synthesis): linking between flood risks and land use changes.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, Klas; Brandt, Maja

    2002-01-01

    Land use changes, such as deforestation, are increasing the world's vulnerability to flooding. Detailed knowledge of the local situation is essential for risk assessment and design of effective flood prevention measures and governs the infrastructure and engineering measures implemented. However extreme floods in large catchments can overwhelm both natural capacity and constructed flood management measures.

  19. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #36: PUBLICATION OF WORKSHOP REPORT ON CORAL BLEACHING AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have launched a joint initiative to mitigate the impacts of coral bleaching through the design of marine protected areas (MPAs). EPA's Global Change Research Program is contributing to this effort through the work of ...

  20. First National Expert and Stakeholder Workshop on Water Infrastructure Sustainability and Adaptation to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) and EPA Office of Water (OW) joinined efforts to assess and evaluate programmatic, research & development (R&D) needs for sustainable water infrastructure development and effective adaptation to climate changes. The purpose of this pr...

  1. Changes in the Rhythm of Lessons Following a Teacher-Training Workshop in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Sophia; And Others

    A study examined both cognitive and activity rhythms of lessons in a variety of disciplines and teaching styles in the medical school curriculum among 20 faculty members at Ben Gurion University, Israel. Studied were changes which occurred in the rhythms following a teacher training program, and interrelationship among rhythms and size of learning…

  2. Rituals and Ceremonies for Teachers: A Demonstration-Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    A workshop and demonstration in ritual and ceremonies for classroom teachers with an elementary interest in the subject described the value and application of rituals in the classroom environment. Participants, who were greeted ceremoniously, learned that rituals can be incorporated into the classroom to mark special events, to enhance changes in…

  3. 77 FR 5791 - Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...-workshop-2-28-12-form.asp . Attached to this notice is an agenda for the workshop. If any changes are made... creditworthiness, term of service sought, price bid, and net present value? 3. What criteria should the...

  4. Research progress on expansive soil cracks under changing environment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Zheng, Cheng-feng; Wu, Jin-kun

    2014-01-01

    Engineering problems shunned previously rise to the surface gradually with the activities of reforming the natural world in depth, the problem of expansive soil crack under the changing environment becoming a control factor of expansive soil slope stability. The problem of expansive soil crack has gradually become a research hotspot, elaborates the occurrence and development of cracks from the basic properties of expansive soil, and points out the role of controlling the crack of expansive soil strength. We summarize the existing research methods and results of expansive soil crack characteristics. Improving crack measurement and calculation method and researching the crack depth measurement, statistical analysis method, crack depth and surface feature relationship will be the future direction. PMID:25013869

  5. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  6. Report of the International Workshop on Animal Disposal Alternatives: from concept to catalyst for change.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    The principle of animal depopulation and animal disposal has been a fundamental approach of veterinary and regulatory interventions for the effective biological containment and eradication of contagious diseases since the science and art of veterinary medicine began. Today's world, however, is one of epidemiological globalisation, changing social values concerning the management of animal populations, and recognition of the environmental consequences associated with animal disposal, especially during animal disease emergencies. It has consequently become apparent that new approaches are required to minimise both the need for mass culling of animals in response to disease occurrences and the associated negative consequences. In addition, where a level of animal depopulation remains the only recourse, it is imperative that the undertaking be conducted in a manner which is socially and environmentally responsible. PMID:20411509

  7. Report of the International Workshop on Animal Disposal Alternatives: from concept to catalyst for change.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    The principle of animal depopulation and animal disposal has been a fundamental approach of veterinary and regulatory interventions for the effective biological containment and eradication of contagious diseases since the science and art of veterinary medicine began. Today's world, however, is one of epidemiological globalisation, changing social values concerning the management of animal populations, and recognition of the environmental consequences associated with animal disposal, especially during animal disease emergencies. It has consequently become apparent that new approaches are required to minimise both the need for mass culling of animals in response to disease occurrences and the associated negative consequences. In addition, where a level of animal depopulation remains the only recourse, it is imperative that the undertaking be conducted in a manner which is socially and environmentally responsible.

  8. Street environment change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an approach that combines occupancy grids and a distance-based method for change detection from MLS point clouds is proposed. Unlike conventional occupancy grids, our occupancy-based method models space based on scanning rays and local point distributions in 3D without voxelization. A local cylindrical reference frame is presented for the interpolation of occupancy between rays according to the scanning geometry. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is utilized for both intra-data evidence fusion and inter-data consistency assessment. Occupancy of reference point cloud is fused at the location of target points and then the consistency is evaluated directly on the points. A point-to-triangle (PTT) distance-based method is combined to improve the occupancy-based method. Because it is robust to penetrable objects, e.g. vegetation, which cause self-conflicts when modelling occupancy. The combined method tackles irregular point density and occlusion problems, also eliminates false detections on penetrable objects.

  9. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  10. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research. PMID:24769018

  11. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  12. Impact of a changing environment on the built heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, C. M.; Brimblecombe, P.; Bonazza, A.

    2012-04-01

    Stone monuments are degraded by both climate and pollution. Deterioration by pollution was especially intense from the 1700s and until the late 20th century the dominant impact of air pollution was the sulfation of surfaces. The parallel deposition of soot caused blackening and on some surfaces dark coloured crusts. The decrease of sulfur and soot from coal combustion during the last decades of the 20th century led to cleaner air in cities, a decrease of pollution-decay rates on building stones and a public desire for cleaner buildings. Although there were decreases in SO2, it was replaced by ozone, nitrogen oxides and particles richer in organic compounds, the result of an extensive use of automobiles. Deposited organic compounds can oxidise in modern urban environments in a yellowing process. The future may reveal variation in building colour from biological growth in a changing climate. In urban atmospheres with less sulfur, biological growth is more effective. A greater rate of delivery of nitrate to building surfaces that acts as "airborne fertiliser" favours colonisation. Depending on climate, there might be different processes (e.g. greening or reddening) and patterns of colouration. Climate is also a relevant factor in the weathering of monuments. Recent research suggests the concept of Heritage Climatology in the study of climate interactions with monuments, materials and sites. These parameters concentrate on aspects and combinations of meteorological variables that relate to material damage. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification can be a good approximation for some heritage risks. For instance, the number of salt transitions shows distinct seasonality which can be related to Köppen-Geiger climate types and their change during the 21th century. The study of changing pollution and climate impacts on the built heritage needs the output of pollution emissions and climate change models, which are prone to uncertainties. The use of multiple climate models

  13. Nitrous oxide fluxes in estuarine environments: response to global change.

    PubMed

    Murray, Rachel H; Erler, Dirk V; Eyre, Bradley D

    2015-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful, long-lived greenhouse gas, but we know little about the role of estuarine areas in the global N2 O budget. This review summarizes 56 studies of N2 O fluxes and associated biogeochemical controlling factors in estuarine open waters, salt marshes, mangroves, and intertidal sediments. The majority of in situ N2 O production occurs as a result of sediment denitrification, although the water column contributes N2 O through nitrification in suspended particles. The most important factors controlling N2 O fluxes seem to be dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and oxygen availability, which in turn are affected by tidal cycles, groundwater inputs, and macrophyte density. The heterogeneity of coastal environments leads to a high variability in observations, but on average estuarine open water, intertidal and vegetated environments are sites of a small positive N2 O flux to the atmosphere (range 0.15-0.91; median 0.31; Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) ). Global changes in macrophyte distribution and anthropogenic nitrogen loading are expected to increase N2 O emissions from estuaries. We estimate that a doubling of current median NO3 (-) concentrations would increase the global estuary water-air N2 O flux by about 0.45 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) or about 190%. A loss of 50% of mangrove habitat, being converted to unvegetated intertidal area, would result in a net decrease in N2 O emissions of 0.002 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . In contrast, conversion of 50% of salt marsh to unvegetated area would result in a net increase of 0.001 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . Decreased oxygen concentrations may inhibit production of N2 O by nitrification; however, sediment denitrification and the associated ratio of N2 O:N2 is expected to increase. PMID:25752934

  14. Can negative attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder be changed? The effect of attending a STEPPS workshop.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Connie; Pfohl, Bruce; Blum, Nancee; Black, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    We sought to determine whether negative attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be modified through education. Mental health clinicians attended a 1-day workshop on the Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) group treatment program for BPD. A questionnaire to assess attitudes towards BPD was given to 271 clinicians before and after the workshop. Following the workshop, clinicians endorsed having significantly greater empathy toward patients with BPD, and having greater awareness of the distress and low self-esteem associated with the disorder. Significant improvement was seen in the clinicians' attitudes toward patients with BPD and their desire to work with them. Clinicians were significantly less likely to express dislike for BPD patients. They also reported feeling more competent in their ability to treat these patients. The study offers preliminary evidence that negative attitudes toward patients with BPD can be modified through education.

  15. Ice at the Interface: Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer Processes and Their Role in Polar Change---Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Elizabeth C.

    2012-07-23

    The atmosphere-ocean boundary layer in which sea ice resides includes many complex processes that require a more realistic treatment in GCMs, particularly as models move toward full earth system descriptions. The primary purpose of the workshop was to define and discuss such coupled processes from observational and modeling points of view, including insight from both the Arctic and Antarctic systems. The workshop met each of its overarching goals, including fostering collaboration among experimentalists, theorists and modelers, proposing modeling strategies, and ascertaining data availability and needs. Several scientific themes emerged from the workshop, such as the importance of episodic or extreme events, precipitation, stratification above and below the ice, and the marginal ice zone, whose seasonal Arctic migrations now traverse more territory than in the past.

  16. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  17. The Changing Role in a Networked Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews traditional issues surrounding authorization and authentication in an organization-centered framework and introduces new interorganizational issues that dominate networked information environment. Describes three major approaches to authentication and authorization for the interorganizational environment and discusses the following…

  18. Physiological changes in women during exercise in cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, S. J.; Shephard, R. J.; Radomski, M. W. M.

    1986-12-01

    Both the stress of exercise and the stress of a cold environment have been shown to increase the mobilization and utilization of body fat, thereby reducing body fat stores. Much of the research has been done on either rats or male human subjects. The purpose of this research was to show the physiological changes which occur to young, relatively obese, women who exercised during five consecutive days, for 200 min per day, in each of three environmental, chamber conditions: (1) warm-warm (WW), +15‡C; (2) cold-cold (CC), -20‡C; and (3) cold-warm (CW), -20‡C ambient temperature, with +18‡C air pumped to face masks for warmed air breathing. Oxygen cost of exercise, respiratory quotients, energy intake and utilization, and body composition changes were measured before, during, and after each environmental condition. While the respiratory quotients and the skinfold measurements decreased in the colder conditions, the underwater weighing determined percentage body fat did not show the same decrement as the skinfold measures, indicating a possible translocation of body fat from the subcutaneous depots to the deep body fat depots. Body mass loss was significant (P<0.05) only in the WW condition. Thermogenesis would have been centred in the skeletal muscle and liver during the CW condition; however, with facial and upper airway cooling in the CC condition; brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypertrophy may be postulated at this more intense level of cold stress. Due to a greater stability of depot fat in the female, a longer cold exposure would be required to observe the fully developed BAT thermogenesis which would follow after the consequences of fat translocation which we have documented.

  19. SCIMPI: A versatile seafloor observatory for changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Lado Insua, T.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-situ (SCIMPI) is a new seafloor observatory instrument. SCIMPI is designed to take subsurface time series measurements of temperature, pressure and resistivity in the sub-seafloor. This instrument has a battery operational life of approximately two years, which can be replaced with a battery pack using a remotely-operated vehicle, and provides high resolution measurements of physical properties in the sediment. With either periodic battery replacement or connection to a fiber-optic cable, SCIMPI is a long-term observatory for understanding sub-seafloor dynamics. The main advantage of this system is the reduced equipment and installation requirements making this tool an affordable and versatile system for scientific research. The pressure and temperature sensors, integrated into the system, have been successfully used in other marine industrial and scientific applications. Its electrical resistivity sensor, casing, and array assembly are uniquely designed and can be adapted for each mission. SCIMPI is currently in its last phase of testing prior to deployment in an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole. This first SCIMPI is designed for a water depth of 1000 m and a sediment depth up to ~300 m below seafloor. But future assemblies can be tailored for deeper conditions and environments. Here we present the SCIMPI design, deployment options, and its scientific potential in a long-term ocean observatory. Science applications include studies of fluid flow, hydrate formation, and seismically induced pore pressure changes. The cost of this instrument will enable these measurements to become more commonplace, thereby improving our temporal and spatial knowledge of sub-seafloor gas, fluid and pore pressure activity. Most notable of the target deployments for SCIMPI are sub-seafloor gas hydrate sites and sites with biogenic methane. Understanding the dynamics of methane's role in the oceans as climate change

  20. Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments.

    PubMed

    Skurnik, David; Bonnet, Daniel; Bernède-Bauduin, Claire; Michel, Rémy; Guette, Christian; Becker, Jean-Marie; Balaire, Corinne; Chau, Françoise; Mohler, Jacqueline; Jarlier, Vincent; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Moreau, Brigitte; Guillemot, Didier; Denamur, Erick; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    To investigate if the characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli are changing with the environment of the host, we studied intestinal E. coli from subjects having recently migrated from a temperate to a tropical area. We determined the phylogenetic group, the prevalence of the antibiotic resistance, the presence of integrons and the strain diversity in faecal isolates from 25 subjects originally from metropolitan France and expatriated to French Guyana. These characteristics were compared with those of 25 previously studied Wayampi Amerindian natives of French Guyana and from 25 metropolitan French residents. The three groups of subjects were matched for age and sex, had not taken antibiotics for at least 1 month, nor had been hospitalized within the past year. In all, the characteristics of intestinal E. coli from Expatriates were intermediate between those found in residents from metropolitan France and those found in natives of French Guyana. Prevalence of carriage of resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Expatriates was intermediate between French residents and Wayampi as were the prevalence of integrons in E. coli (12.3% versus 16.3% and 7.8% respectively), and the intra-host diversity of E. coli (2.3 strains/subject versus 1.9 and 3.1, respectively); lastly, in Expatriates, the prevalence of carriage of phylogenetic group B2 strains was lower than in French residents (16% versus 56%, P = 0.005), while carriage of phylogenetic group A strains was lower than in Wayampi (56% versus 88%, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that the composition of the commensal intestinal flora of humans is not static but changes dynamically in response to new environmental conditions.

  1. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  2. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  3. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  4. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. The post classification comparison technique reliably identified areas of change and was used as the standard for qualitatively evaluating the other three techniques. The layered spectral/temporal change classification and the delta data change detection results generally agreed with the post classification comparison technique results; however, many small areas of change were not identified. Major discrepancies existed between the post classification comparison and spectral/temporal change detection results.

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF: WORKSHOP ON MERCURY IN PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, WASTE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: ELIMINATING, REDUCING AND MANAGING RISKS FROM NON-COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workshop was held on March 22-23, 2000, in Baltimore, Maryland. To facilitate discussions of this issue, the workshop combined a series of presentations at plenary sessions, moderated technical sessions and panel discussions. The topics of these presentations focused on trea...

  6. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Shuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  7. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  8. Virtual Workshop Environment (VWE): A Taxonomy and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Framework for Modularized Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)--Applying the Learning Object Concept to the VLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsson, Fredrik; Naeve, Ambjorn

    2006-01-01

    Based on existing Learning Object taxonomies, this article suggests an alternative Learning Object taxonomy, combined with a general Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework, aiming to transfer the modularized concept of Learning Objects to modularized Virtual Learning Environments. The taxonomy and SOA-framework exposes a need for a clearer…

  9. Meeting patients' needs: quality care in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Rogut, L; Hudson, A

    1995-11-01

    Recent surveys of patients in New York and Cleveland, among other cities, indicate that there is substantial room for improvement in meeting patients' needs and preferences, particularly in the areas of emotional support, coordination of care, discharge preparation, and the involvement of family and friends. Hospitals are using a variety of techniques to improve patient care and organizational efficiency in this challenging environment. One prominent approach, reengineering, offers a means by which hospitals can integrate highly specialized departmental structures and functions by focusing on interdisciplinary teamwork and organizing the delivery of care around patients. Key elements of successful hospital reengineering efforts have included: - the involvement and commitment of senior management and other key stakeholders, particularly physicians, nurses, and union representatives; - investment in staff training and retraining, and the redesign of staff evaluation and compensation systems; - timely, unit-specific measures of patient satisfaction and the clinical quality of care; - consistent and frequent internal communication between staff and leadership; and - treatment that emphasizes communication among caregivers, patients, and their family members. Several basic issues need to be addressed if hospitals are to offer technically sophisticated medical care that is also responsive to their patients' personal needs, including: - variations among patients regarding the amount of information they want and need, and the amount of involvement they want in their care; - the means by which patients will get information about their medical care, and who will provide any additional support that may be needed by non-English-speaking or socioeconomically disadvantaged patients; and - the specific changes in medical practice and hospital processes that will promote the involvement of patients in their care. PMID:10164376

  10. Environment and Education: A View of a Changing Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review the state of environmental education from the viewpoint of one involved in international and national strategies for its development. It relates environment and education to the whole system of human environment relationships and sees environmental education not as a separable package but as a movement for…

  11. How Ten Years of Change Affected One College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Frederick B.

    1970-01-01

    Pace's College and University Environmental Scales (CUES), used to test the environment of Randolph-Macon Woman's College 1959-69, showed that stability in administrative personnel and faculty along with student body drawn mostly from same social and educational backgrounds over period of time produces basically stable environment despite period…

  12. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  13. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  14. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  15. Adolescent Development: Workshop II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; And Others

    Workshops concerning adolescent development explored problems of adolescents, schooling and adolescence, preparation for adulthood, leisure and recreation, as well as values, culture, and change in relation to the development of youth. The discussion of adolescents' problems identified major problem areas, (emphasizing problems of communicating…

  16. t4 Workshop Report*

    PubMed Central

    Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Lamb, Justin; Auerbach, Scott; Brennan, Richard; Crofton, Kevin M.; Gordon, Ben; Fornace, Albert J.; Gaido, Kevin; Gerhold, David; Haw, Robin; Henney, Adriano; Ma’ayan, Avi; McBride, Mary; Monti, Stefano; Ochs, Michael F.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sharan, Roded; Stierum, Rob; Tugendreich, Stuart; Willett, Catherine; Wittwehr, Clemens; Xia, Jianguo; Patton, Geoffrey W.; Arvidson, Kirk; Bouhifd, Mounir; Hogberg, Helena T.; Luechtefeld, Thomas; Smirnova, Lena; Zhao, Liang; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Kanehisa, Minoru; Carmichael, Paul; Andersen, Melvin E.; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite wide-spread consensus on the need to transform toxicology and risk assessment in order to keep pace with technological and computational changes that have revolutionized the life sciences, there remains much work to be done to achieve the vision of toxicology based on a mechanistic foundation. A workshop was organized to explore one key aspect of this transformation – the development of Pathways of Toxicity (PoT) as a key tool for hazard identification based on systems biology. Several issues were discussed in depth in the workshop: The first was the challenge of formally defining the concept of a PoT as distinct from, but complementary to, other toxicological pathway concepts such as mode of action (MoA). The workshop came up with a preliminary definition of PoT as “A molecular definition of cellular processes shown to mediate adverse outcomes of toxicants”. It is further recognized that normal physiological pathways exist that maintain homeostasis and these, sufficiently perturbed, can become PoT. Second, the workshop sought to define the adequate public and commercial resources for PoT information, including data, visualization, analyses, tools, and use-cases, as well as the kinds of efforts that will be necessary to enable the creation of such a resource. Third, the workshop explored ways in which systems biology approaches could inform pathway annotation, and which resources are needed and available that can provide relevant PoT information to the diverse user communities. PMID:24127042

  17. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Workshop on environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The Workshop was part of a process of elucidating areas of uncertainty where research is needed before meaningful forecasts and sound decisions can be made about the CO/sub 2/ issue. The conferees were divided into five panels dealing with the ocean and the cryosphere: the less managed biosphere; the managed biosphere (chiefly agricultural, forest, and grazing lands); the ways society and its institutions might respond to climate changes; and issues involving the economic and geopolitical consequences of CO/sub 2/ build-up. Also, 28 papers or discussion drafts dealing with a wide variety of topics were contributed to the conference.

  18. Reading Workshop 2.0: Children's Literature in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Youngs, Suzette

    2013-01-01

    As readers encounter children's literature in new formats and modes of delivery, the basic processes of reading, sharing, discussing and analyzing texts will change. Because of these changes, new instructional approaches and resources will be required to support the development of young readers in a Reading Workshop 2.0 environment. In a…

  19. Workshop introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Streeper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Category I and II) sources in thousands of devices; and there are many more tens of thousands of smaller sources scattered among thousands of other NRC licensees. As a result of the ubiquitous nature and undeterminable number of current and legacy sources, even in developed countries they can be abandoned, disposed of in a haphazard manner, lost, stolen, and/or otherwise fallout of regulatory control. Supply and demand of sources, being market based, is more or less fluid. Normative security of radioactive sources exists, but varies in each country, and is loosely implemented through non-legally binding recommendations and standards provided by International Atomic Energy Agency technical documents and cooperation and through bilateral efforts such as this workshop where we share best-practices with one another. Much of the reason for the difficulty in securing sealed sources rests in the enormous need for their beneficial applications in the medical, industrial, and agricultural sectors. Alternative technologies to replace high-risk sources continue to be explored, but very few of these alternative solutions have reached the development stage for common usage and distribution. The beneficial uses of sources must be allowed to continue; however, to minimize the potential for their misuse, current controls and regulating mechanisms must be constantly evaluated to ensure the benefits gained outweigh potential risks. From a global perspective, an evaluation and modification of requirements over the entire life cycle of sources from their manufacture to their final disposition is required. The proper removal and disposal of vulnerable disused or orphan sources is essential to maintaining a safe operating environment. One of our goals in this workshop is to share our methodologies for recovering sources and learn how they differ or are similar to the challenges faced in recovering, storing, and disposing of sources in the Republic of Georgia . The suggestions we will make are

  20. Thriving or Surviving? Managing Pro-Active Environments for Nursing. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Columbus, Ohio, September 7-8, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Young, Lu Ann, Ed.

    Underscoring the importance of active planning for constructive change in the nursing profession, the papers in these proceedings highlight the need for nursing to remain pro-active in the management of nursing education and patient care environments. The proceedings contain: (1) "Pro-Active Planning for Nursing at the Federal Level," by Jo…

  1. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  2. Designing Learning Environments To Promote Conceptual Change in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella; Ioannides, Christos; Dimitrakopoulou, Aggeliki; Papademetriou, Efi

    2001-01-01

    Studied the use of research-based principles to create a learning environment for teaching mechanics to one class of Greek fifth and sixth graders. Students were encouraged to take active control of their learning, make predictions, and test their own hypotheses. Results show significant differences between experimental and control groups,…

  3. Changing Paradigms Managed Learning Environments and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Emory M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how emerging technologies and Web 2.0 services are transforming the structure of the web and their potential impact on managed learning environments (MLS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). Design/methodology/approach: Innovative Web 2.0 applications are reviewed in the paper to…

  4. The Albuquerque Indian School: Culture, Environment and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne; Swentzel, Rina

    1979-01-01

    The architectural renovation project at Albuquerque Indian School not only reclaimed dilapidated buildings but involved students and community in planning their learning environment and taught students practical career skills, such as plumbing, landscape and interior design, and woodworking. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural…

  5. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  6. Climate Change and Societal Response: Livelihoods, Communities, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be considered a natural disaster evolving in slow motion on a global scale. Increasing storm intensities, shifting rainfall patterns, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and other manifold alterations are being experienced around the world. Climate has never been constant in any location, but human-induced changes associated…

  7. Multispectral change vector analysis for monitoring coastal marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.L.; Wagner, T.W.; Luczkovich, J.J.; Stoffle, R.W. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    This paper investigates the utility of multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data for documenting changes to a Caribbean coastal zone using the change vector analysis processing technique. The area of study was the coastal region near the village of Buen Hombre on the north coast of the Dominican Republic. The change vector analysis techniques uses any number of spectral bands from multidate satellite data to produce change images that yield information about both the magnitude and direction of differences in pixel values (which are proportional to radiance). The final products were created by appending color-coded change pixels onto a black-and-white base map. The advantages and limitations of the technique for coastal inventories are discussed. 9 refs.

  8. Women's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karelius, Karen

    The Women's Workshop Notebook is the tool used in the nine-week course designed for the mature woman returning to school at Antelope Valley College. The notebook exercises along with the group interaction and instruction stress the importance of personal assessment of strengths, weaknesses, dreams, deliberations and life history in…

  9. Wordland Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlish, Harvey Neil

    Can and should the preschool child learn to read? To answer this and related questions, a study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a television program and parental home assistance in teaching reading skills to three-year-old children. For five days a week over a 39-week period, an experimental group watched "Wordland Workshop," a…

  10. Winter Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.

    Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…

  11. National Postirradiation Examination Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, Jason L

    2011-06-01

    A National Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) Workshop was held March 29-30, 2011, in Washington D.C., stimulated by the DOE Acting Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy approval on January 31, 2011 of the “Mission Need Statement for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability”. As stated in the Mission Need, “A better understanding of nuclear fuels and material performance in the nuclear environment, at the nanoscale and lower, is critical to the development of innovative fuels and materials required for tomorrow’s nuclear energy systems.” (2011) Developing an advanced post-irradiation capability is the most important thing we can do to advance nuclear energy as an option to meeting national energy goals. Understanding the behavior of fuels and materials in a nuclear reactor irradiation environment is the limiting factor in nuclear plant safety, longevity, efficiency, and economics. The National PIE Workshop is part of fulfilling or addressing Department of Energy (DOE) missions in safe and publically acceptable nuclear energy. Several presentations were given during the opening of the workshop. Generally speaking, these presentations established that we cannot continue to rely on others in the world to provide the capabilities we need to move forward with nuclear energy technology. These presentations also generally identified the need for increased microstructural understanding of fuels and materials to be coupled with modeling and simulation, and increased accessibility and infrastructure to facilitate the interaction between national laboratories and participating organizations. The overall results of the work of the presenters and panels was distilled into four primary needs 1. Understanding material changes in the extreme nuclear environment at the nanoscale. Nanoscale studies have significant importance due to the mechanisms that cause materials to degrade, which actually occur on the nanoscale. 2. Enabling additional proficiency in

  12. Flexibility in Animal Signals Facilitates Adaptation to Rapidly Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Proppe, Darren S.; Sturdy, Christopher B.; St. Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world. PMID:21980449

  13. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    PubMed

    Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  14. Phase Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent workshops to define strategic research on critical issues in microgravity fluids and transport phenomena in support of mission orientated needs of NASA and many technical conferences over the years in support of fundamental research targeting NASA's long range missions goal have identified several phase change processes needed to design advanced space and planetary based systems for long duration operations Recommendation noted that phase change processes are profoundly affected by gravitational environment.

  15. Changed Learning through Changed Space: When Can a Participatory Approach to the Learning Environment Challenge Preconceptions and Alter Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolner, Pamela; McCarter, Sheila; Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve

    2012-01-01

    School premises make a difference to learning, but it is important to understand the relationship between setting and educational activities. Physical space has been found to entrench practice, making it harder to reflect and make changes. Yet changes made to the physical environment may not lead to changes in teaching or learning. This may be…

  16. Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1999-09-01

    In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

  17. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  18. [The family doctor's work environment--time for a change].

    PubMed

    Peleg, Roni

    2008-12-01

    There is a large gap between how physicians perceive their job as family doctors on the one hand, as expressed in their education and training as medical students and family medicine residents, and its perception vis-à-vis their employers. The organizations that employ doctors and pay their wages and to whom they are committed, dictate work conditions that don't enable doctors to bring to fruition their skills, reliability, and commitment to their job in their daily clinic work routine. This gap has increased over the years. Doctors studied in medical schools and strive to succeed where others may have failed. The author believes that the Administrative Committee of the Association of Family Physicians in Israel should take upon itself responsibility for this matter. The committee should plan and conduct a comprehensive assessment of the current work environment of family doctors and the conditions under which doctors should seek to work. The assessment of needs and the creation of an appropriate work environment can be achieved by hiring the services of suitable external bodies or any other source to provide an objective evaluation. The time has come to formulate recommendations and to act clearly and uncompromisingly to implement them, with the cooperation of doctors' committees and the entire body of family physicians in Israel. PMID:19260597

  19. Changing the College AOD Environment for Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Stanger, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Presents brief interrelated case studies of how environmental modifications were used by a college alcohol prevention project to: change marketing and service policies of a student-oriented bar; alter the sales practices of a campus bookstore concerning alcohol paraphernalia; and develop a campaign with the goal of reducing risk factors related to…

  20. Communicating Climate Change to Visitors of Informal Science Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepfler, Jes A.; Heimlich, Joe E.; Yocco, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings on visitors' preferences for content presentation of a future global warming and climate change exhibit. The study was conducted with two groups: one from the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, and the other at the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. The…

  1. General Education: The Changing Environment at Sante Fe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, John P.

    Established in 1966, in an era of educational creativity, Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) has consistently fostered innovation in instruction and programming and a student-centered approach to education. In 1976, in recognition of a need for change fostered by a switch in academic calendars, loss of vetarans enrollment, reduced state funding,…

  2. Tracking Changing Environments: Innovators Are Fast, but Not Flexible Learners

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Andrea S.; Guez, David; Lermite, Françoise; Patience, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in ‘cognitive style’, differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks. PMID:24391981

  3. Climatic Change and the Future of the Human Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotlyakov, Vladimir M.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the latest glaciological and oceanological data and demonstrates a strict correlation between global changes of temperature and gas composition of the atmosphere over the last climatic cycle. Concludes that global warming may not create an environmental crisis but will alter drastically the life people lead. (MJP)

  4. Microgravity flight research in a dynamic and changing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Robert A.; Newcomb, John F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division conducts both basic and applied low-g research encompassing biotechnology, fluid physics, combustion, and materials science, in industry, university, and government research settings. The present evaluation of such a diverse research program's management gives attention to the fiscal constraints, polical factors, technological changes, international cooperation requirements, and educational responsibilities that must be addressed.

  5. The Networked University: The Structure, Culture, and Policy of Universities in a Changing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The universities in Europe are finding themselves in a turbulent environment. They are exposed to global and European developments. This article links changes in the structure, culture, and policy of universities to these developments and changes in the broader-than-national environment. The central question is, in short: what is globalisation…

  6. Workshop on Molecular Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular evolution has become the nexus of many areas of biological research. It both brings together and enriches such areas as biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, population genetics, systematics, developmental biology, genomics, bioinformatics, in vitro evolution, and molecular ecology. The Workshop provides an important contribution to these fields in that it promotes interdisciplinary research and interaction, and thus provides a glue that sticks together disparate fields. Due to the wide range of fields addressed by the study of molecular evolution, it is difficult to offer a comprehensive course in a university setting. It is rare for a single institution to maintain expertise in all necessary areas. In contrast, the Workshop is uniquely able to provide necessary breadth and depth by utilizing a large number of faculty with appropriate expertise. Furthermore, the flexible nature of the Workshop allows for rapid adaptation to changes in the dynamic field of molecular evolution. For example, the 2003 Workshop included recently emergent research areas of molecular evolution of development and genomics.

  7. Changing environments and structure–property relationships in marine biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Waite, J. Herbert; Broomell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Most marine organisms make functional biomolecular materials that extend to varying degrees ‘beyond their skins’. These materials are very diverse and include shells, spines, frustules, tubes, mucus trails, egg capsules and byssal threads, to mention a few. Because they are devoid of cells, these materials lack the dynamic maintenance afforded intra-organismic tissues and thus are usually assumed to be inherently more durable than their internalized counterparts. Recent advances in nanomechanics and submicron spectroscopic imaging have enabled the characterization of structure–property relationships in a variety of extra-organismic materials and provided important new insights about their adaptive functions and stability. Some structure–property relationships in byssal threads are described to show how available analytical methods can reveal hitherto unappreciated interdependences between these materials and their prevailing chemical, physical and ecological environments. PMID:22357581

  8. An ever-changing systemic environment for migrating workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assimakopoulos, Nikitas A.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we present the concept of the systemic and dynamic environment for migrating workflows, and the considerations related to the implementation of this concept. Migrating workflows are a computational metaphor for the way most people conduct their daily business: they visit a place, use a service (perhaps after some negotiation), and move on to the next place. A migrating workflow behaves similarly: it transfers its code (specification) and its execution state to a site, negotiates a service to be executed on its behalf, receives the results, and moves on. Dialog between the workflow and individual sites may influence the workflow's migration. Thus the actual workflow instance is defined during run-time, as an effect of merging the static workflow specification and the local site rules and policies.

  9. Changing heartbeat perception to induce anxiety in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose a general technique to induce anxiety in virtual environments (VEs) which exploits auditory heartbeat perception and biofeedback. Then, we consider a VE that reproduces a real-world anxiety-inducing experience (being suddenly surrounded by smoke during a fire evacuation of a building), and we describe an experiment that contrasts 3 conditions: (i) an augmentation of the VE with a bar that indicates when the user's avatar gets hurt, (ii) an augmentation of the VE with the typical audio visual stimuli which are employed in violent videogames when the user's avatar gets hurt, (iii) introduction of the proposed biofeedback technique in the previous condition. We carry out an electrodermal analysis showing that the introduction of the proposed technique produces much higher physiological arousal in terms of skin conductance level (SCL) than the other two conditions. Subjective measures of users' state anxiety are consistent with the recorded physiological reactions. PMID:22954850

  10. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  11. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  12. Essentials of negotiating for employment in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Satiani, Bhagwan; Nair, Deepak G; Starr, Jean E; Samson, Russell H

    2014-07-01

    Evolving changes in health care in the United States are causing new graduates and self-employed physicians to consider employment with large groups and health systems. Familiarity with the principles, proper conduct, and mechanics of negotiating an employment agreement will be important for vascular surgeons making such a decision. The various components of compensation packages and contract language need to be critically evaluated. To facilitate an understanding of the complexities involved in employment contracts, strategies to avoid making negotiating mistakes are discussed.

  13. Staying ahead financially. Reimbursement tips for a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Kondek, D

    1998-03-01

    Physicians' primary goal is to give good care to their patients. But like other managers in changing times, they face big challenges to achieving their goals. Major national stressors for all professionals today, experts report, are time and money. MSMS leaders, participating in strategic planning sessions this past summer and fall, agreed, ranking reimbursement/revenue problems as second on their list of concerns, right behind autonomy as physicians.

  14. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  15. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  16. Changing Environments by Changing Individuals: The Emergent Effects of Psychological Intervention.

    PubMed

    Powers, Joseph T; Cook, Jonathan E; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Garcia, Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2016-02-01

    The two studies reported here tested whether a classroom-based psychological intervention that benefited a few African American 7th graders could trigger emergent ecological effects that benefited their entire classrooms. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data that previously documented the benefits of values affirmations on African American students' grades. The density of African American students who received the intervention in each classroom (i.e., treatment density) was used as an independent predictor of grades. Within a classroom, the greater the density of African American students who participated in the intervention exercise, the higher the grades of all classmates on average, regardless of their race or whether they participated in the intervention exercise. Benefits of treatment density were most pronounced among students with a history of poor performance. Results suggest that the benefits of psychological intervention do not end with the individual. Changed individuals can improve their social environments, and such improvements can benefit others regardless of whether they participated in the intervention. These findings have implications for understanding the emergence of ecological consequences from psychological processes.

  17. Essentials of negotiating for employment in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Satiani, Bhagwan; Nair, Deepak G; Starr, Jean E; Samson, Russell H

    2014-07-01

    Evolving changes in health care in the United States are causing new graduates and self-employed physicians to consider employment with large groups and health systems. Familiarity with the principles, proper conduct, and mechanics of negotiating an employment agreement will be important for vascular surgeons making such a decision. The various components of compensation packages and contract language need to be critically evaluated. To facilitate an understanding of the complexities involved in employment contracts, strategies to avoid making negotiating mistakes are discussed. PMID:24721173

  18. Changing the light environment: chloroplast signalling and response mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spetea, Cornelia; Rintamäki, Eevi; Schoefs, Benoît

    2014-04-19

    Light is an essential environmental factor required for photosynthesis, but it also mediates signals to control plant development and growth and induces stress tolerance. The photosynthetic organelle (chloroplast) is a key component in the signalling and response network in plants. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biology provides updates, highlights and summaries of the most recent findings on chloroplast-initiated signalling cascades and responses to environmental changes, including light and biotic stress. Besides plant molecular cell biology and physiology, the theme issue includes aspects from the cross-disciplinary fields of environmental adaptation, ecology and agronomy.

  19. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Hancock, James F

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  20. Changing the Food Environment: The French Experience12

    PubMed Central

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been banned. Since 2007, companies in France’s food industry have had the option of signing the national government’s “Charte d'engagement volontaire de progrès nutritionnel” (charter of commitments to nutritional improvements) which aims to benefit all consumers. A standard reference document, developed by public authorities as the basis for decisions made by a committee of experts in the food industry, aims to validate the voluntary commitments made by companies to improve the nutrient content of the foods they produce. There is strict follow-up. A Food Quality Observatory was created in 2009 to monitor the nutrient quality of the food supply in France. Various results show the positive impact of these actions. PMID:22798000

  1. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  2. The role of the hospital in a changing environment.

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Healy, J.

    2000-01-01

    Hospitals pose many challenges to those undertaking reform of health care systems. This paper examines the evolving role of the hospital within the health care system in industrialized countries and explores the evidence on which policy-makers might base their decisions. It begins by tracing the evolving concept of the hospital, concluding that hospitals must continue to evolve in response to factors such as changing health care needs and emerging technologies. The size and distribution of hospitals are matters for ongoing debate. This paper concludes that evidence in favour of concentrating hospital facilities, whether as a means of enhancing effectiveness or efficiency, is less robust than is often assumed. Noting that care provided in hospitals is often less than satisfactory, this paper summarizes the evidence underlying three reform strategies: (i) behavioural interventions such as quality assurance programmes; (ii) changing organizational culture; and (iii) the use of financial incentives. Isolated behavioural interventions have a limited impact, but are more effective when combined. Financial incentives are blunt instruments that must be monitored. Organizational culture, which has previously received relatively little attention, appears to be an important determinant of quality of care and is threatened by ill-considered policies intended to 're-engineer' hospital services. Overall, evidence on the effectiveness of policies relating to hospitals is limited and this paper indicates where such evidence can be found. PMID:10916917

  3. Changes in macrophage function modulated by the lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael R; Cauvi, David M; Rivera, Isabel; Hawisher, Dennis; De Maio, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages (Mφs) play a critical role in the defense against pathogens, orchestrating the inflammatory response during injury and maintaining tissue homeostasis. During these processes, macrophages encounter a variety of environmental conditions that are likely to change their gene expression pattern, which modulates their function. In this study, we found that murine Mφs displayed two different subpopulations characterized by differences in morphologies, expression of surface markers and phagocytic capacity under non-stimulated conditions. These two subpopulations could be recapitulated by changes in the culture conditions. Thus, Mφs grown in suspension in the presence of serum were highly phagocytic, whereas subtraction of serum resulted in rapid attachment and reduced phagocytic activity. The difference in phagocytosis between these subpopulations was correlated with the expression levels of FcγR. These two cell subpopulations also differed in their responses to LPS and the expression of surface markers, including CD14, CD86, scavenger receptor A1, TLR4 and low-density lipoprotein receptor. Moreover, we found that the lipid/cholesterol content in the culture medium mediated the differences between these two cell subpopulations. Thus, we described a mechanism that modulates Mφ function depending on the exposure to lipids within their surrounding microenvironment.

  4. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  5. Ages of celiac disease: From changing environment to improved diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Tommasini, Alberto; Not, Tarcisio; Ventura, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    From the time of Gee’s landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into many ages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeper knowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time, these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the disease in population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was not known; later, the disease was proven to depend on an intolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosal changes in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten (AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic “gluten infection”. The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presentation. More recently, the characterization of autoantibodies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further developments for the next celiac age will be proposed. PMID:21990947

  6. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-18

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  7. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 2a (Sterilization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Brunch, Carl W. (Editor); Setlow, Richard B. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council provided a series of recommendations to NASA on planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions. One of the Board's key findings suggested, although current evidence of the martian surface suggests that life as we know it would not tolerate the planet's harsh environment, there remain 'plausible scenarios for extant microbial life on Mars.' Based on this conclusion, all samples returned from Mars should be considered potentially hazardous until it has been demonstrated that they are not. In response to the National Research Council's findings and recommendations, NASA has undertaken a series of workshops to address issues regarding NASA's proposed sample return missions. Work was previously undertaken at the Mars Sample Handling and Protocol Workshop 1 (March 2000) to formulate recommendations on effective methods for life detection and/or biohazard testing on returned samples. The NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened the Mars Sample Sterilization Workshop, the third in the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, on November 28-30, 2000 at the Holiday Inn Rosslyn Westpark, Arlington, Virginia. Because of the short timeframe between this Workshop and the second Workshop in the Series, which was convened in October 2000 in Bethesda, Maryland, they were developed in parallel, so the Sterilization Workshop and its report have therefore been designated as '2a'). The focus of Workshop 2a was to make recommendations for effective sterilization procedures for all phases of Mars sample return missions, and to answer the question of whether we can sterilize samples in such a way that the geological characteristics of the samples are not significantly altered.

  8. WORKSHOP ON MERCURY IN PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, WASTE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: ELIMINATING, REDUCING AND MANAGING RISKS FROM NON-COMBUSTION SOURCES (PROGRAM FLYER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop is designed to achieve three goals:
    1. Convey public and private sector perspectives on the management of mercury in products, processes, and wastes;
    2. Present ongoing efforts that address mercury prevention, elimination, noncombustion treatment and disposal; ...

  9. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  10. Water Management Decisions within a Changing Hydrologic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Across the United States and around the world we are facing unprecedented demands on our surface and ground water. Increasing population demands coupled with maintaining water quality, supporting species and ecosystem services, distribution of supply, hydrologic variability associated with changing climatic conditions - all require us to look more rigorously at the intersection of policy, management and science. The water supply and hydroelectric constituencies has embraced the concept of Adaptive Management in balancing the needs of resources, people, economies and providing ecosystem support. In its infancy Adaptive Management was employed as a way to move forward on dam operation and reservoir management decisions while recognizing the unknowns of how up or downstream physical and biological elements of freshwater systems would respond. River science at the time was not mature or expansive enough to address the interrelated and complex impacts of the nuances of changing operations of dams. Adaptive Management, the concept, made good sense and has provided a framework to inform management and policy decisions while keeping the door open for integrating new knowledge into a management matrix - the essence of adaptation. The application of Adaptive Management principles has continued to expand as water management demands increase. The application and reality of the use of Adaptive Management has had variable success. In the United States we have over 25 federal agencies that have water in their mission statements. Combine this with 50 states with their own water management requirements, Native American Tribes, and countless watershed and local water supply constraints and you get a sense of the challenge associated with collaborating and addressing water management issues. Without having a set of national water objectives and goals (a National Water Policy) it is up to the collaboration and integration of the multiple water silos with appropriate science. It is

  11. Creating Fantastic PI Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Biedermann, Laura B.; Clark, Blythe G.; Colbert, Rachel S.; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Gupta, Vipin P.; Hibbs, Michael R.; Perkins, David Nikolaus; West, Roger Derek

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this SAND report is to provide guidance for other groups hosting workshops and peerto-peer learning events at Sandia. Thus this SAND report provides detail about our team structure, how we brainstormed workshop topics and developed the workshop structure. A Workshop “Nuts and Bolts” section provides our timeline and check-list for workshop activities. The survey section provides examples of the questions we asked and how we adapted the workshop in response to the feedback.

  12. Respiratory changes due to extreme cold in the Arctic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1993-03-01

    Effects of acute exposure and acclimatisation to cold stress on respiratory functions were investigated in healthy tropical Indian men ( n=10). Initial baseline recordings were carried out at Delhi and thereafter serially thrice at the arctic region and once on return to Delhi. For comparison the respiratory functions were also evaluated on Russian migrants (RM; n=7) and Russian natives (RN; n=6). The respiratory functions were evaluated using standard methodology on a Vitalograph: In Indians, there was an initial decrease in lung vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume 1st s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) on acute exposure to cold stress, followed by gradual recovery during acclimatisation for 4 weeks and a further significant improvement after 9 weeks of stay at the arctic region. On return to India all the parameters reached near baseline values except for MVV which remained slightly elevated. RM and RN showed similar respiratory functions at the beginning of acute cold exposure at the arctic zone. RN showed an improvement after 10 weeks of stay whereas RM did not show much change. The respiratory responses during acute cold exposure are similar to those of initial altitude responses.

  13. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  14. Interactions of Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate with Light Induced Chemical Reactions in Aquatic Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet radiation that reach the surface of North American aquatic environments. Concurrent changes in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in changes in stratification and precipitation that ar...

  15. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    Numerous reports demand changes in college and university teaching practices. This is especially true for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. STEM stakeholders are concerned about student retention within STEM majors, as well as the lack of sufficient graduates with the knowledge to advance these fields. A common conclusion of these reports is that teaching practices must change. Although these calls for change have occurred for decades, STEM fields have yet to experience widespread change. Thus, there is a need for more effective change strategies. Recently, researchers have suggested that effective change strategies should focus on changing the environments of academic departments. This is in contrast to most commonly-used change strategies that focus on individual instructors. Environmentfocused change strategies have two main varieties: those that have a goal of implementing prescribed outcomes, and those that expect the outcomes to emerge from the change process. Yet, little is known about how to enact environment-focused change strategies. The goal of this research is to provide guidance for change agents and researchers by analyzing a large-scale change initiative from the perspective of two environment-focused change strategies: Kotter's eight-stage leadership process (prescribed) and complexity leadership theory (emergent). This analysis was guided by two research questions. 1. Within the context of a higher education change initiative, how is the change process described from the perspectives of two distinct leadership theories? 2. How do these descriptions frame problems and solutions associated with change? Each change strategy identified different activities as contributing to change as well as different missed opportunities. For example, when the change vision was not communicated effectively, the eight-stage leadership process indicated that the involvement of the department chair was needed, while complexity

  16. Response of lifespan of organisms to secularly changing environment using a new dynamical model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Toshihiro; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Ito, Takashi

    A relation between lifespan of a species and its environment is studied using a dynamical model. We make a simple model of a species under single parameter environment. Our model has parameters which describe the dispersion of character taken over between a parent and a child, width of allowance to survive under a given environment, changing rate of the environment, and energy flux to support whole bodies in a species. We do not introduce any direct interaction between any individuals of any other species to focus our attention on lifespan by environment. Under linearly changing environment the population of a species grows exponentially or extinct without any limitation of reproduction. With limit of energy supply the population can be stable and optimal lifespan always exists which gives the largest population.

  17. The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, S M

    1989-01-01

    Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874

  18. Providing Real-Time Response, State Recency and Temporal Consistency in Databases for Rapidly Changing Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Anindya; Viguier, Igor R.

    1997-01-01

    In environments where the state of the system changes rapidly, such as stock trading, air traffic control, network management, and process control, databases have been proposed as the platform to develop automated control systems. Information in such systems consists of "updates," reporting on the state of the environment and "transactions,"…

  19. COLORADO INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOP PAPERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A COLLECTION OF ARTICLES WRITTEN BY MEMBERS OF THE COLORADO INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOP. THE ARTICLES ARE CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL, CULTURAL, MORAL, EMOTIONAL, AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL CHILDREN, AS A MEANINGFUL CURRICULUM IS DEVELOPED TO CORRELATE WITH THEIR SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT.…

  20. Space Weather Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

  1. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  2. 1998 federal technical standards workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The theme for the 1998 workshop was Standards Management -- A World of Change and Opportunities. The workshop`s goal was to further the implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-113) through the sharing of standards management success stories, lessons learned, and emerging initiatives within the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. The target audience for this workshop included agency/department and contractor personnel and representatives of standards developing organizations that either used technical standards in their work for the Federal Government of participated in standards writing/management activities in support of the missions and programs of Federal agencies/departments. As with previous standards workshops sponsored by the DOE, views on the technical subject areas under the workshop theme were solicited from and provided by agency Standards Executives and standards program managers, voluntary standards organizations, and the private sector. This report includes vugraphs of the presentations.

  3. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  4. An Equal Employment Opportunity Sensitivity Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Thomas H., Jr.; Dorey, Lester E.

    1972-01-01

    The equal employment opportunity sensitivity workshop seems to be a useful training device for getting an organization started on developing black and white change agents. A report on the establishment of such a workshop at the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM). Includes charts of design, characteristics, analysis of results, program…

  5. Managing Evolution and Change in Web-Based Teaching and Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the design and maintenance of computer-based teaching and learning environments and illustrates consequences of evolution and change in Web-based courses. Focuses on changes in content; format of the course; infrastructure, including hardware, systems, and software; and pedagogy, or instructional design, including knowledge modeling,…

  6. Adaptation to a Changing Environment by Modifications in Organizational Decision Unit Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Robert B.

    This paper presents a model of how organizations adapt to the uncertainty in their environment by making changes in the way they structure themselves for decisionmaking. The research reported here indicates that it is not just a single change in organizational structure, but rather a shifting between a more rigid and more flexible decision…

  7. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  8. Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will describe a project to between ecologists and climate scientists to inform National Park Service managers who are developing scenario planning for their parks and surrounding areas; this effort is advancing scenario methodologies and improving delivery mechanisms and applications to decision-making for National Parks. Climate change is expressed in both regional climatic shifts (e.g., temperature and precipitation changes) and local resource impacts. Resource management in a changing climate is challenging because future climate change and resource responses cannot be precisely predicted. Scenario planning is a tool to assess the range of plausible future conditions. However, selecting, acquiring, synthesizing, and scaling climate information for scenario planning requires significant time and skills. This project, which was recently selected for funding by the NC CSC, has three goals: 1) synthesize climate data into 3-5 distinctly different but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; 2) craft summaries of these climate futures that are relevant to local land management units; and 3) apply these local summaries to further develop quantitative climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and simulation models. We will engage multiple stakeholders in two focal areas within the region: southwestern South Dakota in the vicinity of Badlands National Park, and central North Dakota in the vicinity of Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. This effort will increase climate change planning efficiency in the region; promote collaborations across jurisdictions; and develop a prototype for a novel, efficient, and replicable form of scenario planning that could serve additional management units.

  9. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity. PMID:19136984

  10. Changes in Students' Science Ability Produced by Multimedia Learning Environments: Application of the Linear Logistic Model for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; McGee, Steven; Howard, Bruce C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to measure changes in students' science proficiency produced by a multimedia learning environment. Describes the inquiry-based design of Astronomy Village, which supports middle school students in learning fundamental concepts in life, earth, and physical sciences. Results indicate sizable treatment effects for two…

  11. Dynamics of evolutionary rescue in changing environments and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Saddler, Clare A; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Populations can go extinct when their environments deteriorate, but evolutionary rescue occurs when a shrinking population adapts to the new environmental conditions. The emergence of resistance from a drug sensitive bacterial population under treatment can be regarded as an instance of evolutionary rescue. Understanding evolutionary rescue in a particular context such as drug resistance requires knowledge of how the environment changes and how selection coefficients change as a result. In this study, we propose a model for evolutionary rescue under three different scenarios of environmental change: abrupt change, periodic fluctuation and gradual decay. The model makes use of the notion of reaction norms to describe fitness values that depend on both genotype and environmental state. We find that although drug sensitive bacterial populations may be large, allowing them to generate resistant mutants frequently, a harsh abrupt change due to the drug usually drives them extinct. Evolutionary rescue occurs far more frequently under the milder forms of environmental change we investigated. Rescue is favoured when the absolute fitnesses of individuals remain sufficiently high over the range of environment qualities experienced by the population. The minimum environment quality, which is inversely related to drug dose in the antibiotic context, is thus an important factor. Interestingly, in the periodic fluctuation model, the inter-dose period is less influential in promoting rescue through resistance unless the minimum environment quality is in a particular range. We also investigated fitness trade-offs across environments including the case of a resistant allele not subject to any trade-off (a "superbug"). This fitness trade-off affects the probability of rescue in decaying environments, but surprisingly has only a weak effect in the periodic fluctuation scenario. Finally, we use the model to show how niche construction, whereby organisms are the source of environmental

  12. Land use/cover changes, the environment and water resources in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansui; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Jay; Deng, Wei

    2005-11-01

    Land use/cover in Northeast China went through extensive changes during the 1990s. This report explores the interaction between these changes and the environment, and the implication of these changes for rational allocation of water resources. Two maps of land use/cover produced from 1990 and 2000 Landsat TM satellite images were overlaid in Arc Info to reveal changes in land cover. Results indicate that farmland and grassland decreased by 386,195 and 140,075 ha, respectively, while water, built-up areas, and woodland increased by 238,596, 194,231, and 192,682 ha, respectively. These changes bore a mutual relationship with the environmental change. On the one hand, climate warming made some of these changes (e.g., conversion of woodland and grassland to farmland) possible. On the other hand, the changed surface cover modified the local climate. These changes, in turn, caused severe environmental degradation and increased flooding. The change between dry field and rice paddy, in particular, raised severe implications for the proper allocation of limited water resources in the Northeast. Efforts are needed to coordinate their rational allocation to reap maximum and sustainable return over the entire area, not just in some localities. Results obtained in this study should be of interest to the international audience of Environmental Management in that they highlight the interactive nature of human activities and the environment and the off-site impact of these activities on the environment.

  13. GLOBE Hydrology Workshop SEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Matt Krigbaum (left), a teacher at Mitchell Elementary in Ann Arbor, Mich., pours water from the Pearl River into a turbidity tube to measure the river's light penetration. Krigbaum, along with Lois Williams, principal at Elizabeth Courville Elementary in Detroit, Mich.; and Carolyn Martin and Arlene Wittmer, teachers at Elizabeth Courville Elementary; conducted the experiment during a GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) hydrology workshop. GLOBE is a worldwide, hands-on science education program in which teachers can become certified to implement the program at their schools after taking hydrology, land cover/biology, atmosphere/climate and soil protocol workshops. Twelve teachers from across the country attended the recent weeklong GLOBE training at SSC, offered through its Educator Resource Center and the NASA Explorer Schools program. All workshops are free and offer continuing education units.

  14. College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Greene, W. M.; Pompea, S.; Prather, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. This three-day, interactive teaching excellence workshop focuses on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts provided at the workshop are: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; and (iii) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2002.

  15. Introduction and Highlights of the Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.

    1997-01-01

    Four generations of CAD/CAM systems can be identified, corresponding to changes in both modeling functionality and software architecture. The systems evolved from 2D and wireframes to solid modeling, to parametric/variational modelers to the current simulation-embedded systems. Recent developments have enabled design engineers to perform many of the complex analysis tasks, typically performed by analysis experts. Some of the characteristics of the current and emerging CAD/CAM/CAE systems are described in subsequent presentations. The focus of the workshop is on the potential of CAD/CAM/CAE systems for use in simulating the entire mission and life-cycle of future aerospace systems, and the needed development to realize this potential. First, the major features of the emerging computing, communication and networking environment are outlined; second, the characteristics and design drivers of future aerospace systems are identified; third, the concept of intelligent synthesis environment being planned by NASA, the UVA ACT Center and JPL is presented; and fourth, the objectives and format of the workshop are outlined.

  16. Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) Interdisciplinary Science Workshop: Decadal Climate Prediction; Aspen, CO; June 22-28, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John

    2010-03-12

    Decadal prediction lies between seasonal/interannual forecasting and longer-term climate change projections, and focuses on time-evolving regional climate conditions over the next 10?30 yr. Numerous assessments of climate information user needs have identified this time scale as being important to infrastructure planners, water resource managers, and many others. It is central to the information portfolio required to adapt effectively to and through climatic changes.

  17. Welding in Space Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential was discussed for welding in space, its advantages and disadvantages, and what type of programs can benefit from the capability. Review of the various presentations and comments made in the course of the workshop suggests several routes to obtaining a better understanding of how welding processes can be used in NASA's initiatives in space. They are as follows: (1) development of a document identifying well processes and equipment requirements applicable to space and lunar environments; (2) more demonstrations of welding particular hardware which are to be used in the above environments, especially for space repair operations; (3) increased awareness among contractors responsible for building space equipment as to the potential for welding operations in space and on other planetary bodies; and (4) continuation of space welding research projects is important to maintain awareness within NASA that welding in space is viable and beneficial.

  18. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    PubMed

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change. PMID:18282177

  19. Effects of lipid environment on the conformational changes of an ABC importer.

    PubMed

    Rice, Austin J; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-01-01

    In order to shuttle substrates across the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins undergo a series of conformation changes that are influenced by protein structure, ligands, and the lipid environment. To test the effect of lipid on conformation change of the ABC transporter MolBC, EPR studies were conducted in lipids and detergents of variable composition. In both a detergent and lipid environment, MolBC underwent the same general conformation changes as detected by site-directed EPR spectroscopy. However, differences in activity and the details of the EPR analysis indicate conformational rigidity that is dependent on the lipid environment. From these observations, we conclude that native-like lipid mixtures provide the transporter with greater activity and conformational flexibility as well as technical advantages such as reconstitution efficiency and protein stability.

  20. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C) in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass), and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C) only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass). Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets reared at the cooler

  1. Population transcriptomics uncovers the regulation of gene expression variation in adaptation to changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qin; Zhu, Caiyun; Fan, Yangyang; Song, Zhihong; Xing, Shilai; Liu, Wei; Yan, Juan; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Expression variation plays an important role in plant adaptation, but little is known about the factors impacting the expression variation when population adapts to changing environment. We used RNA-seq data from 80 individuals in 14 Miscanthus lutarioriparius populations, which were transplanted into a harsh environment from native habitat, to investigate the expression level, expression diversity and genetic diversity for genes expressed in both environments. The expression level of genes with lower expression level or without SNP tended to be more changeable in new environment, which suggested highly expressed genes experienced stronger purifying selection than those at lower level. Low proportion of genes with population effect confirmed the weak population structure and frequent gene flow in these populations. Meanwhile, the number of genes with environment effect was the most frequent compared with that with population effect. Our results showed that environment and genetic diversity were the main factors determining gene expression variation in population. This study could facilitate understanding the mechanisms of global gene expression variation when plant population adapts to changing environment. PMID:27150248

  2. Multidisciplinary workshops: learning to work together.

    PubMed

    Fatchett, Anita; Taylor, Dawn

    2013-03-01

    Health and social care professional practice needs to move with the times and to respond to the ever-changing combination of health needs, economic realities and health-policy imperatives. A clear understanding of the variety of forces at play and the ability to marshal these to good effect by working in partnership with multidisciplinary colleagues and children/families is a must, not least in this time of economic austerity and ever-rising health inequalities, when vulnerable children's lives and complex family relationships and behaviours so easily become increasingly strained and challenged. This sad reality calls out for relevant joined-up solutions by all participants--an agenda so often called into question by court judgement after court judgement. The multidisciplinary workshops to be discussed have developed and changed over the past decade and provide a safe but realistic learning environment for students from health and social care backgrounds to experience the difficulties and barriers to good multidisciplinary working, to better understand others' perspectives and activities and consider and develop new and better practical strategies for working with multidisciplinary professional colleagues, children and families. All of the workshops are underpinned by specific discipline-focused theoretical work.

  3. Changes in Hospital Nurse Work Environments and Nurse Job Outcomes: An Analysis of Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Evan S.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Aiken, Linda H.; Fagin, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Background One strategy proposed to alleviate nursing shortages is the promotion of organizational efforts that will improve nurse recruitment and retention. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the quality of the nurse work environment is associated with nurse outcomes related to retention, but there have been very few longitudinal studies undertaken to examine this relationship. Objectives To demonstrate how rates of burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction changed in a panel of hospitals over time, and to explore whether these outcomes were associated with changes in nurse work environments. Methods A retrospective, two-stage panel design was chosen for this study. Survey data collected from large random samples of registered nurses employed in Pennsylvania hospitals in 1999 and 2006 were used to derive hospital-level rates of burnout, intentions to leave current positions, and job dissatisfaction, and to classify the quality of nurses’ work environments at both points in time. A two-period difference model was used to estimate the dependence of changes in rates of nurse burnout, intentions to leave, and job dissatisfaction on changes in nurse work environments between 1999 and 2006 in 137 hospitals, accounting for concurrent changes in nurse staffing levels. Results In general, nurse outcomes improved between 1999 and 2006, with fewer nurses reporting burnout, intentions to leave, and job dissatisfaction in 2006 as compared to 1999. Our difference models showed that improvements in work environment had a strong negative association with changes in rates of burnout (β =−6.42%, p<0.01) intentions to leave (β =−4.10%, p<0.01), and job dissatisfaction (β =−8.00%, p<0.01). Conclusions Improvements in nurse work environments over time are associated with lower rates of nurse burnout, intentions to leave current positions, and job dissatisfaction. PMID:22902135

  4. Systems thinking for understanding and predicting regional and local climate change effects on human health & well being: workshop process

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Systems Thinking Advisory Team (STAT) was engaged to guide a multi-disciplinary (health officials, modelers, climate change scientists, city planners, ecologists, and architects), multi-agency (EPA, CDC, State and Country officials) team in the use systems thinking, diagram...

  5. RFI Mitigation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    The increased sensitivity of passive instrumentation in radio astronomy and remote sensing and the intensifying active use of the spectrum have led to an increasing level of radio frequency interference (RFI) of the active services on the passive use of the spectrum. Advances in technology and computing have opened up new possibilities for mitigating the effects of certain classes of interference in the observing data. Interference in allocated bands always leads to data loss for the passive users of the spectrum even if interference mitigation is applied. However, interference mitigation in non-allocated spectral bands may facilitate the partial use of this spectrum for passive (non-interfering) observations. There is no generic method to mitigate all types of interference, so a multi-layered system approach may be advisable to reduce detrimental effects for a congested interference environment. Specific mitigation methods implemented at different points in the data acquisition chain will thus result in a cumulative mitigation effect on the data. This third RFI Mitigation Workshop considered RFI mitigation in radio astronomy in all its facets with the aim of facilitating the implementation of instrumental and data processing techniques. This workshop aimed to take a forward look at applications for the next generation of radio instruments, such as the SKA and its pathfinders and LOFAR, as well as considering their application to existing instruments. This workshop has been organized by ASTRON and NAIC, with support from the Engineering Forum of FP7 RadioNet, the SKA Project Development Office, and in collaboration with CRAF and IUCAF.

  6. Model-Based Analysis of Cell Cycle Responses to Dynamically Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Daniel D; Krishnan, J

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is carefully coordinated with a cell’s intra- and extracellular environment. While some pathways have been identified that communicate information from the environment to the cell cycle, a systematic understanding of how this information is dynamically processed is lacking. We address this by performing dynamic sensitivity analysis of three mathematical models of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that these models make broadly consistent qualitative predictions about cell cycle progression under dynamically changing conditions. For example, it is shown that the models predict anticorrelated changes in cell size and cell cycle duration under different environments independently of the growth rate. This prediction is validated by comparison to available literature data. Other consistent patterns emerge, such as widespread nonmonotonic changes in cell size down generations in response to parameter changes. We extend our analysis by investigating glucose signalling to the cell cycle, showing that known regulation of Cln3 translation and Cln1,2 transcription by glucose is sufficient to explain the experimentally observed changes in cell cycle dynamics at different glucose concentrations. Together, these results provide a framework for understanding the complex responses the cell cycle is capable of producing in response to dynamic environments. PMID:26741131

  7. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

  8. Photosynthesis, environmental change, and plant adaptation: Research topics in plant molecular ecology. Summary report of a workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    As we approach the 21st Century, it is becoming increasingly clear that human activities, primarily related to energy extraction and use, will lead to marked environmental changes at the local, regional, and global levels. The realized and the potential photosynthetic performance of plants is determined by a combination of intrinsic genetic information and extrinsic environmental factors, especially climate. It is essential that the effects of environmental changes on the photosynthetic competence of individual species, communities, and ecosystems be accurately assessed. From October 24 to 26, 1993, a group of scientists specializing in various aspects of plant science met to discuss how our predictive capabilities could be improved by developing a more rational, mechanistic approach to relating photosynthetic processes to environmental factors. A consensus emerged that achieving this goal requires multidisciplinary research efforts that combine tools and techniques of genetics, molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology to understand the principles, mechanisms, and limitations of evolutional adaptation and physiological acclimation of photosynthetic processes. Many of these basic tools and techniques, often developed in other fields of science, already are available but have not been applied in a coherent, coordinated fashion to ecological research. The efforts of this research program are related to the broader efforts to develop more realistic prognostic models to forecast climate change that include photosynthetic responses and feedbacks at the regional and ecosystem levels.

  9. Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah.

    PubMed

    Logan, J A; Régnière, J; Gray, D R; Munson, A S

    2007-01-01

    The importance of efficaciously assessing the risk for introduction and establishment of pest species is an increasingly important ecological and economic issue. Evaluation of climate is fundamental to determining the potential success of an introduced or invasive insect pest. However, evaluating climatic suitability poses substantial difficulties; climate can be measured and assessed in a bewildering array of ways. Some physiological filter, in essence a lens that focuses climate through the requirements and constraints of a potential pest introduction, is required. Difficulties in assessing climate suitability are further exacerbated by the effects of climate change. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic, tree-defoliating insect that is frequently introduced into the western United States. In spite of an abundance of potential host species, these introductions have yet to result in established populations. The success of eradication efforts and the unsuccessful establishment of many detected and undetected introductions may be related to an inhospitable climate. Climatic suitability for gypsy moth in the western United States, however, is potentially improving, perhaps rapidly, due to a general warming trend that began in the mid 1970s and continues today. In this work, we describe the application of a physiologically based climate suitability model for evaluating risk of gypsy moth establishment on a landscape level. Development of this risk assessment system first required amassing databases that integrated the gypsy moth climatic assessment model, with host species distributions, and climate (historical, present, and future). This integrated system was then used to evaluate climate change scenarios for native host species in Utah, with the result that risk of establishment will dramatically increase during the remainder of the 21st century under reasonable climate change scenarios. We then applied the risk assessment system to several case histories of

  10. What future for nuclear power? Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    A Workshop on this highly controversial subject, organized by the Energy and Environment Programme of the RIIA, was held on 10th November 1997 at Green College, Oxford. The meeting was attended by some forty people from eight countries, coming from the nuclear and electricity generating industry, governments, research organizations, academic institutions, environmental pressure groups and inter-governmental organizations. In addition, subsequent to this Workshop, there have been a number of smaller, more informal discussions on various aspects of the subject. This paper summarizes the main conclusions arising from the Workshop and from these later discussions.

  11. Changing Drug Users' Risk Environments: Peer Health Advocates as Multi-level Community Change Agents

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Convey, Mark; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Li, Jianghong; Radda, Kim; Martinez, Maria; Robles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Peer delivered, social oriented HIV prevention intervention designs are increasingly popular for addressing broader contexts of health risk beyond a focus on individual factors. Such interventions have the potential to affect multiple social levels of risk and change, including at the individual, network, and community levels, and reflect social ecological principles of interaction across social levels over time. The iterative and feedback dynamic generated by this multi-level effect increases the likelihood for sustained health improvement initiated by those trained to deliver the peer intervention. The Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP), conducted with heroin and cocaine/crack users in Hartford, Connecticut, exemplified this intervention design and illustrated the multi-level effect on drug users' risk and harm reduction at the individual level, the social network level, and the larger community level. Implications of the RAP program for designing effective prevention programs and for analyzing long-term change to reduce HIV transmission among high-risk groups are discussed from this ecological and multi-level intervention perspective. PMID:19326208

  12. The persistence of the attentional bias to regularities in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ru Qi; Zhao, Jiaying

    2015-10-01

    The environment often is stable, but some aspects may change over time. The challenge for the visual system is to discover and flexibly adapt to the changes. We examined how attention is shifted in the presence of changes in the underlying structure of the environment. In six experiments, observers viewed four simultaneous streams of objects while performing a visual search task. In the first half of each experiment, the stream in the structured location contained regularities, the shapes in the random location were randomized, and gray squares appeared in two neutral locations. In the second half, the stream in the structured or the random location may change. In the first half of all experiments, visual search was facilitated in the structured location, suggesting that attention was consistently biased toward regularities. In the second half, this bias persisted in the structured location when no change occurred (Experiment 1), when the regularities were removed (Experiment 2), or when new regularities embedded in the original or novel stimuli emerged in the previously random location (Experiments 3 and 6). However, visual search was numerically but no longer reliably faster in the structured location when the initial regularities were removed and new regularities were introduced in the previously random location (Experiment 4), or when novel random stimuli appeared in the random location (Experiment 5). This suggests that the attentional bias was weakened. Overall, the results demonstrate that the attentional bias to regularities was persistent but also sensitive to changes in the environment.

  13. Could Workshops Become Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riscalla, Louise

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses some of the limitations of the use of sheltered workshops and behavior modification in vocational rehabilitation for the handicapped and promotes the possibility of on-the-job training as an alternative to sheltered workshops. (EA)

  14. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  15. Biomedical Polar Research Workshop Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop was conducted to provide a background of NASA and National Science Foundation goals, an overview of previous and current biomedical research, and a discussion about areas of potential future joint activities. The objectives of the joint research were: (1) to develop an understanding of the physiological, psychological, and behavioral alterations and adaptations to extreme environments of the polar regions; (2) to ensure the health, well-being, and performance of humans in these environments; and (3) to promote the application of biomedical research to improve the quality of life in all environments.

  16. Adapting the Icelandic Education System to a Changing Environment. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 516

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppanz, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Iceland's performance in skills accumulation against the backdrop of a rapidly changing economic environment and discusses directions for further improvements. Since the late 1990s, the government has considerably raised expenditure on education, which is now among the highest in the OECD relative to GDP. Nonetheless, Iceland…

  17. Tracing the Change in Discourse in a Collaborative Dynamic Geometry Environment: From Visual to More Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Diler

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigated the development of group cognition by tracing the change in mathematical discourse of a team of three middle-school students as they worked on a construction problem within a virtual collaborative dynamic geometry environment. Sfard's commognitive framework was employed to examine how the student team's word choice,…

  18. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  19. Change in Teacher Candidates' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in a constructivist learning environment in a classroom management course. Within a qualitative case study design, teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained through document analysis before and after they were…

  20. Changes in Primary School Children's Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environments Related to Nutrition and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Magarey, Anthea Margaret; Pettman, Tahna Lee; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous evaluation of large-scale community-based obesity interventions can provide important guidance to policy and decision makers. The eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs, a five-year multilevel, multistrategy community-based obesity intervention targeting children in a range of settings, was delivered in two communities. A comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation using a quasiexperimental design with nonmatched comparison communities was undertaken. This paper describes the changes in primary school children's attitudes, behaviours, knowledge, and environments associated with healthy eating and physical activity, based on data from six questionnaires completed pre- and postintervention by students, parents, and school representatives. As self-reported by students in years from five to seven there were few significant improvements over time in healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, attitudes, knowledge, and perceived environments, and there were few changes in the home environment (parent report). Overall there were considerably more improvements in intervention compared with comparison schools affecting all environmental areas, namely, policy, physical, financial, and sociocultural, in addition to improvements in teacher skill and knowledge. These improvements in children's learning environments are important and likely to be sustainable as they reflect a change of school culture. More sensitive evaluation tools may detect behaviour changes. PMID:24555153

  1. Environment for Innovation: Exploring Associations with Individual Disposition toward Change, Organizational Conflict, Justice and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinert, Daniel James

    2013-01-01

    The environment in higher education and healthcare is rapidly changing. Adaptation through innovation is critical for organizations responsible for the education of healthcare providers. This study examined the climate for innovation at chiropractic colleges and health sciences universities offering a doctor of chiropractic program. The…

  2. Understanding Students' Changing Perceptions of Their Learning Environments in Four FE Colleges in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postlethwaite, Keith; Maull, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Transforming Learning Cultures in Further Education (TLC) project, questionnaire data were collected from three consecutive cohorts of students in a wide range of learning sites, initially four in each of four Further Education (FE) colleges in England. This paper focuses on changes in perceived learning environment as mapped by…

  3. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical…

  4. Effects of Conceptual Change Text Based Instruction on Ecology, Attitudes toward Biology and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the conceptual change text based instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts, and attitudes toward biology and environment. Participants were 82 ninth grade students in a public high school in the Northwestern Turkey. A treatment was employed over a…

  5. Climate Change and Our Environment: The Effect on Respiratory and Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles S.; Alexis, Neil E.; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Cohn, John R.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Horner, Elliott; Levetin, Estelle; Nel, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. This article provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth’s environment into their patient’s treatment plan. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated. Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments. Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas. Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens, whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may result in urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to meet changing environmental conditions. PMID:23687635

  6. Testing Models for the Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Adolescent Depression.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy L

    2015-07-01

    We tested two models to identify the genetic and environmental processes underlying longitudinal changes in depression among adolescents. The first assumes that observed changes in covariance structure result from the unfolding of inherent, random individual differences in the overall levels and rates of change in depression over time (random growth curves). The second assumes that observed changes are due to time-specific random effects (innovations) accumulating over time (autoregressive effects). We found little evidence of age-specific genetic effects or persistent genetic innovations. Instead, genetic effects are consistent with a gradual unfolding in the liability to depression and rates of change with increasing age. Likewise, the environment also creates significant individual differences in overall levels of depression and rates of change. However, there are also time-specific environmental experiences that persist with fidelity. The implications of these differing genetic and environmental mechanisms in the etiology of depression are considered.

  7. Testing Models for the Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    We tested two models to identify the genetic and environmental processes underlying longitudinal changes in depression among adolescents. The first assumes that observed changes in covariance structure result from the unfolding of inherent, random individual differences in the overall levels and rates of change in depression over time (random growth curves). The second assumes that observed changes are due to time-specific random effects (innovations) accumulating over time (autoregressive effects). We found little evidence of age-specific genetic effects or persistent genetic innovations. Instead, genetic effects are consistent with a gradual unfolding in the liability to depression and rates of change with increasing age. Likewise, the environment also creates significant individual differences in overall levels of depression and rates of change. However, there are also time-specific environmental experiences that persist with fidelity. The implications of these differing genetic and environmental mechanisms in the etiology of depression are considered. PMID:25894924

  8. Designing Effective Workshops. Workshop Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy A.; Monroe, Martha C.

    This booklet is one in a series of resource manuals to help teacher educators conduct environmental education (EE) teacher workshops or promote EE programs. This unit offers background information and strategies for designing and leading teacher education workshops and programs and benefits those unfamiliar with adult education methods and…

  9. ICP-MS Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, April J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2014-11-01

    This is a short document that explains the materials that will be transmitted to LLNL and DNN HQ regarding the ICP-MS Workshop held at PNNL June 17-19th. The goal of the information is to pass on to LLNL information regarding the planning and preparations for the Workshop at PNNL in preparation of the SIMS workshop at LLNL.

  10. Thematic Issue: Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The articles in this publication trace the historical development of the theatre workshop, explain the relationship between the workshop and experimental theatre, and analyze the ways in which current drama workshops teach and develop the dramatic skills of the participants. The topics discussed include the special skills, production-oriented, and…

  11. National and international organization of phenology as a tool for science, management and education in a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; National Coordinating Office Of Usa National Phenology Network

    2010-12-01

    on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Land Product Validation (LPV) Phenology Focus Group. Partnerships with a variety of other organizations benefit from recent development and distribution of standard operating procedures (SOPs) and web services with data input and output functions. USA-NPN facilitates research and the development of decision support tools through provision of communication, coordination and collaboration in a data-rich environment. Education and outreach are facilitated by new on-line training materials, in-person and distance workshops, and a strategic education plan in development. Finally, USA-NPN is collaborating with other national phenology networks around the globe to create an international community of practice for phenology within the collaborative infrastructure created by Group on Earth Observations (GEO).

  12. Experiments with digital organisms on the origin and maintenance of sex in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Misevic, Dusan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Many theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of sex, but the question remains unsettled owing to a paucity of compelling empirical tests. The crux of the problem is to understand the prevalence of sexual reproduction in the natural world, despite obvious costs relative to asexual reproduction. Here we perform experiments with digital organisms (evolving computer programs) to test the hypothesis that sexual reproduction is advantageous in changing environments. We varied the frequency and magnitude of environmental change, while the digital organisms could evolve their mode of reproduction as well as the traits affecting their fitness (reproductive rate) under the various conditions. Sex became the dominant mode of reproduction only when the environment changed rapidly and substantially (with particular functions changing from maladaptive to adaptive and vice versa). Even under these conditions, it was easier to maintain sexual reproduction than for sex to invade a formerly asexual population, although sometimes sex did invade and spread despite the obstacles to becoming established. Several diverse properties of the ancestral genomes, including epistasis and modularity, had no effect on the subsequent evolution of reproductive mode. Our study provides some limited support for the importance of changing environments to the evolution of sex, while also reinforcing the difficulty of evolving and maintaining sexual reproduction.

  13. 11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

  14. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  15. Improving the adaptability of simulated evolutionary swarm robots in dynamically changing environments.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-01-01

    One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN). An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store 'good behaviour' and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment.

  16. Improving the Adaptability of Simulated Evolutionary Swarm Robots in Dynamically Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-01-01

    One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN). An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store ‘good behaviour’ and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment. PMID:24599485

  17. MIT-NASA Workshop: Transformational Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankins, J. C. (Editor); Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.; Simmons, A.; Mullins, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    As a space faring nation, we are at a critical juncture in the evolution of space exploration. NASA has announced its Vision for Space Exploration, a vision of returning humans to the Moon, sending robots and eventually humans to Mars, and exploring the outer solar system via automated spacecraft. However, mission concepts have become increasingly complex, with the potential to yield a wealth of scientific knowledge. Meanwhile, there are significant resource challenges to be met. Launch costs remain a barrier to routine space flight; the ever-changing fiscal and political environments can wreak havoc on mission planning; and technologies are constantly improving, and systems that were state of the art when a program began can quickly become outmoded before a mission is even launched. This Conference Publication describes the workshop and featured presentations by world-class experts presenting leading-edge technologies and applications in the areas of power and propulsion; communications; automation, robotics, computing, and intelligent systems; and transformational techniques for space activities. Workshops such as this one provide an excellent medium for capturing the broadest possible array of insights and expertise, learning from researchers in universities, national laboratories, NASA field Centers, and industry to help better our future in space.

  18. Simulation workshops with first year midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Catling, Christine; Hogan, Rosemarie; Fox, Deborah; Cummins, Allison; Kelly, Michelle; Sheehan, Athena

    2016-03-01

    Simulated teaching methods enable a safe learning environment that are structured, constructive and reflective. We prepared a 2-day simulation project to help prepare students for their first clinical practice. A quasi-experimental pre-test - post-test design was conducted. Qualitative data from the open-ended survey questions were analysed using content analysis. Confidence intervals and p-values were calculated to demonstrate the changes in participants' levels of understanding/ability or confidence in clinical midwifery skills included in the simulation. 71 midwifery students participated. Students rated their understanding, confidence, and abilities as higher after the simulation workshop, and higher still after their clinical experience. There were five main themes arising from the qualitative data: having a learning experience, building confidence, identifying learning needs, developing communication skills and putting skills into practise. First year midwifery students felt well prepared for the clinical workplace following the simulation workshops. Self-rated understanding, confidence and abilities in clinical midwifery skills were significantly higher following consolidation during clinical placement. Longitudinal studies on the relationship between simulation activities and student's overall clinical experience, their intentions to remain in midwifery, and facility feedback, would be desirable. PMID:26777872

  19. Simulation workshops with first year midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Catling, Christine; Hogan, Rosemarie; Fox, Deborah; Cummins, Allison; Kelly, Michelle; Sheehan, Athena

    2016-03-01

    Simulated teaching methods enable a safe learning environment that are structured, constructive and reflective. We prepared a 2-day simulation project to help prepare students for their first clinical practice. A quasi-experimental pre-test - post-test design was conducted. Qualitative data from the open-ended survey questions were analysed using content analysis. Confidence intervals and p-values were calculated to demonstrate the changes in participants' levels of understanding/ability or confidence in clinical midwifery skills included in the simulation. 71 midwifery students participated. Students rated their understanding, confidence, and abilities as higher after the simulation workshop, and higher still after their clinical experience. There were five main themes arising from the qualitative data: having a learning experience, building confidence, identifying learning needs, developing communication skills and putting skills into practise. First year midwifery students felt well prepared for the clinical workplace following the simulation workshops. Self-rated understanding, confidence and abilities in clinical midwifery skills were significantly higher following consolidation during clinical placement. Longitudinal studies on the relationship between simulation activities and student's overall clinical experience, their intentions to remain in midwifery, and facility feedback, would be desirable.

  20. EPRI dam safety workshop summary: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, R.

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has an extensive history of working with utilities, federal and state agencies, consultants, and other interests to conduct a number of workshops and studies to improve the safety of dams. Through these efforts, EPRI has developed a number of tools to assist dam owners, particularly EPRI members, in the evaluation and modification of dams. Although a considerable amount of progress has been made toward improving dam safety, there remain among the over 75,000 dams in the US a significant number of structures that require in-depth evaluation and possible modifications. At the same time, there are pressures from several directions to prioritize dam safety issues and find cost-effective solutions to problems because there seems to be an ever-decreasing amount of funds to address dam safety. In that regard, EPRI is sensitive to those cost considerations in a changing utility environment. Therefore, EPRI recently entered into discussions with utilities, regulatory agencies, federal agencies (dam owners), and others interested in dam safety issues. From those discussions, a number of research ideas were developed, which were distilled into three primary topics and several secondary topics of importance. The three primary areas of concern included: penstocks, tunnels, and gates; instrumentation and monitoring; and post-tensioned anchors. This report will provide a review of the workshop and insight on ideas for future dam safety R and D.

  1. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  2. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment.

  3. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment. PMID:2074075

  4. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour.

  5. [Identification of coupling relationship between urbanization and ecological environment in Jilin from entropy change perspective].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping-Jun; Xiu, Chun-Liang; Zhang, Tian-Jiao

    2014-03-01

    By using the entropy change equation of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy method and PSE model, this article made an analysis on coupling relationship between urbanization and ecological environment in Jilin Province from 2001 to 2011. In the study period, the urbanization development had been out of normal evolution track: The economic urbanization and space urbanization dominated the whole urbanization process, while population urbanization was neglected too seriously, with an apparent characteristic of extensive and inefficient input of resources (especially land resource). According to the levels of ecological environment on the basis of PSE model, not only the pressure index, sensitivity index and the elasticity index, but also the comprehensive index showed considerable growth with obvious stage characteristics: ascending-descending-ascending. The total entropy values of the urbanization were less than zero during the time, which meant an unstable rising curve. While the total trophy values of the ecological environment varied below and above zero, and 2003, 2006, 2010 and 2011 were the "turning points", reflecting the instability of the ecological environment. The coupling total entropy values between urbanization and ecological environment had the same characteristics with the ecological environment: the same "turning points" and shape of the curve, in which, the "turning points" corresponded to the type of antagonistic evolution pattern, while the rest of years responded to the type of coordination evolution pattern.

  6. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  7. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  8. Nanotribological and Nanomechanical Properties Changes of Tooth After Bleaching and Remineralization in Wet Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dandan; Gao, Shanshan; Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    Teeth bleaching cases had increased with people's desire for oral aesthetic; however, bleached teeth would still undertake chewing actions and remineralizing process in saliva. Nanotribological and nanomechanical properties are proper displays for dental performance of bleached teeth. The purpose of the research was to reveal the effect of bleaching and remineralization on the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of teeth in wet environment. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the bleaching products used: 12 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) (12HP group); 15 % carbamide peroxide (CP) (15CP group); 35 % CP (35CP group); and artificial saliva (control group). The nanotribological and nanomechanical property changes of tooth enamel after bleaching and remineralization were evaluated respectively by nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests in wet environment, imitating the wet oral environment. The morphology changes were evaluated by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After bleaching, 12HP group and 15CP group showed increased scratch depth with more pile ups on the scratch edges, decreased nanohardness, and corroded surface appearance. While the 35CP group showed an increase in nanoscratch depth, no change in nanohardness and surface appearance was observed. The control group showed no change in these measurements. After remineralization, the three bleaching groups showed decreased nanoscratch depth and no change of nanohardness compared with the bleached teeth. And the control group showed no changes in nanotribological and nanomechanical properties. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of the 12HP group and 15CP group were affected by bleaching, but the nanotribological properties recovered partly and the nanomechanical properties got no change after 1 week of remineralization. As for the 35CP group, the nanotribological properties were influenced and the nanomechanical properties were not

  9. Nanotribological and Nanomechanical Properties Changes of Tooth After Bleaching and Remineralization in Wet Environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Gao, Shanshan; Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    Teeth bleaching cases had increased with people's desire for oral aesthetic; however, bleached teeth would still undertake chewing actions and remineralizing process in saliva. Nanotribological and nanomechanical properties are proper displays for dental performance of bleached teeth. The purpose of the research was to reveal the effect of bleaching and remineralization on the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of teeth in wet environment. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the bleaching products used: 12 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) (12HP group); 15 % carbamide peroxide (CP) (15CP group); 35 % CP (35CP group); and artificial saliva (control group). The nanotribological and nanomechanical property changes of tooth enamel after bleaching and remineralization were evaluated respectively by nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests in wet environment, imitating the wet oral environment. The morphology changes were evaluated by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After bleaching, 12HP group and 15CP group showed increased scratch depth with more pile ups on the scratch edges, decreased nanohardness, and corroded surface appearance. While the 35CP group showed an increase in nanoscratch depth, no change in nanohardness and surface appearance was observed. The control group showed no change in these measurements. After remineralization, the three bleaching groups showed decreased nanoscratch depth and no change of nanohardness compared with the bleached teeth. And the control group showed no changes in nanotribological and nanomechanical properties. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of the 12HP group and 15CP group were affected by bleaching, but the nanotribological properties recovered partly and the nanomechanical properties got no change after 1 week of remineralization. As for the 35CP group, the nanotribological properties were influenced and the nanomechanical properties were

  10. Applied antineutrino physics workshop.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This workshop is the fourth one of a series that includes the Neutrino Geophysics Conference at Honolulu, Hawaii, which I attended in 2005. This workshop was organized by the Astro-Particle and Cosmology laboratory in the recently opened Condoret building of the University of Paris. More information, including copies of the presentations, on the workshop is available on the website: www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/AAP2007/. The workshop aims at opening neutrino physics to various fields such that it can be applied in geosciences, nuclear industry (reactor and spent fuel monitoring) and non-proliferation. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from Europe, USA, Asia and Brazil. The meeting was also attended by representatives of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The workshop also included a workshop dinner on board of a river boat sailing the Seine river.

  11. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  12. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  13. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability. PMID:26645076

  14. Assessing conservation relevance of organism-environment relations using predicted changes in response variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; White, Joseph D.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Cade, Brian S.; Zygo, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Organism–environment models are used widely in conservation. The degree to which they are useful for informing conservation decisions – the conservation relevance of these relations – is important because lack of relevance may lead to misapplication of scarce conservation resources or failure to resolve important conservation dilemmas. Even when models perform well based on model fit and predictive ability, conservation relevance of associations may not be clear without also knowing the magnitude and variability of predicted changes in response variables. 2. We introduce a method for evaluating the conservation relevance of organism–environment relations that employs confidence intervals for predicted changes in response variables. The confidence intervals are compared to a preselected magnitude of change that marks a threshold (trigger) for conservation action. To demonstrate the approach, we used a case study from the Chihuahuan Desert involving relations between avian richness and broad-scale patterns of shrubland. We considered relations for three winters and two spatial extents (1- and 2-km-radius areas) and compared predicted changes in richness to three thresholds (10%, 20% and 30% change). For each threshold, we examined 48 relations. 3. The method identified seven, four and zero conservation-relevant changes in mean richness for the 10%, 20% and 30% thresholds respectively. These changes were associated with major (20%) changes in shrubland cover, mean patch size, the coefficient of variation for patch size, or edge density but not with major changes in shrubland patch density. The relative rarity of conservation-relevant changes indicated that, overall, the relations had little practical value for informing conservation decisions about avian richness. 4. The approach we illustrate is appropriate for various response and predictor variables measured at any temporal or spatial scale. The method is broadly applicable across ecological

  15. Catchment Prediction In Changing Environments (CAPICHE): A collaborative experiment in an open water science laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the function of hydrological systems under near-stationary conditions faces a number of challenges due to incomplete system understanding, and uncertainty in models and measurements. However, due to changes in climate, land use/land cover, and water demand, the hydrological function of many catchments cannot be considered as stationary. Such changes make modelling catchment systems more difficult, as models need to account for non-stationary forcing and boundary conditions, which in turn can change internal catchment function, and the states and processes that dominate hydrological response. In addition, such models may need to be used to make predictions beyond a range of conditions for which they were originally calibrated. Despite these problems, deriving accurate hydrological predictions under changing conditions is increasingly important for future water resource and flood hazard assessment. Simulating catchments under changing conditions may require more complex distributed models in order to adequately represent spatial changes in boundary conditions (e.g. land cover change). However, the potential for complex models to address these issues cannot be realised in many places because of data problems, which may result from a lack of data, data access issues, and time-consuming problems in bringing diverse sources of data together and into a useable format. A greater understanding of the link between model complexity and data is required to make appropriate modelling choices. Virtual water science laboratories offer the ideal opportunity to explore the issues of model complexity and data availability in the context of predictions under changing environments because they: (1) provide an opportunity to share open data; (2) provide a platform to compare different models; (3) facilitate collaboration between different modelling research groups. This paper introduces a new collaborative experiment, conducted in an open virtual water science laboratory as

  16. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Folta, Sara C.; Nelson, Miriam E.; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Fenton, Mark; Junot, Bridgid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs) were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators) in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no) experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change. PMID:25525441

  17. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  18. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  19. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change. PMID

  20. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change. PMID:25161660

  1. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change.

  2. A novel algorithm for quick and continuous tracing the change of radon concentration in environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yanliang; Xiao, Detao

    2011-04-01

    Several measurements of the radon concentration are performed by RAD7 in the University of South China. We find that 30-40 min is needed for RAD7 for tracing the concentration of the standard radon chamber. There are two reasons. The first is that the sufficient time of air cycle is needed for the radon concentration in internal cell of RAD7 equal to that of the environment; and the second is that the sufficient decay time is needed for the 218Po concentration in internal cell of RAD7 equal to that of the radon. We used a zeroth order approximation to describe the evolution of the environment radon concentration, and obtained a novel algorithm for quick and continuous tracing the change of radon concentration. The corrected radon concentration obtained through this method is in good agreement with the reference value. This method can be applied to develop and improve the instruments for tracing the change of radon concentration quickly.

  3. Change in culture and language environment in childhood and its effect on adult life.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, E

    1989-09-01

    During the Second World War 70,000-75,000 Finnish children were sent to Sweden to protect them from the war. This article describes a group of children sent to Sweden from Kuopio County. The management of this group is discussed in light of their health, education and profession in adulthood. The change in culture and language environment did not affect mental and physical health; physical health is even better in the group sent to Sweden than in the control group. The change in language and culture environment affected education, and the professional level is lower than in the control group. Difficulties associated with language seem to be especially important when discussing scholastic skills, education and profession.

  4. Risk of natural environment changes after Space Shuttle deorbit decision. [storm hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to point out the risk of change of certain natural environment events that may be of concern in Space Shuttle landing analyses and deorbit decisions. These events are: precipitation, except light rain showers; thunderstorms with ceilings below 4000 ft; runway crosswinds above 20 knots peak at 33 ft; and thunderstorms in the descending glide path. Risk calculations showed that for deorbit decisions made one hour before landing, the maximum risk of change from favorable to unfavorable natural environment conditions is approximately 12 percent, the risk existing for only a few hours in midafternoon. Thunderstorms in the glide path account for more than three fourths of the total risk.

  5. Vibration-based structural health monitoring using output-only measurements under changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraemaeker, A.; Reynders, E.; De Roeck, G.; Kullaa, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of damage detection using output-only vibration measurements under changing environmental conditions. Two types of features are extracted from the measurements: eigenproperties of the structure using an automated stochastic subspace identification procedure and peak indicators computed on the Fourier transform of modal filters. The effects of environment are treated using factor analysis and damage is detected using statistical process control with the multivariate Shewhart- T control charts. A numerical example of a bridge subject to environmental changes and damage is presented. The sensitivity of the damage detection procedure to noise on the measurements, environment and damage is studied. An estimation of the computational time needed to extract the different features is given, and a table is provided to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of each of the features studied.

  6. Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei

    Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.

  7. 75 FR 29775 - Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling Workshop; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration... ``Food Labeling Workshop.'' This public workshop is intended to provide information about FDA...

  8. Heredity, environment, and personality change: evidence from the Texas Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Loehlin, J C; Horn, J M; Willerman, L

    1990-03-01

    Personality changes over time can be analyzed by the same twin and adoption methods used to analyze the genetic and environmental influences on a trait at a given time. Composite parent rating measures of Extra-version, Socialization, and Stability made on two occasions approximately 10 years apart on 229 adopted and 83 nonadopted children from the Texas Adoption Project were used to illustrate this point in two ways. The first was based on correlations among family members, from which it appeared that by far the chief source of individual change was neither the genes nor shared family environment, but individual experience (and/or measurement error). The second was via a path-analytic approach to changes in the means of adopted and natural children, from which it appeared that, nonetheless, the children were tending to change on the average in the direction of their genetic parents' personalities.

  9. Living in the now: physiological mechanisms to tolerate a rapidly changing environment.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gretchen E; Todgham, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide has resulted in scientific projections of changes in global temperatures, climate in general, and surface seawater chemistry. Although the consequences to ecosystems and communities of metazoans are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting expected changes in animal communities is an understanding of species' vulnerability to a changing environment. For example, environmental stressors may affect a particular species by driving that organism outside a tolerance window, by altering the costs of metabolic processes under the new conditions, or by changing patterns of development and reproduction. Implicit in all these examples is the foundational understanding of physiological mechanisms and how a particular environmental driver (e.g., temperature and ocean acidification) will be transduced through the animal to alter tolerances and performance. In this review, we highlight examples of mechanisms, focusing on those underlying physiological plasticity, that operate in contemporary organisms as a means to consider physiological responses that are available to organisms in the future. PMID:20148670

  10. Overview and synthesis of the international conference on mountain environments in changing climates

    SciTech Connect

    Beniston, M. )

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the activities of the AMS-cosponsored conference that was held in Davos, Switzerland, 11-16 October 1992. The objective of the Davos conference was to bring together scientists from a variety of disciplines, such as climatology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and economics, to discuss various aspects of mountain environments in changing climates. Sessions concerned: studies of mountain climates through observations and models; paleoclimates and paleoenvironments of the mountain world; mountain glaciers and hydrology in the changing climate; mountain ecosystems in the context of global change and; socioeconomic aspects and decision making for mountains facing abrupt climate change. A summary of the keynote address is included in this review. 1 ref.

  11. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear. PMID:18346077

  12. Changes in Marine Environments and Responses of Ecosystem Dynamics in the East Asian Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Ju, Se-Jong

    2014-02-01

    At an international symposium on the marine systems of the Pacific region of East Asia, scientists concluded that changes in the ocean environment are having a significant effect on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems and, consequently, on humans and the food supply. The meeting, the 6th China-Japan-Korea (CJK) Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research symposium, was held in Japan at the University of Tokyo.

  13. Joint probability analysis of extreme precipitation and storm tide in a coastal city under changing environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Ma, Chao; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding resulting from extreme meteorological events has occurred more frequently and drawn great attention in recent years in China. In coastal areas, extreme precipitation and storm tide are both inducing factors of flooding and therefore their joint probability would be critical to determine the flooding risk. The impact of storm tide or changing environment on flooding is ignored or underestimated in the design of drainage systems of today in coastal areas in China. This paper investigates the joint probability of extreme precipitation and storm tide and its change using copula-based models in Fuzhou City. The change point at the year of 1984 detected by Mann-Kendall and Pettitt's tests divides the extreme precipitation series into two subsequences. For each subsequence the probability of the joint behavior of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated by the optimal copula. Results show that the joint probability has increased by more than 300% on average after 1984 (α = 0.05). The design joint return period (RP) of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated to propose a design standard for future flooding preparedness. For a combination of extreme precipitation and storm tide, the design joint RP has become smaller than before. It implies that flooding would happen more often after 1984, which corresponds with the observation. The study would facilitate understanding the change of flood risk and proposing the adaption measures for coastal areas under a changing environment.

  14. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment.

  15. Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; Hardouin, E A; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

    2013-03-01

    Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment.

  16. Ants adjust their pheromone deposition to a changing environment and their probability of making errors.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Animals must contend with an ever-changing environment. Social animals, especially eusocial insects such as ants and bees, rely heavily on communication for their success. However, in a changing environment, communicated information can become rapidly outdated. This is a particular problem for pheromone trail using ants, as once deposited pheromones cannot be removed. Here, we study the response of ant foragers to an environmental change. Ants were trained to one feeder location, and the feeder was then moved to a different location. We found that ants responded to an environmental change by strongly upregulating pheromone deposition immediately after experiencing the change. This may help maintain the colony's foraging flexibility, and allow multiple food locations to be exploited simultaneously. Our treatment also caused uncertainty in the foragers, by making their memories less reliable. Ants which had made an error but eventually found the food source upregulated pheromone deposition when returning to the nest. Intriguingly, ants on their way towards the food source downregulated pheromone deposition if they were going to make an error. This may suggest that individual ants can measure the reliability of their own memories and respond appropriately.

  17. 3. Neural changes in different gravity and ecophysiological environments - A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neural changes or neuronal plasticity occur after and during different stimulations and inputs in general. Gravity is one major input to the brain transferred from the vestibular system. However, often also direct effects of gravity on the cellular level are discussed. Our group was investigating the influence of different gravity environments on a large variety of neuronal enzymes in the developing fish brain. Long-term space travel or bases on Moon and Mars will have to deal not only with neural changes based on the different gravity environment, but also with potential negative or even toxic changes in the respective life support system. Our goal is now to identify reported enzyme activity changes in the brain based for example on potential toxic drugs or endocrine disruptors in combination with gravity induced changes. In this paper a survey will be undertaken discussing recent results obtained in ecotoxicology, gravitational biology combined with new data from our group regarding potential differences in brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of medaka and zebrafish.

  18. Ants adjust their pheromone deposition to a changing environment and their probability of making errors.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Animals must contend with an ever-changing environment. Social animals, especially eusocial insects such as ants and bees, rely heavily on communication for their success. However, in a changing environment, communicated information can become rapidly outdated. This is a particular problem for pheromone trail using ants, as once deposited pheromones cannot be removed. Here, we study the response of ant foragers to an environmental change. Ants were trained to one feeder location, and the feeder was then moved to a different location. We found that ants responded to an environmental change by strongly upregulating pheromone deposition immediately after experiencing the change. This may help maintain the colony's foraging flexibility, and allow multiple food locations to be exploited simultaneously. Our treatment also caused uncertainty in the foragers, by making their memories less reliable. Ants which had made an error but eventually found the food source upregulated pheromone deposition when returning to the nest. Intriguingly, ants on their way towards the food source downregulated pheromone deposition if they were going to make an error. This may suggest that individual ants can measure the reliability of their own memories and respond appropriately. PMID:26063845

  19. The built environment, climate change, and health: opportunities for co-benefits.

    PubMed

    Younger, Margalit; Morrow-Almeida, Heather R; Vindigni, Stephen M; Dannenberg, Andrew L

    2008-11-01

    The earth's climate is changing, due largely to greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity. These human-generated gases derive in part from aspects of the built environment such as transportation systems and infrastructure, building construction and operation, and land-use planning. Transportation, the largest end-use consumer of energy, affects human health directly through air pollution and subsequent respiratory effects, as well as indirectly through physical activity behavior. Buildings contribute to climate change, influence transportation, and affect health through the materials utilized, decisions about sites, electricity and water usage, and landscape surroundings. Land use, forestry, and agriculture also contribute to climate change and affect health by increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, shaping the infrastructures for both transportation and buildings, and affecting access to green spaces. Vulnerable populations are disproportionately affected with regard to transportation, buildings, and land use, and are most at risk for experiencing the effects of climate change. Working across sectors to incorporate a health promotion approach in the design and development of built environment components may mitigate climate change, promote adaptation, and improve public health.

  20. Identifying changing aviation threat environments within an adaptive Homeland Security Advisory System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian J; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2012-02-01

    A critical component of aviation security consists of screening passengers and baggage to protect airports and aircraft from terrorist threats. Advancements in screening device technology have increased the ability to detect these threats; however, specifying the operational configurations of these devices in response to changes in the threat environment can become difficult. This article proposes to use Fisher information as a statistical measure for detecting changes in the threat environment. The perceived risk of passengers, according to prescreening information and behavior analysis, is analyzed as the passengers sequentially enter the security checkpoint. The alarm responses from the devices used to detect threats are also analyzed to monitor significant changes in the frequency of threat items uncovered. The key results are that this information-based measure can be used within the Homeland Security Advisory System to indicate changes in threat conditions in real time, and provide the flexibility of security screening detection devices to responsively and automatically adapt operational configurations to these changing threat conditions. PMID:21801188

  1. Book Review: Late Cenozoic Climate Change in Asia: Loess, Monsoon and Monsoon-arid Environment Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Loess-Paleosol deposits drape >500,000 km2 of eastern China, spanning environments from the humid, monsoon-influenced regions near the coast to the arid, westerlies-dominated regions inland. Sections, up to hundreds of meters thick, are exposed in deeply incised river valleys and can be accessed as well by drilling. Combined, the high sedimentation rates and extensive geographic coverage make these sections unique among global terrestrial sediment archives. The Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, and the arid interior regions to the northwest, record diverse aspects of geologic and environmental change ranging from the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau (106 year time scale) through glacial-interglacial scale changes in global ice volume and greenhouse gasses (105 year time scale) on down through the orbital (104 years) to millennial and centennial scale events (103-102 year) relevant to the underpinnings of human interactions with changing environmental pressures. 'Late Cenozoic Climate Chang in Asia: Loess, Monsoon and Monsoon-arid Environment Evolution' is a timely contribution that synthesizes findings derived from the extensive work in these areas, places the findings in the broader context of global climate change and helps to define avenues for future research.

  2. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment. PMID:27093125

  3. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.; Auch, R.F.; Karstensen, K.A.; Sayler, K.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km ?? 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human-environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors. ?? 2011.

  4. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km x 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  5. Porter's generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance: a longitudinal study of changing strategies in the hospital industry.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, B T; Marlin, D; Hoffman, J J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Changes in generic strategies in response to discontinuous environments have been relatively ignored in the management literature. This study reports an examination of the relationships between Porter's (1980) generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance. DATA SOURCES. Archival data for 1984 and 1988 were collected for 172 acute care hospitals in Florida in order to test these relationships. STUDY DESIGN. To examine fully the performance impact of changes in strategy in a discontinuous environment, a longitudinal research design that identified a firm's strategy at two points in time, 1984 and 1988, was used. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Results indicate that firms with a proper strategy environment fit performed the highest, firms that did not change their strategy had no change in performance, and firms that changed their strategy toward a proper strategy environment showed an increase in performance. CONCLUSION. Findings support the notion that hospitals with appropriate strategy-environment combinations will exhibit higher performance. PMID:8270424

  6. Origins of evolution: non-acquired characters dominates over acquired characters in changing environment.

    PubMed

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2012-07-01

    Natural Selection is so ubiquitous that we never wonder how it appeared as the evolution rule driving Life. We usually wonder how Life appeared, and seldom do we make an explicit distinction between Life and natural selection. Here, we apply the evolution concept commonly used for studying Life to evolution itself. More precisely, we developed two models aiming at selecting among different evolution rules competing for their supremacy. We explored competition between acquired (AQ) versus non-acquired (NAQ) character inheritance. The first model is parsimonious and non-spatial, in order to understand relationships between environmental forcings and rule selection. The second model is spatially explicit and studies the adaptation differences between AQ and NAQ populations. We established that NAQ evolution rule is dominating in case of changing environment. Furthermore, we observed that a more adapted population better fits its environmental constraints, but fails in rapidly changing environments. NAQ principle and less adapted populations indeed act as a reservoir of traits that helps populations to survive in rapidly changing environments, such as the ones that probably Life experienced at its origins. Although perfectible, our modeling approaches will certainly help us to improve our understanding of origins of Life and Evolution, on Earth or elsewhere.

  7. Population-environment drivers of H5N1 avian influenza molecular change in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Nguyen, Tung; Todd Jobe, R; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    This study identifies population and environment drivers of genetic change in H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Vietnam using a landscape genetics approach. While prior work has examined how combinations of local-level environmental variables influence H5N1 occurrence, this research expands the analysis to the complex genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses. A dataset of 125 highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007 is used to explore which population and environment variables are correlated with increased genetic change among viruses. Results from non-parametric multidimensional scaling and regression analyses indicate that variables relating to both the environmental and social ecology of humans and birds in Vietnam interact to affect the genetic character of viruses. These findings suggest that it is a combination of suitable environments for species mixing, the presence of high numbers of potential hosts, and in particular the temporal characteristics of viral occurrence, that drive genetic change among H5N1 AIV in Vietnam. PMID:22652510

  8. Sacred Architecture as a Narrative for Defining Religion, Culture and Social and Educational Change: A Proposal for a Series of Workshops for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, James J.

    Sacred architecture provides a compelling narrative for explaining the ways religious belief and practice contribute to the construction of self identity and of lived cultural values in all societies. This paper proposes a collaborative and ethnographic research workshop series focused on the intersections among culture, religious meaning and…

  9. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  10. Changes in school environments with implementation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F

    2010-02-01

    Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P changes were noted in foods and beverages offered in the cafeteria, in classrooms, and at school events, as well as in fund-raising and physical activity practices. A significant number of school districts have modified physical education requirements for elementary schools and developed policies prohibiting the use of physical activity as a punishment. We conclude that Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is associated with a number of changes in school environments and policies, resulting from both statewide and local initiatives spawned by the Act. PMID:20107462

  11. Sheltered workshops: financial and philosophical liabilities.

    PubMed

    Schuster, J W

    1990-08-01

    Some of the economic and philosophical reasons why sheltered workshops remain liabilities within the field of special education were discussed. Low wage rates, the unavailability of work, changing industrial forecasts for blue collar employment, financial dependence, tax returns, segregation, and normalization issues, along with other factors, were examined to provide support for the assertion that sheltered workshops are not providing clients with appropriate work experiences. PMID:2215244

  12. Measuring Change in Arctic Coastal Environments Using Repeat Aerial Photography and SfM Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Nolan, M.; Kinsman, N.; Richmond, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial- and ground-based photography can provide valuable information about coastal environments in space and time including the presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics and morphology, high-water indicators produced during storm surge events, bluff failure mechanisms, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry and construction of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms allow for improved mapping and analysis of coastal change in 3-dimensions at a relatively low cost. For example, analyses can include delineating shorelines based on a tidal datum, mapping inundation extent based on a known or modeled flood level, or quantifying volumetric change. Repeat aerial surveys and associated orthophoto and DEM construction serve as a powerful monitoring tool that can provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change. Along the extensive and remote coast of Alaska, high-quality imagery and elevation data are rare, in part because traditional methods of acquiring the data are cost prohibitive. Here we evaluate the usefulness of data sets acquired using small aircraft and SfM techniques for evaluating seasonal change to the beach and permafrost bluffs at Barter Island, Alaska during the summer of 2014. Considerable bluff retreat and morphological change were measured along a 2.7 km stretch of coast with net mean volume loss of approximately 28,000 ± 540 m3 between the top and the base of the bluffs. The pattern of change was dominantly landward retreat of the top of the bluffs and removal of the debris fan at the base of the bluffs. Barrier-spit overwash and migration and deposition of storm berms were also observed and accurately measured. Our results suggest that this is a cost-effective method for mapping coastal change in remote environments leading to a similar data acquisition effort for the State of Alaska, primarily for shoreline and coastal hazard mapping purposes

  13. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  14. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  15. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?

    PubMed Central

    Daughton, C G; Ternes, T A

    1999-01-01

    During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chemicals, however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chemicals receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via a number of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change--change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecologic succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concentrations (ng-microg/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment

  16. Evaluation of the Career Planning Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.W.

    1986-04-01

    People who apply to participate in this workshop appear to be genuinely interested in personal development. Participants reported that they were not very happy with several aspects of their jobs prior to the workshop. Predominant personality characteristics of the participants were shyness, communication anxiety, reserved style, cautiousness, moodiness, energetic, hard-working and analytical minded. Participants were favorably impressed with the workshop. One of the most potent ways that the workshop impacts participants is through improved self understanding and enhanced self-esteem. Many people did change jobs following the workshop. Of those who did not actually change jobs, almost half reported that they had modified their present job to achieve a better person-job fit. Participants did not report many changes in their routine behavior although they kept the supervisor more informed of their job activity. Current job satisfaction is good among the participants. Although the workshop is fairly expensive to provide, the long range benefits in terms of enhanced levels of performance far outweigh the costs.

  17. Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. (Editor); Kasting, J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, 26-28 Jul. 1993, in Breckenridge, CO. The following topics are covered: the Martian water cycle; Martian paleoclimatology; CO2/CH4 atmosphere on early Mars; Noachian hydrology; early Martian environment; Martian weathering; nitrogen isotope ratios; CO2 evolution on Mars; and climate change.

  18. Covey Workshops in the Mizzou Campus Facilities' Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmle, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the transformation of leadership in today's work environment and the use of the Stephen Covey's "Seven Habits Workshop" to help train members within facility management operations. The successful use of the workshop at the University of Missouri (Columbia) is described. (GR)

  19. Life-Writing: Writing Workshops and Outreach Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida; Wagner, Linda

    The ongoing project described in this paper seeks to develop an economical, effective means through which communities can establish writing workshops that will provide the aged with constructive environments for life review. It is aimed at identifying the methods and materials useful in a workshop setting for stimulating reminiscence and personal…

  20. NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to explore the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware and to assess user requirements and needs for a laser light scattering instrument in a reduced gravity environment. The workshop addressed experimental needs and stressed hardware development.

  1. Linking Job Performers to Their Work Processes: A Workshop Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosal, Kathy Z.

    1994-01-01

    Provides directions for conducting a workshop providing technical training in a large organization that links job performances to work processes. Organizational levels of performance are discussed; relationship maps and process maps are explained; and an example of a workshop for a software maintenance environment is presented. (two references)…

  2. Energy and Environment as Related to Chemistry Teaching. Proceeding of the UNESCO International Workshop/Symposium (Berkeley, California, December 1-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Board of Regents.

    The proceedings of a program on teaching chemistry through energy and the environment that included plenary lectures, country and commission reports, introductions to new programs and materials, and an experimental approach to curriculum development across national boundaries via the production of an instruction unit are provided. The workshop…

  3. Adapting to a changing environment: non-obvious thresholds in multi-scale systems.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Clare; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such 'non-adiabatic' processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon-an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time scales, we derive existence conditions that show such thresholds to be generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes and adiabatic switching in technology. PMID:25294963

  4. Adapting to a changing environment: non-obvious thresholds in multi-scale systems

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, Clare; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such ‘non-adiabatic’ processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon—an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time scales, we derive existence conditions that show such thresholds to be generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes and adiabatic switching in technology. PMID:25294963

  5. Planning safer suburbs: do changes in the built environment influence residents' perceptions of crime risk?

    PubMed

    Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence has reiterated the negative impacts that crime and perceptions of insecurity can have on the health and wellbeing of local residents. Strategies that reduce residents' perceived crime risk may contribute to improved health outcomes; however interventions require a better understanding of the neighbourhood influences on residents perceptions of crime and safety. We examined the impact of changes in the objective built environment following relocation on changes in residents' perceived crime risk for participants in a longitudinal study of people moving to new neighbourhoods in Perth, Western Australia (n = 1159). They completed a questionnaire before moving to their new neighbourhood, and again 36 months after relocation. Individual-level objective environmental measures were generated at both time points using Geographic Information Systems, focussing on the characteristics that comprise a 'walkable neighbourhood'. Linear regression models examined the influence of objective environmental changes between the two environments on perceived crime risk, with progressive adjustment for other change variables (i.e., perceptions of the physical and social environment, reported crime). We found that increases in the proportion of land allocated to shopping/retail land-uses increased residents' perceived crime risk (β = 11.875, p = 0.001), and this relationship remained constant, despite controlling for other influences on perceived crime risk (β = 9.140, p = 0.004). The findings highlight an important paradox: that the neighbourhood characteristics known to enhance one outcome, such as walking, may negatively impact another. In this instance, the 'strangers' that retail destinations attract to a neighbourhood may be interpreted by locals as a threat to safety. Thus, in areas with more retail destinations, it is vital that other environmental strategies be employed to balance any negative effects that retail may have on residents' perceptions of

  6. Solar education project workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.

    1980-10-31

    A summary of proceedings of the Solar Education Project Workshop is presented. The workshop had as its focus the dissemination of curriculum materials developed by the Solar Energy Project of the New York State Department of Education under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. It includes, in addition to presentations by speakers and workshop leaders, specific comments from participants regarding materials available and energy-related activities underway in their respective states and suggested strategies from them for ongoing dissemination efforts.

  7. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  8. Trajectories of collaborative scientific conceptual change: Middle school students learning about ecosystems in a CSCL environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei

    The dissertation aims to achieve two goals. First, it attempts to establish a new theoretical framework---the collaborative scientific conceptual change model, which explicitly attends to social factor and epistemic practices of science, to understand conceptual change. Second, it report the findings of a classroom study to investigate how to apply this theoretical framework to examine the trajectories of collaborative scientific conceptual change in a CSCL environment and provide pedagogical implications. Two simulations were designed to help students make connections between the macroscopic substances and the aperceptual microscopic entities and underlying processes. The reported study was focused on analyzing the aggregated data from all participants and the video and audio data from twenty focal groups' collaborative activities and the process of their conceptual development in two classroom settings. Mixed quantitative and qualitative analyses were applied to analyze the video/audio data. The results found that, overall participants showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest on system understanding. Group and teacher effect as well as group variability were detected in both students' posttest performance and their collaborative activities, and variability emerged in group interaction. Multiple data analyses found that attributes of collaborative discourse and epistemic practices made a difference in student learning. Generating warranted claims in discourse as well as the predicting, coordinating theory-evidence, and modifying knowledge in epistemic practices had an impact on student's conceptual understanding. However, modifying knowledge was found negatively related to students' learning effect. The case studies show how groups differed in using the computer tools as a medium to conduct collaborative discourse and epistemic practices. Only with certain combination of discourse features and epistemic practices can the group interaction lead to

  9. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  10. The demography of a metapopulation in an environment changing in time and space.

    PubMed

    Blanquart, François

    2014-06-01

    The persistence of populations living in heterogeneous environments crucially depends on the interaction between changes of the environment in space and time, and the way individuals move between locations. Here an approximation for the multiplicative growth rate of a metapopulation is derived, as a function of the properties of the spatial heterogeneity and temporal change in local habitat quality, and the dispersal pattern. This analysis reveals that the growth rate depends on (i) the geometric mean of the average growth rate in the metapopulation, (ii) whether individuals tend to be more numerous in high quality demes and (iii) temporal fluctuations in the spatial distribution of individuals. The two latter effects had been previously identified but mostly in simulation studies. Here I identify them in a unified analytical framework which helps clarifying previous studies. This analysis reveals that the shape of temporal variability interacts with the dispersal rate to determine the growth of the metapopulation, and in particular that the effects of dispersal depend on the level of temporal correlation of the environment.

  11. Improving Productivity in Dietary Departments Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Barbara

    Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to explain how productivity can be achieved through the practical use of performance standards and behavior changes. Another purpose is to enable participants to make changes by using methods that involve employees and thereby minimize employee resistance to change.…

  12. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  13. The possibility of SGLI/GCOM-C for global environment change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Hori, M.; Murakami, H.; Kikuchi, N.

    2006-09-01

    The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that many collectiveobservations gave a aspect of a global warming and other changes in the climate system. It is very important to understand thisprocess accurately, and to construct the model by whom an environmental change is accurately forecast. Future earthobservation using satellite data should monitor global climate change, and should contribute to social benefits. Especially, human activities has given the big impacts to earth environment. This is a very complex affair, and nature itself also impacts the clouds,namely the seasonal variations. JAXA (former NASDA) has the plan of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) formonitoring of global environmental change. SGLI (Second Generation GLI) onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite, which is one of this mission, is an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR. SGLI can provide the various high accuracy products of aerosol, cloud information, various biophysical parameters (Biomass, Land Cover, Albedo, NPP, Water Stressed Vegetation, LST, etc.), coastal information (CDOM, SS, PAR, CHL, SST, etc.), and cryospheric information (Albedo, Snow/Ice Cover, NDII, Sea ice type, Snow Grain Size, NDSI, Snow Surface Temperature, etc.). This paper shows the introduction of the unique aspects and characteristics of the next generation satellite sensor, SGLI/GCOM-C, and shows the preliminary research for this sensor.

  14. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective-fishing environments.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Susumu; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Kawajiri, Toshifumi; Goshima, Seiji

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective harvesting is acknowledged as a serious concern in efforts to conserve wild animal populations. In fisheries, most studies have focused on gradual and directional changes in the life-history traits of target species. While such changes represent the ultimate response of harvested animals, it is also well known that the life history of target species plastically alters with harvesting. However, research on the adaptive significance of these types of condition-dependent changes has been limited. 2. We explored the adaptive significance of annual changes in the age at sex-change of the protandrous (male-first) hermaphroditic shrimp and examined how selective harvesting affects life-history variation, by conducting field observations across 13 years and a controlled laboratory experiment. In addition, we considered whether plastic responses by the shrimp would be favourable, negligible or negative with respect to the conservation of fishery resources. 3. The age at sex-change and the population structure of the shrimp fluctuated between years during the study period. The results of the field observations and laboratory experiment both indicated that the shrimp could plastically change the timing of sex-change in accordance with the age structure of the population. These findings provide the first concrete evidence of adult sex ratio adjustment by pandalid shrimp, a group that has been treated as a model in the sex allocation theory. 4. The sex ratio adjustment by the shrimp did not always seem to be sufficient, however, as the supplement of females is restricted by their annual somatic growth rate. In addition, adjusted sex ratios are further skewed by the unintentional female-selectivity of fishing activity prior to the breeding season, indicating that the occurrence of males that have postponed sex-change causes sex ratio adjustment to become unfavourable. 5. We conclude that the plastic responses of harvested animals in selective fishing environments

  15. Advanced Training Technologies and Learning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Training Technologies and Learning Environments held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 9-10, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees were from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objective of the workshop was to assess the status and effectiveness of different advanced training technologies and learning environments.

  16. Fermilab Cryogenic Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W. V.

    1980-06-18

    A workshop to discuss recent pressing problems experienced in the operation of helium refrigerators at the national laboratories was proposed by DOE. Early in 1980 it was decided that the workshop should be held at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). The reasoning behind the selection of Fermilab included the proposed initial tests of the Central Liquefier, the recently experienced problems with refrigeration systems at Fermilab, and the fact that a previous workshop had been held at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, which, at present, would be the other logical choice for the workshop.

  17. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached.

  18. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J. (Compiler); Lee, W. Y. (Compiler); Goedjen, J. G. (Compiler); Dapkunas, S. J. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the agenda and presentation abstracts for the Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, sponsored by NASA, DOE, and NIST. The workshop covered thermal barrier coating (TBC) issues related to applications, processing, properties, and modeling. The intent of the workshop was to highlight the state of knowledge on TBC's and to identify critical gaps in knowledge that may hinder TBC use in advanced applications. The workshop goals were achieved through presentations by 22 speakers representing industry, academia, and government as well as through extensive discussion periods.

  19. CARE 3 User's Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A user's workshop for CARE 3, a reliability assessment tool designed and developed especially for the evaluation of high reliability fault tolerant digital systems, was held at NASA Langley Research Center on October 6 to 7, 1987. The main purpose of the workshop was to assess the evolutionary status of CARE 3. The activities of the workshop are documented and papers are included by user's of CARE 3 and NASA. Features and limitations of CARE 3 and comparisons to other tools are presented. The conclusions to a workshop questionaire are also discussed.

  20. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., standards, and practices designed to safeguard personnel, operations, and the environment. DATES: The... practices designed to safeguard personnel, operations and the environment. This workshop will assist...

  1. Pancreatic B-cell behaviour after changing the natural environment of sand rats (Psammomys obesus.

    PubMed

    Hahn, H J; Jutzi, E; Köhler, E; Schäfer, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the blood glucose increase during the capitivity sand rats born in the desert were classified as normals, protodiabetics and diabetics, indicating a different adaptation to the new environment within a definite period. Isolated islets of animals, which did not develop a hyperglycemia, enhanced their insulin content during the adaptation period. The absolute insulin secretion rates in response to 16.5 mM glucose were rather similar between the three investigated groups and not modified by the insulin as well as glucagon content of pancreatic islets. But, since islets of hyperglycemic sand rats could not increase the insulin content, a significantly enhanced fractional secretion (as % of the content) could be observed. The results let us assume that the B-cell reaction during the adaptation period can be modified by further factors additionally to the changed environment. PMID:795642

  2. Evolution of regulatory networks towards adaptability and stability in a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Diverse biological networks exhibit universal features distinguished from those of random networks, calling much attention to their origins and implications. Here we propose a minimal evolution model of Boolean regulatory networks, which evolve by selectively rewiring links towards enhancing adaptability to a changing environment and stability against dynamical perturbations. We find that sparse and heterogeneous connectivity patterns emerge, which show qualitative agreement with real transcriptional regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The characteristic scaling behavior of stability reflects the balance between robustness and flexibility. The scaling of fluctuation in the perturbation spread shows a dynamic crossover, which is analyzed by investigating separately the stochasticity of internal dynamics and the network structure differences depending on the evolution pathways. Our study delineates how the ambivalent pressure of evolution shapes biological networks, which can be helpful for studying general complex systems interacting with environments.

  3. Convective response to changes in the thermodynamic environment in idealized weak temperature gradient simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, Sharon L.; Herman, Michael J.; Sentić, Stipo

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the response of convection to idealized perturbations in the thermodynamic environment in simulations which parameterize the large-scale circulations using the weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation. The perturbations include a combination of modifying the environmental moisture and atmospheric stability via imposing anomalies in reference moisture and temperature profiles. We find that changes in atmospheric stability strongly influence the character of convection by drastically modifying the vertical motion profile, whereas changes to atmospheric moisture modulate the intensity of precipitation produced by the convection, but do not qualitatively change the shape of the vertical motion profile. An important question is how does horizontal moisture advection into the domain affect convection? We test several different parameterizations of this process; these include lateral entrainment by circulations induced by enforcing WTG, a moisture relaxation which parameterizes the advection of moisture by large-scale nondivergent circulations, and control simulations in which both of these mechanisms are turned off so horizontal advection is assumed negligible compared to vertical advection. Interestingly, the most significant differences resulting from the choice of horizontal moisture advection scheme appear in environmental conditions which suppress-rather than support-the development of deep tropical convection. In this case, lateral entrainment related to WTG circulations is the only parameterization which results in extreme drying of the troposphere in environments which suppress convection. Consequently, this is the only parameterization which permits multiple equilibria—dry or precipitating steady states—in convection.

  4. Risk Management Techniques and Practice Workshop Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, T; Zosel, M

    2008-12-02

    vendor technical or business problems. HPC, by its very nature, is an exercise in multi-level risk management. Every aspect of stewarding HPCCs into the petascale era, from identification of the program drivers to the details of procurement actions and simulation environment component deployments, represents unprecedented challenges and requires effective risk management. The fundamental purpose of this workshop was to go beyond risk management processes as such and learn how to weave effective risk management practices, techniques, and methods into all aspects of migrating HPCCs into the next generation of leadership computing systems. This workshop was a follow-on to the Petascale System Integration Workshop hosted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)/NERSC last year. It was intended to leverage and extend the risk management experience of the participants by looking for common best practices and unique processes that have been especially successful. This workshop assessed the effectiveness of tools and techniques that are or could be helpful in HPCC risk management, with a special emphasis on how practice meets process. As the saying goes: 'In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is'. Finally, the workshop brought together a network of experts who shared information as technology moves into the petascale era and beyond.

  5. Does use of a virtual environment change reaching while standing in patients with traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although numerous virtual reality applications have been developed for sensorimotor retraining in neurologically impaired individuals, it is unclear whether the virtual environment (VE) changes motor performance, especially in patients with brain injuries. To address this question, the movement characteristics of forward arm reaches during standing were compared in physical and virtual environments, presented at different viewing angles. Methods Fifteen patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals performed virtual reaches in a computer-generated courtyard with a flower-topped hedge. The hedge was projected on a flat screen and viewed in 3D format in 1 of 3 angles: 10° above horizon (resembling a real-world viewing angle), 50° above horizon, or 90° above horizon (directly overhead). Participants were instructed to reach with their dominant hand avatar and to touch the farthest flower possible without losing their balance or stepping. Virtual reaches were compared with reaches-to-point to a target in an equivalent physical environment. A set of kinematic parameters was used. Results Reaches by patients with TBI were characterized by shorter distances, lower peak velocities, and smaller postural displacements than reaches by control individuals. All participants reached ~9% farther in the VE presented at a 50° angle than they did in the physical environment. Arm displacement in the more natural 10° angle VE was reduced by the same 9-10% compared to physical reaches. Virtual reaches had smaller velocity peaks and took longer than physical reaches. Conclusion The results suggest that visual perception in the VE differs from real-world perception and the performance of functional tasks (e.g., reaching while standing) can be changed in TBI patients, depending on the viewing angle. Accordingly, the viewing angle is a critical parameter that should be adjusted carefully to achieve maximal therapeutic effect

  6. Interstellar environment change: effects on heliospheric structure, galactic cosmic ray modulation and cosmogenic isotope production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. R.; Florinski, V.; Zank, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity levels in the inner heliosphere over the past million years, preserved in cosmogenic isotope records, display significant variability on virtually all timescales. Here we focus on the variability caused by changes in the interstellar environment of the Sun as it encounters interstellar clouds or low-density regions (supernova bubbles) during its journey through the Galaxy. Three possible environments are compared and the resulting structure of the heliosphere investigated: the tenuous fully ionized Local Bubble, the Local Interstellar Cloud, and a dense cold cloud of pure atomic hydrogen. Using several plausible models of interplanetary turbulence evolution and particle diffusion we investigate the dependence of the cosmic-ray mean free paths and intensities on the size of the modulation region and the pickup ion (PUI) intensities. We show that, while denser clouds usually yield smaller diffusion coefficients due to enhanced PUI turbulence, GCR radiation levels in the inner heliosphere are actually increased due to a reduction in the size of the modulation region. Our results indicate that GCR intensities at Earth can vary by a factor 2 to 7 between 300 MeV and 1 GeV compared to the present intensity. Interestingly, most of the changes are due to a variation in the thickness of the modulation wall in the inner heliosheath. Finally, we calculate cosmogenic isotope production rates in the Earth's atmosphere for the three environments and show that Beryllium-10 concentration could vary between 25% declines in low-density environments to increases in excess of 300% in high density interstellar clouds.

  7. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The built environment consists of components that have been made by humans at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. The impacts of climate change on the built environment, therefore, may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, there may be feedback mechanisms wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Besides having a host of such interactions, the impacts of climate change on urban areas will likely have thresholds, below which effects are incidental or of mild consequence, but beyond which the effects quickly become major. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. Moreover, urban areas may be affected by changes in daily and seasonal high or low temperatures or precipitation, which may have a much more prolonged impact than the direct effect of these events. Thus, the cumulative impacts of multiple events may be more severe than those of any single event. Primary hazards include sea level rise and coastal storms, heat waves, intense precipitation, drought, extreme wind events, urban heat islands, and secondary air pollutants, and cold air events including frozen precipitation. Indicators need to be developed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities. Overall, indicators of climate change on the built environment

  8. Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; Hardouin, E A; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

    2013-03-01

    Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment. PMID:23331296

  9. LLNL Workshop on TEM of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.

    1996-09-10

    On Sept. 10, 1996, LLNL hosted a workshop aimed at answering the question: Is it possible to carry out transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on plutonium metal in an electron microscope located outside the LLNL plutonium facility. The workshop focused on evaluation of a proposed plan for Pu microscopy both from a technical and environment, health, and safety point of view. After review and modification of the plan, workshop participants unanimously concluded that: (1) the technical plan is sound, (2) this technical plan, including a proposal for a new TEM, provides significant improvements and unique capabilities compared with the effort at LANL and is therefore complementary, (3) there is no significant environment, health, and safety obstacle to this plan.

  10. Pressures on the marine environment and the changing climate of ocean biogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rees, Andrew P

    2012-12-13

    The oceans are under pressure from human activities. Following 250 years of industrial activity, effects are being seen at the cellular through to regional and global scales. The change in atmospheric CO(2) from 280 ppm in pre-industrial times to 392 ppm in 2011 has contributed to the warming of the upper 700 m of the ocean by approximately 0.1°C between 1961 and 2003, to changes in sea water chemistry, which include a pH decrease of approximately 0.1, and to significant decreases in the sea water oxygen content. In parallel with these changes, the human population has been introducing an ever-increasing level of nutrients into coastal waters, which leads to eutrophication, and by 2008 had resulted in 245,000 km(2) of severely oxygen-depleted waters throughout the world. These changes are set to continue for the foreseeable future, with atmospheric CO(2) predicted to reach 430 ppm by 2030 and 750 ppm by 2100. The cycling of biogeochemical elements has proved sensitive to each of these effects, and it is proposed that synergy between stressors may compound this further. The challenge, within the next few decades, for the marine science community, is to elucidate the scope and extent that biological processes can adapt or acclimatize to a changing chemical and physical marine environment. PMID:23129714

  11. Climate change and health in the urban environment: adaptation opportunities in Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary Jane; Capon, Anthony Guy; Barnett, Guy Bruce; Beaty, R Matthew; Burton, Anthony John

    2011-03-01

    Urban populations are growing rapidly throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Cities are vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change because of their concentration of people and infrastructure, the physical (geographical, material, and structural) attributes of the built environment, and the ecological interdependence with the urban ecosystem. Australia is one of the most highly urbanized countries in the region and its already variable climate is set to become hotter and drier with climate change. Climate change in Australia is expected to increase morbidity and mortality from thermal stress, bacterial gastroenteritis, vector-borne disease, air pollution, flooding, and bushfires. The cost and availability of fresh water, food, and energy will also likely be affected. The more vulnerable urban populations, including the elderly, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and those with underlying chronic disease, will be most affected. Adaptation strategies need to address this underlying burden of disease and inequity as well as implement broad structural changes to building codes and urban design, and infrastructure capacity. In doing so, cities provide opportunities to realize "co-benefits" for health (eg, from increased levels of physical activity and improved air quality). With evidence that climate change is underway, the need for cities to be a focus in the development of climate adaptation strategies is becoming more urgent.

  12. Did the short PETM trigger long-lasting changes in terrestrial environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, H. C.; Clyde, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a well-documented episode of warming where average temperatures increased 5-8 C in both marine and terrestrial settings before returning to pre-PETM values. As a result the PETM is generally thought of as a transient event that is superimposed on a longer-term trend of global change. Nevertheless not all aspects of the climatic-hydrologic-biologic system experienced a transient response to this event. For example, the well-known dispersal of mammals (Artiodactyls, Perrisopdactyls and Primates = APP taxa) at the beginning of the PETM resulted in fundamentally different terrestrial ecosystems dafter the PETM compared to before it. In this case the PETM can be considered not just a transient event, but a triggering, or threshold, event that resulted in long-term biotic change. Here we consider the possibility that the PETM acted as a threshold event for parts of the climatic and hydrologic system as well as the biologic system. A review of terrestrial/fluvial sections from Laramide basins of western North America (Bighorn, Green River, Huerfano/Raton, Piceance Creek, Powder River, San Juan, Tornillo, Uintah, Washakie, Williston, Wind River), reveals a pronounced difference between rocks of Paleocene and of Eocene age. Common differences include absence of lignites/coal beds in the Eocene, and the occurrence of highly oxidized paleosols and relatively fewer organic-rich mudstones compared to the Paleocene. These suggest drier conditions, either a decrease in mean annual precipitation or enhanced seasonal drying. In sections where the PETM can be identified on the basis of biostratigraphic indicators and carbon isotope excursions (Bighorn, Piceance Creek, Powder River and Williston Basins), and where the PETM can be inferred based on carbon isotope data alone (Huerfano/Raton?, Tornillo, Wind River Basins), it is associated with this transition from one long-lasting lithofacies (environment?) to another. This association

  13. Toward an understanding of the relationships among organizational change, individual differences, and changes in person-environment fit: a cross-level study.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Steven D; Herold, David M; Fedor, Donald B

    2004-10-01

    Organizational behavior literature has not typically viewed person-environment (P-E) fit as an outcome of change. Whereas the study of antecedents to employees' fit with their work environment has largely been restricted to the selection and socialization of newcomers, this study examines individuals' perceptions of changes in P-E fit in relation to organizational changes occurring in 34 different organizational work units. Results suggest that the relationships between organizational change and perceived changes in fit are best understood as interactions between the characteristics of the change process, the extent of change, and individual differences. Both age and mastery orientation related to perceived changes in P-E fit through interactions with aspects of the change process.

  14. A life-history perspective on the demographic drivers of structured population dynamics in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Koons, David N; Iles, David T; Schaub, Michael; Caswell, Hal

    2016-09-01

    Current understanding of life-history evolution and how demographic parameters contribute to population dynamics across species is largely based on assumptions of either constant environments or stationary environmental variation. Meanwhile, species are faced with non-stationary environmental conditions (changing mean, variance, or both) created by climate and landscape change. To close the gap between contemporary reality and demographic theory, we develop a set of transient life table response experiments (LTREs) for decomposing realised population growth rates into contributions from specific vital rates and components of population structure. Using transient LTREs in a theoretical framework, we reveal that established concepts in population biology will require revision because of reliance on approaches that do not address the influence of unstable population structure on population growth and mean fitness. Going forward, transient LTREs will enhance understanding of demography and improve the explanatory power of models used to understand ecological and evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27401966

  15. Crowded, cell-like environment induces shape changes in aspherical protein

    PubMed Central

    Homouz, Dirar; Perham, Michael; Samiotakis, Antonios; Cheung, Margaret S.; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-01-01

    How the crowded environment inside cells affects the structures of proteins with aspherical shapes is a vital question because many proteins and protein–protein complexes in vivo adopt anisotropic shapes. Here we address this question by combining computational and experimental studies of a football-shaped protein (i.e., Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE) in crowded, cell-like conditions. The results show that macromolecular crowding affects protein-folding dynamics as well as overall protein shape. In crowded milieus, distinct conformational changes in VlsE are accompanied by secondary structure alterations that lead to exposure of a hidden antigenic region. Our work demonstrates the malleability of “native” proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo. PMID:18697933

  16. Crowded, cell-like environment induces shape changes in aspherical protein.

    PubMed

    Homouz, Dirar; Perham, Michael; Samiotakis, Antonios; Cheung, Margaret S; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-08-19

    How the crowded environment inside cells affects the structures of proteins with aspherical shapes is a vital question because many proteins and protein-protein complexes in vivo adopt anisotropic shapes. Here we address this question by combining computational and experimental studies of a football-shaped protein (i.e., Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE) in crowded, cell-like conditions. The results show that macromolecular crowding affects protein-folding dynamics as well as overall protein shape. In crowded milieus, distinct conformational changes in VlsE are accompanied by secondary structure alterations that lead to exposure of a hidden antigenic region. Our work demonstrates the malleability of "native" proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo. PMID:18697933

  17. Detecting patterns and changes in a complex benthic environment of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Kotta, Jonne; Pärnoja, Merli

    2011-01-01

    Today, the knowledge on the distribution of marine habitats is very fragmented and temporal changes in such patterns are even less known. In this study we assessed spatial variability and temporal dynamics of benthic habitat types in a relatively turbid northeastern Baltic Sea coastal environment using the space-borne multispectral sensor QuickBird. Seven broad habitat classes were defined for the study area representing the most typical habitats of the coastal environment. The studied classes were bare sand, the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, hard bottom with ephemeral algae, higher-order plants and/or charophytes on soft bright bottom, dense higher-order plant habitats, and drifting algal mats and deep water (>3 m). Two QuickBird images acquired over a 3 year interval (2005 to 2008) of Western-Estonian archipelago were processed and change detection analysis applied. Although there was a relatively large scatter in reflectance variability within each habitat type, the analyses allowed a clear differentiation of most habitat types. Exceptions were the lack of statistical differences among deep water, drifting algae, and dense higher-order plant communities, as well as among low density higher-order plant and algal communities. Major changes in the spatial patterns of benthic habitats occurred in hydrodynamically active areas. Differences in water properties caused some confusion in classification and therefore resulted in inaccuracies in maps of change. Thus, the used broad habitat classes represent the limit of the method and the multispectral sensors do not allow finer elements of habitats to be captured.

  18. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Modeling the Interaction of Directional Selection and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change.

  19. Poetry Workshop. Holiday Snapshots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Bee

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a poetry workshop to create a snapshot of unique moments in family history during the holidays. The workshop includes a working on a family photo poetry poster and participating in extension activities (e.g., writing personal poetry notebooks). A reproducible offers a holiday album of poetry snapshots. (SM)

  20. Sensors Workshop summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A review of the efforts of three workshops is presented. The presentation describes those technological developments that would contribute most to sensor subsystem optimization and improvement of NASA's data acquisition capabilities, and summarizes the recommendations of the sensor technology panels from the most recent workshops.

  1. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  2. Teachers and Teaching: Speech Production Accommodations Due to Changes in the Acoustic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Leishman, Timothy W.; Berardi, Mark L.; Eyring, Nathan G.; Jensen, Zachary R.; Rolins, Michael K.; Whiting, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    School teachers have an elevated risk of voice problems due to the vocal demands in the workplace. This manuscript presents the results of three studies investigating teachers’ voice use at work. In the first study, 57 teachers were observed for 2 weeks (waking hours) to compare how they used their voice in the school environment and in non-school environments. In a second study, 45 participants performed a short vocal task in two different rooms: a variable acoustic room and an anechoic chamber. Subjects were taken back and forth between the two rooms. Each time they entered the variable acoustics room, the reverberation time and/or the background noise condition had been modified. In this latter study, subjects responded to questions about their vocal comfort and their perception of changes in the acoustic environment. In a third study, 20 untrained vocalists performed a simple vocal task in the following conditions: with and without background babble and with and without transparent plexiglass shields to increase the first reflection. Relationships were examined between [1] the results for the room acoustic parameters; [2] the subjects’ perception of the room; and [3] the recorded speech acoustic. Several differences between male and female subjects were found; some of those differences held for each room condition (at school vs. not at school, reverberation level, noise level, and early reflection). PMID:26949426

  3. Change-based threat detection in urban environments with a forward-looking camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth, Jr.; Ratto, Christopher; Malof, Jordan; Gunter, Michael; Collins, Leslie; Torrione, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Roadside explosive threats continue to pose a significant risk to soldiers and civilians in conflict areas around the world. These objects are easy to manufacture and procure, but due to their ad hoc nature, they are difficult to reliably detect using standard sensing technologies. Although large roadside explosive hazards may be difficult to conceal in rural environments, urban settings provide a much more complicated background where seemingly innocuous objects (e.g., piles of trash, roadside debris) may be used to obscure threats. Since direct detection of all innocuous objects would flag too many objects to be of use, techniques must be employed to reduce the number of alarms generated and highlight only a limited subset of possibly threatening regions for the user. In this work, change detection techniques are used to reduce false alarm rates and increase detection capabilities for possible threat identification in urban environments. The proposed model leverages data from multiple video streams collected over the same regions by first applying video aligning and then using various distance metrics to detect changes based on image keypoints in the video streams. Data collected at an urban warfare simulation range at an Eastern US test site was used to evaluate the proposed approach, and significant reductions in false alarm rates compared to simpler techniques are illustrated.

  4. Is average chain length of plant lipids a potential proxy for vegetation, environment and climate changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhang, W.; Hou, J.

    2015-04-01

    Average chain length (ACL) of leaf wax components preserved in lacustrine sediments and soil profiles has been widely adopted as a proxy indicator for past changes in vegetation, environment and climate during the late Quaternary. The fundamental assumption is that woody plants produce leaf waxes with shorter ACL values than non-woody plants. However, there is a lack of systematic survey of modern plants to justify the assumption. Here, we investigated various types of plants at two lakes, Blood Pond in the northeastern USA and Lake Ranwu on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, and found that the ACL values were not significantly different between woody and non-woody plants. We also compiled the ACL values of modern plants in the literatures and performed a meta-analysis to determine whether a significant difference exists between woody and non-woody plants at single sites. The results showed that the ACL values of plants at 19 out of 26 sites did not show a significant difference between the two major types of plants. This suggests that extreme caution should be taken in using ACL as proxy for past changes in vegetation, environment and climate.

  5. Numerical solution for melting of unfixed rectangular phase-change material under low-gravity environment

    SciTech Connect

    Asako, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Faghri, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Charmchi, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Bahrami, P.A. )

    1994-02-01

    An enthalpy method is employed to solve transport processes associated with melting of an unfixed rectangular phase change material (PCM) in a low-gravitational environment. This method permits the phase-change problems to be solved within fixed numerical grids, hence eliminating the need for coordinate transformation. The PCM, initially at its melting temperature, is placed inside a rectangular enclosure. The lower surface of the container is then exposed to a uniform temperature higher than the PCM melting temperature. The difference in densities of solid and liquid causes a force imbalance on the solid phase exceeds that of the liquid, the solid continually moves downward as melting progresses and hence generates a flow field within the liquid. The problem is formulated as a one-domain problem with the possibility of melting from all the PCM surfaces, and no approximation is made about the liquid film thickness under the melt. The governing equations are discretized by using a control-volume-based finite difference scheme with a new iterative method to correct for the downward solid-phase velocity. This will also speed up the convergence of the numerical procedure. The results are presented in the form of a parametric study of the effects of Archimedes number, Stefan number, Prandtl number, and the geometric parameters on the melt thickness, the downward solid velocity, the elevation of the top surface, and the volume of the solid PCM. They show that in a low-gravitational environment, the melting rate is very slow.

  6. Adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture). The interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons). The annual cycles of interacting pathogen and host biology is regulated in part by highly synchronized temperature and photoperiod changes during seasonal transitions (e.g., freezeup and breakup). With a warming climate, only one of these key biological cues will undergo drastic changes, while the other will remain fixed. This uncoupling can theoretically have drastic consequences on host-pathogen interactions. These poorly understood cues together with a changing climate by itself will challenge host populations that are adapted to pathogens under the historic and current climate regime. We will review adaptations of both host and pathogens to the extreme conditions at high latitudes and explore some potential consequences of rapid changes in the Arctic. PMID:21392401

  7. Mechanisms of cell shape change: the cytomechanics of cellular response to chemical environment and mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Processes such as cell locomotion and morphogenesis depend on both the generation of force by cytoskeletal elements and the response of the cell to the resulting mechanical loads. Many widely accepted theoretical models of processes involving cell shape change are based on untested hypotheses about the interaction of these two components of cell shape change. I have quantified the mechanical responses of cytoplasm to various chemical environments and mechanical loading regimes to understand better the mechanisms of cell shape change and to address the validity of these models. Measurements of cell mechanical properties were made with strands of cytoplasm submerged in media containing detergent to permeabilize the plasma membrane, thus allowing control over intracellular milieu. Experiments were performed with equipment that generated sinusoidally varying length changes of isolated strands of cytoplasm from Physarum polycephalum. Results indicate that stiffness, elasticity, and viscosity of cytoplasm all increase with increasing concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, and ATP, and decrease with increasing magnitude and rate of deformation. These results specifically challenge assumptions underlying mathematical models of morphogenetic events such as epithelial folding and cell division, and further suggest that gelation may depend on both actin cross-linking and actin polymerization. PMID:1556158

  8. How do changes to the built environment influence walking behaviors? a longitudinal study within a university campus in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies testing the association between the built environment and walking behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed results. This study reports on a natural experiment in which changes to the built environment were implemented at a university campus in Hong Kong. Longitudinal data on walking behaviors were collected using surveys, one before and one after changes to the built environment, to test the influence of changes to the built environment on walking behavior. Methods Built environment data are from a university campus in Hong Kong, and include land use, campus bus services, pedestrian network, and population density data collected from campus maps, the university developmental office, and field surveys. Walking behavior data were collected at baseline in March 2012 (n = 198) and after changes to the built environment from the same cohort of subjects in December 2012 (n = 169) using a walking diary. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used to map walking routes and built environment variables, and compare each subject’s walking behaviors and built environment exposure before and after the changes to the built environment. Walking behavior outcomes were changes in: i) walking distance, ii) destination-oriented walking, and iii) walked altitude range. Multivariable linear regression models were used to test for associations between changes to the built environment and changes in walking behaviors. Results Greater pedestrian network connectivity predicted longer walking distances and an increased likelihood of walking as a means of transportation. The increased use of recreational (vs. work) buildings, largely located at mid-range altitudes, as well as increased population density predicted greater walking distances.Having more bus services and a greater population density encouraged people to increase their walked altitude range. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, changes to the built environment

  9. Gender and the environment. Women's time use as a measure of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Awumbila, M; Momsen, J H

    1995-09-01

    These case studies pertain to marginal dry land rural areas in developing countries. The evidence suggests that women have shorter rest periods, greater intensity and fragmentation of work, and greater use of multiple simultaneous occupations than men. Macroeconomic policies have increased the work burden for women and for the poorest populations and have contributed to environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on women's use of time as a factor in explaining women's changing gender role under conditions of environmental stress. The women and the environment debate encompasses two philosophical positions. The ecofeminist theory is that women are one with nature and are unlike men, who manipulate and exploit the environment. The other theory posits that women are managers of the environment and should be approached as separate groups. The developmentalist improves on theory by offering the view that there are differences in resource allocation, entitlements, and responsibilities. The case studies deny that women's roles are fixed and generalized. The case study in Sri Lanka reveals that the Mahaweli irrigation and settlement project brought widespread deforestation and forced women to spend more time and energy in seeking fuel wood. Women adjusted to the changes by reducing the number of trips for wood, increasing the amount of the load, and involving men in the process. The number of families who switched to alternative cooking methods increased. During the dry season more of women's time is spent in washing clothes and cleaning the house. Kitchen gardening is only a wet season activity. A Burkina Faso study found that the average daily hours of work for women was 10.6 in the wet season and 12.4 in the dry season in 1991. In the Caribbean, life revolves around crop and no-crop time. Multiple job holding is a common strategy for small farmers. Gender division of labor and time use are determined by household, local context, family structure, and stage in the

  10. The effect of time and storage environment on dimensional changes of acrylic resin post patterns.

    PubMed

    Sabouhi, Mahmoud; Nosouhian, Saied; Dakhilalian, Mansour; Davoudi, Amin; Mehrad, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Post and core are needed to regain retentions and functions after endodontic therapies. Also, risk of cross contamination from dental prosthesis is so high. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of acrylic resin patterns (ARP) in three different storing environments. Materials and methods : conventional root canal therapy was done on one first premolar tooth and the canal filled with Guttapercha. 2/3 of the filling was expelled and 30 direct APRs were prepared by Duralay. The samples were divided into 3 groups based on storing environments: water, NaOCl 5% and air. Finally dimensional changes in coronoapical length (CAL), coronal (CD) and apical diameter (AD) of APRs were measured in 7 consecutive times (immediately after polymerization, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 hours later). All the data were analyzed by Paired T-test and Duncon test using SPSS software ver.13 at significant level of 0.05. Results : After 24 hours, the ARPs, which were stored in air, contracted 0.07, 0.06 and 0.12 mm in AD, CD and CAL; the ARPs, which were stored in water, showed 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 mm decrease in AD, CD and CAL; But the ARPs, which were stored in NaOCl 5%, showed significant expansion in AD, CD and CAL (0.03, 0.06 and 0.10 mm) (all P values < 0.01). Conclusion : It is better not to use NaOCl for disinfecting; also the best time for storing APRs is 8 hours for water and 2 hours for air environments after setting time.

  11. Air-Base Remediation Workshop - Section 3 Bioventig

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  12. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 2 Soil Vapor Extraction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sties," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  13. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 6 Thermal Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  14. How Are Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Affecting Light-induced Chemical Processes in Aquatic Environments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past three decades have resulted in increases in solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) that reach the surface of aquatic environments. These changes have been accompanied by unprecedented changes in temperature and precipitation patterns around the...

  15. [Massage and sophrology workshops for haematology professionals].

    PubMed

    Bannier, Christine; Sachot, Claudine; Simon, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    In haematology, the caregivers are confronted with the death of patients and the distress of their families. It is a working environment in which it is essential for the professionals to be taken care of in order to optimise the care provided to patients. At Nantes general hospital, massage and sophrology workshops enable the caregivers to recharge their batteries.

  16. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  17. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  18. 76 FR 60505 - Food Defense Workshop; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Defense Workshop; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of... M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center (FAPC), is announcing a public workshop entitled...

  19. 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry: Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection, Technologies for a Changing World.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Laura L; Racke, Kenneth D; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Seiber, James N

    2016-01-13

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA, USA, in August 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of agricultural research: sustainability; agriculture's response to climate change and population growth; pollinator health and risk assessment; and global food production and food security. In addition, as part of the Congress, a workshop on "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century" identified specific recommendations to attract the best scientists to agricultural science, to provide opportunities to study and conduct research on crop protection chemistry topics, and to improve science communication skills. PMID:26709728

  20. Developing an Understanding of Vegetation Change and Fluvial Carbon Fluxes in Semi-Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. Transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage and an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over six bounded plots with different vegetation coverage. The experiment takes advantage of a natural abundance stable 13C isotope shift from C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand through a C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 shrub (Larrea tridentata). Data collected quantify fluvial fluxes of sediment and associated soil organic matter and carbon that is lost from across the grass-to-shrub and grass-to-woodland transition (where change in space is taken to indicate a similar change through time). Results collected during the 2010 and 2011 monsoon seasons will be presented, illustrating that soil and carbon losses are greater as the ecosystem becomes more dominated by woody plants. Additionally this project utilises novel

  1. Computer Aided Drafting Workshop. Workshop Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    This mini-course and article are presentations from a workshop on computer-aided drafting. The purpose of the mini-course is to assist drafting instructors in updating their occupational knowledge to include computer-aided drafting (CAD). Topics covered in the course include general computer information, the computer in drafting, CAD terminology,…

  2. Workshop by Design: Planning a Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Dorothy; Parsons, A. Chapman

    In an Ohio Library Association guide for planning workshops, detailed instructions are given for forming a committee, holding meetings, selecting and paying the speaker, and developing the program. Budgets and fees are discussed along with information on federal funding. Practical guidance is also provided about equipment, table arrangements,…

  3. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, S.; Bierkens, M. F.; Oude Essink, G.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal regions around the world climate change will lead to a sea level rise and an increase in extreme weather conditions. This prospect has resulted in a new focus on coastal protection in the Netherlands, resulting in the initiation of an innovative coastal defence project called the Sand Motor. In this project a large body of sand or so-called mega-nourishment has been constructed along the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents. Keeping the coastal defence structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. Because of the large size of the body of sand (21.5 million m3) and the position at the coastline and near coastal dunes, the Sand Motor might cause a substantial increase of the fresh water availability by increasing the volume fresh water lens underneath the dunes. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied.

  4. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Bierkens, Marc; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2015-04-01

    The prospect of sea level rise and increase in extreme weather conditions has led to a new focus on coastal defense in the Netherlands. As an innovative solution for coastal erosion a mega-nourishment named the Sand Motor (or Sand Engine) has been constructed at the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents; keeping the coastal defense structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. The large size and position of the Sand Motor might lead to a substantial increase of fresh ground water resources. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied. The preliminary model calculations show that in a period of 20 years volume of fresh water gradually increases to ca. 12 Mm3. In the nearby dune area 7-8 Mm3 is abstracted yearly, therefore the first results are promising in increasing fresh groundwater resources. More model calculations will be performed to investigate the sensitivity of the change in the fresh, brackish and salt water distribution.

  5. Telepsychiatry: Benefits and costs in a changing health-care environment.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Maryann; Voyles, Debbie; Thomas, Marshall R

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the high cost and inefficiencies of the health care system have prompted widespread demand for a better value on investment. Reform efforts, focused on increasing effective, cost-efficient, and patient-centred practices, are inciting lasting changes to health care delivery. Integrated care, providing team-based care that addresses both physical and behavioural health needs is growing as an evidence-based way to provide improved care with lower overall costs. This in turn, is leading to an increasing demand for psychiatrists to work with primary care physicians in delivering integrated care. Telepsychiatry is an innovative platform that has a variety of benefits to patients, providers, and systems. Associated costs are changing as technology advances and policies shift. The purpose of this article is to describe the changing role of psychiatry within the environment of U.S. healthcare reform, and the benefits (demonstrated and potential) and costs (fixed, variable, and reimbursable) of telepsychiatry to providers, patients and systems. PMID:26586193

  6. Malaria vectors in the changing environment of the southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; Konradsen, Flemming; Herrel, Nathaly; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2004-07-01

    The Pakistani Punjab experienced several devastating malaria epidemics during the twentieth century. Since the 1980s, however, malaria has been at a low ebb, while in other areas of Pakistan and neighbouring India malaria is on the increase. This raises the question of whether transmission in the Pakistani Punjab may have been influenced by a change in vector species abundance or composition, possibly induced by environmental changes. To investigate this question, routinely-collected government entomological data for the period 1970 to 1999 for the district of Bahawalnagar, in the Indus Basin irrigation system in the southern Punjab, was analysed. Our findings suggest that Anopheles stephensi has increased in prevalence and became more common than A. culicifacies during the 1980s. This shift in species dominance may be due to the large-scale ecological changes that have taken place in the Punjab, where irrigation-induced waterlogging of soil with related salinization has created an environment favourable for the more salt-tolerant A. stephensi. Some biotypes of A. stephensi are suspected of being less efficient vectors and, therefore, the shift in species dominance might have played a role in the reduced transmission in the Punjab, although further research is needed to investigate the effect of other transmission-influencing factors.

  7. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara E. (Editor); Kovacs, Gregory T. A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous NASA reports and studies have identified Planetary Protection (PP) as an important part of any Mars sample return mission. The mission architecture, hardware, on-board experiments, and related activities must be designed in ways that prevent both forward- and back-contamination and also ensure maximal return of scientific information. A key element of any PP effort for sample return missions is the development of guidelines for containment and analysis of returned sample(s). As part of that effort, NASA and the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Research Council (NRC) have each assembled experts from a wide range of scientific fields to identify and discuss issues pertinent to sample return. In 1997, the SSB released its report on recommendations for handling and testing of returned Mars samples. In particular, the NRC recommended that: a) samples returned from Mars by spacecraft should be contained and treated as potentially hazardous until proven otherwise, and b) rigorous physical, chemical, and biological analyses [should] confirm that there is no indication of the presence of any exogenous biological entity. Also in 1997, a Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol workshop was convened at NASA Ames Research Center to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent 'uncontrolled release' of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. In 1999, a study by NASA's Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel (MSHARP) addressed three other specific areas in anticipation of returning samples from Mars: 1) sample collection and transport back to Earth; 2) certification of the samples as non-hazardous; and 3) sample receiving, curation, and distribution. To further refine the requirements for sample

  8. From Smart Guesser to Smart Navigator: Changes in Collection Development for Research Libraries in a Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yuan

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the impact that network technology, electronic publishing, and Internet communication are having on collection development policies in research libraries. Highlights include changes in the research library environment, including financial difficulties; scholarly communication; workstations for material selection; and materials in…

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of giant panda habitat: Implications for panda conservation under a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan Mu, Mao-Ning

    Under the current rapidly changing environment, effective and efficient actions for biodiversity conservation rely on detailed knowledge on the spatiotemporal dynamics of species distribution and habitat. However, inadequate spatiotemporal information on species habitat has compromised conservation effectiveness, even for one of the most endangered species on Earth, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). To address this information gap, the objectives of this dissertation were to: (1) develop an approach for remotely detecting the distribution of understory bamboo, the panda's staple food, across large geographic regions; (2) develop a modeling approach for monitoring panda habitat changes across space and time; (3) evaluate the effects of current conservation efforts on short-term panda habitat changes; and (4) assess the potential impacts of climate change on long-term panda habitat dynamics. Using two dominant bamboo species in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, I showed that an integration of species distribution modeling with land surface phenology obtained from high temporal resolution remotely sensed data is a promising approach for providing detailed information on understory bamboo distribution across large geographic regions. Derived from time series data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), eleven land surface phenology metrics successfully captured the phenological characteristics of vegetation caused by understory bamboo. In addition, a species distribution model (SDM) built using the maximum entropy modeling approach (Maxent) accurately captured the distribution of understory bamboo species across the reserve based on their phenological characteristics. I further demonstrated the usefulness of the phenology-based model for not only characterizing panda habitat across space, but also monitoring its dynamics over time. By quantitatively examining the effects of different predictor variables portraying land surface

  10. Proceedings of the SMRM Degradation Study Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the Solar Maximum Repair Mission Degradation Study Workshop, held at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland on May 9 to 10, 1985 are contained. The results of tests and studies of the returned Solar Maximum Mission hardware and materials are reported. Specifically, the workshop was concerned with the effects of four years' exposure to a low-Earth orbit environment. To provide a background for the reported findings, the summary includes a short description of the Solar Maximum Mission and the Solar Maximum Repair Mission.

  11. Report on the Second Catalog Interoperability Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, James R.; James, Mary E.

    1988-01-01

    The events, resolutions, and recommendations of the Second Catalog Interoperability Workshop, held at JPL in January, 1988, are discussed. This workshop dealt with the issues of standardization and communication among directories, catalogs, and inventories in the earth and space science data management environment. The Directory Interchange Format, being constructed as a standard for the exchange of directory information among participating data systems, is discussed. Involvement in the Interoperability effort by NASA, NOAA, ISGS, and NSF is described, and plans for future interoperability considered. The NASA Master Directory prototype is presented and critiqued and options for additional capabilities debated.

  12. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  13. Transition of New Graduate Nurses to the Workforce: Challenges and Solutions in the Changing Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Hofler, Linda; Thomas, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    New graduate nurses face a host of challenges that impact successful transition to practice. Health care organizations thus need to understand how changes in the health care landscape impact new graduate nurses who are transitioning to the practice environment. This commentary discusses challenges and possible solutions to successful transition of new graduates into the work environment. PMID:26961840

  14. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  15. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John Howard; Allen, Todd Randall; Hildebrandt, Philip Clay; Baker, Suzanne Hobbs

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  16. Soil Moisture Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L. (Editor); Moore, D. G. (Editor); Schmugge, T. J. (Editor); Friedman, D. B. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Workshop was held at the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland on January 17-19, 1978. The objectives of the Workshop were to evaluate the state of the art of remote sensing of soil moisture; examine the needs of potential users; and make recommendations concerning the future of soil moisture research and development. To accomplish these objectives, small working groups were organized in advance of the Workshop to prepare position papers. These papers served as the basis for this report.

  17. NORTH PACIFIC SALMON MONITORING WORKSHOP I - SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of the first North Pacific Salmon Monitoring Workshop was to initiate development of an economically feasible monitoring strategy that could serve as a warning system for detecting changes in the status of Pacific Rim salmon. This is a summary of the workshop held Fe...

  18. Interviews with Students Enrolled in Academic CPR Workshops, Summer 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maple, Chelley

    This study focuses on students enrolled in academic CPR workshops in the summer of 2002. The goal of the study is to examine changes in the population of students with academic problems. The CPR workshops are a requirement for students that are subject to dismissal. The study was conducted in the summer of 2003 on the telephone with a random…

  19. Global warming in the palliative care research environment: adapting to change.

    PubMed

    Fainsinger, R L

    2008-06-01

    Advocates of palliative care research have often described the cold and difficult environment that has constrained the development of research internationally. The development of palliative care research has been slow over the last few decades and has met with resistance and sometimes hostility to the idea of conducting research in 'vulnerable populations'. The seeds of advocacy for research can be found in palliative care literature from the 1980s and early 1990s. Although we have much to do, we need to recognize that palliative care research development has come a long way. Of particular note is the development of well-funded collaboratives that now exist in Europe, Canada, Australia and the USA. The European Association for Palliative Care and the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care has recognized the need to develop and promote global research initiatives, with a special focus on developing countries. Time is needed to develop good research evidence and in a more complex healthcare environment takes increasingly more resources to be productive. The increased support (global warming) evident in the increased funding opportunities available to palliative care researchers in a number of countries brings both benefits and challenges. There is evidence that the advocacy of individuals such as Kathleen Foley, Neil MacDonald, Balfour Mount, Vittorio Ventafridda, Robert Twycross and Geoff Hanks is now providing fertile ground and a much friendlier environment for a new generation of interdisciplinary palliative care research. We have achieved many of the goals necessary to avoid failure of the 'palliative care experiment', and need to accept the challenge of our present climate and adapt and take advantage of the change.

  20. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards.

  1. AST/ASTS workshop on increasing organ donation in the United States: creating an "arc of change" from removing disincentives to testing incentives.

    PubMed

    Salomon, D R; Langnas, A N; Reed, A I; Bloom, R D; Magee, J C; Gaston, R S

    2015-05-01

    The American Society of Transplantation (AST) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) convened a workshop on June 2-3, 2014, to explore increasing both living and deceased organ donation in the United States. Recent articles in the lay press on illegal organ sales and transplant tourism highlight the impact of the current black market in kidneys that accompanies the growing global organ shortage. We believe it important not to conflate the illegal market for organs, which we reject in the strongest possible terms, with the potential in the United States for concerted action to remove all remaining financial disincentives for donors and critically consider testing the impact and acceptability of incentives to increase organ availability in the United States. However, we do not support any trials of direct payments or valuable considerations to donors or families based on a process of market-assigned values of organs. This White Paper represents a summary by the authors of the deliberations of the Incentives Workshop Group and has been approved by both AST and ASTS Boards. PMID:25833653

  2. Modeling wildfire and hydrologic response to global climate change using the Landlab modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. M.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Hutton, E.; Hobley, D. E.; Nudurupati, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change presents new challenges in modeling surface processes across landscapes that are prone to wildfire. Historical recurrence intervals of wildfire and precipitation must be adapted to account for changes in climate. Warming temperatures have already been linked to shorter winters, smaller volumes of snowmelt, and lower soil moisture content, all of which can contribute to more frequent fires. As fire and precipitation distributions change, the magnitude of fluvial erosion in burned landscapes may change dramatically. Fluvial erosion driven by large precipitation events post-fire can threaten property, infrastructure and human life in the short-term, and potentially impact long-term landscape evolution. Understanding post-fire landscape response across multiple time scales can be accomplished through numerical modeling of fire and rainfall events and the resulting stream flow across a landscape. This study uses the Landlab modeling environment to explore possible fire and precipitation scenarios that could lead to significant post-fire landscape change. Landlab is a plug-and-play model that is designed to be highly flexible in order to address a wide range of scientific questions. This study links together a stochastic fire generator, stochastic storm generator, and overland flow module to explore scenarios that may cause significant flow in the one-year period following a high-severity fire. Post-fire landscapes have been observed to be particularly vulnerable to fluvial erosion during this period. The parameters in the fire and rainfall generator are varied to test whether erosion-inducing precipitation events will increase in frequency and severity as climate changes. We analyze potential scenarios in which fire and storm recurrence change with the climate. Three test cases are explored: increasing fire recurrence while holding the parameters of the precipitation distribution constant; increasing the recurrence of precipitation events while holding

  3. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  4. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments.

  5. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanaka, Takashi

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  6. Heart rate in Palaemon northropi (Rankin) in relation to acute changes in thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, C.J.; Wingard, C.; Kitakis, F. )

    1991-03-15

    The Glass Shrimp (Palaemon northropi), common to shallow water/tide pool environs of Atlantic waters, was examined in a series of experiments whereby the temperature-dependence of steady-state heart rate was assessed after acute, controlled changed in their thermal environment. Collection site, tide pool variations averaged 17.2-31.6C/24 hr. period. Accordingly, steady-state heart rates were determined at 5, 15, 25, and 30C by using both timed, optical recording and impedance methods. Mean values obtained were 88bpm (5C), 181 bpm(15C), 236bpm(25C), and 52bpm(30C). Calculated Q{sub 10} determinations ranged from the limits of 1.3 to 2.1 excluding the highest temperature state used. Specimens used averaged 0.62gm wet body weight, and no significant difference between males and gravid females was found. Additionally, the impedance method employed allowed for more precise rate determinations at high heart rates: at the lower heart rates, there was no difference between optically-timed vs. impedance method. Measurement at 30C characteristically showed a severe depression of heart rate, and high mortality after determinations. It is concluded that in situ field survival of Palaemon northropi may involve a time-dependence and/or other mechanisms whereby upper environmental temperatures may be abated.

  7. Minor Allele Frequency Changes the Nature of Genotype by Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    In the classical twin study, phenotypic variation is often partitioned into additive genetic (A), common (C) and specific environment (E) components. From genetical theory, the outcome of genotype by environment interaction is expected to inflate A when the interacting factor is shared (i.e., C) between the members of a twin pair. We show that estimates of both A and C can be inflated. When the shared interacting factor changes the size of the difference between homozygotes' means, the expected sibling or DZ twin correlation is .5 if and only if the minor allele frequency (MAF) is .5; otherwise the expected DZ correlation is greater than this value, consistent (and confounded) with some additional effect of C. This result is considered in the light of the distribution of minor allele frequencies for polygenic traits. Also discussed is whether such interactions take place at the locus level or affect an aggregated biological structure or system. Interactions with structures or endophenotypes that result from the aggregated effects of many loci will generally emerge as part of the A estimate. PMID:27105628

  8. Fine-scale genetic differentiation of a temperate herb: relevance of local environments and demographic change

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The genetic structure of a plant species is shaped by environmental adaptation and demographic factors, but their relative contributions are still unknown. To examine the environment- or geography-related differentiation, we quantified genetic variation among 41 populations of a temperate herb, Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera (Brassicaceae). We analysed 19 microsatellite loci, which showed a significant population differentiation and a moderate within-population genetic diversity (global Gst = 0.42 and Hs = 0.19). Our structure analysis and phylogenetic network did not detect more than two genetic groups across the Japanese mainland but found fine-scale genetic differentiations and admixed patterns around the central area. Across the Japanese mainland, we found significant evidence for isolation-by-distance but not for isolation-by-environments. However, at least within the central area, the magnitude of genetic differentiation tended to increase with microhabitat dissimilarity under light conditions and water availability. Furthermore, most populations have been estimated to experience a recent decline in the effective population size, indicating a possibility of bottleneck effects on the pattern of genetic variation. These findings highlight a potential influence of the microhabitat conditions and demographic changes on the local-scale genetic differentiation among natural plant populations. PMID:25387749

  9. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local

  10. ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Van Dam, Wim; Farhi, Edward; Gaitan, Frank; Humble, Travis; Jordan, Stephen; Landahl, Andrew J; Love, Peter; Lucas, Robert; Preskill, John; Muller, Richard P.; Svore, Krysta; Wiebe, Nathan; Williams, Carl

    2015-06-01

    This report details the findings of the DOE ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science that was organized to assess the viability of quantum computing technologies to meet the computational requirements of the DOE’s science and energy mission, and to identify the potential impact of quantum technologies. The workshop was held on February 17-18, 2015, in Bethesda, MD, to solicit input from members of the quantum computing community. The workshop considered models of quantum computation and programming environments, physical science applications relevant to DOE's science mission as well as quantum simulation, and applied mathematics topics including potential quantum algorithms for linear algebra, graph theory, and machine learning. This report summarizes these perspectives into an outlook on the opportunities for quantum computing to impact problems relevant to the DOE’s mission as well as the additional research required to bring quantum computing to the point where it can have such impact.

  11. Measuring and modeling disturbance-induced changes to flux dynamics in increasingly heterogeneous canopy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, K.; Bohrer, G.; He, L.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Vogel, C.; Curtis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent eddies control the flux of carbon, water and other gases between forested environments and the atmosphere. Inside the canopy, eddy correlation length is very small and surface heterogeneity due to tree-crown structures occurs at these scales. Computer simulations, particularly Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), provide the foundation to test the sensitivity of flux exchange and turbulent mixing to small scale processes, such as successional- or disturbance-driven changes to canopy structure. At the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we disturbed 39 ha of forest by girdling all canopy-dominant early-successional aspen and birch trees, leading to a large mortality event, followed by a shift in forest structure that is typical of a more mature successional stage. Over the course of the study, we have found a divergence from pre-treatment biosphere-atmosphere gas-exchange trends between the control and disturbance sites due to changes in canopy structure and, as a consequence, biological response. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES), and the more dynamic RAFLES-Ecosystem Demography (ED2) model, to investigate the consequences of increasingly heterogeneous forest environments to canopy-atmosphere exchange. RAFLES-ED2 resolves multi-layered light attenuation and vegetation and surface heat, vapor and CO2 fluxes and includes a multi-layered soil column under each atmosphere-vegetation column, as opposed to the single-layered soil-vegetation model in RAFLES. The model environment was determined by remote sensing of the actual forested area of interest using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements and eddy-flux gas exchange measurements at two neighboring AmeriFlux eddy-flux towers, the manipulated site (US-UMd) and its undisturbed control (US-UMB) both at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) cluster site. We find more accurate surface roughness estimates and

  12. The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed for participants in "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." It provides the 27 participant handouts for the six workshops in the series. The first in the series, "Setting the Stage: The Changing World of Work," is a workshop to clarify what is occurring in the world of work and apply that…

  13. The Career Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a career planning workshop for managers and its purpose is to support and accelerate the process of individual development without organizational coercion or manipulation. (Author/RK)

  14. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  15. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  16. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  17. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  18. Successful Workshop Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Offers suggestions concerning important elements in planning workshops: organization of committees, program planning, definition of topic and purpose, statement of objectives, the audience, format, timing, site selection, registration, publicity, speaker selection, contracts, budgets, and evaluation questionnaires. (FM)

  19. Cybernetics and Workshop Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Daniel G.

    1979-01-01

    Cybernetic sessions allow for the investigation of several variables concurrently, resulting in a large volume of input compacted into a concise time frame. Three session questions are reproduced to illustrate the variety of ideas generated relative to workshop design. (Author)

  20. ISIS Workshops Using Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.

    2015-06-01

    ISIS workshops are now using virtualization technology to improve the user experience and create a stable, consistent and useful ISIS installation for educational purposes as well as future processing needs.