Science.gov

Sample records for changing industrial patterns

  1. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    SciTech Connect

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  2. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  3. Changing Employment Patterns of Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Manufacturing Industries: 1977-80. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis of science, engineering, and technician (SET) employment within manufacturing industries based on data from the 1977 and 1980 Occupational Employment Statistics survey. The purposes of the report are to: (1) summarize employment data for detailed SET occupations in manufacturing to describe demand patterns; (2)…

  4. Shifting post production patterns: exploring changes in New Zealand's seafood processing industry.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn; Rees, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the changing nature of New Zealand's seafood companies' production practices. The past 15 years has seen the offshore outsourcing of post-harvest fish gain unprecedented momentum. The growth in offshore processing is a further stage in an increasingly globalised fisheries value chain. Fish is head and gutted, frozen and then transported to processing sites in China where it is thawed, value-added processed and refrozen for export to the original sourcing country or third country markets. Reasons advanced by the industry for this shift in production practices include quota reductions, increasing production costs and the sale of trawlers.

  5. How industries change.

    PubMed

    McGahan, Anita M

    2004-10-01

    It's fairly obvious: To make intelligent investments within your organization, you need to understand how your whole industry is changing. But such knowledge is not always easy to come by. Companies misread clues and arrive at false conclusions all the time. To truly understand where your industry is headed, you have to take a long-term, high-level look at the context in which you do business, says Boston University professor Anita McGahan. She studied a variety of businesses from a cross section of industries over a ten-year period, examining how industry structure affects business profitability and investor returns. Her research suggests that industries evolve along one of four distinct trajectories--radical, progressive, creative, and intermediating--that set boundaries on what will generate profits in a business. These four trajectories are defined by two types of threats. The first is when new, outside alternatives threaten to weaken or make obsolete core activities that have historically generated profits for an industry. The second is when an industry's core assets--its resources, knowledge, and brand capital--fail to generate value as they once did. Industries undergo radical change when core assets and core activities are both threatened with obsolescence; they experience progressive change when neither are jeopardized. Creative change occurs when core assets are under threat but core activities are stable, and intermediating change happens when core activities are threatened while core assets retain their capacity to create value. If your company's innovation strategy is not aligned with your industry's change trajectory, your plan for achieving returns on invested capital cannot succeed, McGahan says. But if you understand which path you're on, you can determine which strategies will succeed and which will backfire.

  6. Strategic alliances fit pattern of industry innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, J.G.

    1997-03-31

    The strategic alliance, vitally important as an isolated practice in the oil and gas business, also fits a broad pattern of innovation by which the industry is redefining itself for prosperity in a new energy age. The industry is experiencing a renaissance in almost every aspect, from technological breakthroughs to innovative business practices to new products and markets. An inevitable outgrowth of such rapid and fundamental change is an evolution in business relationships. The strategic alliance is at the forefront of this trend. Development of new relationships capitalizes on, and partly results from, enormous advances in technology and finance. The paper discusses new relationships, the outsourcing rage, integrating work flows, and technological advances.

  7. Students Working in the Melbourne Sex Industry: Education, Human Capital and the Changing Patterns of the Youth Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Students in Australia are entering the sex industry as a pragmatic response to increasing education costs and a reduction in government income support. This paper examines the lived experiences of a group of 40 young women, all post-secondary education students, working in the Melbourne sex industry. Their experiences suggest that while the…

  8. Industrial change and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-02-01

    To examine recent changes affecting the US economy and the likely success of a government-managed industrial policy, the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City sponsored a symposium at Jackson Hole, WY on August 24-26, 1983 to discuss Industrial change and Public Policy. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions. The predominant view of symposium participants was that America is not deindustrializing. Neither are its economic problems due primarily to sweeping structural change in the economy. Rather, most of its problems are the results of sharp cyclical fluctuations that could have structural implications over time. More-appropriate and better coordinated monetary and fiscal policies, it was felt, offer a solution to the inadequate US economic performance. Additionally, a range of improved policy options were suggested at the sector and firm level. Symposium participants generally shared a common viewpoint - that the recent inadequate US economic performance has not been caused by structural or industrial change. Rather, it has been a combination of inappropriate macroeconomic policies, a prolonged cyclical downturn, and exogenous shocks. Therefore, changing policies at both the macro and sub-macro levels to mitigate their undesirable effects was believed to be a more promising alternative than identifying and implementing an entirely new industrial policy.

  9. Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes in Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Speculates about the future responsiveness of chemical engineering curricula to changes in the chemical industry. Focuses on changes in the chemical industry, the status of academia, and possible curricular changes. (DDR)

  10. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  11. Structural change in industry and futures for the electricity industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.; Harris, G.

    1995-06-01

    The electricity supply industry in the United States has been experiencing major technological changes and economics of the business have altered dramatically since the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This opening of power generation business to competition was under-pinned by significant increases in gas turbine efficiency, commercialization of smaller units with high efficiencies, low gas prices, and cost consciousness on the part of independent power producers (IPPs) and major industrial customers. The pace of change continues to accelerate, driven by ongoing technological innovations and customer demands for better, more customized services and lower costs. The purpose of this report is to provoke further thought on the likely course of structural change in the electric utility industry over the next twenty years. The prime focus of the report is on technological change and its impact on economics, and the resulting organizational and structural change. This report begins with a brief look at structural change in several capital-intensive industries to identify common patterns applicable to the electricity industry. The industries selected have network-like operations, similar to the electric utility industry. This is followed by two scenarios which illuminate different plausible futures for the electric power industry. The report concludes with insights on the potential course of regulations and suitable strategies to prosper during the transition phase.

  12. Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.S.

    1992-12-31

    A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

  13. Emerging Patterns in the Global Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    Industry Raymond Franck , Ira Lewis, Bernard Udis, and David Matthews, NPS Published: 30 April 2011 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Acquisition Research Program Attn: James B. Greene, RADM, USN, (Ret.) Acquisition Chair Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Naval Postgraduate...Postgraduate School Foundation and acknowledge its generous contributions in support of this Symposium. James B. Greene, Jr. Keith F. Snider

  14. Patterns of Change within the Publishing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirianni, F. J.

    This is one of several papers presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It reviews the controversy between book publishers and the Authors Guild concerning the control of already published materials and the future of publishing, and it analyzes the market structure in order to put the issues into perspective. Some…

  15. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  16. Lessons Learned from Using Design Patterns in Industry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Design patterns help in the creative act of designing, implementing, and documenting software systems. They have become an important part of the vocabulary of experienced software developers. This article reports about the author's experiences and lessons learned with using and applying design patterns in industry projects. The article not only discusses how using patterns benefits the design of software systems, but also how firms can benefit further from developing a firm-specific design language and how firms can motivate and educate developers to learn and develop this shared language.

  17. Global climate change: A utility industry perspective

    SciTech Connect

    DeMichele, O.M.

    1994-12-31

    Many electric utilities have accepted responsibility to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Many have enthusiastically committed their support. No one industry, government or environmental group can take responsibility for, or stop, climate change. However, for a long time, electric utilities took an unfair share of the blame. Since 1973, US electricity use has increased 61%. But, total energy use went up only 11%. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide emissions per dollar of gross domestic product dropped 29%. In other words, increased electrification actually increases energy efficiency and reduces greenhouse gases.

  18. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.; Ochiai, H.; Sugimori, Y.; Shoji, D.; Takeda, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Nakajima, I.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, S.; Horikawa, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed land use classification for a large urban area of Tokyo was made using MSS digital data. It was found that residential, commercial, industrial, and wooded areas and grasslands can be successfully classified. A mesoscale vortex associated with large ocean current, Kuroshio, which is a rare phenomenon, was recognized visually through the analysis of MSS data. It was found that this vortex affects the effluent patterns of rivers. Lava flowing from Sakurajima Volcano was clearly classified for three major erruptions (1779, 1914, and 1946) using MSS data.

  19. Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Jeffery, Tonya D.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion is an integrated science lesson that uses the 5E lesson cycle to tie together science with language arts, mathematics, literature, technology, engineering and social studies in an engaging format applicable for young learners. This lesson has been uniquely designed for the purpose of providing elementary…

  20. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  1. [Changes in menstrual pattern following tubal ligation].

    PubMed

    Rosales Estrada, G

    1985-06-01

    50 women undergoing tubal sterilization by the modified Pomeroy technique at a hospital in Toluca, Mexico, were selected at random and followed for 6 months postoperative to detect changes in menstrual patterns. The women had normal menstrual histories and had not used contraceptive medications for at least 3 months prior to operation. Analgesia was provided by peridural block with 2% lidocaine. There were 45 cases of interval and 5 of immediate postpartum sterilization. The women ranged in age from 25 to 44 years and averaged 34.5.16 women, or 32%, had altered menstrual patterns. There were 12 cases of hypermenorrhea and 1 each of oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, amenorrhea, and proiomenorrhea. Age at menarche, parity, and obstetric history were unrelated to menstrual changes. Changes in menstrual patterns after surgical tubal occlusion have been attributed to damage in the uterine and ovarian blood vessels leading to reduced blood supply and ultimately to abnormal maturation of ovarian follicles and hormonal changes. Psychogenic factors may play a role. The extent of surgical damage after various techniques of tubal occlusion and the materials used for suturing should be assessed as possible sources of local or regional inflammation that could have repercussions in blood perfusion and nervous function.

  2. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  3. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.; Loureiro, F.

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  4. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. ); Loureiro, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  5. Abrupt climate change: Mechanisms, patterns, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    In the span of only a few decades, the global temperature can soar by more than a dozen degrees Celsius, a feat that 20 years ago was considered improbable, if not impossible. But recent research in the nascent field of rapid climate change has upended the dominant views of decades past. Focusing primarily on events during and after the most recent glaciation, from 80,000 years ago, the AGU monograph Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts, edited by Harunur Rashid, Leonid Polyak, and Ellen Mosley-Thompson, explores the transient climate transitions that were only recently uncovered in climate proxies around the world. In this interview, Eos talks to Harunur Rashid about piecing together ancient climes, the effect of abrupt change on historical civilizations, and why younger researchers may be more worried about modern warming than their teachers.

  6. Industrial Arts in a Changing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Colleen P., Ed.

    Representative addresses and proceedings of the American Industrial Arts Association's 34th annual convention at Dallas in 1972 are divided into general session speeches and selected addresses from the major group and special interest sessions. The following groups are represented: (1) American Council for Elementary School Industrial Arts, (2)…

  7. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  8. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  9. Decomposition methods for analyzing changes of industrial water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Lei, Xiaohui; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Changes in industrial water use are of the utmost significance in rapidly developing countries. Such countries are experience rapid industrialization, which may stimulate substantial increases in their future industrial water use. Local governments face challenges in formulating industrial policies for sustainable development, particularly in areas that experience severe water shortages. This study addresses the factors driving increased industrial water use and the degrees to which these factors contribute, and determines whether the trend will change in the future. This study explores the options for quantitative analysis that analyzes changes in industrial water use. We adopt both the refined Laspeyres and the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index models to decompose the driving forces of industrial water use. Additionally, we validate the decomposition results through a comparative study using empirical analysis. Using Tianjin, a national water-saving city in China, as a case study, we compare the performance of the two models. In the study, the driving forces of changes in industrial water use are summarized as output, technological, and structural forces. The comparative results indicate that the refined Laspeyres model may be preferable for this case, and further reveal that output and technology have long-term, stable effects on industrial water use. However, structure may have an uncertain influence on industrial water use. The reduced water use may be a consequence of Tianjin's attempts to target water savings in other areas. Therefore, we advise the Tianjin local government to restructure local industries towards water-saving targets.

  10. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  11. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Watson, Keith J

    2011-08-23

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade — ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals — threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  12. Patterns of contact within the New Zealand poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, C Y; Stevenson, M A; Rawdon, T G; Gerber, N; French, N P

    2010-07-01

    Members of the Poultry Industry Association and the Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand (n=420) were sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the type and frequency of on- and off-enterprise movements relating to feed, live birds and hatching eggs, table eggs and poultry product, and manure and waste litter. Social network analyses were used to describe patterns of contact among poultry enterprises and their associates for these four movement types. The response rate to the survey was 58% (244 out of 420). Network structures for enterprise-to-enterprise movements of feed, live birds and hatching eggs, and table egg and poultry product were characterised by 'hub and spoke' type structures with small-world characteristics. Small worlds were created by network hubs (e.g. feed suppliers and hatcheries) providing goods and services to larger numbers of client farms. In addition to hubs acting as the predominant source of material moving onto farms we identified enterprises acting as bridges between identified small worlds. The presence of these bridges is a concern, since their presence has the potential to facilitate the spread of hazards (e.g. feed contaminants, infectious agents carried within feed) more readily throughout the population. An ability to predict enterprises with these network characteristics on the basis of factors such as shed capacity, enterprise type, geographic location would be useful for developing risk-based approaches to disease prevention, surveillance, detection, response and control activities.

  13. Changes in Spatiotemporal Precipitation Patterns in Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Won; Stein, Michael L.; Wang, Jiali; Kotamarthi, V. Rao; Moyer, Elisabeth J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models robustly imply that some significant change in precipitation patterns will occur. Models consistently project that the intensity of individual precipitation events increases by approximately 6-7%/K, following the increase in atmospheric water content, but that total precipitation increases by a lesser amount (1-2 %/K in the global average in transient runs). Some other aspect of precipitation events must then change to compensate for this difference. We develop here a new methodology for identifying individual rainstorms and studying their physical characteristics - including starting location, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and trajectory - that allows identifying that compensating mechanism. We apply this technique to precipitation over the contiguous U.S. from both radar-based data products and high-resolution model runs simulating 80 years of business-as-usual warming. In model studies, we find that the dominant compensating mechanism is a reduction of storm size. In summer, rainstorms become more intense but smaller, in winter, rainstorm shrinkage still dominates, but storms also become less numerous and shorter duration. These results imply that flood impacts from climate change will be less severe than would be expected from changes in precipitation intensity alone. We show also that projected changes are smaller than model-observation biases, implying that the best means of incorporating them into impact assessments is via "data-driven simulations" that apply model-projected changes to observational data. We therefore develop a simulation algorithm that statistically describes model changes in precipitation characteristics and adjusts data accordingly, and show that, especially for summertime precipitation, it outperforms simulation approaches that do not include spatial information.

  14. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  15. CHANGING PATTERNS IN CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR BUSINESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLEAN, SALLY J.

    AFTER WORLD WAR II, BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY MOVED INTO THE ADULT EDUCATION FIELD, AND ARE NOW SPENDING A REPORTED $20 BILLION ANNUALLY IN HIGHER EDUCATION FOR THEIR SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL AND MANAGEMENT. LARGE INDUSTRIES, LIKE IBM, HAVE COMPLETE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND FACILITIES FOR THEIR PERSONNEL. FORD AND GENERAL MOTORS USE OUTSIDE EDUCATIONAL…

  16. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W.; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Ribas, Camila C.; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D.; Auler, Augusto S.

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to ‘Refugia Hypothesis’, is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  17. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  18. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  19. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  20. Occupational Employment Statistics Program. Staffing Patterns in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    The material in the publication is intended to acquaint users with the occupational composition of the various nonmanufacturing industries in the State of Indiana. It is directed particularly to those who are concerned with designing academic and vocational education programs in order to supply workers to fill the needs of industry and to…

  1. Changes in the Graphic Arts Industry in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rene-Simon

    1992-01-01

    Major changes affecting Swiss graphic arts are photocomposition, replacement of letterpress with offset printing, scanners, and microcomputers and laser printers for desktop publishing. Effects on workers include monotony, alienation, and apprehension. Sex discrimination continues in the industry. (SK)

  2. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: Selected Issues, 1998

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Provides an analytical assessment of the changes taking place in the electric power industry, including market structure, consumer choice, and ratesetting and transition costs. Also presents federal and state initiatives in promoting competition.

  3. An Industry Perspective on Changes Needed in Agricultural Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 focus groups, 42 agribusiness representatives suggested a need to change the agriculture curriculum to allow an agriculture industry option. They emphasized the development of business skills, communication skills, teamwork, leadership, and analytical thinking. (SK)

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  5. Global Aerospace Industries: Rapid Changes Ahead? (Abridged)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    Rapid Changes Ahead? (Abridged) Raymond Franck and Ira Lewis, Naval Postgraduate School Bernard Udis, University of Colorado at Boulder Published...Acquisition Research Program Attn: James B. Greene, RADM, USN, (Ret.) Acquisition Chair Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Naval Postgraduate... James B. Greene Jr. Keith F. Snider, PhD Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy (Ret.) Associate Professor ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=éêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê

  6. Will Technology Change Work-Living Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Charles M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment opportunities of the homebound are being expanded by computer-telecommunications developments. A joint conference on "New Patterns of Work Organization in An Information Era: Some Employment Implications for Homebound Individuals," held in Ohio in June 1973, is reviewed. (MS)

  7. Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western…

  8. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  9. Changing Career Patterns. ERIC Digest No. 219.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    The linear career path that once kept people working in the same job is not the standard career route for today's workers. Instead, many workers are now pursuing varied career paths that reflect sequential career changes. Although job mobility no longer carries the stigma once associated with job change, it can still be emotionally stressful. Job…

  10. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  11. Changes in Patterns of Health Care: Plus Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofalvi, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an update of Herman's article ["Changes in Patterns of Health Care," "School Health Review," 1(9-14)1969] that focuses on the changes in patterns of health care. He discusses the poverty, insurance, and access to medical care as well as the quality of medical care for adults and minors. He stresses that…

  12. Factors governing change in water withdrawals for U.S. industrial sectors from 1997 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A

    2014-03-18

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that U.S. water withdrawals have been steady since 1980, but the population and economy have grown since then. This implies that other factors have contributed to offsetting decreases in water withdrawals. Using water withdrawal data from USGS and economic data from Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), direct and total water withdrawals were estimated for 134 industrial summary sectors in the 1997 U.S. economic input-output (EIO) table and 136 industrial sectors in the 2002 EIO table. Using structural decomposition analysis (SDA), the change in water withdrawals for the economy from 1997 to 2002 was allocated to changes in population, GDP per capita, water use intensity, production structure, and consumption patterns. The changes in population, GDP per capita, and water use intensity led to increased water withdrawals, while the changes in production structure and consumption patterns decreased water withdrawals from 1997 to 2002. Consumption patterns change was the largest net contributor to the change in water withdrawals. The model was used to predict aggregate changes in total water withdrawals from 2002 to 2010 due to known changes in population and GDP per capita; a more complete model assessment must await release of updated data on USGS water withdrawals and EIO data.

  13. Metropolitan migration and labor market changes by industry.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, M M

    1984-07-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze gross [U.S.] metropolitan migration of persons employed in selected...industries. An empirically testable model was developed for migration, employment change, and earnings change and implemented using data from the Social Security Administration's ten percent Continuous Work History Sample. The results showed that a significant percentage of the migration flows can be explained by the variables in the model.... Differences in cyclic and structural economic variables are noted in terms of their importance across the specified industries. The public policy implications of these results are identified."

  14. Potential Changes in Disease Patterns and Pharmaceutical Use in Response to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Redshaw, Clare H.; Stahl-Timmins, Will M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Davidson, Iain; Depledge, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    As climate change alters environmental conditions, the incidence and global patterns of human diseases are changing. These modifications to disease profiles and the effects upon human pharmaceutical usage are discussed. Climate-related environmental changes are associated with a rise in the incidence of chronic diseases already prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere, for example, cardiovascular disease and mental illness, leading to greater use of associated heavily used Western medications. Sufferers of respiratory diseases may exhibit exacerbated symptoms due to altered environmental conditions (e.g., pollen). Respiratory, water-borne, and food-borne toxicants and infections, including those that are vector borne, may become more common in Western countries, central and eastern Asia, and across North America. As new disease threats emerge, substantially higher pharmaceutical use appears inevitable, especially of pharmaceuticals not commonly employed at present (e.g., antiprotozoals). The use of medications for the treatment of general symptoms (e.g., analgesics) will also rise. These developments need to be viewed in the context of other major environmental changes (e.g., industrial chemical pollution, biodiversity loss, reduced water and food security) as well as marked shifts in human demographics, including aging of the population. To identify, prevent, mitigate, and adapt to potential threats, one needs to be aware of the major factors underlying changes in the use of pharmaceuticals and their subsequent release, deliberately or unintentionally, into the environment. This review explores the likely consequences of climate change upon the use of medical pharmaceuticals in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:23909463

  15. Technological Change in the Auto Industry. CAW Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, David; Wareham, Jeff

    Today the auto industry is going through the most radical restructuring it has experienced since its birth. Included in this upheaval is a dramatic reorganization of the workplace, and technology has been both a catalyst and a central part of such change. The issues involved touch every facet of workplace life: job classifications and demarcation…

  16. Technological Change in Michigan's Tool and Die Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald N.

    This study was conducted to answer four questions about the tool and die industry in Michigan. These were: (1) What are the current production techniques? (2) To what extent are these industrialists aware of new technologies? (3) What technical and economic factors affect technological change? and (4) To what extent will new technologies replace…

  17. Changing Skills in Metalworking Industries: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchiers, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Transformations in the French metalworking industries have given rise to numerous studies on employment and job content in metallurgy over the past decade. One study related technical transformations to changes in the skills content of certain categories of workers. Although automation results in the elimination of certain know-how belonging to an…

  18. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  19. When Industries Change: The Future of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, David

    2001-01-01

    Factors altering the higher education industry include radical change in the type of students, necessity of lifetime education, and new technologies. These factors are increasing the entry of private-sector players. Strategic university responses may be strengthening of accreditation, cost-cutting and efficiency measures, horizontal…

  20. The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W

    1978-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images PMID:632824

  1. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.; Keegan, P.

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  2. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  3. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    SciTech Connect

    Koleff, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  4. Changing patterns and progress in venereology.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the philosophy of modern concepts on venereology, the control and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There is a basis in professional education, based on evidence based medicine. From that follows a much wider dissemination to the public on the personal and community aspects of STIs. The World Wide Web has had profound effects on rapid developments in this field. STIs are more frequent in some groups in the general population. Epidemiological trends in STIs from the United States and Europe are described. Interventions to prevent the spread of STIs not only by changing personal preventive behavior but through research based on applied medical science, such as developments in chemotherapy and vaccines, already efficacious to prevent hepatitis A and B and some genital human papilloma virus infections, should be pursued. Venereology, as a major component of dermatovenereology, not only encompasses all of pathology, internal medicine, and therapeutics, but also, most importantly, sexual behavior and its consequences as part of humanity. It also has a major role in community medicine and public health, where the world of medicine meets politics and the media. Sexually transmitted infections have always affected human beings. If STIs are not prevented, not only are there the immediate consequences requiring medical intervention, but also long term results of chronic morbidity, such as infertility in women and congenital syphilis, and in some instances, such as syphilis, viral hepatitis, genital human papilloma virus infection and its neoplastic sequaelae, and HIV/AIDS, an early death.

  5. Climate Change Risk Appraisal in the Austrian Ski Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfsegger, C.

    2009-04-01

    Ski tourism is an economically and culturally important industry in many parts of Europe. A growing number of studies in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia have concluded that climate change has potentially serious implications for the sustainability of ski operations by reducing the average length of ski seasons and, where applicable, increasing snowmaking costs. To date, however, the climate change risk awareness and adaptive responses of stakeholders in the ski industry have not been examined. A survey of managers at low elevation ski areas in Austria was undertaken to explore their perceptions of climate change (past and future), how climate change had/will affect their operations, and their adaptive responses (past and planned). The results indicate that climate change is not perceived to be a serious threat to ski operations and that with technological adaptation, principally snowmaking, ski area managers believe they will be able to effectively cope with climate change in the 21st century. The consequences of these perceptions for the future operation of these ski areas are discussed and conclusions drawn for the future of ski tourism in Austria.

  6. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  7. Stability and Change in Patterns of Coping with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Leslie D.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how Parkinson's disease patients cope with disease-related stressors over time. Of interest was whether patterns of coping would support a dispositional model of coping (i.e., stability) or a contextual model of coping (i.e., change). The influence of stability and change in coping on mental and physical health outcomes was…

  8. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth

    This report, one of a series on Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education, examines important changes in the funding for higher education in England during the 1970s and 1980s. Until the early 1970s, English universities were funded by quinquennial grants from the government through the University Grants Committee; the public sector…

  9. Patterns of Individual Adjustment Changes During Middle School Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, HyunHee; Elias, Maurice; Schneider, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the patterns of individual adjustment changes in a sample of 99 early adolescents during an ecological transition from elementary school to middle school. Shows significant changes in adjustment as indicated by increased psychological distress or decreased academic achievement. Examines gender differences. Presents implications for…

  10. University-Industry Collaboration: Patterns of Growth for Low- and Middle-Level Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Brint, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Following landmark legislation passed more than 20 years ago, university-industry relationships have now become central to understanding the changing role of research universities in American Society. The paper analyzes the development of university-industry partnerships during the 1990s. Past studies have used a broad array of measures of ties…

  11. Fragmented patterns of flood change across the United States.

    PubMed

    Archfield, S A; Hirsch, R M; Viglione, A; Blöschl, G

    2016-10-16

    Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties. Yet group membership shows only weak geographic cohesion. Lack of geographic cohesion is further demonstrated by weak correlations between the temporal patterns of flood change and large-scale climate indices. These findings reveal a complex, fragmented pattern of flood change that, therefore, clouds the ability to make meaningful generalizations about flood change across the United States.

  12. Fragmented patterns of flood change across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties. Yet group membership shows only weak geographic cohesion. Lack of geographic cohesion is further demonstrated by weak correlations between the temporal patterns of flood change and large-scale climate indices. These findings reveal a complex, fragmented pattern of flood change that, therefore, clouds the ability to make meaningful generalizations about flood change across the United States.

  13. Fragmented patterns of flood change across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archfield, S. A.; Hirsch, R. M.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2016-10-01

    Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties. Yet group membership shows only weak geographic cohesion. Lack of geographic cohesion is further demonstrated by weak correlations between the temporal patterns of flood change and large-scale climate indices. These findings reveal a complex, fragmented pattern of flood change that, therefore, clouds the ability to make meaningful generalizations about flood change across the United States.

  14. Fragmented patterns of flood change across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, R. M.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties. Yet group membership shows only weak geographic cohesion. Lack of geographic cohesion is further demonstrated by weak correlations between the temporal patterns of flood change and large‐scale climate indices. These findings reveal a complex, fragmented pattern of flood change that, therefore, clouds the ability to make meaningful generalizations about flood change across the United States. PMID:27917010

  15. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production.

  16. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  17. Optical and SAR data integration for automatic change pattern detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, B.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Automatic change pattern mapping in urban and sub-urban area is important but challenging due to the diversity of urban land use pattern. With multi-sensor imagery, it is possible to generate multidimensional unique information of Earth surface features that allow developing a relationship between a response of each feature to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical sensors to track the change automatically. Thus, a SAR and optical data integration framework for change detection and a relationship for automatic change pattern detection were developed. It was carried out in three steps: (i) Computation of indicators from SAR and optical images, namely: normalized difference ratio (NDR) from multi-temporal SAR images and the normalized difference vegetation index difference (NDVI) from multi-temporal optical images, (ii) computing the change magnitude image from NDR and ΔNDVI and delineating the change area and (iii) the development of an empirical relationship, for automatic change pattern detection. The experiment was carried out in an outskirts part of Ho Chi Minh City, one of the fastest growing cities in the world. The empirical relationship between the response of surface feature to optical and SAR imagery has successfully delineated six changed classes in a very complex urban sprawl area that was otherwise impossible with multi-spectral imagery. The improvement of the change detection results by making use of the unique information on both sensors, optical and SAR, is also noticeable with a visual inspection and the kappa index was increased by 0.13 (0.75 to 0.88) in comparison to only optical images.

  18. Wildfire patterns and landscape changes in Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    PubMed

    Guiomar, N; Godinho, S; Fernandes, P M; Machado, R; Neves, N; Fernandes, J P

    2015-12-01

    Fire is infrequent in the oak woodlands of southern Portugal (montado) but large and severe fires affected these agro-forestry systems in 2003-2005. We hypothesised transition from forest to shrubland as a fire-driven process and investigated the links between fire incidence and montado change to other land cover types, particularly those related with the presence of pioneer communities (generically designed in this context as "transitions to early-successional communities"). We present a landscape-scale framework for assessing the probability of transition from montado to pioneer communities, considering three sets of explanatory variables: montado patterns in 1990 and prior changes from montado to early-successional communities (occurred between 1960 and 1990), fire patterns, and spatial factors. These three sets of factors captured 78.2% of the observed variability in the transitions from montado to pioneer vegetation. The contributions of fire patterns and spatial factors were high, respectively 60.6% and 43.4%, the influence of montado patterns and former changes in montado being lower (34.4%). The highest amount of explained variation in the occurrence of transitions from montado to early-successional communities was related to the pure effect of fire patterns (19.9%). Low spatial connectedness in montado landscape can increase vulnerability to changes, namely to pioneer vegetation, but the observed changes were mostly explained by fire characteristics and spatial factors. Among all metrics used to characterize fire patterns and extent, effective mesh size provided the best modelling results. Transitions from montado to pioneer communities are more likely in the presence of high values of the effective mesh size of total burned area. This cross-boundary metric is an indicator of the influence of large fires in the distribution of the identified transitions and, therefore, we conclude that the occurrence of large fires in montado increases its probability of

  19. Changes of multispectral soil patterns with increasing crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data and automatic data processing were used to map surface soil patterns and to follow the changes in multispectral radiation from a field of maize (Zea mays L.) during a period from seeding to maturity. Panchromatic aerial photography was obtained in early May 1970 and multispectral scanner missions were flown on May 6, June 30, August 11 and September 5, 1970 to obtain energy measurements in 13 wavelength bands. The orange portion of the visible spectrum was used in analyzing the May and June data to cluster relative radiance of the soils into eight different radiance levels. The reflective infrared spectral band was used in analyzing the August and September data to cluster maize into different spectral categories. The computer-produced soil patterns had a striking similarity to the soil pattern of the aerial photograph. These patterns became less distinct as the maize canopy increased.

  20. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  1. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  2. Changing Patterns of Cultural Imperialism in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, John

    Using Belize, Central America, as an example, this paper illustrates some of the changing patterns of cultural imperialism that can presently be viewed in the emerging nations of the world. Cultural imperialism is defined as the process whereby the culture of a weaker nation is dominated by that of a stronger nation. In September 1981, Belize,…

  3. Patterns of Change in Prisonization: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Geoffrey P.

    1979-01-01

    Research on prisonization has traditionally analyzed cross-sectional data testing either the importation or deprivation model. This investigation incorporates a longitudinal research design to analyze patterns of change in prisonization. Variables including individual status factors, prisoner status factors, factors specific to present…

  4. Spatial Patterns in Antibiotic Resistance among Stream Bacteria: Effects of Industrial Pollution

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, J Vaun; Tuckfield, R. Cary

    2000-01-01

    The spatial distribution of antibiotic resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was examined in natural bacterial communities of two streams. The proportion of resistant bacteria was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in the midreaches of an industrially perturbed stream, but no such pattern was apparent in an undisturbed reference stream. The highest relative frequency of resistance was found at the confluence of a tributary draining a nuclear reactor and industrial complex. Antibiotic resistance increased with distance upstream from the confluence and was positively correlated (r2 = 0.54, P = 0.023) with mercury concentrations in the sediments. When the data for two years were compared, this pattern was stable for streptomycin resistance (paired t test, P < 0.05) but not for kanamycin resistance (P > 0.05). Our results imply that heavy metal pollution may contribute to increased antibiotic resistance through indirect selection. PMID:10966382

  5. Brain development and aging: Overlapping and unique patterns of change

    PubMed Central

    Tamnes, Christian K.; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Dale, Anders M.; Østby, Ylva; Grydeland, Håkon; Richardson, George; Westlye, Lars T.; Roddey, J. Cooper; Hagler, Donald J.; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Holland, Dominic; Fjell, Anders M.

    2017-01-01

    Early-life development is characterized by dramatic changes, impacting lifespan function more than changes inany other period. Developmental origins of neurocognitive late-life functions are acknowledged, but detailed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain maturation and direct comparisons with aging are lacking. To these aims, a novel method was used to measure longitudinal volume changes in development (n = 85, 8–22 years) and aging (n = 142, 60–91 years). Developmental reductions exceeded 1% annually in much of cortex, more than double that seen in aging, with a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Cortical reductions were greater than subcortical during development, while the opposite held in aging. The pattern of lateral cortical changes was similar across development and aging, but the pronounced medial temporal reduction in aging was not precast in development. Converging patterns of change in adolescents and elderly, particularly in medial prefrontal areas, suggest that late developed cortices are especially vulnerable to atrophy in aging. A key question in future research will be to disentangle the neurobiological underpinnings for the differences and the similarities between brain changes in development and aging. PMID:23246860

  6. Analysis of weather patterns for attribution of changes in floods to anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Aline; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Detection of changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of floods has been extensively carried out for many river basins worldwide. However, little effort has been made so far to attribute these changes to certain drivers such as climate change, changes in land use, catchment properties, or river training. The knowledge of reasons behind observed changes is essential in order to better quantify related risks and to be able to adapt to changing flood risks or to take action to reduce them. As climate change is assumed to be a significant driver of changes in the past decades and near future, the contribution of climate change to changes in floods is of great interest. To quantify the flood risk attributable to climate change, a hydrological model can be run with different climate input - weather time series representing the observed climate or a climate without the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (non-GHG). These two different states of the climate system are assumed to be represented in the occurrence of weather patterns. Each weather pattern can be linked to an individual distribution of values of weather variables (e.g. precipitation, temperature, etc.). This link can be established by first applying a weather pattern classification scheme to large-scale gridded observations, and secondly deriving the distribution of values of weather variables that were observed locally during the same weather pattern occurrence. After applying the weather pattern classification scheme to the GCM output as well, values for weather variables can be drawn from the derived distributions, resulting in new weather time series for local stations. The derivation of weather patterns and establishment of a link to local weather variables is presented in this contribution.

  7. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  9. Temporal patterns in rates of community change during succession.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristina J

    2007-06-01

    While ecological dogma holds that rates of community change decrease over the course of succession, this idea has yet to be tested systematically across a wide variety of successional sequences. Here, I review and define several measures of community change rates for species presence-absence data and test for temporal patterns therein using data acquired from 16 studies comprising 62 successional sequences. Community types include plant secondary and primary succession as well as succession of arthropods on defaunated mangrove islands and carcasses. Rates of species gain generally decline through time, whereas rates of species loss display no systematic temporal trends. As a result, percent community turnover generally declines while species richness increases--both in a decelerating manner. Although communities with relatively minor abiotic and dispersal limitations (e.g., plant secondary successional communities) exhibit rapidly declining rates of change, limitations arising from harsh abiotic conditions or spatial isolation of the community appear to substantially alter temporal patterns in rates of successional change.

  10. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  11. Patterns of Change in Marital Satisfaction Over the Newlywed Years

    PubMed Central

    Lavner, Justin A.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Although marital satisfaction starts high and declines for the average newlywed, some spouses may follow qualitatively distinct trajectories. Using eight self-reports of satisfaction collected over 4 years from 464 newlywed spouses, we identified five trajectory groups, including patterns defined by high intercepts and no declines in satisfaction, moderate intercepts and minimal declines, and low intercepts and substantial declines. The groups varied systematically in their 4- and 10-year divorce rates, and wives tended to follow more satisfying trajectories than their husbands. Personality traits, stress, aggression, and communication behaviors assessed shortly after marriage discriminated among groups in expected directions. We conclude by outlining theoretical and practical implications of identifying distinct and predictable patterns of change in relationship satisfaction. PMID:21116452

  12. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  13. Real-time optical fiber digital speckle pattern interferometry for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Robert K.; Cheung, Y. M.; Lo, C. H.; Tam, T. K.

    1997-03-01

    There is current interest, especially in the industrial sector, to use the digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) technique to measure surface stress. Indeed, many publications in the subject are evident of the growing interests in the field. However, to bring the technology to industrial use requires the integration of several emerging technologies, viz. optics, feedback control, electronics, imaging processing and digital signal processing. Due to the highly interdisciplinary nature of the technique, successful implementation and development require expertise in all of the fields. At Baptist University, under the funding of a major industrial grant, we are developing the technology for the industrial sector. Our system fully exploits optical fibers and diode lasers in the design to enable practical and rugged systems suited for industrial applications. Besides the development in optics, we have broken away from the reliance of a microcomputer PC platform for both image capture and processing, and have developed a digital signal processing array system that can handle simultaneous and independent image capture/processing with feedback control. The system, named CASPA for 'cascadable architecture signal processing array,' is a third generation development system that utilizes up to 7 digital signal processors has proved to be a very powerful system. With our CASPA we are now in a better position to developing novel optical measurement systems for industrial application that may require different measurement systems to operate concurrently and requiring information exchange between the systems. Applications in mind such as simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane DSPI image capture/process, vibrational analysis with interactive DSPI and phase shifting control of optical systems are a few good examples of the potentials.

  14. The Epidemiologic Transition: Changing Patterns of Mortality and Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiologic transition describes changing patterns of population age distributions, mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and causes of death. A number of critiques of the theory have revealed limitations, including an insufficient account of the role of poverty in determining disease risk and mortality, a failure to distinguish adequately the risk of dying from a given cause or set of causes from the relative contributions of various causes of death to overall mortality, and oversimplification of the transition patterns, which do not fit neatly into either historical periods or geographic locations. Recent developments in epidemiologic methods reveal other limitations. A life course perspective prompts examination of changes in causal pathways across the life span when considering shifts in the age distribution of a population as described by the epidemiologic transition theory. The ecological model assumes multiple levels of determinants acting in complex and interrelated ways, with higher level determinants exhibiting emergent properties. Development, testing, and implementation of innovative approaches to reduce the risks associated with the sedentary lifestyle and hyper nutrition in developed countries should not overshadow the continuing threat from infectious diseases, especially resistant strains or newly encountered agents. Interventions must fit populations and the threats to health they experience, while anticipating changes that will emerge with success in some areas. This will require new ways of thinking that go beyond the epidemiologic transition theory. PMID:20161566

  15. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  16. Can soil change be assessed for the Victorian dairy industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarons, Sharon R.; Crawford, Douglas; Imhof, Mark; Gourley, Cameron

    2015-07-01

    Meeting the increased demand for dairy products will require careful management of soils to minimise land degradation and sustain increased production. Key to providing farmers with the tools to manage their soils sustainably, is firstly understanding the soil types currently managed by dairy farmers, and secondly quantifying changes in soil properties in response to management. The Victorian Land Use Information System was interrogated to identify dairy land parcels and these data overlaid on soil survey information to identify the dominant soil orders managed by dairy farmers in the three dairy regions of Victoria. Of the approximately 590,000 hectares of dairy land identified across the state, Sodosols (33%), Chromosols (20%), Dermosols (16%), and Vertosols (11%) are the major soil Orders represented, although the dominant soil Orders vary for each region. Legacy data from research and extension activities undertaken between 1995 and 2010 were collated to understand regional differences in dairy soil properties. All soil properties were significantly and positively skewed with higher median pH, EC and available K in northern Victorian soils. Further analysis compared the 1995 to 2010 data with data from samples analysed by the government analytical laboratory between 1973 and 1980 to assess any differences over 38 years. The older soil chemical data were also positively skewed but had lower median soil pH, Olsen P and available K, consistent with the greater use of inputs by the industry in more recent years.

  17. Action Generation Model Based on Changes in State Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouko, Manabu; Tomi, Naoki; Nagano, Tomoaki; Ito, Koji

    In this paper, we propose a self-organized learning model that can generate behaviors for successfully performing various tasks. The model memorizes various relationships between changes in a state pattern and a motor command through learning. After the learning, the model can perform various tasks by generating the various behaviors automatically. We confirmed the performance of the model by applying it to a mobile robot simulation. The results indicate that suitable behaviors for all the tasks generated spontaneously. Additionally, we propose a sequential learning method which modifies the memorized various relationships while the model executes the task. And we confirmed the effectiveness of the sequential learning by the simulation.

  18. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Kwadijk, J. C. J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B and control experiment 20C3M) are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. This reveals in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that have a high likelihood and are consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1) the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2) the quantification of notable consistent changes calculated relative to the GCM specific natural variability. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions the likelihood of hydrological change is large. Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases strongly for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube while discharge of monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  19. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Kwadijk, J. C. J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2011-12-01

    This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B, and control experiment 20C3M) are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. We reveal in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that are significant and consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1) the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2) the quantification of consistent significant change calculatesd relative to both the natural variability and the inter-model spread. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions likelihood of hydrological change is large. Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases are large for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube. While discharge of Monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  20. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  1. Energy use patterns and environmental implications of direct-fired industrial processes. Final report 16 June-19 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, J.R.; Blacksmith, J.R.; Spaite, P.W.

    1980-08-01

    Energy consumption patterns and environmental impacts of direct-fired processes in the industrial sector were identified. The potential effects of fuel switching in several of these processes were determined. An extensive bibliography lists the sources consulted in this study.

  2. Innovative semielliptical seismic pattern improving line-change efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walus, Artur; Gucma, Lucjan; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a new method for conducting turns by vessels towing seismic cables. A comparison was made between the traditional way of turning to indicate the advantages of the proposed pattern. In order to improve the overview of the complete geometry of a towed streamer system, a model of marine seismic research quality coefficients was applied. The turning method was tested onboard a seismic vessel towing eight streamers of 6 km in length. A significant reduction of time required for line-change was achieved (up to 45 % depending on ocean current speed and direction, speed of the vessel, skills of navigating team). The introduced quality coefficient of geophysical research works is based on the mathematical model of positions deviation of streamers geophones with relation to their idealized position. The model was created to be used while the vessel is on a steady course to improve the quality of acquired data; however, it was found useful during line changes as well.

  3. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions.

  4. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.

    2017-02-01

    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  5. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  6. Changing Manufacturing Technology and Jobs in Defense Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Richard P.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on the current status of computer-assisted manufacturing, current employment, and plans for new technology in three defense-related industries: aircraft, shipbuilding, and ordnance. (SK)

  7. Can Lean Manufacturing Change the Aerospace Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    In times of decreasing orders, increasing overhead costs and fewer customers, lean manufacturing techniques may allow the aerospace defense industry...industry has shown lean manufacturing techniques can substantially reduce costs, cut development time, and produce a better product than mass production. The...Program, and the Lean Aircraft Initiative. European defense companies are also implementing the principles of lean manufacturing with results well worth noting.

  8. High Level Manpower and Technological Change in the Steel Industry: Implications for Corporate Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, Dale L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that high level manpower plays in the establishment of new technologies at the plant and industry level. The steel industry was selected as an appropriate industry to approach these questions due to: its considerable technological changes; its straightforward, easier-to-understand technology; its…

  9. The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the speed of change in diet, activity, and obesity in the developing world, and notes potential exacerbating biological relationships that contribute to differences in the rates of change. The focus is on lower- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. These dietary, physical activity, and body composition changes are occurring at great speed and at earlier stages of these countries' economic and social development. There are some unique issues that relate to body composition and potential genetic factors that are also explored, including potential differences in body mass index (BMI)--disease relationships and added risks posed by high levels of poor fetal and infant growth patterns. In addition there is an important dynamic occurring--the shift in the burden of poor diets, inactivity and obesity from the rich to the poor. The developing world needs to give far greater emphasis to addressing the prevention of the adverse health consequences of this shift to the nutrition transition stage of the degenerative diseases.

  10. Facilitating Adaptation to Changing Storm Surge Patterns in Western Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Holman, A.; Reynolds, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal regions of North America are already experiencing the effects of climate change and the consequences of new storm patterns and sea level rise. These climate change effects are even more pronounced in western Alaska where the loss of sea ice in early winter and spring are exposing the coast to powerful winter storms that are visibly altering the landscape, putting coastal communities at risk, and are likely impacting important coastal wildlife habitat in ways we don't yet understand. The Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative has funded a suite of projects to improve the information available to assist managers and communities to adapt changes in coastal storms and their impacts. Projects range from modeling tide, wave and storm surge patters, to ShoreZone and NHD mapping, to bathymetry mapping, community vulnerability assessments and risks to important wildlife habitat. This group of diverse projects has helped stimulate momentum among partners which will lead to better tools for communities to respond to dangerous storms. For example, the State of Alaska and NOAA are working together to compile a series of community-scale maps that utilize best-available datasets to streamline communication about forecasted storm surges, local elevations and potentially impacted infrastructure during storm events that may lead to coastal flooding.

  11. Changing fertility patterns and policies in the third world.

    PubMed

    Mcnicoll, G

    1992-01-01

    Different patterns of fertilty transition are apparent in developing countries. Theories of fertility decline are appropriate because demographic analysis has become situation specific rather than general. Pretransition fertility patterns and the onset of decline are provided. Fertility transition patterns are also supplied, including a regional overview for Latin America, east and Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. The specialized cases of China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Indonesia, and Brazil are also presented. The fertility determinant models of Bongaarts, Davis and Blake, Hobcraft and Little, Ryder, and Henry are used as examples of proximate determinant models. Data collection was possible on a grand scale with contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys and the World Fertility Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Criticism has focused on the scope of these surveys which provide at best proximate determinants and differentiate fertility by standard socioeconomic factors. Data are also obtained on small populations from piecing together records and from quasi-anthropological fieldwork. Historical demography relies on family reconstitution. Longitudinal studies are few in number. The largest and most effective fieldwork station is at Matlab in Bangladesh. Caldwell has provided anthropological methods applicable to fertility study and makes use of teamwork. In Latin America, fertility has fallen by 40% since the 1960s. Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Haiti have changed very little. Taiwan and South Korea provide examples of economic growth with equity in East and Southeast Asia. In heterogenous South Asia, decline has been slow and uneven. West Asia and North Africa have high fertility with the exception of Egypt which is in the early stages of transition. The smallest declines are found in sub-Saharan Africa, and are complicated by the AIDS epidemic.

  12. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Results Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems. PMID:24423020

  13. Change of radiation pattern in a plasma monopole antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Shokri, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have numerically solved the dispersion equation of the surface wave propagating on a uniform collisional plasma column. The electric field and surface current distributions have been computed in different situations. We have investigated the effect of plasma frequency variation on the spatial distribution of the surface current. Results show that varying the electron density of the plasma column enables the plasma column to work as a plasma monopole antenna with a fixed geometrical structure and excited frequency which is able to create different radiation patterns. Our numerical analysis also shows that a little change in the radius of the plasma column has a strong influence on the current distribution at the excited frequency in RF region. This effect can be ignored in the usual (metallic) antenna while it is very important in designing of the plasma monopole antenna.

  14. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  15. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  16. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  17. The changing structure of energy industries in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.

    1986-01-01

    Britain is fortunate in its abundant energy reserves. It has coal reserves of 45 billion tonnes, or a 300-year supply at current rates of use. Oil and gas reserves are up to 5000 million and 1800 million tonnes of oil equivalent, respectively. In addition, Britain has a substantial electricity industry with a sizable nuclear component. Alone among major Western industrialized countries, Britain is effectively self-sufficient in energy, with a sustained, major program to increase the efficiency of energy use. But this self-sufficiency in energy is temporary. Unless oil and gas reserves prove markedly greater than estimated, Britain in the next century will again become a significant net importer of energy. This shift requires development of appropriate energy, economic, industrial, and social policies to ensure that the imported energy is used to strengthen the basis of the economy.

  18. Attribution of changes in precipitation patterns in African rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E.; Jones, R. G.; Halladay, K.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    circulation model (AGCM) simulations within the weather@home project, and analysing statistics of precipitation in the dry season of the Congo Basin rainforests. Because observed data sets in that region are of very poor quality we show how validation methods not only relying on such data have been used to investigate the applicability of PEA analysis from large model ensembles to this tropical region. Additionally we will present results for the same region but generated with a very large ensemble of regional climate simulations which allows analysing the importance of a realistic simulation of small scale precipitation processes for attribution studies in a tropical climate. We highlight that PEA analysis has the potential to provide valuable scientific evidence of recent or anticipated climatological changes in the water cycle, especially in regions with sparse observational data and unclear projections of future changes. However, the strong influence of SST tele-connection patterns on tropical precipitation provides more challenges in the set-up of attribution studies than studies on mid-latitude rainfall.

  19. Changes in the North American ferroalloys industry structure and trends in the industry during the past 20 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Didaleusky, J.R.; Jorgenson, J.D.; Corathers, L.A.; Fenton, M.D.; Kuck, P.H.; Papp, J.F.; Polyak, D.E.; Shedd, Kim B.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis of changes in the North American (Canada, Mexico, and the United States) ferroalloys industry between 1987 and 2007 includes the locations and types of ferroalloy plants in North America and the changes in production, imports, exports, pricing, and the structure of ownership since 1987, which was just prior to the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Significant events affect the supply of and demand for North American ferroalloys -- changes in end uses, global industry structure, political stability, and technology. Mergers and acquisitions in the ferroalloys industries of North America and their impact on trade are other significant issues in international trade as are antidumping and countervailing duty orders, and trade agreements and policies related to ferroalloys occurring during this period and affecting the North American region. Raw materials and energy supply to the ferroalloy industry, the logistics involved in the trade of North American ferroalloys, and the use of ferroalloys within major downstream industries are also important factors. Emphasis is placed on the bulk ferroalloys—ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferrosilicon, and silicomanganese. Other ferroalloys investigated include those of boron, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, titanium, tungsten, and vanadium.

  20. Profile Change When Industry Moves Into an Area. Working Paper RID 73.7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John T., Jr.

    The effects of industrialization on the economic and social profile of a rural community are described in this paper. Some of the major changes when industry moves into a community are in the land use and support systems such as an increase in the demand for water, energy, and waste disposal. Other changes are in the labor force, retail sales and…

  1. Industrial age to information age organizations: Changing business ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.

  2. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among…

  3. Process Innovation and Changes in Industrial Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    American industry in the 19th century switched from wood to coal as its primary energy resource. The history of this switch is reviewed, along with the history of preceding similar trends in Europe and later trends in the switch from coal to oil and gas. (Author/MA)

  4. [The effect of new industries on changes in population].

    PubMed

    Meng, C; Zou, N

    1985-05-29

    Since 1978, China's Qionggang township (population, 8023; area, 3 sq. km), traditionally a fishing village on Jiangsu province's Huanghai coast, has been investing its local capital in an effort to establish several industrial enterprises including its own full-time local labor force. Currently, the rapidly expanding factory work force exceeds the number of fishermen. In addition to providing a statistically detailed chronology of the socioeconomic transition from a small fishing settlement to a rapidly growing industrial town, free-time activities, educational pursuits, and life styles of the newly formed labor force are discussed. From 1981 to 1983, Qionggang's industrial sector produced 4 metal vessels which were delivered directly to the town's fishing sector. With the town's newly generated economic wealth, commercial and public service facilities (i.e., a hospital, a kindergarten, several stores, a bank, and a credit union) have emerged. The economic development of Qionggang township has inspired other rural villages to clear and develop nearby land for similar industrial growth.

  5. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  6. Behavioral transitions and weight change patterns within the PREMIER trial.

    PubMed

    Bartfield, Jessica K; Stevens, Victor J; Jerome, Gerald J; Batch, Bryan C; Kennedy, Betty M; Vollmer, William M; Harsha, David; Appel, Lawrence J; Desmond, Renee; Ard, Jamy D

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the transition in behaviors from short-term weight loss to maintenance of weight loss. We wanted to determine how short-term and long-term weight loss and patterns of weight change were associated with intervention behavioral targets. This analysis includes overweight/obese participants in active treatment (n = 507) from the previously published PREMIER trial, an 18-month, multicomponent lifestyle intervention for blood pressure reduction, including 33 intervention sessions and recommendations to self-monitor food intake and physical activity daily. Associations between behaviors (attendance, recorded days/week of physical activity, food records/week) and weight loss of ≥5% at 6 and 18 months were examined using logistic regression. We characterized the sample using 5 weight change categories (weight gained, weight stable, weight loss then relapse, late weight loss, and weight loss then maintenance) and analyzed adherence to the behaviors for each category, comparing means with ANOVA. Participants lost an average of 5.3 ± 5.6 kg at 6 months and 4.0 ± 6.7 kg (4.96% of body weight) by 18 months. Higher levels of attendance, food record completion, and recorded days/week of physical activity were associated with increasing odds of achieving 5% weight loss. All weight change groups had declines in the behaviors over time; however, compared to the other four groups, the weight loss/maintenance group (n = 154) had statistically less significant decline in number of food records/week (48%), recorded days/week of physical activity (41.7%), and intervention sessions attended (12.8%) through 18 months. Behaviors associated with short-term weight loss continue to be associated with long-term weight loss, albeit at lower frequencies. Minimizing the decline in these behaviors may be important in achieving long-term weight loss.

  7. Tolerance adaptation and precipitation changes complicate latitudinal patterns of climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2010-07-13

    Global patterns of biodiversity and comparisons between tropical and temperate ecosystems have pervaded ecology from its inception. However, the urgency in understanding these global patterns has been accentuated by the threat of rapid climate change. We apply an adaptive model of environmental tolerance evolution to global climate data and climate change model projections to examine the relative impacts of climate change on different regions of the globe. Our results project more adverse impacts of warming on tropical populations due to environmental tolerance adaptation to conditions of low interannual variability in temperature. When applied to present variability and future forecasts of precipitation data, the tolerance adaptation model found large reductions in fitness predicted for populations in high-latitude northern hemisphere regions, although some tropical regions had comparable reductions in fitness. We formulated an evolutionary regional climate change index (ERCCI) to additionally incorporate the predicted changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. Based on this index, we suggest that the magnitude of climate change impacts could be much more heterogeneous across latitude than previously thought. Specifically, tropical regions are likely to be just as affected as temperate regions and, in some regions under some circumstances, possibly more so.

  8. Analysis of Prison Industries and Recommendations for Change. Study of the Economic and Rehabilitative Aspects of Prison Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This volume presents a study undertaken in Connecticut to identify short-term and long-term strategies for changing prison industries into self-supporting labor systems while simultaneously promoting the rehabilitation of prison inmates. Individual tasks performed as part of the study include a job market survey, an inmate manpower survey, and a…

  9. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  10. Changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities using revised Bethesda system

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, Shagufta T.; Altaf, Fadwa J

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In developing countries and worldwide cervical cancer is an important cause of female mortality. Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in Saudi Arabia, using the revised Bethesda system (RBS) are very few. The current study was conducted to explore the changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) detected in Pap smears (PS) in females of the Western region of Saudi Arabia at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah using the RBS. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was designed to review all the PSs from the archives of Cytopathology Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, starting from January 2000 to October 2012 using RBS. Cytological aspects of PSs were reviewed with age distribution. Results: Of the 15805 PS, 84 (0.53%) unsatisfactory smears were excluded. There were 2295 cases (14.52%) with ECA. In the abnormal squamous cell category the distribution of lesions was as follows: Atypical squamous cells of indeterminate significance (ASC-US) were 7.1%; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) were 1.08%; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) including human papillomavirus was 2.2%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was 0.8% and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with suspicious invasion was 0.06% smears. The mean age (MA) incidence was 39,43,45,46 and 45 years respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of abnormal PS is increasing (14.52%) over the last decade. This increase is evident by different studies conducted across Saudi Arabia. Under present circumstances the need for mass screening. PMID:25729547

  11. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel.

  12. Cultural ecology of dietary change accompanying changing activity patterns among the Shipibo

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, C.A.

    1986-12-01

    Shipibo Indians, who formed a village to establish a school and health clinic, are gradually depleting local fish and game resources. Men, recently adopting rice as a cash crop, tend to fish and hunt less than other men working only their subsistence gardens. Sale of fish and game in the village is becoming common, and pigs, once raised exclusively for sale to non-Shipibo, are now more regularly eaten and used for attracting agricultural labor. Other research has indicated that cash cropping often competes for workers' time in subsistence and so dietary change usually accompanies changing activity patterns. This paper explores the latter possibility by examining the relationship between cash cropping, wild meat procurement, and diet among the Shipibo. Time allocation and food consumption data are analyzed statistically to test a mathematical theory and model which relates indigenous work patterns to diet.

  13. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed.

  14. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular proteomes of the Penicillium chrysogenum throughout pilot and industrial processes were investigated by using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, respectively. We detected a total of 223 spots corresponding to 154 proteins and 231 spots corresponding to 157 proteins throughout pilot and industrial processes, respectively. The levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (5.1- and 2.5-fold) under the pilot process, while its levels were no significant changes under the industrial process at 140 and 170 h when compared with that at 2 h. The levels of isocitrate lyase and fumarate hydratase were increased significantly under the industrial process, while their levels had no obvious changes after 20 h of fermentation throughout the pilot process. These results indicate that there were remarkable differences in carbohydrate metabolism (including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) of P. chrysogenum during the pilot and industrial fermentations, which likely result in alterations of the primary metabolism and penicillin biosynthesis. Moreover, the differences in the levels of proteins involved in amino acid metabolisms (including valine, cysteine, and α-aminoadipic acid biosynthesis) indicated that the pilot and industrial processes influenced the supplies of penicillin precursors. Compared with that at 2 h, the maximum levels of superoxide (6.9-fold, at 32 h) and catalase (9-fold, at 80 h) during the industrial process and the maximum levels of superoxide (1.2-fold, at 20 h) and catalase (7.7-fold at 128 h) during the pilot process revealed the significant difference in cell redox homeostasis and stress responses during scale-up fermentation. Particularly, 10 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N synthetase and 4 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N (IPN) acyltransferase in pilot and industrial processes were identified, respectively. The levels of IPN acyltransferase (spots

  15. Changing migratory patterns in the Jackson elk herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Eric K.; Foley, Aaron M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Bruce L.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Brimeyer, Douglas G.; Fairbanks, W. Sue; Sawyer, Hall; Cross, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory behavior in ungulates has declined globally and understanding the causative factors (environmental change vs. human mediated) is needed to formulate effective management strategies. In the Jackson elk herd of northwest Wyoming, demographic differences between summer elk (Cervus elaphus) population segments have led to changes in migratory patterns over a 35-year time period. The proportion of short-distance migrants (SDM) has increased and the proportion of long-distance migrants (LDM) has concurrently declined. The probability of winter-captured elk on the National Elk Refuge being LDM decreased from 0.99 (95% CI = 0.97–1.00) to 0.59 (95% CI = 0.47–0.70) from 1978 to 2012. We tested 4 hypotheses that could contribute toward the decline in the LDM segment: behavioral switching from LDM to SDM, differential survival, harvest availability, and calf recruitment. Switching rates from LDM to SDM were very low (0.2% each elk-year). Survival rates were similar between LDM and SDM, although harvest availability was relatively low for SDM that tended to use areas close to human development during the hunting season. Average summer calf/cow ratios of LDM declined from 42 to 23 calves per 100 cows from 1978–1984 to 2006–2012. Further, during 2006–2012, LDM summer calf/cow ratios were less than half of SDM (23 vs. 47 calves per 100 cows). Our data suggest recruitment is the driving factor behind the declining proportion of LDM in this region. Effectiveness of altering harvest management strategies to conserve the LDM portion of the Jackson elk herd may be limited.

  16. Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Leon, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The number of smokers in developing countries is expected to increase as markets in high income countries begin to decline and multinational tobacco companies shift their marketing efforts to lower income countries. We determined the prevalence and distribution of smoking in a cross-sectional study of 1,015 urban civil servants in Accra, Ghana (82.7% participation rate) in 2006. The results were compared to the findings from a previous study in 1976 of civil servants in Accra to estimate the changes in smoking patterns over a 30 year period. In our 2006 study, the smoking prevalence rate was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.8–8.9) and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.006–1.4) in men and women respectively. These figures were dramatically lower than the rates of 32% and 5.9% reported for men and women respectively in the previous study. Knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking may have contributed to the lower rates. PMID:19440277

  17. Smoking patterns in Ghanaian civil servants: changes over three decades.

    PubMed

    Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Leon, David A

    2009-01-01

    The number of smokers in developing countries is expected to increase as markets in high income countries begin to decline and multinational tobacco companies shift their marketing efforts to lower income countries. We determined the prevalence and distribution of smoking in a cross-sectional study of 1,015 urban civil servants in Accra, Ghana (82.7% participation rate) in 2006. The results were compared to the findings from a previous study in 1976 of civil servants in Accra to estimate the changes in smoking patterns over a 30 year period. In our 2006 study, the smoking prevalence rate was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.8-8.9) and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.006-1.4) in men and women respectively. These figures were dramatically lower than the rates of 32% and 5.9% reported for men and women respectively in the previous study. Knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking may have contributed to the lower rates.

  18. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  19. Academic Calendar Change Impact on Enrollment Patterns and Instructional Outcomes. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel; And Others

    The effects of a calendar change from the quarter system to the semester system on enrollment patterns, student credit hour productivity, grading patterns, and course completion patterns were investigated. Enrollment and grade pattern data were collected for nine Florida public universities and Iowa State University, for 1980-1982. Additionally, a…

  20. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    substitution together with nonneutral technical progress" (p.179) Solow (1957) in a landmark study developed a method for estimating * technological change... Solow approach to measuring total factor productivity is the impli- 30 cit assumption of neutral technological change. In the case of the forest products...Three Mississippi Counties. Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 713. Solow , R. M. 1959. Investment and Economic Growth: Some

  1. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  2. Changes in liver acceptance patterns after implementation of Share 35.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kenneth; Harper, Ann; Baker, Timothy; Edwards, Erick

    2016-02-01

    The Share 35 policy was implemented June 2013. We sought to evaluate liver offer acceptance patterns of centers under this policy. We compared three 1-year eras (1, 2, and 3) before and 1 era (4) after the implementation date of the Share 35 policy (June 18, 2013). We evaluated all offers for liver-only recipients including only those offers for livers that were ultimately transplanted. Logistic regression was used to develop a liver acceptance model. In era 3, there were 4809 offers for Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score ≥ 35 patients with 1071 acceptances (22.3%) and 10,141 offers and 1652 acceptances (16.3%) in era 4 (P < 0.001). In era 3, there were 42,954 offers for MELD score < 35 patients with 4181 acceptances (9.7%) and 44,137 offers and 3882 acceptances (8.8%) in era 4 (P < 0.001). The lower acceptance rate persisted across all United Network for Organ Sharing regions and was significantly less in regions 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Mean donor risk index was the same (1.3) for all eras for MELD scores ≥ 35 acceptances and the same (1.4) for MELD score < 35 acceptances. Refusal reasons did not vary throughout the eras. The adjusted odds ratio of accepting a liver for a MELD score of 35 + compared to a MELD score < 35 patient was 1.289 before the policy and 0.960 after policy implementation. In conclusion, the Share 35 policy has resulted in more offers to patients with MELD scores ≥ 35. Overall acceptance rates were significantly less compared to the same patient group before the policy implementation. Centers are less likely to accept a liver for a patient with a MELD score of 35 + after the policy change. Decreased donor acceptance rates could reflect more programmatic selectivity and ongoing donor and recipient matching.

  3. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  4. Teacher Education in Industrialized Nations: Issues in Changing Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, Nobuo K., Ed; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.

    The original essays in this book examine reform-related issues in teacher education in Great Britain, Canada, Japan, Ukraine, the United States, and Western Europe. They also review the social context of the teacher, the economics and value of teaching, the pace of change, government policy and teacher control of the profession, and the evolving…

  5. Potential industrial applications for composite phase-change materials as thermal energy storage media

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1989-07-01

    Considerable effort has been spent by the US Department of Energy and its contractors over the last few years to develop composite phase-change materials (CPCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). This patented TES medium consists of a phase-change material (typically a salt or metal alloy) that is retained within the porous structure of a supporting material (typically a ceramic). The objectives of this study were to (1) introduce CPCMs to industries that may not otherwise be aware of them, (2) identify potentially attractive applications for CPCM in industry, (3) determine technical requirements that will affect the design of CPCM's for specific applications, and (4) generate interest among industrial firms for employing CPCM TES in their processes. The approach in this study was to examine a wide variety of industries using a series of screens to select those industries that would be most likely to adopt CPCM TES in their processes. The screens used in this study were process temperature, presence of time-varying energy flows, energy intensity of the industry, and economic growth prospects over the next 5 years. After identifying industries that passed all of the screens, representatives of each industry were interviewed by telephone to introduce them to CPCM TES, assess technical requirements for CPCM TES in their industry, and determine their interest in pursuing applications for CPCM TES. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Potential industrial applications for composite phase-change materials as thermal energy storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, G. E.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-07-01

    Considerable effort has been spent by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors over the last few years to develop composite phase-change materials (CPCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). This patented TES medium consists of a phase-change material (typically a salt or metal alloy) that is retained within the porous structure of a supporting material (typically a ceramic). The objectives of this study were to: (1) introduce CPCMs to industries that may not otherwise be aware of them, (2) identify potentially attractive applications for CPCM in industry, (3) determine technical requirements that will affect the design of CPCM's for specific applications, and (4) generate interest among industrial firms for employing CPCM TES in their processes. The approach in this study was to examine a wide variety of industries using a series of screens to select those industries that would be most likely to adopt CPCM TES in their processes. The screens used in this study were process temperature, presence of time-varying energy flows, energy intensity of the industry, and economic growth prospects over the next 5 years. After identifying industries that passed all of the screens, representatives of each industry were interviewed by telephone to introduce them to CPCM TES, assess technical requirements for CPCM TES in their industry, and determine their interest in pursuing applications for CPCM TES.

  7. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P.

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions.

  8. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the

  9. Investigation of changes in water resources and grain production in China: changing patterns and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Wei; Hu, Yunjin; Dai, Xiangqian; Song, Xingyuan

    2015-11-01

    Water resources are very important for grain production in China. In this study, we investigate the changes in streamflow and grain production in China from 1956 to 2008. Since the 1980s, the increase of total grain production was mainly contributed by northern China where significantly decreasing precipitation and available water resources were observed. From 1985 to 2008, northern China accounted for 92.9 % of the national total grain production growth. Consequently, the main grain production area has shifted from the south to the north. However, the shift was mismatching the spatial distributions and temporal changes in precipitation and available water resources in China. During 1956 through 2008, precipitation decreased in the main grain production areas of the northern China by 1.23-1.27 mm per year. During the same period, observed streamflows in the five major rivers in northern China decreased by 13.4-92.4 %. Current grain production in northern China is dependent on overexploitation of groundwater. From 1987 to 2000, the average groundwater table declined 10.8 m with a maximum decrease of 34.8 m in North China Plain. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change and projected industrial development exacerbate the uncertainty of grain supply by northern China in the future. This study also indicated the potential of southern China for a more important role in ensuring sustainable food security of China, with increasing precipitation and streamflows observed in the Yangtze River and Pearl River basins.

  10. Antibiotics: the changing regulatory and pharmaceutical industry paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bax, Richard; Green, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Drug licensing is changing. Previously, regulators prioritized the licensing of innovative drugs that fulfilled a high unmet medical need for a small number of patients, including orphan, cancer and HIV medicines. Alternatives to large and costly prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trials have led to a more bespoke development, such as adaptive design studies. Regulators have recently agreed to include much-needed narrow-spectrum antibiotics, active against certain MDR bacteria, in this paradigm. The background to why big pharmaceutical companies have largely deserted the antibacterial research arena, and the proposals that are hoped to reinvigorate their interest, are presented.

  11. Spatial patterns of hydro-social metrics in the Northeastern United States from the Colonial Era through the Industrial Revolution (1600-1920)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherell, B. B.; Bain, D. J.; Salant, N.; Aloysius, N. R.

    2009-12-01

    Humans impact the hydrologic cycle at local, regional and global scales. Understanding how spatial patterns of human water use and hydrologic impact have changed over time is important to future water management in an era of increasing water constraints and globalization of high water-use resources. This study investigates spatial dependence and spatial patterns of hydro-social metrics for the Northeastern United States from 1600 to 1920 through the use of spatial statistical techniques. Several relevant hydro-social metrics, including water residence time, surface water storage (natural and human engineered) and per capita water availability, are analyzed. This study covers a region and period of time that saw significant population growth, landscape change, and industrial growth. These changes had important impacts on water availability. Although some changes such as the elimination of beavers, and the resulting loss of beaver ponds on low-order streams, are felt at a regional scale, preliminary analysis indicates that humans responded to water constraints by acting locally (e.g., mill ponds for water power and water supply reservoirs for public health). This 320-year historical analysis of spatial patterns of hydro-social metrics provides unique insight into long-term changes in coupled human-water systems.

  12. Patterns of Change in Marital Satisfaction over the Newlywed Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavner, Justin A.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Although marital satisfaction starts high and declines for the average newlywed, some spouses may follow qualitatively distinct trajectories. Using 8 self-reports of satisfaction collected over 4 years from 464 newlywed spouses, we identified 5 trajectory groups, including patterns defined by high intercepts and no declines in satisfaction,…

  13. Gaze Patterns of Gross Anatomy Students Change with Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S.; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study…

  14. Investigation of the environmental change pattern of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery clearly identifies the relationships between the status of erosion, effluent patterns affected by the coastal current, and the cultural construction activities. Simple photographic techniques can be used for detecting water mass distribution separately from cloud cover and also noise caused by reflected sunlight from wave surfaces. Polluted water does not diffuse continuously into the oceanic water, but forms masses in the water in the Kuroshio area. The polluted or turbid water in the area just north of the Tomogashima Channel, the south outlet of the Osaka Bay, shows that the northward tidal current runs in a clockwise eddy at the tidal period when the imagery was taken. Such an eddy-like pattern of tidal current had never been revealed by conventional oceanographic data. A front between an oceanic water mass and a polluted water mass runs in a NW-SE direction in the central part of the Osaka Bay. The patterns of turbid water discharged from the Kii River and Yoshino River show a northward tidal current in the North Kii Straits. The pattern of lighter turbid or polluted water located in the northwest region of the North Kii straits suggests the existence of a clockwise eddy in the straits.

  15. Changing Work Life Patterns: A Twenty-Five Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann R.

    1978-01-01

    Examines trends related to proportion of the population engaged in market work and to the age and sex composition of the work force. Trends indicate that work patterns are becoming increasingly similar for men and women and that much greater proportions of persons in the age group 20-54 are working than has been true in the past. For journal…

  16. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  17. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  18. Changes in Training Opportunities in South Wales, 1945-1998: The Views of Key Informants. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Paul; Gorard, Stephen; Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Furlong, John

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines analysis of secondary…

  19. Two Dimensions of Time: The Changing Social Context of Lifelong Learning. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Rees, Gareth; Fevre, Ralph

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines contextual analysis of…

  20. Distribution of and changes in industrial carbon dioxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Rotty, R.M.

    1983-02-20

    The burning of fossils fuels is believed to be the major source responsible for an observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now measured at many locations around the world. This paper revises earlier published data on the annual amounts of carbon released to the atmosphere during the period 1950--1978 and updates the record through 1980. A latitudinal distribution of the fossil fuel source is presented as an aid in explaining the differences in the observed CO/sub 2/ concentrations at several stations. Data from Mauna Loa Observatory, the South Pole, and elsewhere around the world (Keeling et al., 1978a, b; Bolin and Bischof, 1970; Herbert, 1980) show an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Attempts to deduce from these records information about the global carbon cycle depend upon data pertaining to the sources of CO/sub 2/ introduced by man: burning of fossil fuels and conversion of the world's forests. The latitudinal distribution of the fossil fuel production of CO/sub 2/ should be an important aid in carbon-cycle analysis. Observations in the atmosphere show that the Northern Hemisphere CO/sub 2/ concentration is increasing more rapidly than the Southern Hemisphere concentration and that the most rapid increase is at 50/sup 0/--60/sup 0/N latitude. The greatest seasonal variation also occurs in this latitude band. This paper updates and documents the fossil fuel sources of CO/sub 2/. It revises global CO/sub 2/ emission values for 1950--1978 published earlier; it demonstrates that a change in the rate of increase of annual CO/sub 2/ emissions occurred in 1973; and it attempts to delineate the regional distribution of this source of CO/sub 2/.

  1. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Rudel, Thomas K; Verburg, Peter H; McConnell, William J; Mertz, Ole; Gerstner, Katharina; Heinimann, Andreas; Ellis, Erle C

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena and world regions most commonly studied are presented. Significant challenges to successful synthesis research in LCS are also identified, including issues of interpretability and comparability across case-studies and the limits of and biases in the geographic coverage of case studies. Nevertheless, synthesis methods based on local case studies will remain essential for generating systematic global and regional understanding of local land change for the foreseeable future, and multiple opportunities exist to accelerate and enhance the reliability of synthetic LCS research in the future. Demand for global and regional knowledge generation will continue to grow to support adaptation and mitigation policies consistent with both the local realities and regional and global environmental and economic contexts of land change.

  2. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  3. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  4. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  5. Land use changes and its impacts on air quality and atmospheric patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D.; Mazzoli, C. R.; Martins, L. D.; Martins, J. A.; Carvalho, V.; Andrade, M.

    2013-05-01

    Possible modifications on atmospheric patterns and air quality caused by land use changes are discussed in this work. With the increasing interest in alternative energy sources, mainly due to the replacement of fossil fuels, large part of the Brazilian territory is being used for sugar cane cultivation. The resultant modifications in land use and some activities associated to this crop are studied with some detail through numerical modeling of the atmosphere. The same tool was applied to study the effect of surface type and emission sources over urban areas in the neighborhoods of the cultivated areas, in particular those located in the Metropolitan Area of Campinas, inside the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main focus of this work was to identify some relationship between these two types of land use modification and its influence on the regional atmospheric circulation patterns and air quality over agricultural and urban areas affected by biomass burning and the traditional sources of pollutants, such as industries and vehicles. First, the effect of urban areas was analyzed and it was possible to identify typical patterns associated with urban heat islands, especially over the city of Campinas. In this region, air temperature differences up to 3 K were detected during night time. During the day, due to the atmospheric conditions of the studied period, this effect was not significant. Afterwards, the effect of sugar cane cultivated regions was discussed. The results show that the regions of sugar cane grow can significantly modify the surface energy fluxes, with direct consequences to the standards of local temperature and humidity and over nearby regions. Sensitivity tests were carried out during part of September, 2007, through the substitution of the sugar cane by a generic crop in the model, and show that during the day the cultivated areas can present temperatures up to 0,65 k higher than those in the case of the generic one. Throughout the dispersion module

  6. Changes in Nitrogen Tropical Deposition Driven by Biomass Burning and Industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. B.; Holland, E. A.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L.

    2003-12-01

    Until few years ago, N deposition studies and the consequences for ecosystems were focused on North Hemisphere, where most of the modern N deposition occurs. Nowadays, the pattern of N deposition has changed over the globe, calling attention to other geographical areas, including tropical regions which were the important pre-industrially(Matson et al., 1999). Substantial increases of NOx and SO2 emissions have been observed in Asia and in some regions of the tropics due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and deforestation (Ayers et al., 2000; Lara et al., 2001). Nevertheless,little information is available for developing regions of tropical and sub-tropical areas, where land-use changes are intense and followed by rapid urbanization, associated with a large industrial expansion. Such information is relevant, since recent estimates show that in a near future more than half of N inputs related to energy consumption in the Earth will take place in tropical and subtropical regions (Galloway et al., 1994). In addition, tropical terrestrial and aquatic systems appear to function differently from temperate systems, where N limitation is more severe than in the tropics (Matson et al, 1999). Conclusions based only in studies conducted in temperate regions may not be valid for tropical and sub-tropical regions. In the tropics the annual nitrogen wet deposition range from 2 to 10 kg N/ha/yr (Williams et al., 1997; Lara et al., 2001; IGAC 2003), according to the land cover. Brazil is largely tropical. It is considered a developing country, where developed areas with large urban centers, a large number of industries, and a high-technology agricultural system coexists with developing areas with low-technology and frontier-type agricultural systems and remote regions such as Amazon Basin. These anthropogenic activities are increasing the N wet deposition from an annual rate of 3.0 kg N/ha/yr in remote areas to an annual rate of 5.6 kg N/ha/yr in disturbed regions. If

  7. Risk-based climate-change impact assessment for the water industry.

    PubMed

    Thorne, O M; Fenner, R A

    2009-01-01

    In response to a rapidly changing and highly variable climate, engineers are being asked to perform climate-change impact assessments on existing water industry systems. There is currently no single method of best practice for engineers to interpret output from global climate models (GCMs) and calculate probabilistic distributions of future climate changes as required for risk-based impact assessments. The simplified climate change impact assessment tool (SCIAT) has been developed to address the specific needs of the water industry and provides a tool to translate climate change projections into 'real world' impacts or for detailed statistical analysis. Through the use of SCIAT, water system operators are provided with knowledge of potential impacts and an associated probability of occurrence, enabling them to make informed, risk-based adaptation and planning decisions. This paper demonstrates the application of SCIAT to the consideration of the impacts of climate change on reservoir water quality under future climate scenarios.

  8. Net Working: Work Patterns and Workforce Policies for the New Media Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Rosemary; Christopherson, Susan; Rightor, Ned; Van Jaarsveld, Danielle

    A study was made of the labor market issues facing professionals and employers in the new media industry, an industry that combines elements of computing technology, telecommunications, and content to create products and services that can be used interactively by consumers and business owners. The study was carried out through a Web-based survey…

  9. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  10. Bacterial isolates in chronic suppurative otitis media: a changing pattern?

    PubMed

    Adoga, A A; Bakari, A; Afolabi, O A; Kodiya, A M; Ahmad, B M

    2011-01-01

    The most frequently isolated organism in chronic suppurative otitis media from different parts of the world is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pattern from this bacteriological study from our region is different. This study was carried out on 97 patients presenting to the outpatient clinic of the National Ear Care Center, Kaduna. Nigeria from May 2008 to April 2009. The patients were aged between 1 year and 75 years comprising 50) males and 47 females giving a male to female ratio of 1:1. Most of the patients (n=40, 41.2%) were in the age group 1-10) years. Seventy-five (77.3%) patients had a positive culture while in 22 (22.7%) patients there was no growth. Gram-negative bacteria comprised 80% of the isolates. The predominant organisms cultured were Klebsiella sp (n=31, 41.3%), Escherichia coli (n=22, 29.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6, 8%). The gram-positive isolates were Streptococcus sp (n=8, 10.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=7, 9.3%). In-vitro drug sensitivity pattern of all isolates shows that they were more sensitive to Ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and Perfloxacin. Klebsiella sp. Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp. are the leading pathogenic organisms in chronic suppurative otitis media in our region and their ensitivity rates are highest to the quinolone antibiotics, which are relatively cheap, readily available as ototopic agents and lack ototoxic effects.

  11. Changing Patterns of Interracial Marriage in a Multiracial Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    We use incidence data from the 1980 Census and 2008 American Community Survey to track recent trends in interracial marriage. Intermarriage with Whites increased rapidly among Blacks but stalled among Asians and American Indians. Black-White intermarriage increased threefold over 1980-2008, independent of changing socioeconomic status, suggesting…

  12. Academic Calendar Change Impact on Enrollment Patterns and Instructional Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A study of 10 universities in two states examined the impact of a change from the quarter to the semester calendar system. A decrease in average student credit hour load and an increase in the percentage of students withdrawing from courses were observed. (Author/MLW)

  13. Patterns and Composition of Weight Change in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Ryan J.; Morgan, Amy L.; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2015-01-01

    While it is well documented that college freshmen gain weight, there is a dearth of studies examining critical time periods for this weight change. Freshmen living on campus (n = 103; 21M, 82F) visited the laboratory in August/September, November, January, February/March, and April/May. Measurements at each visit included: weight, waist…

  14. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  15. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  16. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  17. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-03-02

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population.

  18. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  19. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    SciTech Connect

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  20. A Changing Trend In Eruption Age and Pattern of First Deciduous Tooth: Correlation to Feeding Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Monika V; Patil, Gururaj B.; Kulkarni, Narayan B.; Bagalkot, Kishore; Purohit, Zarana; Dave, Nilixa; Sagari, Shitalkumar G; Malaghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Feeding mode during infancy and its effect on deciduous tooth appearance in oral cavity in two generations and among genders. Aim and Objective: Study aimed to compare and correlate times and patterns of deciduous tooth eruption in breastfeeding (OBF), partial breastfeeding (PBF) and spoon feeding (SF) infants and initiation of semisolid food feeding (SSF) in infants. It also aimed to address the variations in the time of eruption of first deciduous tooth and its pattern in two generations who had more than a decade of difference in ages. Materials and methods: An open-ended questionnaire study was conducted on mothers of 265 patients from two groups, generation 1 (G1)- adults who were aged 20-35 years and second group, generation 2 (G2) - children who were below 5 years of age . Results: A statistical significance was observed with respect to age, gender, generations, and frequency of breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding and time of initiation of semisolid food. Conclusion: There is a delayed eruption of teeth in present generation. For girls, it occurs at age of 7.88 months and for boys, it occurs at the age of 8.08 months. PMID:24783136

  1. Clustering change patterns using Fourier transformation with time-course gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehee

    2011-01-01

    To understand the behavior of genes, it is important to explore how the patterns of gene expression change over a period of time because biologically related gene groups can share the same change patterns. In this study, the problem of finding similar change patterns is induced to clustering with the derivative Fourier coefficients. This work is aimed at discovering gene groups with similar change patterns which share similar biological properties. We developed a statistical model using derivative Fourier coefficients to identify similar change patterns of gene expression. We used a model-based method to cluster the Fourier series estimation of derivatives. We applied our model to cluster change patterns of yeast cell cycle microarray expression data with alpha-factor synchronization. It showed that, as the method clusters with the probability-neighboring data, the model-based clustering with our proposed model yielded biologically interpretable results. We expect that our proposed Fourier analysis with suitably chosen smoothing parameters could serve as a useful tool in classifying genes and interpreting possible biological change patterns.

  2. Will climate change affect outbreak patterns of planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    PubMed

    Ali, M P; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M F

    2014-01-01

    Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998-2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks.

  3. Will Climate Change Affect Outbreak Patterns of Planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M. P.; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G.; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998–2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks. PMID:24618677

  4. Evolutionary approach for discovering changing patterns in historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Wai-Ho; Chan, Keith C. C.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new data mining approach, called dAR, for discovering interesting association rules and their changes by evolutionary computation. dAR searches through huge rule spaces effectively using a genetic algorithm. It has the following characteristics: (i) it encodes a complete set of rules in one single chromosome; (ii) each allele encodes one rule and each rule is represented by some non-binary symbolic values; (iii) the evolutionary process begins with the generation of an initial set of first-order rules (i.e., rules with one condition) using a probabilistic induction technique and based on these rules, rules of higher order (two or more conditions) are obtained iteratively; (iv) it adopts a steady-state reproduction scheme in which only two chromosomes are replaced every time; (v) when identifying interesting rules, an objective interestingness measure is used; and (vi) the fitness of a chromosome is defined in terms of the probability that the attribute values of a tuple can be correctly determined using the rules it encodes. Furthermore, dAR can also be used to mine the changes in discovered rules over time. This allows the accurate prediction of the future based on the historical data in the past. The experimental results on a synthetic database have shown that dAR is very effective at mining interesting association rules and their changes over time.

  5. Pattern Visual Evoked Potential Changes in Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sungur, Gulten; Yakin, Mehmet; Unlu, Nurten; Balta, Oyku Bezen; Ornek, Firdevs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the different check sizes of pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in diabetic patients without retinopathy according to HbA1c levels and diabetes duration. Methods. Fifty-eight eligible patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Only the right eye of each patient was analyzed. All of the patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, and the PVEPs were recorded. Results. There was a statistically significant difference in P100 latency in 1-degree check size and in N135 latency in 2-degree check size between controls and patient groups which have different HbA1c levels. There were statistically significant, positive, and weak correlations with diabetes duration and P100 latency in 7-minute and 15-minute check sizes and N135 latency in 15-minute check size. Conclusions. It was showed that there were prolongations in P100 latency only in 1-degree check size and in N135 only in 2-degree check size in diabetic patients without retinopathy. There was statistically significant correlation between diabetes duration and P100 and N135 latencies in different check sizes. PMID:28392940

  6. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  7. Global Ocean Sedimentation Patterns: Plate Tectonic History Versus Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Reynolds, E.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global sediment data (Whittaker et al., 2013) and carbonate content data (Archer, 1996) allows examination of ocean sedimentation evolution with respect to age of the underlying ocean crust (Müller et al., 2008). From these data, we construct time series of ocean sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean basins for the past 120 Ma. These time series are unique to each basin and reflect an integrated response to plate tectonics and climate change. The goal is to parameterize ocean sedimentation tied to crustal age for paleoclimate studies. For each basin, total sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate from 0.1 x 0.1 degree cells are binned according to basement crustal age; area-corrected moments (mean, variance, etc.) are calculated for each bin. Segmented linear fits identify trends in present-day carbonate deposition rates and changes in ocean sedimentation from 0 to 120 Ma. In the North and South Atlantic and Indian oceans, mean sediment thickness versus crustal age is well represented by three linear segments, with the slope of each segment increasing with increasing crustal age. However, the transition age between linear segments varies among the three basins. In contrast, mean sediment thickness in the North and South Pacific oceans are numerically smaller and well represented by two linear segments with slopes that decrease with increasing crustal age. These opposing trends are more consistent with the plate tectonic history of each basin being the controlling factor in sedimentation rates, rather than climate change. Unlike total sediment thickness, carbonate deposition rates decrease smoothly with crustal age in all basins, with the primary controls being ocean chemistry and water column depth.References: Archer, D., 1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 159-174.Müller, R.D., et al., 2008, Science, 319, 1357-1362.Whittaker, J., et al., 2013, Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20181

  8. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    PubMed

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  9. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2015-11-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20(th) and late 19(th) century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (p<0.1) decrease in streamflow following eruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  10. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Iles, Carley E.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.

    2016-01-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1–6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8–10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20th and late 19th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions – a significant (p<0.1) decrease in streamflow following eruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability. PMID:27279897

  11. Philosophy, Technology, and Industrial Arts in an Era of Rapid Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Fred A.

    1974-01-01

    Education is tumbling aimlessly into a future in which the greatest acts of immorality will be those in which technological change occurs without thorough examination of consequences. Objectives derived from humanism and existentialism direct industrial arts education toward an examination of the technology; specific applications emphasize "doing…

  12. The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

  13. The Influence of Business and Industry as Drivers for Change in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The rationale underpinning UK higher education (HE) has changed significantly over the last 20 years. Government policy dictates that 50% of 18-30 year-olds should be in HE by the year 2010. Students enter HE almost solely for the exchange value of the qualification and the expectation of enhanced career prospects in business and industry. This…

  14. Diffusion, cohort change, and social patterns of smoking☆

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    In noting that common explanations of smoking cannot account for both its current inverse relationship with SES and the shift over time toward greater concentration among low SES groups, this paper presents an explanation based on diffusion and status distinctions. The explanation predicts that, as cigarette diffusion proceeds and fashions change, the social determinants of smoking will shift across cohorts, such that initially positive relationships between pre-adult components of socioeconomic status and smoking in early cohorts become negative in later cohorts. Tests using historical, cohort-linked aggregate data on cigarette diffusion, and individual-level data from the General Social Surveys covering the years from 1978 to 1994 and cohorts from 1889 to 1976 largely support the predictions. In comparing older to newer cohorts, the results show correspondence between the stage of cigarette diffusion and the direction and strength of the relationships of education, parental status, urban residence, and gender with cigarette smoking. PMID:22485056

  15. Changing supply and earning patterns of the mental health workforce.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, R M; Ivey, S L; Garrett, A B

    1998-11-01

    The authors examine recent trends in the supply and earnings of various mental health providers from 1989 to 1995. The makeup of the mental health workforce is fundamentally different now than a decade ago. The number and earnings of psychiatrists have been relatively flat. The number of psychologists increased by 24%, with their earnings rising rapidly in the 1980s, and remaining level since 1990. The number of clinically trained social workers increased by 87% over the same period, and the number of advanced practice nurses certified in mental health specialties almost doubled, with the earnings of these master's-level providers increasing steadily over the period described. These trends are discussed in the context of major changes in the financing and delivery of mental health care.

  16. Changing Migration Patterns Within the United States. Resource Papers for College Geography No. 77-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.

    In this study migration is examined as a component of population change. Decisions involved in migration are discussed. Source of migration data are suggested. Generalized in-migration and out-migration fields are described. Migration patterns before 1975 and recent migration patterns are examined and decisions underlying the latter are analyzed.…

  17. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  18. How did the Master Settlement Agreement change tobacco industry expenditures for cigarette advertising and promotions?

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    The 1998 multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with the tobacco industry restricted cigarette advertising and promotions. The MSA monetary settlement was also associated with an average cigarette price increase of U.S.$1.19/pack between 1998 and 2001 to fund, in part, industry payments to the states. We examined Federal Trade Commission reports on how the tobacco industry spends its cigarette advertising and promotional dollars to see if changes expected as a result of the MSA occurred. Expected changes included reduced total expenditures and reductions for outdoor advertising, specialty promotional items identified with a brand (e.g., caps, t-shirts, lighters), and public entertainment. However, tobacco industry spending for advertising and promotions increased 96% between 1995 and 2001, with large increases in 1998 and 1999, as the MSA took effect. Between 1997 and 2001, outdoor advertising declined 98%, expenditures for specialty promotional items decreased 41%, although public entertainment increased 45%. However, in 2001, these categories represented only a small fraction of the total budget. Expenditures for retail-value-added increased 344% between 1997 and 2001 (to 42.5% of total), perhaps to mitigate increased cigarette prices. In 2001, the incentives-to-merchants and retail-value-added categories comprised more than 80% of total expenditures. To adequately monitor tobacco industry expenditures as they adapt to the MSA and other tobacco control efforts, more refined reporting categories are essential.

  19. Proteomic pattern changes associated with obesity-induced asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Guo, Y; Song, N; Fan, Y; Li, K; Teng, X; Guo, Q; Ding, Z

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, an increasingly frequent societal disease can also be accompanied by declines in spermatozoa quality and male subfecundity. To determine if there are obesity-associated proteomic changes potentially affecting sperm quality and motility, differential proteomic analysis was performed on spermatozoa from both obesity-associated asthenozoospermia and clinically healthy individuals, using a label-free quantitative LC-MS/MS approach. We resolved 1975 proteins in the human sperm proteome, amongst which, 105 proteins were less abundant, whereas 22 other proteins increased in obesity-associated asthenozoospermia. Functional category analyses indicated that the differentially expressed proteins are mainly related to cytoskeletal regulation, vesicle biogenesis, metabolism, and protein degradation involved in spermiogenesis and sperm motility. Furthermore, declines in endoplasmic reticulum protein 57 (ERp57) and actin-binding-related protein T2 (ACTRT2) expression were verified by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and flow cytometry analyses. It is evident that ERp57 is localized in the acrosome region, neck and principal piece of human spermatozoa, whereas ACTRT2 is localized in the post-acrosomal region and middle piece. Thus, these differences in protein expression in asthenozoospermia may contribute to the underlying sperm quality defects afflicting these individuals. Notably, declines in ERp57 and ACTRT2 expression in obesity-associated asthenozoospermia may play critical roles in reducing sperm motility.

  20. Vitamin D assessment in primary care: changing patterns of testing

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katy; Taylor, William; Marks, Eileen; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Over recent years there has been increased interest in the disease burden associated with vitamin D deficiency. This, combined with recognition that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high in the UK, has led to increased requests for vitamin D assessment from primary care clinicians. Setting A primary care cohort in Liverpool. Question How has the usefulness of vitamin D testing changed over time in identifying deficiency? Methods Vitamin D results from primary care practices in Liverpool were collected between 2007 and 2012, inclusive. Results were allocated to six cohorts based on year of request and each was grouped into three categories (adequate, insufficient and deficient). Results Vitamin D results of 9460 (74%) first tests and 3263 (26%) retests were analysed. Total number of requests increased 11-fold, from 503 in 2007 to 5552 in 2012. Overall 42% of first-test results were deficient (< 30 nmol). With each incremental year, more cases of vitamin D deficiency were detected – but the odds of detecting vitamin D deficiency decreased. Conclusions An exponential increase in the number of vitamin D requests was observed over this six-year period. Although more patients with vitamin deficiency were identified, the increased number of tests represents a significant cost to health services. Moreover, the practice of retesting too soon after treatment can be inappropriate. There is a need to develop clear guidance for assessing vitamin D status in primary care. PMID:26217398

  1. Changing patterns of intra-aortic balloon pump assistance.

    PubMed

    Weisel, R D; Goldman, B S; Teasdale, S; Baigrie, R S

    1978-03-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump assistance (IABPA) for cardiogenic shock is well established. The response to balloon pumping and patient survival are better after low output from cardiotomy than after myocardial infarction. Elective use of IABPA preoperatively allows an extra margin of safety for patients with acute coronary insufficiency, significant left main coronary artery stenosis, or depressed left ventricular function. However, advances in monitoring techniques during the induction of anesthesia and weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass support, as well as improved methods for myocardial preservation, have reduced the requirements for elective IABPA. Current indications for preoperative IABPA include: patients with acute coronary insufficiency who are totally unresponsive to full medical management and who continue to have pain and electrocardiographic changes at rest, and patients with serious left main coronary artery stenosis who also have acute coronary insufficiency or depressed left ventricular function. The survival of patients with valvular heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction is not improved with preoperative IABPA, while most patients with depressed left ventricular function from coronary artery disease may now undergo revascularization uneventfully, although inevitably some will still require postoperative IABPA.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Automated and Nonautomated Job Patterns in the Southern California Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasow, Paul; Massarik, Fred

    There is a great imbalance between the effort devoted to technological change and the attention given to the social and economic consequences of this change. Although automation has strong implications for society, the real problem is not the changes themselves; instead, it is our failure to understand and adjust for these changes. Using data…

  3. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  4. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  5. Staffing Patterns in the Wholesale and Retail Trade Industry in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    Directed towards designers of vocational education training programs, the document presents statistical data and discussion concerning employment trends in Indiana for various industries in the wholesale and retail trade sector. Data are based on a survey conducted in 1973-74, covering 5,986 establishments and 202,070 employees, with a usable…

  6. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  7. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Ojeda, Ana; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier; Alberola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease.

  8. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  9. Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

  10. Climate Change and the Macroeconomic Structure in Pre-Industrial Europe: New Evidence from Wavelet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Li, Guodong; Lee, Harry F.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the macroeconomy in pre-industrial Europe has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study follows the combined paradigms of evolutionary economics and ecological economics, in which wavelet analysis (spectrum analysis and coherence analysis) is applied as the first attempt to examine the relationship between climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial Europe in the frequency domain. Aside from confirming previous results, this study aims to further substantiate the association between climate change and macroeconomy by presenting new evidence obtained from the wavelet analysis. Our spectrum analysis shows a consistent and continuous frequency band of 60–80 years in the temperature, grain yield ratio, grain price, consumer price index, and real wage throughout the study period. Besides, coherence analysis shows that the macroeconomic structure is shaped more by climate change than population change. In addition, temperature is proven as a key climatic factor that influences the macroeconomic structure. The analysis reveals a unique frequency band of about 20 years (15–35 years) in the temperature in AD1600-1700, which could have contributed to the widespread economic crisis in pre-industrial Europe. Our findings may have indications in re-examining the Malthusian theory. PMID:26039087

  11. Climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial europe: new evidence from wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Li, Guodong; Lee, Harry F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the macroeconomy in pre-industrial Europe has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study follows the combined paradigms of evolutionary economics and ecological economics, in which wavelet analysis (spectrum analysis and coherence analysis) is applied as the first attempt to examine the relationship between climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial Europe in the frequency domain. Aside from confirming previous results, this study aims to further substantiate the association between climate change and macroeconomy by presenting new evidence obtained from the wavelet analysis. Our spectrum analysis shows a consistent and continuous frequency band of 60-80 years in the temperature, grain yield ratio, grain price, consumer price index, and real wage throughout the study period. Besides, coherence analysis shows that the macroeconomic structure is shaped more by climate change than population change. In addition, temperature is proven as a key climatic factor that influences the macroeconomic structure. The analysis reveals a unique frequency band of about 20 years (15-35 years) in the temperature in AD1600-1700, which could have contributed to the widespread economic crisis in pre-industrial Europe. Our findings may have indications in re-examining the Malthusian theory.

  12. Comparison of optical characteristics according to shape change based on micro prism pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang-Eui; Choi, Hwan-Jin; Kang, Myoung-Chang; Jeon, Eun-chae; Park, Min-gyu; Jo, Byeong-Muk; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2015-07-01

    For high-functional optical films composed of micro patterns, the optical properties, such as the diffraction, reflection and diffusion, depend on the pattern size, shape, and arrangement. For this reason, a high precision machining process and the technology of pattern design were studied in order to increase function and efficiency. The basic shapes of micro patterns are often prisms, square pyramids and triangular pyramids. Generally, a prism pattern on a flat surface can be continuously grooved by a diamond tool same as a shape angle of the pattern. The square pyramid shape is perpendicularly machined on the prism pattern. The triangular pyramid is made with a bisection of the square pyramid along the diagonal direction. Thus, optical properties can be changed according to prism patterns produced by mechanical machining. In this paper, prism, square pyramid and triangular pyramid pattern molds were machined, and optical properties of the respective shapes were compared. The machining experiment employed an ultra-precision 4-axis planer, V-shape diamond tools, and Cu-plating molds. The machined micro patterns were replicated using UV-resin; then light-transmission measurements were performed to confirm the optical properties of the mold pattern.

  13. A simulation of energy utilization and technological change in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The ITEMS software package is used to simulate adoption of energy-efficient technologies in the paper industry under several scenarios. The simulation is calibrated so that the reference year replicates the 1991 fuel utilization and end use patterns in the paper industry. This paper describes the main features of the ITEMS, including its technology database, the manner in which it simulates the key process steps in producing paper products, and the decision-making rules use in ITEMS regarding technology adoption. In addition, the paper describes the pulp and paper-making technologies included in the simulation. The value of ITEMS in assessing the impacts of R and D investments in energy-efficiency and other policy options is examined.

  14. Spatial change analysis of paddy cropping pattern using MODIS time series imagery in Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Fatoni, Muhammad; Dwi Nugroho, Kreshna; Fatikhunnada, Alvin; Liyantono; Setiawan, Yudi

    2017-01-01

    Central Java had the diverse paddy field cropping patterns and it was influenced by several factors such as water availability, land condition, paddy fields ownership, and local culture. This research was aimed to analyze dynamic changes of paddy cropping pattern using MODIS imagery (MOD13Q1 16-day composite from 2001 to 2015). This research used k-means clustering algorithm for classified cropping pattern in Central Java based on similarity pattern of annual data from vegetation index. The result of this research classified cropping pattern become a main class and produced 15 maps of distribution cropping patterns (from 2001 to 2015). The result also divided Central Java’s paddy fields become 2 section (constant and change) based on cropping pattern that majority was caused by water availability. This research got the better accuracy (77.67%) of cropping pattern than long time series analysis from previous research. Although some classes successfully obtained upon annual time series analysis, MODIS still difficult to detect mixed crop pattern.

  15. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  16. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    PubMed Central

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-01-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employment (less than two months) and it decreased significantly with longer duration. Such mortality excesses had not been recorded among the 1168 workers of the same industry employed one year or more, previously studied in similar fashion. Interviews among a random sample of 52 workers employed for less than two months seem to indicate that the prevalence of smoking, exposures to asbestos, and occupational accidents in other hazardous industries were higher for these workers than for the reference population. Furthermore, unmarried men were overrepresented among the study cohort. These findings support previous observations indicating that short term workers share atypical features related to high mortality from various causes. It is suggested that mortality in this subgroup should be analysed separately in occupational studies. PMID:3663526

  17. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  18. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  19. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  20. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  1. Industry Self-Regulation to Improve Student Health: Quantifying Changes in Beverage Shipments to Schools

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Brendan M.; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a data collection and monitoring system to independently evaluate the self-regulatory effort to reduce the number of beverage calories available to children during the regular and extended school day. We have described the data collection procedures used to verify data supplied by the beverage industry and quantified changes in school beverage shipments. Methods. Using a proprietary industry data set collected in 2005 and semiannually in 2007 through 2010, we measured the total volume of beverage shipments to elementary, middle, and high schools to monitor intertemporal changes in beverage volumes, the composition of products delivered to schools, and portion sizes. We compared data with findings from existing research of the school beverage landscape and a separate data set based on contracts between schools and beverage bottling companies. Results. Between 2004 and the 2009–2010 school year, the beverage industry reduced calories shipped to schools by 90%. On a total ounces basis, shipments of full-calorie soft drinks to schools decreased by 97%. Conclusions. Industry self-regulation, with the assistance of a transparent and independent monitoring process, can be a valuable tool in improving public health outcomes. PMID:22897528

  2. Changes in anthropogenic contribution of mineral dust since pre-industrial time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanelle, Tanja; Bey, Isabelle; Reick, Christian; Raddatz, Thomas; Tegen, Ina

    2014-05-01

    A new method to derive interactively potential dust sources is developed, which allows to account for land cover changes interactively within the climate-aerosol system ECHAM6-HAM2 and to distinguish between dust emissions from natural and agricultural source regions. We find that around 10 % of global dust emissions originate from agricultural source regions in present day conditions. The emissions and burden increase by 183 Tg/a (which correspond to 20 % of today's emissions) and 2.15 Tg, respectively, between pre-industrial conditions and today. This increase is caused by both climate change and anthropogenic land cover changes (ALCC), although the contributions of these factors vary between regions. In North Africa most of dust sources are of natural origin and the increase of 15% in dust emissions is caused by climate change. For North America we find that nearly 67% of all dust emissions take place in agricultural areas. There, the increase in dust emissions of 63% is caused by both climate change and ALCC. ALCC result in sharp increase in dust emissions in Australia due to the biogeophysical feedbacks. The global change in clear sky net radiative forcing on top of the atmosphere between pre-industrial times and today is -0.14 W/m2. If only accounting for ALCC the change in net forcing would be -0.05 W/m2. Changes in climate alone correspond to a change in net forcing of -0.083 W/m2. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic land cover changes should be accounted for to quantify past and future changes in the dust cycle.

  3. Changing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A journeywoman machinist and civilian employee at Robbins Air Force Base in Georgia (the first woman to complete a machinist apprenticeship program run by the Air Force), says that it is not unattractive work for a woman. (Author/AJ)

  4. Spatial Exposure Analysis for Threatened and Endangered Species from Changing Pesticide Use Pattern in Southern Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent decades, pesticide use patterns and crop distributions have changed; however, because there has not been a significant increase in usage disclosures, it is difficult to estimate the changes in potential exposure zones, this analysis focuses on the intersection of agricu...

  5. Changes in spatiotemporal land use patterns in selected hydrogeomorphic areas of China and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences exist in land use/cover pattern and its change between the P. R. China and the USA. In order to describe those differences, land use changes in representative regions were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Xiamen City, Changzhutan region and Liupan Mountains regions were selected to ...

  6. Electroencephalographic Coherence and Learning: Distinct Patterns of Change during Word Learning and Figure Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Peter; Hogan, Michael; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen; Fischer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    One likely mechanism in learning new skills is change in synchronous connections between distributed neural networks, which can be measured by coherence analysis of electroencephalographic patterns. This study examined coherence changes during the learning of two tasks, a word association task and a figure association task. Although learning…

  7. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  8. A Study on Effect of Technological Change on the Frequency of Child Labour in the Indian Match Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham, C. Muthu; Palanivel, R. V.; Anbarasan, R.; Sinthuja, M.

    2012-08-01

    The Indian match industry in the southern state of Tamil Nadu has been characterized by child labour and a stagnant technology for over half a century. We investigate the technological changes and industrial restructuring, catalyzed by the changing duty structure that has moved the match industry towards greater mechanization. Our examination indicates that increased mechanization in the production processes has implied greater demand for skilled labour and a decline in child labour.

  9. [Wetland landscape pattern change based on GIS and RS: a review].

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Ting; Xi, Min; Li, Yue; Kong, Fan-Long; Chen, Wan

    2013-04-01

    Wetland is an ecological landscape with most biodiversity in nature, which has unique ecological structure and function, and contains abundant natural resources to provide material guarantee for human's living and development. Wetland landscape pattern is the comprehensive result of various ecological processes, and has become a hot issue in wetland ecological study. At present, the combination of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies is an important way to study the wetland landscape pattern change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the wetland landscape change based on GIS and RS from the aspects of the research methods of wetland landscape pattern, index of wetland landscape pattern, and driving forces of wetland landscape pattern evolution, and discussed the applications of the combination of GIS and RS in monitoring the wetland landscape pattern change, the index selection of wetland landscape pattern, and the driving mechanisms of the combined action of human and nature. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future-studies were prospected.

  10. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt.

  11. Transitions in living arrangements are associated with changes in dietary patterns in young women.

    PubMed

    Elstgeest, Liset E M; Mishra, Gita D; Dobson, Annette J

    2012-08-01

    Household composition influences people's diet, so typical transitions in young women's lives, including cohabitation, marriage, and motherhood, might be expected to influence their subsequent dietary behavior. The objective was to examine associations between transitions in living arrangements and changes in energy intake and dietary patterns for women in their 20s and 30s using longitudinal data collected in 2003 and 2009. FFQ were collected twice from 6534 women born in 1973-1978 participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Transition groups were defined from changes in their living arrangements. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Associations between transitions in living arrangements and changes in energy intake and dietary pattern scores were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Women living with children had greater energy intake than other women initially and those who started a family had the greatest increases over time. Five similar dietary patterns were derived from both surveys. Women living in a family at both times had higher scores on the high-fat and sugar, meat, and cooked vegetables patterns and lower scores on the Mediterranean-style and fruit patterns than other women. Women starting a family increased their consumption of the high-fat and sugar, fruit, and cooked vegetables patterns. Women not living with children at both times had increased scores on the Mediterranean-style pattern and decreased scores on the high-fat and sugar and cooked vegetables patterns compared with other women. In conclusion, starting a family is associated with changes in women's diet that are mainly unhealthy.

  12. The Adaptation of Workers to Industrial Change. European Seminar (Toulouse, France, January 22-23, 1996). Summary of the Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Europe, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the debates that occurred at a European seminar on the adaptation of workers to industrial change. The document begins with the following three speeches: "The Challenges of Adapting Workers to Industrial Change" (Dominique Balmary); "Objective 4 of the Structural Funds: A Response to the Double Challenge of…

  13. Legislative and Regulatory Actions Needed to Deal with a Changing Domestic Telecommunications Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-24

    regulatory approach to assure fair compe- tition. GAO is making recommendations to the Congress and the Commission to --amend the Communications Act of...approach, however, depends primarily on the nature and stringency of the conditions gov- erning separation and the quality of regula- tory oversight...services and intrastate services? --Can nondiscriminatory access conditions be assured without major changes in telephone industry structure and

  14. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources.

    PubMed

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications.

  15. Changes in latitude, changes in attitude - emerging biogeographic patterns of invasion in the Northeast Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeographic patterns of invasion of near-coastal and estuarine species in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are beginning to emerge based on surveys by U.S. EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and the EPA/USGS synthesis of native and nonindigenous species ...

  16. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  17. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  18. A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine Cȏntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009

  19. Changes in phenolic content of commercial potato varieties through industrial processing and fresh preparation.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Amber; Cladis, Dennis P; Kurilich, Anne; Manoharan, Ramesh; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2017-03-01

    Reported content and process stability of phenolics in potato products is inconsistent. Changes in phenolic content of select varieties through fresh and industrial preparation/reconstitution were assessed. Total chlorogenic acids (CQAs) ranged from 43 to 953mg/100g dw and were more concentrated in pigmented compared to white/yellow-fleshed potatoes. Anthocyanin (ANC) content ranged from 18.6 to 22.9mg/100g dw and were mainly present in the flesh of pigmented potatoes. Retention of phenolics through commercial processing ranged from 49 to 85% for pigmented varieties and 32-55% for white/yellow. CQA levels were reduced through processing but to a greater extent in white relative to pigmented potatoes. ANCs were well retained through industrial processing of pigmented potatoes (79-129%). Levels of CQA were significantly (p<0.05) lower in some industrially versus freshly processed products but not for all products. While some differences exist, overall, industrially processed potato products compare favorably to fresh preparation in levels and recovery of phenolics.

  20. [Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013].

    PubMed

    Zapata, María Elisa; Rovirosa, Alicia; Carmuega, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  1. [Corn plant DNA methylation pattern changes upon fractional UV-C irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kravets, A P; Sokolova, D A; Vengzhen, G S; Grodzinskiĭ, D M

    2013-01-01

    Relationship of changes of methylation pattern of functionally different parts of DNA and chromosomal aberration yield was studied at the conditions of the fractionating of UV-C irradiation. Combination of restriction analysis (Hpall, MspI, MboI enzymes) with the subsequent raising of PCR (internal transcribed space ITS1, 1TS4 and inter simple sequence repeat - ISSR, 14b primers) was used. The got results testify to the changes in methylation pattern of satellite and transcription active part of DNA atan irradiation in the mode of fractionating and depending on fraction time ranges. The role of the methylation DNA pattern change in development of radiation damage and induction of organism protective reactions was discussed.

  2. [Changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization in Erdos of Inner Mongolia and related driving forces].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Han, Xing-Guo; Wu, Jian-Guo

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization is the most drastic form of land use change, which affects the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services far beyond the limits of cities. Based on the land use data in three time periods and by the method of landscape pattern analysis, this paper analyzed the change characteristics of the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization in the four Banners of East Erdos at different spatial scales. Urbanization had profound effects on the local ecology, society, and economics. The landscape as a whole became more fragmented and complex, and different patch types exhibited distinctive spatial characteristics and were affected to different degrees at class-level. Desert and urban land varied greater, and cropland was most affected by urbanization. Resources factors, increase of urban population, and development of economy were the main socio-economic driving factors to the changes in the local landscape spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization.

  3. Patterns of change in daily step counts, where does the change happen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the change in the average daily steps taken at different cadence (steps/min) levels when a change in total steps/day occurs. A total of 43 people participated in a one-week intervention with the goal to increase time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical act...

  4. Effects of Changing Meteoric Precipitation Patterns on Groundwater Temperature in Karst Environments.

    PubMed

    Brookfield, A E; Macpherson, G L; Covington, M D

    2017-03-01

    Climate predictions indicate that precipitation patterns will change and average air temperatures will increase across much of the planet. These changes will alter surface water and groundwater temperatures which can significantly affect the local and regional environment. Here, we examine the role of precipitation timing in changes to groundwater temperature in carbonate-karst aquifers using measured groundwater level and temperature data from the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research Site, Kansas. We demonstrate that shifts to increased cool-season precipitation may mitigate the increases in groundwater temperature produced by increases in average annual air temperature. In karst, the solution-enlarged conduits allow faster and focused recharge, and the recharge-event temperature can strongly influence the groundwater temperature in the aquifer. Our field data and analysis show that predictions of future groundwater conditions in karst aquifers need to consider changes in precipitation patterns, in addition to changes to average annual air temperature.

  5. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions.

  6. Spatial scaling patterns and functional redundancies in a changing boreal lake landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Uden, Daniel R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using longterm data (1996–2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial modeling was used to differentiate groups of invertebrate species exhibiting spatial patterns in composition and abundance (that is, deterministic species) from those lacking spatial patterns (that is, stochastic species). We then determined the functional feeding attributes of the deterministic and stochastic invertebrate species, to infer resilience. Between one and three distinct spatial patterns in invertebrate composition and abundance were identified in approximately one-third of the species; the remainder were stochastic. We observed substantial differences in metrics between deterministic and stochastic species. Functional richness and diversity decreased over time in the deterministic group, suggesting a loss of resilience in regional invertebrate communities. However, taxon richness and redundancy increased monotonically in the stochastic group, indicating the capacity of regional invertebrate communities to adapt to change. Our results suggest that a refined picture of spatial resilience emerges if patterns of both the deterministic and stochastic species are accounted for. Spatially extensive monitoring may help increase our mechanistic understanding of community-level responses and resilience to regional environmental change, insights that are critical for developing management and conservation agendas in this current period of rapid environmental transformation.

  7. Economic institutions and institutional change in the United States electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, Lorel Elaine

    Historical data from the U.S. electric power industry was used to test two theories of institutional change. A transactions costs theory based on the neoclassical model was tested against a strategic bargaining model of institutional change. A comparative test of the two models supports the strategic bargaining theory, finding that relative bargaining power can influence the course of institutional change when the power advantage is held by a player who expects to reap economic gains from the change. This result has implications for expectations regarding the nature of economic institutions in that efficient institutions would not be expected to emerge if outcomes are determined by asymmetries in bargaining power. Estimation of a cost function using recent firm-level panel data from the electric power industry found no statistically significant cost differentials between publicly owned and privately owned electric utilities. Transactions costs, measured at the level of the firm, were included as an explanatory variable. The model was estimated as a one-way, fixed effects model to account for institutional variation between firms. Institutional variation was found to lead to cost differentials between individual firms, but not by ownership sector. The cost functions estimated were found to differ structurally by ownership sector, suggesting that public and private electric utilities may utilize different input combinations.

  8. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research.

  9. [Changes in the forms of industrial production and their effects on workers' health].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify determinants of health in workers of plastic industries. Production organization, machinery from maintenance and productive areas, and workers' characteristics of 14 plastic industries from Greater Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were described. Data were collected about development policy of each company; marketing, operational procedures; production and quality requirements, and formal rules of work organization. High strain management techniques for production time reduction have been implemented. The increase of work rhythm, reduction of break time, and a situation of high cognitive demand impose to workers anomalous body positioning for performing tasks that imply repetitive movements. Physical and psychosocial demands (repetitive work, lower control of the worker on his own tasks, time pressure and job dissatisfaction) compose a complex of conditions adverse to workers' health. Changes in production management, personnel and business impose new strains into the development of task by the workers and bringing in new risk factors to workers' health.

  10. Climate change and water conservation effects on water availability and vegetation patterns in a stream valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Climate change predictions include an increase in global temperature and changes in precipitation patterns at spatial and seasonal scale. The seasonal changes for temperate Europe include a decrease in the amount of precipitation in summer and an increase in winter. This may lead to an increased flooding risk in winter and early spring, while in summer the drought risk is likely to increase. These hydrological changes can have profound effects on vegetation patterns and development, especially for groundwater dependent vegetation. Water conservation measures can be used to combat the potential negative effects of these changes. Conservation measures can include aquifer storage and recovery, damming streams, or creating retention zones for flooding events. The implementation of these measures can contribute to preserving groundwater dependent vegetation patterns. In this study we simulated with an integrated surface- and groundwater model and a climate robust vegetation model, the implementation of water conservation measures in a stream valley catchment in the Netherlands. We modeled the effects on water availability and on vegetation patterns. The conservation measures were simulated for the current climate and for two climate scenarios, with a temperature increase of two degrees Celsius and either an increase or decrease in precipitation. Water tables were increased in stream valley zones, where groundwater dependent vegetation dominates, to ensure suitable abiotic conditions. The results showed that the water conservation measures increased the water table considerably in a future climate, compared to no conservation measures. Groundwater dependent vegetation was positively stimulated with these new hydrological conditions. With these models we successfully tested the effectiveness of the water conservation measures on water availability and vegetation patterns to ameliorate the negative effects of climate change. We therefore argue that water conservation

  11. The impact of future changes in weather patterns on extreme sea levels over southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colberg, Frank; McInnes, Kathleen L.

    This study first compares two methods by which the global, variable resolution Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) is forced by reanalysis over Australia. The methods are the spectral nudging and bias-corrected sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. Surface winds and sea level pressure are compared since these influence coastal sea levels. SST forcing was found to better preserve the mean and standard deviation of these quantities. Second, a hydrodynamic model is used to model sea levels over southern Australia over 1980-1999 and 2080-2099 to investigate how changes in weather patterns affect extreme sea levels. Forcing from one Global Climate Model (GCM) and two CCAM simulations in which CCAM was used to downscale two GCMs over Australia with bias-corrected SST forcing (including the GCM considered in this study) were used. While there are differences in the spatial patterns of change between seasons over the modeled coastline between the three models, extreme sea levels were mostly lower in the future period over the southern mainland coastline from autumn to spring due to reduced westerlies in the climate models. The sea level changes around Tasmania varied from positive to negative depending on the model and season. The projected extreme sea level changes were within 10 cm of current climate values. This suggests that over southern Australia extreme sea level changes will be dominated by changes in mean sea level due to thermal expansion and ice sheet and glacier melt rather than changes in weather patterns.

  12. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds' algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry "unstable across time" subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

  13. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  14. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland.

  15. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.

  16. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state.

  17. Patterns and structures of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan

    2015-01-01

    Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region.

  18. How individual age-associated changes may influence human morbidity and mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, S V; Yashin, A I

    2001-09-15

    Patterns of human mortality share common traits in different populations. They include higher mortality in early childhood, lower mortality during the reproductive period, an accelerated increase of mortality near the end of the reproductive period, and deceleration in the mortality increase at oldest old ages. The deceleration of mortality rate is one of the most intriguing recent findings in longevity research. The role of differential selection in this phenomenon has been well studied. Possible contribution of individual aging in the shape of mortality curve is also recognized. However, this contribution has not been studied in details. In this paper, we specify most common patterns of age-associated changes in an individual organism and discuss their possible influence on morbidity and mortality in population. We subdivide individual age-associated changes into three components, having different influence on morbidity and mortality: (1) basal, (2) ontogenetic, and (3) time-dependent. Basal changes are connected with the universal decrease in the rate of living during an individual life. As a result, some phenotypic effects of aging may accumulate in an organism at a slower rate with age. Basal changes are likely to contribute to a plateau of morbidity often observed at old ages, and may partially be responsible for mortality deceleration at oldest old ages. Ontogenetic component is connected with change of the stages of ontogenesis (e.g., the growth, the reproductive period and the climacteric) during an individual life. The ontogenesis-related changes contribute to wave-like patterns of morbidity in population and may partially be responsible for mortality increase at middle ages and its deceleration at old ages. Time-dependent changes are connected with long-time exposure of an organism to different harmful factors. They are most likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality acceleration. We discuss how all three components of individual age

  19. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  20. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  1. A study of morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers from an industry in central India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manish J.; Koparkar, Anil R.; Joshi, Mohan P.; Hajare, Shilpa T.; Kasturwar, Nandakishor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron is the world's most commonly used metal and can usually be found with other elements in the form of steel. In this era of machines, it is the inevitable part in production of various materials like eyeglass frames, jet aircraft, the space shuttle, automobiles, and surgical instruments. Occupational factors make an important contribution to the global burden of disease, but the reliable data on occupational disease are much more difficult to obtain. Hence, the current study was carried out to find out the morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. was carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee in an iron and steel factory. Worker's detailed information regarding profile was taken in pretested questionnaire format after obtaining the informed written consent and explaining the purpose of study. Workers were also interviewed regarding their years of job, job satisfaction, usage of protective devices, and history of injuries during work. Worker's detailed general and systemic examination was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of morbidities among the workers was 60%. It was observed that commonest morbidity in the workers was lumbago (musculoskeletal pain), that is, 33.25%which was more in Group B (49.73%) than Group A (18.78%), followed by occupational dermatitis (27%) which more common in Group A (33.33%) than Group B (19.79%). It was seen that occupation-related morbidities were more prevalent in Group A, i.e. Exposed group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that occupation-related morbidities were more common in exposed group (EG) than that of nonexposed group (NEG) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:25598617

  2. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quan; Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing; Xie, Guoxin

    2016-10-01

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal-insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  3. Patterns of Change in Children's Loneliness: Trajectories from Third through Fifth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Cohen, Robert; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2011-01-01

    Latent growth-mixture modeling was used to investigate patterns of change in loneliness for 170 children from third through fifth grades. A three-class model representing unique trajectories of loneliness provided the best overall fit to the data, including a Stable Low group (65%), as well as groups of Increasers (23%) and Decreasers (12%).…

  4. Patterns of Changing Knowledge Orders: Insights from German and British Labour Market Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, Max-Christopher; Pannowitsch, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Following an interpretative approach this paper investigates the role of knowledge orders, understood as settings which attribute relevance to specific expertise. The changing patterns of incorporation of expertise in policy formulation as well as public justification are analysed for German and British labour market policy. From a comparative…

  5. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-10-07

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status.

  6. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  7. The Alliance in Couple Therapy: Partner Influence, Early Change, and Alliance Patterns in a Naturalistic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anker, Morten G.; Owen, Jesse; Duncan, Barry L.; Sparks, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the alliance and outcome in couple therapy and examine whether the alliance predicted outcomes over and above early change. The authors also investigated partner influence and gender and sought to identify couple alliance patterns that predicted couple outcomes. Method:…

  8. The Changing Patterns of Individual and School Effects on Educational Transitions. Evidence from Catalan Data (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students' educational career,…

  9. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  10. HISTORICAL PATTERNS OF HABITAT CHANGES AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN THE DESERT AND SHORT HORNED LIZARDS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Historical environmental change is thought to have played an important role in the diversification of the biota of western North America. Many patterns of diversification have been associated with glacial-interglacial cycles of the latest Pleistocene. To evaluate the relativ...

  11. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Observable Moon Phases and Pattern of Change in Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe selected content knowledge held by 52 preservice elementary teachers about the observable phases of the moon and the monthly pattern of change in observable phases. Data were obtained from participants in a physics course before and after they received inquiry-based instruction designed to promote…

  12. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Japan. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    This report is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In order to contribute to the OECD activity from the Japanese perspective, the Research Institute for Higher Education at…

  13. Consonant and Syllable Structure Patterns in Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Developmental Change in Three Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Adam; Marquardt, Thomas P.; Davis, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in consonant and syllable-level error patterns of three children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were investigated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed to assess the accuracy of consonants and syllables. Consonant accuracy was low overall, with most frequent errors on middle- and…

  14. Changing Patterns of Governance in Higher Education. Report Series 1975-76, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, John J.; And Others

    Patterns of governance in higher education have changed dramatically during the past quarter century and the trend will probably continue. Since the essential parts of institutional autonomy continue to be debated and vary from state to state, the following discussions were sponsored by the University of Arizona. The topics covered include:…

  15. Non-Completion of School in Australia: The Changing Patterns of Participation and Outcomes. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Stephen; Dwyer, Peter; Wyn, Johanna

    The changing patterns of noncompletion of school in Australia during the 1980s and 1990s and the outcomes of noncompletion were examined by analyzing data from the Australian Longitudinal Survey and the Australian Youth Survey. Despite improvements in completion rates among youths from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds and those in…

  16. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  17. MONITORING CHANGES IN STRESSED ECOSYSTEMS USING SPATIAL PATTERNS OF ANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the feasibility of using changes in spatial patterns of ants-distribution on experimental plots as an indicator of response to environmental stress. We produced contour maps based on relative abundances of the three most common genera of ants based on pit-fall trap ca...

  18. Do No-Loan Policies Change the Matriculation Patterns of Low-Income Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Glen R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether there is discernable variation in the matriculation patterns of low-income students at public flagship institutions around changes in institutional financial-aid policies that target resident, low-income students with need-based aid. Overall, our results suggests that need is not being met on the extensive margin and that…

  19. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Flemish, Joseph; Soer, Wouter

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  20. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change in... Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-525, Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade (76 FR 44606). Public Hearing: In order...

  1. [Effects of land use change on landscape pattern vulnerability in Yinchuan Basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Landscape pattern vulnerability reflects the instability and sensitivity of ecological system to external disturbances and helps to understand the status and trend of ecological environment. This paper used landscape sensitivity index and landscape adaptability index to construct the landscape pattern vulnerability index of Yinchuan Basin, and got the distribution of the landscape pattern vulnerability in 2001 and 2013. Our study explored the effect of the land use degree composite index, the integrated land use dynamic degree, the importance index of land use change and various types of land transfer on landscape pattern vulnerability. Results showed that the land use degree composite index was mainly caused by the increase of the arable land, forest and the construction land. The higher proportion of the arable land or forest, the lower the vulnerability was, and the construction land had the opposite effect. With the increase of integrated land use dynamic degree, the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability, followed by grassland, and the forest significantly decreased the vulnerability, followed by the arable land. As the importance index of land use change increasing, the arable land could significantly decrease the vulnerability, followed by the forest, the grassland had a weaker trend with no obvious pattern, and the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability. When the arable land, forest and the grassland were the maintypes of land use transfer, the increasing proportion of the construction land increased the vulnerability. When the construction land was the main type of land use transfer, the grassland and forest improved the vulnerability and the arable land had the opposite effect. Changes in the number of land use types influenced the spatial structure of land use to a certain extent, which could offer a reference on using and developing the land resources scientifically. The ternary diagram could reflect the impact

  2. [Characteristics and changes of landscape pattern in Wuhan City based on Ripley's K function].

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Yu-ping; Li, Hua

    2010-10-01

    By using Ripley's K function, an important method of point pattern analysis, and taking the TM remote sensing images of 1987, 1996 and 2007 as data source, this paper studied the characteristics and changes of landscape pattern in Wuhan City. The results showed that in 1987 - 2007, farmland was the landscape matrix in Wuhan, while water body, forestland, grassland, urban and rural built-up land, and unutilized land types were the patches or corridors, which spatially clumped significantly in all scales. The landscape aggregation of water bodies was inferior to that of forestland, grassland, and urban and rural built-up land. The farmland clumped spatially in fine scales, but became random or uniform in coarse scales. Meantime, the areas of forestland and urban and rural built-up land increased largely, while water body, grassland, and farmland decreased greatly. In addition, the landscape spatial characteristics of all landscape types changed variously. On the whole, the landscape aggregation of forestland and urban and rural built-up land decreased, and became more uniform. Meanwhile, the water body, grassland, and farmland took on a more uneven and clumped landscape pattern. To analyze the landscape pattern through sample points had the advantages of conciseness, accuracy, and easiness-to-use, in comparison with the methods of quadrat and sample line (or transect). Ripley's K function was proved to be an efficient means for analyzing landscape pattern in different scales, and fit for the supplement and support of landscape metrics.

  3. The CD27+ memory B cells display changes in the gene expression pattern in elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Báez, Alicia; Álvarez-Laderas, Isabel; Piruat, José I; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Barbado, María Victoria; Millán-Uclés, África; Medrano, Mayte; García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Memory B cells (MBCs) have a long lifespan compared with naive B cells (NBCs), remaining viable for years. This could predispose them to suffer misbalances in the gene expression pattern in the long term, which might be involved in the development of age-related B-cell disorders. In order to identify genes whose expression might change during life, we analysed the gene expression patterns of CD27− NBCs versus CD27+ MBCs in young and old subjects. Using microarray assays we observed that the expression pattern of CD27− NBCs versus CD27+ MBCs is significantly different. Furthermore, to evaluate the age effect, we compared the gene expression pattern of young versus aged subjects in both cell populations. Interestingly, we did not find significant differences in the CD27− NBC population between young and aged individuals, whereas we found 925 genes differentially expressed in CD27+ MBCs. Among these genes, 193 were also differentially expressed in CD27+ MBCs compared with CD27− NBCs, most of them involved in cell survival, cell growth and proliferation, cellular development and gene expression. We conclude that gene expression profiles of CD27− NBCs and CD27+ MBCs are different. Moreover, whereas the gene expression pattern of CD27+ MBCs varies with age, the same does not happen in CD27− NBCs. This suggests that MBCs undergo time-dependent changes, which could underlie a higher susceptibility to dysfunction with age. PMID:25196729

  4. Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends.

    PubMed

    Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2015-06-25

    Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface temperature extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in extreme temperature occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of extreme temperatures over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.

  5. Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Daniel E.; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-06-01

    Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface temperature extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in extreme temperature occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of extreme temperatures over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.

  6. Rotation and scale change invariant point pattern relaxation matching by the Hopfield neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.

  7. Assessment of change in soil water content properties irrigated with industrial sugar beet wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Sayyed Hassan; Najafi, Payam; Amini, Hussein

    2007-05-15

    In this research the effect of industrial sugar beet wastewater has been assessed on the soil water content properties in summer 2005. The evaluated parameters were the soil water content points such as Saturation Percent (SP), Field Capacity (FC), Permanent Wilting Point (PWP), gravitational water and Total Available Water (TAW). The pilot design was fully randomized with three replications and three treatments. The three treatments were: 1-normal water, 2-industrial sugar beet wastewater (50%) and normal water (50%) and 3-sugar beet wastewater (100%). The experiments have been carried out in the field, in 21 columns with the diameter 110 mm and the height of 400 mm. The soil was irrigated using surface irrigation method for 12 events with a constant volume and period. Based on the result, the SP, FC and PWP initial value were 46.5, 35 and 15%, respectively for all the treatments. At the end of the period, the values changed to 47, 36.6 and 17.5% for T2. They are also increased significantly to 48.5, 37 and 18.7% for T3 at the end of the period. The increasing of soil Organic Matter (OM) during the period is expected to be the main factor for this change. The result shows that although the FC and PWP parameters are increased during the period but TAW decreased significantly from the 20 to 18.5%. The other effects of wastewater on soil and leached water quality should be evaluated too.

  8. Genomic structural variation contributes to phenotypic change of industrial bioethanol yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Li-Jie; Fang, Ya-Hong; Jin, Xin-Na; Qi, Lei; Wu, Xue-Chang; Zheng, Dao-Qiong

    2016-03-01

    Genomic structural variation (GSV) is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different genetic backgrounds; however, the physiological and phenotypic effects of GSV are not well understood. Here, we first revealed the genetic characteristics of a widely used industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, by whole genome sequencing. ZTW1 was identified as an aneuploidy strain and a large-scale GSV was observed in the ZTW1 genome compared with the genome of a diploid strain YJS329. These GSV events led to copy number variations (CNVs) in many chromosomal segments as well as one whole chromosome in the ZTW1 genome. Changes in the DNA dosage of certain functional genes directly affected their expression levels and the resultant ZTW1 phenotypes. Moreover, CNVs of large chromosomal regions triggered an aneuploidy stress in ZTW1. This stress decreased the proliferation ability and tolerance of ZTW1 to various stresses, while aneuploidy response stress may also provide some benefits to the fermentation performance of the yeast, including increased fermentation rates and decreased byproduct generation. This work reveals genomic characters of the bioethanol S. cerevisiae strain ZTW1 and suggests that GSV is an important kind of mutation that changes the traits of industrial S. cerevisiae strains.

  9. Impacts of Hydro-Climatic Change, Permafrost Thaw and Industrial Pressures in the Lake Baikal Drainage Basin (Mongolia and Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsjo, J.; Törnqvist, R.; Bring, A.; Pietron, J.; Rogberg, P.; Asokan, S. M.; Destouni, G.

    2014-12-01

    The large Arctic river Yenisei and Lake Baikal with its unique ecosystem containing endemic species are influenced by on-going hydro-climatic changes in the Lake Baikal Drainage Basin. The latter extends from southern Siberia into northern Mongolia, and contains one of the word's larger mining regions, for instance with mining of gold, silver, copper and coal. Recognizing that changing hydro-climatic conditions in the basin may lead to changed loading pattern of anthropogenic substances to Lake Baikal and Yenisei, we aim at identifying long-term historic and projected future hydro-climatic trends in this basin and their (possible) impacts. The analyses are based on hydro-climatic observations and the output 22 Earth System Models (ESMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5). Observations show that warming rates of the basin were twice as high as the global average during past 70 years. Decreased intra annual variability of river discharge over this period indicates basin-scale permafrost degradation. CMIP5 ensemble projections show further future warming, implying continued permafrost thaw. Most individual models as well as the CMIP5 ensemble mean result indicate increased runoff in the future. However the spread of individual model results is large. Parallel results show that such increased runoff can considerably increase the annual riverine sediment loads and consequently the loading of contaminants that are attached to the sediments, in particular downstream of mining sites. More generally, this exemplifies how long-term hydro-climatic changes, permafrost thaw, and industrial pressures may interact in increasing the bioavailability of contaminants in downstream recipients.

  10. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P < 0.005). Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex. PMID:26180534

  11. Biogeographical patterns and phenological changes in Lapiedra martinezii LAG. related to its alkaloid diversity.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Segundo; Berkov, Strahil; Martínez-Francés, Vanessa; Bastida, Jaume

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the alkaloid patterns of Lapiedra martinezii and their relation to biogeography and phenology focused in a phylogenetic comparison. Plants from 14 populations of L. martinezii, covering almost its entire distribution area, were subjected to morphological, ecological, and phytochemical analysis. Experiments for different alkaloid-type content are proposed as a new tool for analysis of plant distribution. Several plants were transplanted for weekly observation of their phenological changes, and alkaloids from different plant organs were extracted, listed, and compared. The alkaloid pattern of L. martinezii comprises 49 compounds of homolycorine, lycorine, tazettine, haemantamine, and narciclasine types. The populations located in the north and south margins of the distribution area displayed alkaloid patterns different from those of the central area. Changes in these patterns during their phenological cycle may be related to a better defence for plant reproduction. L. martinezii is an old relict plant, and it has maintained some of the more primitive morphological features and alkaloid profiles of the Mediterranean Amaryllidaceae. The variations in alkaloid content observed could be interpreted in a phylogenetic sense, and those found in their phenological changes, in an adaptive one.

  12. Selecting climate simulations for impact studies based on multivariate patterns of climate change.

    PubMed

    Mendlik, Thomas; Gobiet, Andreas

    In climate change impact research it is crucial to carefully select the meteorological input for impact models. We present a method for model selection that enables the user to shrink the ensemble to a few representative members, conserving the model spread and accounting for model similarity. This is done in three steps: First, using principal component analysis for a multitude of meteorological parameters, to find common patterns of climate change within the multi-model ensemble. Second, detecting model similarities with regard to these multivariate patterns using cluster analysis. And third, sampling models from each cluster, to generate a subset of representative simulations. We present an application based on the ENSEMBLES regional multi-model ensemble with the aim to provide input for a variety of climate impact studies. We find that the two most dominant patterns of climate change relate to temperature and humidity patterns. The ensemble can be reduced from 25 to 5 simulations while still maintaining its essential characteristics. Having such a representative subset of simulations reduces computational costs for climate impact modeling and enhances the quality of the ensemble at the same time, as it prevents double-counting of dependent simulations that would lead to biased statistics.

  13. Changing social contact patterns under tropical weather conditions relevant for the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, T-C; Fu, Y-C; Hwang, J-S

    2015-01-01

    Weather conditions and social contact patterns provide some clues to understanding year-round influenza epidemics in the tropics. Recent studies suggest that contact patterns may direct influenza transmission in the tropics as critically as the aerosol channel in temperate regions. To examine this argument, we analysed a representative nationwide survey dataset of contact diaries with comprehensive weather data in Taiwan. Methods we used included model-free estimated relative changes in reproduction number, R 0; relative changes in the number of contacts; and model-based estimated relative changes in mean contacts using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Overall, social contact patterns clearly differ by demographics (such as age groups), personal idiosyncrasies (such as personality and happiness), and social institutions (such as the division of weekdays and weekend days). Further, weather conditions also turn out to be closely linked to contact patterns under various circumstances. Fleeting contacts, for example, tend to diminish when it rains hard on weekdays, while physical contacts also decrease during weekend days with heavy rain. Frequent social contacts on weekdays and under good weather conditions, including high temperature and low absolute humidity, all might facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases in tropical regions.

  14. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  15. Patterns and Potential Drivers of Dramatic Changes in Tibetan Lakes, 1972–2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia. PMID:25372787

  16. Detection of changes in SEMG signals with myofascial pain using the pattern-classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Huang, Pao-Tieh

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial pain on the upper back (MFPUB) has been a common occupational hazard associated with consistent computer use. Investigations into any sort neuromuscular functional changes due to myofascial pain are rare. This study aims to differentiate the wavelet energy patterns of the surface electromyography signals measured from 30 normal and 26 patient subjects using the K-means clustering process. The results show that the wavelet energy pattern of patient subjects was different to that of normal subject and reveals a sensitivity of 57.69% at a specificity of 76.67% in the identification of myofascial pain. Therefore, this model could provide a reliable feature for clinical diagnosis of myofascial pain.

  17. Patterns and Impacts of millennial-scale hydroclimatic change in North American during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    A new database of >100 lake-level reconstructions spanning the Holocene from the United States and Canada reveals that long-term patterns of hydroclimatic change in the mid-latitudes were punctuated by a series of abrupt events, particularly at ca. 8 and 5.5 ka. New detailed reconstructions from the Rocky Mountains and the northeast U.S. show that the abrupt changes produced important changes in the gradient of moisture availability across the continent with the mid-continent drying and the Atlantic coast becoming wet at ca 8 ka, and then a reversal of this pattern at 5.5 ka. Both changes are associated with important abrupt changes in North American vegetation, including abrupt shifts in the boundaries of the Great Plains grasslands and including the classic collapse of eastern hemlock (Tsuga) species. Regression analyses indicate that the area of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and Atlantic sea surface temperatures drove the abrupt changes. Archeological data also reveal societal importance of the hydroclimatic changes, which included probably severe reductions in mid-continent river flows.

  18. Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohensky, Erin L.; Smajgl, Alex; Brewer, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how individuals engage with climate change is critical for developing successful climate adaptation policies. Indonesia ranks among the world's top CO2 emitters, affirming its relevance to the global climate change policy arena, yet the dynamics of climate change engagement in Indonesia may differ from developed countries from which much research on this issue derives. We surveyed 6,310 households in two Indonesian regions to investigate patterns in four steps of engagement: observation, risk perception, reactive action (in response to present climate change) and proactive action (in anticipation of future climate change). We show that 89.5% of households exhibited a pattern whereby taking each of these steps in sequence implied taking all steps that precede it. Exceptions occurred in urban areas, where households were more likely to take action without having observed climate change or perceiving risks. In rural areas, households were more likely to observe climate change without taking action. These variations suggest a potentially nonlinear relationship between steps of engagement. We distinguish three types of household requiring adaptation support, and stress that Indonesian climate policy should shift emphasis from raising awareness to identifying broader institutional structures and processes to facilitate household engagement.

  19. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon’s diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the

  20. Selecting climate simulations for impact studies based on multivariate patterns of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlik, Thomas; Gobiet, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    In climate change impact research it is crucial to carefully select the meteorological input for impact models. On the one hand, the number of feasible impact simulations is often restricted by practical constraints, which necessitates the selection of few climate simulations out of a larger ensemble without underestimating the spread of the entire ensemble. On the other hand, model selection should consider the fact that ensembles of climate simulations are often ensembles of opportunity, which may be subject to model inter-dependencies and biases. Bearing this in mind, we introduce an approach for model selection consisting of three steps: First, using principal component analysis for a multitude of meteorological parameters, to find common patterns of climate change within the multi-model ensemble. Second, detecting model similarities regarding these multivariate patterns using cluster analysis. And third, sampling models from each cluster, leading to a subset of representative simulations. We present an application based on the ENSEMBLES regional multi-model ensemble with the aim to provide input for a variety of climate impact studies. For meteorological parameters based on daily average values, we find that the two most dominating patterns of climate change relate to temperature and humidity patterns. For this specific set of parameters, the ensemble can be reduced from 20 to 5 simulations, still maintaining the essential climate change patterns of the whole ensemble. The proposed method enables the user to shrink the ensemble to a few representative members, conserving the model spread and accounting for model similarity. This reduces computational costs for climate impact modeling and enhances the quality of the ensemble at the same time, as it prevents double-counting of dependent simulations which would lead to biased statistics.

  1. Spatial pattern of reference evapotranspiration change and its temporal evolution over Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanlei; Wang, Guojie; Huang, Jin; Mu, Mengyuan; Yan, Guixia; Liu, Chunwei; Gao, Chujie; Li, Xing; Yin, Yixing; Zhang, Fangmin; Zhu, Siguang; Hua, Wenjian

    2016-09-01

    Due to the close relationship of climate change with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), detecting changes in ETo spatial distribution and its temporal evolution at local and regional levels is favorable to comprehensively understand climate change-induced impacts on hydrology and agriculture. In this study, the objective is to identify whether climate change has caused variation of ETo spatial distribution in different analysis periods [i.e., long- (20-year), medium- (10-year), and short-term (5-year)] and to investigate its temporal evolution (namely, when these changes happened) at annual and monthly scales in Southwest China (SWC). First, we estimated ETo values using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith equation, based on historical climate data measured at 269 weather sites during 1973-2012. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that the spatial pattern of annual ETo had significantly changed during the past 40 years, particularly in west SWC for the long-term analysis period, and west and southeast SWC in both medium- and short-term periods, which corresponded to the percent area of significant differences which were 21.9, 58.0, and 48.2 %, respectively. For investigating temporal evolution of spatial patterns of annual ETo, Duncan's multiple range test was used, and we found that the most significant changes appeared during 1988-2002 with the significant area of higher than 25.0 %. In addition, for long-, medium-, and short-term analysis periods, the spatial distribution has significantly changed during March, September, November, and December, especially in the corresponding periods of 1988-1997, 1983-1992, 1973-1977, and 1988-2002. All in all, climate change has resulted in significant ETo changes in SWC since the 1970s. Knowledge of climate change-induced spatial distribution of ETo and its temporal evolution would aid in formulating strategies for water resources and agricultural managements.

  2. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  3. [Landscape pattern change and its simulation forecast in Zigui County of Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ji-Hong; Fan, Wen-Yi; Bao, Chen-Guang

    2009-02-01

    Based on the TM images of 1987 and 2002, the landscape pattern change of Zigui County from 1987 to 2002 was analyzed by using landscape index method; and the simulation forecast of this change in next 50 years was conducted by using Markov model. The results showed that in 1987-2002, the landscape pattern of Zigui County changed dramatically. The area of sparse wood land increased greatly while that of upland and shrub land decreased obviously, and the distribution of the areas of different landscape types tended to balance. The average shape index of landscape had an overall decline, which was represented by the concentrated and connected distribution of different landscape types, simplification of landscape shape, and obvious human interference. As a whole, the landscape diversity and fragmentation in Zigui County were improved to some extent. In next 50 years, the area of sparse wood land in Zigui would have a rapid increase, followed by that of forestland, while the areas of upland and shrub land would be declining, and the other landscape types would have a less fluctuation in their areas. The main driving forces of the landscape pattern change in Zigui were the relocation of the County and the implementation of forestry policies.

  4. Examining patterns of change in the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Maureen A; McMullen, William F

    2009-06-01

    Although critical thinking in undergraduate nursing education has been explored in depth, little is known about the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students. Prior research on change in critical thinking scores is based primarily on pretest and posttest assessments that provide minimal information about change. This study used individual growth modeling to investigate how critical thinking skills change during a 2-year graduate nurse program. Scores from the evaluation, inference, and analysis subscales of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test comprised the empirical growth record. Change in the three critical thinking skills was more dynamic than that reported in previous studies. Patterns of change differed by critical thinking skill and in relation to students' initial critical thinking skill levels at program entry.

  5. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather patterns and the evolution and implications of accompanying surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; McEwen, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    Post-equinox changes in Titan's atmospheric circulation brought clouds and extensive methane rain to low latitudes [1,2]. Observations by Cassini ISS over the ensuing ~1.5 yr revealed surface changes to be short-lived; few rain-darkened areas persisted through 2011. In an unsaturated permeable medium, infiltration rates are >20 mm/week [3], so persistence of surface liquids over several months suggests that either an impermeable layer or the local methane table lies close to the surface. Evaporation rates >1 mm/week are predicted at low latitudes [4] and 20 mm/week has been documented at Titan's poles [5], thus areas where darkening persisted must be saturated ground at the level of a methane table or have had ponded liquid 2.5-50 cm deep. Several smaller areas of surface brightening were also observed, a phenomenon that is less well understood. Cassini VIMS spectra of these regions do not match clouds or other surface units [6]. Interpretations include cleaning by runoff [2] or deposition of a fine-grained volatile solid as the result of evaporative cooling of the surface [6]. In general, brightening has persisted longer than darkening, but these areas are also reverting to their original appearance, possibly due to evaporation/sublimation of the bright material or re-deposition of darker hydrocarbons by aeolian transport or precipitation from the atmosphere. Cassini and Earth-based observers monitor Titan frequently, but few clouds have been observed since Fall 2010, which may indicate that enough methane was removed from the atmosphere and the lapse rate stabilized sufficiently that activity will not resume until the onset of convection at mid-northern latitudes later in northern spring. A similar lapse followed a 2004 outburst of south-polar clouds [7], which also appeared to produce significant rainfall [8]. [1] Turtle et al., GRL 38, L03203, doi:10.1029/2010GL046266, 2011. [2] Turtle et al., Science 331, 10.1126/science.1201063. 2011. [3] Hayes et al., GRL 35

  6. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather patterns and the evolution and implications of accompanying surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Barbara, J. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; West, R. A.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Stofan, E. R.; Schaller, E. L.; Lopes, R. M.; Ray, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Post-equinox changes in Titan's atmospheric circulation brought clouds and extensive methane rain to Titan's low latitudes [1,2]. Observations by Cassini ISS over the ~2 years since the storm revealed most of the changes to be short-lived; only a few darkened patches persisted through Fall 2011. In an unsaturated permeable medium, infiltration rates exceed 20 mm/week [3], so persistence of surface liquids over several months suggests either a shallow impermeable layer or that the local methane table lies close to the surface. Evaporation rates greater than 1 mm/week are predicted in equatorial regions [4] and rates of 20 mm/week have been documented at Titan's poles [5], thus areas where darkening persisted must be saturated ground at the level of a methane table or have had liquid ponded to depths of 2.5-50 cm. Several smaller areas of surface brightening were also observed, a phenomenon that is less well understood. Cassini VIMS spectra of these regions do not match those of clouds or other surface units [6, 7]. Interpretations include cleaning by runoff [2] or deposition of a fine-grained volatile solid as the result of evaporative cooling [6, 7]. In general, brightening has persisted longer than darkening, but these areas are also reverting to their original appearance, which could constrain rates of evaporation/sublimation of the bright material or re-deposition of darker hydrocarbons by aeolian transport or precipitation from the atmosphere. Cassini and Earth-based observers monitor Titan frequently (typically at least a few times per month), but few clouds have been observed since Fall 2010, which may indicate that enough methane was removed from the atmosphere and the lapse rate stabilized sufficiently that activity will not resume until the onset of convection at mid-northern latitudes later in northern spring. A similar lapse followed a 2004 outburst of south-polar clouds [8], which also appeared to produce significant rainfall [9]. [1] Turtle et al., GRL

  7. Changing patterns and determinants of natural capital in the Yangtze River Delta of China 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan

    2014-01-01

    Natural capital (NC) is crucial to human existence and human well-being. Evaluating ecosystem services on a regional scale has presented tremendous theoretical, methodological and policy challenges. This study addresses the challenges by developing an interdisciplinary methodology, based on expert knowledge, and by focusing on the Yangtze River Delta of China. It evaluates the stock of NC, analyzes the characteristics of, and identifies the key drivers for, spatial and temporal change in NC in the deltaic region from 2000 to 2010. A main contribution is the novel incorporation of remote sensing data that explains the dynamics of the spatio-temporal change in land use and a set of ecosystem service indicators derived from it. The study focuses on key indicators for key ecosystem services related to carbon sequestration, grain production and water supply. The indictors reflect the spatial heterogeneity of NC across diverse ecosystems in the region. Each indicator builds on land use configuration and land use composition information derived from 250 m 16-day MODIS and Landsat TM remote sensing data for 2000 and 2010, with adjustment parameters being constructed. The regional evaluation shows an overall degradation of ecosystem services, reducing total NC by 10.4% (or 8.44 billion yuan) in 2000-2010. The spatial distribution of NC exhibits a declining pattern from the south to the north of the delta. At the city level, 15 out of 16 major cities in the region have experienced dramatic loss of NC, and this pattern is significantly correlated with rapid urbanization, population growth and industrialization. Land use/land cover change and deteriorating water quality are dominant factors causing NC depletion, while increased grain productivity and environmental policies help offset the NC losses. Outcomes of this research are useful to policy makers to mitigate the declines in NC through balancing the growth between economy and population.

  8. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry “unstable across time” subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities. PMID:25132830

  9. Changes in patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary: a shift to synthetic cathinones.

    PubMed

    Péterfi, Anna; Tarján, Anna; Horváth, Gergely Csaba; Csesztregi, Tamás; Nyírády, Adrienn

    2014-01-01

    The spread of synthetic cathinone injecting is a new phenomenon observed in recent years in Hungary. Until 2010, when the first anecdotal reports on cathinone injecting appeared, injecting was associated with the use of heroin and amphetamine. In this paper we review available evidence of the changes in the drug market and a concurrent shift in patterns of injecting drug use that have been taking place in Hungary since 2010. Remarkable changes have been observed in police seizures data since 2010. While new psychoactive substances have appeared, the availability of heroin has dropped significantly. A qualitative study in 2011 revealed that these market changes correlate with changes in patterns of injecting drug use: decreasing heroin use and the appearance of mephedrone injecting were reported by treatment and needle and syringe programme (NSP) personnel. These changes are detectable in other routine epidemiological data collection systems in the following years as well (i.e. treatment, drug-related deaths, NSP clientele). Heroin-related treatment demand dropped, as did heroin-related mortality. Parallel to this, a growing number of clients appeared in treatment and in NSPs who were primarily injecting cathinones. The shift to cathinones can be observed in amphetamine and heroin injectors as well. Monitoring changes in patterns of injecting drug use are especially important because of the vulnerability of this drug-user population and the consequences of this high-risk route of drug administration. The realignment observed in Hungary is to be further investigated with regard to its determinants, changes in risk behaviour, and in treatment needs.

  10. The Changing Nature and Definitions of Industrial Design and Implications for Prospective Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goatman, Mike; Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There are currently a wide range of Higher Education Industrial Design courses available in the UK. In the present era, a wider breadth of narrative has developed within the subject, and as a result the content of industrial design educational offerings varies considerably. The paper assesses the industry view of Industrial Design as a discipline…

  11. Seasonal changes in spatial patterns of two annual plants in the Chihuahuan Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Guo, Q.; Ren, H.; Peng, S.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial pattern of a biotic population may change over time as its component individuals grow or die out, but whether this is the case for desert annual plants is largely unknown. Here we examined seasonal changes in spatial patterns of two annuals, Eriogonum abertianum and Haplopappus gracilis, in initial (winter) and final (summer) densities. The density was measured as the number of individuals from 384 permanent quadrats (each 0.5 m ?? 0.5 m) in the Chihuahuan Desert near Portal, Arizona, USA. We used three probability distributions (binomial, Poisson, and negative binomial or NB) that represent three basic spatial patterns (regular, random, and clumped) to fit the observed frequency distributions of densities of the two annuals. Both species showed clear clumped patterns as characterized by the NB and had similar inverse J-shaped frequency distribution curves in two density categories. Also, both species displayed a reduced degree of aggregation from winter to summer after the spring drought (massive die-off), as indicated by the increased k-parameter of the NB and decreased values of another NB parameter p, variance/mean ratio, Lloyd's Index of Patchiness, and David and Moore's Index of Clumping. Further, we hypothesized that while the NB (i.e., Poisson-logarithmic) well fits the distribution of individuals per quadrat, its components, the Poisson and logarithmic, may describe the distributions of clumps per quadrat and of individuals per clump, respectively. We thus obtained the means and variances for (1) individuals per quadrat, (2) clumps per quadrat, and (3) individuals per clump. The results showed that the decrease of the density from winter to summer for each plant resulted from the decrease of individuals per clump, rather than from the decrease of clumps per quadrat. The great similarities between the two annuals indicate that our observed temporal changes in spatial patterns may be common among desert annual plants. ?? Springer 2005.

  12. Smooth changes in the EMG patterns during gait transitions under body weight unloading.

    PubMed

    Labini, Francesca Sylos; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Cappellini, Germana; Gravano, Silvio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    During gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed, and it has been suggested that different gaits may be associated with different functioning of neuronal networks. In this study we recorded the EMG activity of leg muscles at slow increments and decrements in treadmill belt speed and at different levels of body weight unloading. In contrast to normal walking at 1 g, at lower levels of simulated gravity (<0.4 g) the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without systematic abrupt changes in either intensity or timing of EMG patterns. This phenomenon depended to a limited extent on the gravity simulation technique, although the exact level of the appearance of smooth transitions (0.4-0.6 g) tended to be lower for the vertical than for the tilted body weight support system. Furthermore, simulations performed with a half-center oscillator neuromechanical model showed that the abruptness of motor patterns at gait transitions at 1 g could be predicted from the distinct parameters anchored already in the normal range of walking and running speeds, whereas at low gravity levels the parameters of the model were similar for the two human gaits. A lack of discontinuous changes in the pattern of speed-dependent locomotor characteristics in a hypogravity environment is consistent with the idea of a continuous shift in the state of a given set of central pattern generators, rather than the activation of a separate set of central pattern generators for each distinct gait.

  13. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  14. Evolution of stationary wave patterns in mesospheric water vapor due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirhan Barı, Deniz; Gabriel, Axel; Sezginer Ünal, Yurdanur

    2016-07-01

    The variability in the observed stationary wave patterns of the mesospheric water vapor (H2O) is investigated using CMIP5 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections. The change in the vertical and meridional wave structure at northern mid- and polar latitudes associated to the zonal and meridional eddy heat fluxes is discussed by analyzing the advection of H2O due to residual wind components. The alteration in the characteristics of the stationary wave-1 pattern of the lower mesospheric H2O (up to about 75km) related to change in the projected radiative forcing is observed for the years from 2006 to 2100. Additionally the remarkable effect of the increase in global temperature on the zonal asymmetries in small-scale transient waves and parameterized gravity waves, which largely contribute to the observed stationary wave patterns of H2O in the upper mesosphere, is analyzed. For validation purposes, the derived stratospheric patterns are verified against the eddy heat fluxes and residual advection terms derived from Aura/MLS satellite data between 2004-2010 and the reference period of the CMIP5 MPI dataset (1976-2005) providing confidence in the applied method.

  15. Coal myths and environmental realities: Industrial fuel-use decisions in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with two inconsistent myths that persistently surround industrial use of coal. The first myth is that the Clean Air Act effectively precludes use of coal; the second, that industrial use of coal will expand rapidly. Through analysing fuel-use decisions actually made by industry, Mr. Alm concludes that environmental quality standards have played a minor role in industrial choice of fuel. Historically, natural gas and oil have been both less costly and more convenient fuels for industry to use.

  16. Changes in pattern completion – a key mechanism to explain age-related recognition memory deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Vieweg, Paula; Stangl, Matthias; Howard, Lorelei R.; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate memory retrieval from partial or degraded input requires the reactivation of memory traces, a hippocampal mechanism termed pattern completion. Age-related changes in hippocampal integrity have been hypothesized to shift the balance of memory processes in favor of the retrieval of already stored information (pattern completion), to the detriment of encoding new events (pattern separation). Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we investigated the impact of cognitive aging (1) on recognition performance across different levels of stimulus completeness, and (2) on potential response biases. Participants were required to identify previously learned scenes among new ones. Additionally, all stimuli were presented in gradually masked versions to alter stimulus completeness. Both young and older adults performed increasingly poorly as the scenes became less complete, and this decline in performance was more pronounced in elderly participants indicative of a pattern completion deficit. Intriguingly, when novel scenes were shown, only the older adults showed an increased tendency to identify these as familiar scenes. In line with theoretical models, we argue that this reflects an age-related bias towards pattern completion. PMID:25597525

  17. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border.

    PubMed

    Viña, Andrés; Echavarria, Fernando R; Rundquist, Donald C

    2004-05-01

    This study uses Landsat satellite data to document the rates and patterns of land-cover change along a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador border during a 23-yr period (1973-1996). Human colonization has resulted in extensive deforestation in both countries. Satellite change detection analysis showed that the annual rates of deforestation were considerably higher for the Colombian side of the border. In addition, loss of forest cover on the Colombian side for the study period was almost 43%, while only 22% on the Ecuadorian side. The study found that there is no single factor driving deforestation on either side of the border, but concluded that the higher rates on the Colombian side may be due to higher colonization pressures and intensification of illegal coca cultivation. On the Ecuador side of the border the satellite images documented patterns of deforestation that reflected road networks associated with oil exploration and development.

  18. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  19. Observations of the Changing Spatial Patterns of Post-Wildfire Erosion and Deposition Using Terrestrial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, F. K.; Tucker, G. E.; Moody, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    After a wildfire in forested terrain, erosion is typically much greater than background forest erosion. This is due to changes in soil erodibility and water infiltration that follow wildfire. Many prior studies have documented the changes in erosional magnitude following wildfire, but this study examines how the erosion/deposition is spatially distributed. This is only possible due to the use of terrestrial LiDAR, which allows us to track centimeter-scale changes in soil depth. With terrestrial LiDAR data we are able to show how erosion and depositional patterns change over time as the landscape recovers from the wildfire disturbance. These high-resolution data represent a critical step forward for efforts to understand the sources/sinks of erosion after wildfire. This study was conducted on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon wildfire approximately 15 km west of Boulder, CO. The first LiDAR survey was conducted within 3 weeks of the wildfire and before any significant rainstorms. Four more LiDAR surveys were conducted over a two-year period. These surveys were conducted before and after large rainstorms, so that the erosional effect of large rainstorms could be observed. The changing patterns of erosion/deposition over time were observed by differencing the topographic datasets created from each LiDAR survey. Our results show a hysteresis in the geomorphic change. The erosional response after rainstorms was strongly influenced by the previous erosional events and pre-existing site morphology. The overall erosion pattern is patchy because much of the erosion is locally interrupted by immobile objects such as boulders, bedrock, or trees. Over the entire study period we documented that the volume of sediment eroded from hillslopes was nearly twice as high as volume eroded from convergent areas; however, when the erosion is expressed as a yield per unit area the yield from convergent areas was greater than the yield from hillslope areas.

  20. To what extent did changes in July temperature influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.

    2014-12-01

    What was the impact of July temperature changes on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air temperature estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy temperature records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these temperature estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of temperature and of temperature changes on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of temperature on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to change. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with temperature controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation changes. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July temperature alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of temperature and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.

  1. Changes in isoenzyme patterns of a cloned culture of nonpathogenic Entamoeba histolytica during axenization.

    PubMed Central

    Mirelman, D; Bracha, R; Wexler, A; Chayen, A

    1986-01-01

    The axenization of an Entamoeba histolytica isolate with a nonpathogenic isoenzyme electrophoretic pattern (zymodeme) was recently achieved for the first time (15). Forty days after the cells were transferred to the medium used for axenic cultivation, the amebae developed virulence properties, and the zymodeme converted to a pathogenic pattern. To exclude the possibility that the original isolate consisted of two zymodeme populations and that conditions of growth selected for a particular population, the experiment was repeated with a cloned culture of a nonpathogenic (zymodeme III) strain, E. histolytica SAW 1734R clAR, isolated by and obtained from P. G. Sargeaunt. Axenization was accomplished, as before, by transferring trophozoites to TYI-S-33 medium containing a mixture of antibiotics to suppress the growth of the associated bacterial flora and a nutritional supplement consisting of gamma-irradiated bacteria. A change in the hexokinase and phosphoglucomutase isoenzyme pattern was observed 21 days after the amebae had been transferred to the axenic medium but before complete axenization of the amebae had occurred. The change in zymodeme was accompanied by an increase in virulence, as evidenced by the ability of fewer amebae to induce hepatic abscesses in hamsters. A reverse conversion to a nonpathogenic zymodeme was also accomplished by reassociating and subculturing the newly converted pathogenic trophozoites of strain SAW 1734R clAR with the bacterial flora that accompanied this ameba in the original xenic culture. The electromobilities of the hexokinase isoenzymes changed back to their original pattern 7 days after the amebae were returned to xenic growth conditions. Our in vitro results demonstrate that culture conditions and bacterial flora can cause changes in the zymodeme and virulence of a cloned ameba isolate and raise the concern that this could happen also in vivo. Thus, the finding of a particular zymodeme in a culture of E. histolytica isolated

  2. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators.

  3. Psychosocial Predictors of Changing Sleep Patterns in Aging Women: A Multiple Pathway Approach

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Cynthia H.; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol; Brown, Roger L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes in the sleep quality of older women over time and to determine whether dimensions of psychological well-being, health (subjective health and number of illnesses), and psychological distress (depression and anxiety) predict these changes. A secondary analysis was conducted using a longitudinal sample of aging women (Kwan, Love, Ryff, & Essex, 2003). Of 518 community-dwelling elderly women in the parent study, 115 women (baseline M age = 67, SD = 7.18) with data at baseline, 8 years, and 10 years were used for this investigation. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires and participated in in-home interviews and observations. Growth curve modeling (GCM) was used to examine the overall linear trajectories of sleep quality. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to examine whether there were different patterns of change in sleep quality over time and to examine baseline predictors of each pattern. Sleep quality declined over time but not for all women. Two distinctly different sleep patterns emerged: good but declining sleep quality (GS) and disrupted sleep (DS) quality. Higher psychological well-being (positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, and self-acceptance), fewer illnesses, and lower depression scores at baseline predicted reduced odds for membership in the DS group. Future research is needed to examine whether interventions focused on maintaining or enhancing psychological well-being could minimize later life declines in sleep quality. PMID:20731498

  4. Genetic profiling links changing sea-ice to shifting beluga whale migration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Andrew R.; Suydam, Robert; Quakenbush, Lori; Whiting, Alex; Lowry, Lloyd; Harwood, Lois

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern over how Arctic fauna will adapt to climate related changes in sea-ice. We used long-term sighting and genetic data on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in conjunction with multi-decadal patterns of sea-ice in the Pacific Arctic to investigate the influence of sea-ice on spring migration and summer residency patterns. Substantial variations in sea-ice conditions were detected across seasons, years and sub-regions, revealing ice–ocean dynamics more complex than Arctic-wide trends suggest. This variation contrasted with a highly consistent pattern of migration and residency by several populations, indicating that belugas can accommodate widely varying sea-ice conditions to perpetuate philopatry to coastal migration destinations. However, a number of anomalous migration and residency events were detected and coincided with anomalous ice years, and in one case with an increase in killer whale (Orcinus orca) sightings and reported predation on beluga whales. The behavioural shifts were likely driven by changing sea-ice and associated changes in resource dispersion and predation risk. Continued reductions in sea-ice may result in increased predation at key aggregation areas and shifts in beluga whale behaviour with implications for population viability, ecosystem structure and the subsistence cultures that rely on them.

  5. [Land use pattern change in Ejin Delta of Northwest China during 1930-2010].

    PubMed

    Nian, Yan-yun; Wang, Xiao-li; Chen, Lu

    2015-03-01

    The land use and landscape pattern in the lower reaches of the arid inland river basin is meaningful to water resource allocation. Based on the land use data in 1930, 1961, 1990, 2000, 2010, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the change of landscape pattern in the Ejin Delta in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in Northwest China. The results showed that the desert area accounted for 73.4% of the total research area in 2010, and the grassland 20.8%. During the past 80 years, the grassland, farmland and construction land increased. The transformation of land use types were characterized by switching to farmland and construction land. The fragmentation and. diversity of the landscape increased, while the dominance of the landscape decreased. The landscape pattern obviously lied on the water resource and had regional diversity. Land use changes tended to make the landscape well-distributed, diverse and fragmentized. At last, the driving factors and ecological environment effects of land use change were discussed. In a word, to ensure harmonious development between human and eco-hydrology, suggestions such as planning ecological resettlement, limiting farmland area, developing precision agriculture and increasing the proportion of ecological water use should be put forward.

  6. [Landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Based on the 1976, 1989, 2000 and 2005 remote sensing images and related meteorological data, the landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang in 1976-2005 were analyzed with GIS and FRAGSTATES. In the study period, the landscape pattern change in the Basin mainly manifested in the increase of farmland, grassland, and residential area while the decrease of forestland, wetland, desert, and snow and ice coverage. At landscape level, the patch number, landscape shape index, and contagion index increased, while Shannon's diversity index decreased; at class level, there was a greater difference in the heterogeneity index among different kinds of landscape, indicating a complexity of the landscape ecosystem. The landscape pattern change caused the negative ecological effect of wetland area shrinking, but some positive effects such as the decrease of evaporation and the increase of relative humidity. From 1976 to 2005, the wetland area decreased from 415.7 km2 to 297.4 km2, with a decrement of 28%, evaporation decreased by 0.91 mm x a(-1), and relative humidity increased by 0.037% x a(-1).

  7. The prospective of the biotechnology industry on changing technology in pathology.

    PubMed

    Schoepke, H G

    1987-07-01

    Recent rapid developments in biotechnology are causing both an evolution and a revolution in science, medicine, and society. A number of potentially useful therapeutic products, diagnostics, blood products, and vaccines have been and will be developed that will represent great advances to the practicing physician and laboratory diagnostician. A large new industry is resulting and with this new science, new social and ethical issues are being raised, such as in regard to gene therapy, and will be debated for some years to come. As knowledge of the human genome increases, and further insights into the structure of receptors and the cell are obtained, even more useful products and technologies will emerge and change our lives over the next 20 years.

  8. Industrially induced changes in Earth structure at the geysers geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Grant, C.C.; Ross, A.; Julian, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial exploitation is causing clearly-measurable changes in Earth structure at The Geysers geothermal area, California. Production at The Geysers peaked in the late 1980s at ???3.5 ?? 103 kg s-1 of steam and 1800 MW of electricity. It subsequently decreased by about 10% per year [Barker et al., 1992] because of declining reservoir pressure. The steam reservoir coincides with a strong negative anomaly (???0.16, ???9%) in the compressional-to-shear seismic wave speed ratio vP/vS, consistent with the expected effects of low-pressure vapor-phase pore fluid [Julian et al., 1996]. Between 1991 and 1994 this anomaly increased in amplitude by up to about 0.07 (???4%). This is consistent with the expected effects of continued pressure reduction and conversion of pore water to steam as a result of exploitation. These unique results show that vP/vS tomography can easily detect saturation changes caused by exploitation of reservoirs, and is a potentially valuable technique for monitoring environmental change. They also provide geophysical observational evidence that geothermal energy is not a renewable energy source.

  9. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    PubMed

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously.

  10. Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: changes, choices, and trends.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Wayne F; Aguinis, Herman

    2008-09-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis of all articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from January 1963 to May 2007 (N = 5,780) to identify the relative attention devoted to each of 15 broad topical areas and 50 more specific subareas in the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Results revealed that (a) some areas have become more (or less) popular over time, whereas others have not changed much, and (b) there are some lagged relationships between important societal issues that involve people and work settings (i.e., human-capital trends) and I-O psychology research that addresses them. Also, much I-O psychology research does not address human-capital trends. Extrapolating results from the past 45 years to the next decade suggests that the field of I-O psychology is not likely to become more visible or more relevant to society at large or to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement significant changes. In the aggregate, the changes address the broad challenge of how to narrow the academic-practitioner divide.

  11. Decadal changes in North Atlantic atmospheric circulation patterns recorded by sand spits since 1800 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Tessier, Bernadette; Chaumillon, Éric; Bertin, Xavier; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Mouazé, Dominique; Noël, Suzanne; Weill, Pierre; Wöppelmann, Guy

    2017-03-01

    Present-day coastal barriers represent around 15% of the world's oceanic shorelines, and play an important role as early warning indicators of environmental change. Among them, wave-dominated barriers are dynamic landforms that tend to migrate landward in response to storms and sea-level change. High rates of sediment supply can locally offset the global retrogradation trend, providing valuable records of past environmental change occurring on transgressive coasts. However, geochronological control limits the temporal resolution of such records to millennial or centennial timescales, and the decadal or even faster response of wave-built barriers to historical climate changes is therefore poorly understood. In this study, we show that shoreline dynamics of sand spits reconstructed from old cartographic documents has been synchronous on both margins of the North Atlantic Ocean since about 1800 CE. Spit growth accelerated drastically during three periods lasting about 15 years, characterised by positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and negative East Atlantic-West Russia (EA-WR) atmospheric circulation patterns. These changes are in phase with periods of increased volcanic activity. We use a high-resolution wave hindcast (1948-2014 CE) in a reference area to confirm the association between NAO and EA-WR as a proxy for offshore and nearshore wave height and for associated longshore sediment transport (LST) involved in spit growth. A 24-month lagged correlation between sediment transport and volcanic aerosol optical thickness (concentration of ashes in the atmosphere) is observed, suggesting that spit shoreline dynamics at the decadal timescale is partially forced by external climate drivers via cascading effects on atmospheric circulation patterns and wave climate. Our results imply that NAO variability alone is not sufficient to understand the evolution of wave-built coastal environments. The associated sediment record can be used to reconstruct multi

  12. Dynamic Rainfall Patterns and the Simulation of Changing Scenarios: A behavioral watershed response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, M.; Guzman, J.; Steiner, J. L.; Hou, C.; Moriasi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall is one of the fundamental drivers that control hydrologic responses including runoff production and transport phenomena that consequently drive changes in aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the hydrologic responses to changing scenarios (e.g., climate, land use, and management) using environmental models requires a realistic representation of probable rainfall in its most sensible spatio-temporal dimensions matching that of the phenomenon under investigation. Downscaling projected rainfall from global circulation models (GCMs) is the most common practice in deriving rainfall datasets to be used as main inputs to hydrologic models which in turn are used to assess the impacts of climate changes on ecosystems. Downscaling assumes that local climate is a combination of large-scale climatic/atmospheric conditions and local conditions. However, the representation of the latter is generally beyond the capacity of current GCMs. The main objective of this study was to develop and implement a synthetic rainfall generator to downscale expected rainfall trends to 1 x 1 km rainfall daily patterns that mimic the dynamic propagation of probability distribution functions (pdf) derived from historic rainfall data (rain-gauge or radar estimated). Future projections were determined based on actual and expected changes in the pdf and stochastic processes to account for variability. Watershed responses in terms of streamflow and nutrients loads were evaluated using synthetically generated rainfall patterns and actual data. The framework developed in this study will allow practitioners to generate rainfall datasets that mimic the temporal and spatial patterns exclusive to their study area under full disclosure of the uncertainties involved. This is expected to provide significantly more accurate environmental models than is currently available and would provide practitioners with ways to evaluate the spectrum of systemic responses to changing scenarios.

  13. Optimisation explains global leaf trait patterns and plant adaptations to global change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, R. C.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Measured values of four key leaf traits (leaf area per unit mass, nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic rate and leaf lifespan) co-vary globally according to relationships that hold across all the world’s terrestrial plants. The same leaf traits respond consistently to altered environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen supply). Explaining observed global leaf trait patterns and leaf responses to environmental change is a prerequisite to understanding and predicting vegetation responses to global change more generally across a range of time scales. Recently [1] we have shown, using a simple model of plant carbon-nitrogen economy, that all of these leaf trait patterns and responses are consistent with an optimisation hypothesis that cumulative carbon export from leaves over their lifespan is maximised. Various closely-related optimisation hypotheses also explain other plant adaptations to environmental change, such as stomatal responses and altered patterns of growth allocation [2]. Incorporating plant optimisation into large scale vegetation-atmosphere models would ensure they are consistent with global leaf trait relationships, and would improve predictions of vegetation responses to global change. The challenge, both scientific and operational, is to do this consistently over a wide range of time scales. This talk will review our recent work using plant optimisation models [1,2] and highlight the potential of Maximum Entropy Production as a unifying optimisation principle for plant and ecosystem function across different time scales [3]. [1] McMurtrie RE, Dewar RC. 2009. Global variation of leaf traits explained from an hypothesis of optimal plant function. Manuscript in preparation. [2] Dewar RC, Franklin O, Makela A, McMurtrie RE, Valentine HT. 2009. Optimal function explains forest responses to global change. BioScience 59:127-139. [3] Dewar RC. 2009. Maximum entropy production and plants. Submitted to Phil

  14. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. Methods 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. Results More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15), dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85), and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01). Conclusions Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after immigration. However, an

  15. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity.

  16. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di

    2016-04-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  17. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Hao, Z.; Zheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after equatorial volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  18. The Effect of Aging on Muscular Dynamics Underlying Movement Patterns Changes

    PubMed Central

    Vernooij, Carlijn A.; Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric; Retornaz, Frédérique; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aging leads to alterations not only within the complex subsystems of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system, but also in the coupling between them. Here, we studied how aging affects functional reorganizations that occur both within and between the behavioral and muscular levels, which must be coordinated to produce goal-directed movements. Using unimanual reciprocal Fitts' task, we examined the behavioral and muscular dynamics of older adults (74.4 ± 3.7 years) and compared them to those found for younger adults (23.2 ± 2.0 years). Methods: To achieve this objective, we manipulated the target size to trigger a phase transition in the behavioral regime and searched for concomitant signatures of a phase transition in the muscular coordination. Here, muscular coordination was derived by using the method of muscular synergy extraction. With this technique, we obtained functional muscular patterns through non-negative matrix factorization of the muscular signals followed by clustering the resulting synergies. Results: Older adults showed a phase transition in behavioral regime, although, in contrast to young participants, their kinematic profiles did not show a discontinuity. In parallel, muscular coordination displayed two typical signatures of a phase transition, that is, increased variability of coordination patterns and a reorganization of muscular synergies. Both signatures confirmed the existence of muscular reorganization in older adults, which is coupled with change in dynamical regime at behavioral level. However, relative to young adults, transition occurred at lower index of difficulty (ID) in older participants and the reorganization of muscular patterns lasted longer (over multiple IDs). Discussion: This implies that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across behavior and muscle. Furthermore, the repertoire of muscular patterns was reduced and somewhat modified for older adults, relative to young participants. This suggests that

  19. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Wu, Z; Du, Q; Petsonk, E; Peng, K; Li, Y; Li, S; Han, G; Atffield, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the early pattern of longitudinal change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) among new Chinese coal miners, and the relation between coal mine dust exposure and the decline of lung function. Methods: The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in FEV1 over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the groupxtime interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines. PMID:16234407

  20. Private Industry Councils Partner to Meet the Challenge of Change in Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the shift in function of PICs (Private Industry Councils) from overseeing training programs for unemployed workers to developing the skills of the entire work force in local communities. Analyzes the relationship between community colleges and Private Industry Councils. (JDI)

  1. Impacts of changes in land use and fragmentation patterns on Atlantic coastal forests in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Quintanilla, Luis G; Carreño, Francisco; Gutiérrez, David

    2010-01-01

    Changes in forested landscapes may have important consequences for ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. In northern Spain, major changes in land use occurred during the second half of the 20th century, but their impacts on forests have not been quantified. We evaluated the dynamics of landscape and forest distribution patterns between 1957 and 2003 in Fragas do Eume Natural Park (northwestern Spain). We used orthoimages and a set of standard landscape metrics to determine transitions between land cover classes and to examine forest distribution patterns. Eucalypt plantations showed the greatest increase in area (197%) over time. Furthermore, transitions to eucalypt plantations were found in all major land cover classes. Forest showed a net decline of 20% in total area and represented 30% of the landscape area in 2003. Forest losses were mainly due to eucalypt plantations and the building of a water reservoir, while forest gains were due to increases in shrubland, meadows and cultivated fields which had been recolonised. Forest patch size and core area decreased, and edge length increased over time. In turn, increases were obtained in mean distance between forest patches, and in adjacency to eucalypt plantations and to a water reservoir. These results suggest an increase in forest fragmentation from 1957 to 2003, as well as a change in the nature of the habitat surrounding forest patches. This study shows that land use changes, mostly from eucalypt plantation intensification, negatively affected forested habitats, although some regeneration was ongoing through ecological succession from land abandonment.

  2. Historical Pattern and Future Trajectories of Terrestrial N2O Emission driven by Multi-factor Global Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is among the most important greenhouse gases only next to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to its long life time and high radiative forcing (with a global warming potential 265 times as much as CO2 at 100-year time horizon). The Atmospheric concentration of N2O has increased by 20% since pre-industrial era, and this increase plays a significant role in shaping anthropogenic climate change. However, compared to CO2- and CH4-related research, fewer studies have been performed in assessing and predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of N2O emission from natural and agricultural soils. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model, DLEM, to quantify the historical and future changes in global terrestrial N2O emissions resulting from natural and anthropogenic perturbations including climate variability, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover changes, and agricultural land management practices (i.e., synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use, manure application, and irrigation etc.) over the period 1900-2099. We focused on inter-annual variation and long-term trend of terrestrial N2O emission driven by individual and combined environmental changes during historical and future periods. The sensitivity of N2O emission to climate, atmospheric composition, and human activities has been examined at biome-, latitudinal, continental and global scales. Future projections were conducted to identify the hot spots and hot time periods of global N2O emission under two emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). It provides a modeling perspective for understanding human-induced N2O emission growth and developing potential management strategies to mitigate further atmospheric N2O increase and climate warming.

  3. 12 weeks of simulated barefoot running changes foot-strike patterns in female runners.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (P<0.001). When assessed barefoot, there were significant kinematic differences across time in the SBR group for ankle flexion angle at toe-off (P<0.01). When assessed shod, significant kinematic changes occurred across time, for ankle flexion angles at foot-strike (P<0.001) and toe-off (P<0.01), and for range of motion (ROM) in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.01). A knee effect was recorded in the SBR group for flexion ROM in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.05). No significant changes occurred in controls. Therefore, a 12-week transition program in SBR could assist athletes seeking a more-forefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear.

  4. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-06

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis.

  5. Changes in the pattern of protein synthesis during zoospore germination in Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A M; Maia, J C; Juliani, M H

    1987-01-01

    Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed the pattern of proteins synthesized during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination in an inorganic solution, in both the presence and absence of actinomycin D. During the transition from zoospore to round cells (the first 25 min), essentially no qualitative differences were noticeable, indicating that the earliest stages of germination are entirely preprogrammed with stored RNA. Later in germination (after 25 min), however, changes in the pattern of protein synthesis were found. Some of these proteins (a total of 6 polypeptides) correspond possibly to a selective translation of stored messages, whereas the majority of the changed proteins (22 polypeptides) corresponds to newly synthesized mRNA. Thus, multiple levels of protein synthesis regulation seem to occur during zoospore germination, involving both transcriptional and translational controls. We also analyzed the pattern of protein synthesis during germination in a nutrient medium; synthesis of specific polypeptides occurred during late germination. During early germination posttranslational control was also observed, several labeled proteins from zoospores being specifically degraded or charge modified. Images PMID:3571161

  6. Reorganization of river networks under changing spatiotemporal precipitation patterns: An optimal channel network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed-Elmdoust, Armaghan; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Singh, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the impact of changing nonuniform spatial and temporal precipitation patterns on the evolution of river networks. To achieve this, we develop a two-dimensional optimal channel network (OCN) model with a controllable rainfall distribution to simulate the evolution of river networks, governed by the principle of minimum energy expenditure, inside a prescribed boundary. We show that under nonuniform precipitation conditions, river networks reorganize significantly toward new patterns with different geomorphic and hydrologic signatures. This reorganization is mainly observed in the form of migration of channels of different orders, widening or elongation of basins as well as formation and extinction of channels and basins. In particular, when the precipitation gradient is locally increased, the higher-order channels, including the mainstream river, migrate toward regions with higher precipitation intensity. Through pertinent examples, the reorganization of the drainage network is quantified via stream parameters such as Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga measures, order-based channel total length and river long profiles obtained via simulation of three-dimensional basin topography, while the hydrologic response of the evolved network is investigated using metrics such as hydrograph and power spectral density of simulated streamflows at the outlet of the network. In addition, using OCNs, we investigate the effect of orographic precipitation patterns on multicatchment landscapes composed of several interacting basins. Our results show that network-inspired methods can be utilized as insightful and versatile models for directly exploring the effects of climate change on the evolution of river drainage systems.

  7. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    PubMed

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet.

  8. Changing El Niño Patterns and the Possible Impact on DMS and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingenter, O. W.; Ogunro, O. O.; Elliott, S.; Klingelsmith, Z.

    2015-12-01

    El Niño patterns have been shifting from conventional Eastern Pacific scenarios to Central Pacific. With more cases of warmer ocean water recorded at Niño 3, 3.4 and 4 regions and similar pattern expected in impending warmer climate, we investigate the changes in dimethyl sulfide (DMS) flux as a result of these changing El Niño patterns. For example, our estimates show a drop of about 10 - 30% in DMS flux at regions 1+2 and 3 during 1997-1998 El Niño event and a respective reduction of 50% at region 4 for 1994-1995 Central Pacific El Niño period in comparison to the climatology. While regions just outside of these areas can experience greater DMS flux. Changes in DMS flux may serve as a proxy for flux of sea spray which is also wind driven. Less DMS flux over the equatorial region and increased DMS flux to the north and south could modify heat flux and Hadley cell circulation. Atmospheric aerosols are contributors of absorption and reflection of incoming solar radiation. Hence, they are important in regulating the global radiation budget which ultimately determines global temperature. DMS is the source of nearly all of thesulfate aerosol in the remote marine atmosphere.The equatorial Pacific Ocean is an ideal region to illustrate the relationship between surface ocean concentrations, atmospheric abundance andclimate feedbacks of this molecule. The region remains biologically productive throughout the seasons. However, the alterations in sea surface temperatures and wind speed during El Niño events is crucial in determining sea-air flux of DMS. Our results suggest that Central Pacific El Nino might have more influence on sea-air flux of DMS compared to conventional Eastern Pacific El Nino. This may imply changing reflectivity and cloud albedo in a warming climate.

  9. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW OF STRESSORS AND IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and regional to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential activities. LULC change a...

  10. Climate change impacts on spatial patterns in drought risk in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Il Won; Chang, Heejun

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is likely to lead more frequent droughts in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of America. Rising air temperature will reduce winter snowfall and increase earlier snowmelt, subsequently reducing summer flows. Longer crop-growing season caused by higher temperatures will lead to increases in evapotranspiration and irrigation water demand, which could exacerbate drought damage. However, the impacts of climate change on drought risk will vary over space and time. Thus, spatially explicit drought assessment can help water resource managers and planners to better cope with risk. This study seeks to identify possible drought-vulnerable regions in the Willamette River Basin of the PNW. In order to estimate drought risk in a spatially explicit way, relative Standardized Precipitation Index (rSPI) and relative Standardized Runoff Index (rSRI) were employed. Statistically downscaled climate simulations forcing two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, A1B and B1, were used to investigate the possible changes in drought frequency with 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. The results of rSPI and rSRI showed an increase in the short-term frequency of drought due to decreases in summer precipitation and snowmelt. However, long-term drought showed no change or a slight decreasing pattern due to increases in winter precipitation and runoff. According to the local index of spatial autocorrelation analysis, the Willamette Valley region was more vulnerable (hot spot) to drought risk than the mountainous regions of the Western Cascades and the High Cascades (cold spot). Although the hydrology of the Western Cascades and the High Cascades will be affected by climate change, these regions will remain relatively water-rich. This suggests that improving the water transfer system could be a reasonable climate adaptation option. Additionally, these results showed that the spatial patterns of drought risk change were affected by drought indices, such that appropriate drought index

  11. Assessing biogeographic patterns in the changes in soil invertebrate biodiversity due to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sugg, P.M.; Kuperman, R.G.; Loucks, O.L. |

    1995-09-01

    We are studying the response of soil faunal communities to a gradient in acidic deposition across midwestern hardwood forests. We have documented a pattern of population decrease and species loss for soil invertebrates along the acidification gradient. We now ask the following question: When confronted with apparent diversity changes along a region-wide pollution gradient, how can one assess the possibility of natural biogeographic gradients accounting for the pattern? As a first approximation, we use published range maps from taxonomic monographs to determine the percent of the regional fauna with ranges encompassing each site. For staphylinid beetles, range data show no sign of a biogeographic gradient. Yet for soil staphylinids, a large decrease is seen in alpha diversity (as species richness) from low to high acid dose sites (from 20 species to 8). Staphylinid species turnover is greatest in the transition from low to intermediate dose sites.

  12. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  13. Eolian sediment responses to late Quaternary climate changes: Temporal and spatial patterns in the Sahara

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a compilation of eolian-based records of late Quaternary climate changes in the Sahara. Although the data are relatively sparse, when viewed as a whole, they reveal a general pattern of widespread eolian sediment mobilization prior to 11,000 cal. years BP, eolian sediment stabilization from 11,000 to 5000 cal. years BP, and a return to widespread eolian sediment mobilization after 5000 cal. years BP. Furthermore, an eolian-based record from southern Tunisia reveals the existence of millennial-scale changes in eolian sediment behavior. These millennial-scale variations provide examples of eolian sediment responses to climate changes at a scale intermediate between seasonal and orbital ('Milankovitch') changes, and they are also coincident with abrupt atmospheric and oceanic changes. The general synchroneity of the eolian stratigraphic records and their coincidence with various oceanic and atmospheric changes suggest that global forcing mechanisms have influenced late Quaternary eolian sediment behavior in the Sahara. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Divergence in age patterns of mortality change drives international divergence in lifespan inequality.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Duncan O S; Trotter, Meredith V; Tuljapurkar, Shripad D

    2014-06-01

    In the past six decades, lifespan inequality has varied greatly within and among countries even while life expectancy has continued to increase. How and why does mortality change generate this diversity? We derive a precise link between changes in age-specific mortality and lifespan inequality, measured as the variance of age at death. Key to this relationship is a young-old threshold age, below and above which mortality decline respectively decreases and increases lifespan inequality. First, we show for Sweden that shifts in the threshold's location have modified the correlation between changes in life expectancy and lifespan inequality over the last two centuries. Second, we analyze the post-World War II (WWII) trajectories of lifespan inequality in a set of developed countries-Japan, Canada, and the United States-where thresholds centered on retirement age. Our method reveals how divergence in the age pattern of mortality change drives international divergence in lifespan inequality. Most strikingly, early in the 1980s, mortality increases in young U.S. males led to a continuation of high lifespan inequality in the United States; in Canada, however, the decline of inequality continued. In general, our wider international comparisons show that mortality change varied most at young working ages after WWII, particularly for males. We conclude that if mortality continues to stagnate at young ages yet declines steadily at old ages, increases in lifespan inequality will become a common feature of future demographic change.

  15. Patterns in Polar Climate Change: How Well Do GCMs Capture Melt-Season Variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, D. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Karmosky, C. C.; Lampkin, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    GCM skill in the climate change-sensitive polar regions is a key factor in using them to predict future changes in ice sheet/shelf surface melting. Knowing why a GCM is wrong (or right) versus observed climate is also key. We address these topics by using a neural network-based tool, self-organizing maps (SOMs), to evaluate the variability and skill of modern GCM melt-season surface climates in Antarctica (January) and Greenland (July). Three scenarios test GCMs in contemporary polar settings: how well do models capture variability in a reference dataset (the ERA-Interim reanalysis, ERAI); locating GCMs in a "universal" data space covering all models plus ERAI; and how well do GCMs reproduce the patterns associated with extremes such as the July 2012 Greenland ice sheet melt event. In each case, SOMs abstract complex datasets (e.g., daily near-surface air temperature) into a relatively small set of generalized patterns representing dataset variability. We study 19 models from the CMIP5 archive that provide the sub-daily data needed for regional-scale modeling plus the recent 30-member CESM1.0-CAM5-BGC Large Ensemble. A SOM of ERAI (1981-2000) provides both a summary of variability in the reanalysis and a mapping of each GCM within the ERAI data space. How well GCMs reproduce ERAI pattern frequencies reflects GCM skill. With frequency differences indicating over/underoccurence of patterns, insights to mechanisms behind model skill are possible (albeit complex to develop). By analyzing ERAI and CMIP5 models together, the "universal" SOM (1981-2000) summarizes the variability of multiple realizations of climate and helps place each GCM in a common context. For example, four main pattern groups can summarize Antarctic temperature: warm- and cold-everywhere and ocean/continent warm/cold dipoles. Warm GCMs are found in both the warm-everywhere group (MRI-CGCM3) and the warm continent/cold ocean group (BNU-ESM). ERAI SOMs also provide context to test GCM skill versus

  16. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    PubMed Central

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between −25 and −2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha−1year−1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions. PMID:27432777

  17. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha-1year-1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  18. Postnatal changes in the growth dynamics of the human face revealed from bone modelling patterns

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Rosas, Antonio; Nieto-Díaz, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Human skull morphology results from complex processes that involve the coordinated growth and interaction of its skeletal components to keep a functional and structural balance. Previous histological works have studied the growth of different craniofacial regions and their relationship to functional spaces in humans up to 14 years old. Nevertheless, how the growth dynamics of the facial skeleton and the mandible are related and how this relationship changes through the late ontogeny remain poorly understood. To approach these two questions, we have compared the bone modelling activities of the craniofacial skeleton from a sample of subadult and adult humans. In this study, we have established for the first time the bone modelling pattern of the face and the mandible from adult humans. Our analyses reveal a patchy distribution of the bone modelling fields (overemphasized by the presence of surface islands with no histological information) reflecting the complex growth dynamics associated to the individual morphology. Subadult and adult specimens show important differences in the bone modelling patterns of the anterior region of the facial skeleton and the posterior region of the mandible. These differences indicate developmental changes in the growth directions of the whole craniofacial complex, from a predominantly downward growth in subadults that turns to a forward growth observed in the adult craniofacial skeleton. We hypothesize that these ontogenetic changes would respond to the physiological and physical requirements to enlarge the oral and nasal cavities once maturation of the brain and the closure of the cranial sutures have taken place during craniofacial development. PMID:23819603

  19. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays), seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants. PMID:25999972

  20. The association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Pao Ying; Mitchell, Diane C; Wood, G Craig; Jensen, Gordon L; Still, Christopher D; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (≥ 75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n = 270; mean ± SD age: 78.6 ± 3.9 years). Dietary data were collected from four, random, 24-hour dietary recalls over a 10-month period. Weight change was examined as: (1) 10-pound weight loss; (2) 10-pound weight gain; (3) 10% weight loss; and (4) 10% weight gain. Cluster analysis was used to derive 3 DP ("Health-conscious," "Sweets and dairy," and "Western"). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. About 39% of participants lost at least 10 pounds during follow up. In the unadjusted model, five-year weight loss was not associated with dietary pattern. However, when stratified by gender, females who were characterized by the Sweets and Dairy and the Western DP were three and two times more likely to lose 10 pounds, respectively, compared to those in the Health-conscious DP (P < 0.05). These observations suggest that it is appropriate to recommend a Health-conscious DP for women 75 years and older who may be at risk for weight loss.

  1. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.; Vecchia, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Patterns and mechanisms of warm pool hydroclimate change at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiNezio, Pedro; Tierney, Jessica; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Timmermann, Axel

    2016-04-01

    A definitive answer on the mechanisms driving glacial-interglacial changes in tropical hydroclimate is lacking, particularly regarding the importance of greenhouse gases. We address this issue by evaluating mechanisms and patterns of rainfall change over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) in climate model simulations and proxy data of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Our simulations show two mechanisms explaining the proxy data. Exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves due to lowered sea level drives a weakening of the Walker circulation explaining the dipole of drier IPWP center and wetter eastern Indian Ocean. Ice sheet albedo alters the inter-hemispheric temperature gradient driving changes in the Asian monsoon that explain the dry condition over India and the northern IPWP. Proxy and model data show consistent patterns of cooling over the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, providing independent evidence for the proposed mechanisms. Together these results demonstrate that ice sheets are a first order driver of tropical climate on glacial-interglacial timescales. Greenhouse gases drive a response that is relatively negligible and therefore cannot be detected using the available proxy data.

  3. THE CHANGING PATTERN OF BIREFRINGENCE IN PLASMODIA OF THE SLIME MOLD, PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hiromichi; Allen, Robert D.

    1965-01-01

    Plasmodia of the acellular slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, reveal a complex and changing pattern of birefringence when examined with a sensitive polarizing microscope. Positively birefringent fibrils are found throughout the ectoplasmic region of the plasmodium. In the larger strands they may be oriented parallel to the strand axis, or arranged circularly or spirally along the periphery of endoplasmic channels. Some fibrils exist for only a few minutes, others for a longer period. Some, particularly the circular fibrils, undergo changes in birefringence as they undergo cyclic deformations. In the ramifying strand region and the advancing margin there is a tendency for fibrils of various sizes to become organized into mutually orthogonal arrays. In some plasmodia the channel wall material immediately adjacent to the endoplasm has been found to be birefringent. The sign of endoplasmic birefringence is negative, and its magnitude is apparently constant over the streaming cycle. The pattern of plasmodial birefringence and its changes during the shuttle streaming cycle of Physarum are considered in the light of several models designed to explain either cytoplasmic streaming alone or the entire gamut of plasmodial motions. The results of this and other recent physical studies suggest that both streaming and the various other motions of the plasmodium may very likely be explained in terms of coordinated contractions taking place in the fibrils which are rendered visible in polarized light. PMID:14287186

  4. Robust inferences on climate change patterns of precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo-Gonçalves, Paulo; Rocha, Alfredo; Santos, João A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a methodology to make statistical significant and robust inferences on climate change from an ensemble of model simulations. This methodology is used to assess climate change projections of the Iberian daily-total precipitation for a near-future (2021-2050) and a distant-future (2069-2098) climates, relatively to a reference past climate (1961-1990). Climate changes of precipitation spatial patterns are estimated for annual and seasonal values of: (i) total amount of precipitation (PRCTOT), (ii) maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), (iii) maximum of total amount of 5-consecutive wet days (Rx5day), and (iv) percentage of total precipitation occurred in days with precipitation above the 95th percentile of the reference climate (R95T). Daily-total data were obtained from the multi-model ensemble of fifteen Regional Climate Model simulations provided by the European project ENSEMBLES. These regional models were driven by boundary conditions imposed by Global Climate Models that ran under the 20C3M conditions from 1961 to 2000, and under the A1B scenario, from 2001 to 2100, defined by the Special Report on Emission Scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Non-parametric statistical methods are used for significant climate change detection: linear trends for the entire period (1961-2098) estimated by the Theil-Sen method with a statistical significance given by the Mann-Kendall test, and climate-median differences between the two future climates and the past climate with a statistical significance given by the Mann-Whitney test. Significant inferences of climate change spatial patterns are made after these non-parametric statistics of the multi-model ensemble median, while the associated uncertainties are quantified by the spread of these statistics across the multi-model ensemble. Significant and robust climate change inferences of the spatial patterns are then obtained by building the climate change patterns using only the

  5. The Impact of Pre-Industrial Land Use Change on Atmospheric Composition and Aerosol Radiative Forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. S.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.; Folberth, G.; Kaplan, J. O.; Pringle, K.; Scott, C.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use change (LUC) has had a major impact on the climate by altering the amount of carbon stored in vegetation, changing surface albedo and modifying the levels of both biogenic and pyrogenic emissions. While previous studies of LUC have largely focused on the first two components, there has recently been a recognition that changes to aerosol and related pre-cursor gas emissions from LUC are equally important. Furthermore, it has also recently been recognised that the pre-industrial (PI) to present day (PD) radiative forcing (RF) of climate from aerosol cloud interactions (ACI) due to anthropogenic emissions is highly sensitive to the amount of natural aerosol that was present in the PI. This suggests that anthropogenic RF from ACI may be highly sensitive to land-use in the PI. There are currently two commonly used baseline reference years for the PI; 1750 and 1860. Rapid LUC occurred between 1750 and 1860, with large reductions in natural vegetation cover in Eastern Northern America, Europe, Central Russia, India and Eastern China as well as lower reductions in parts of Brazil and Africa. This LUC will have led to significant changes in biogenic and fire emissions with implications for natural aerosol concentrations and PI-to-PD RF. The focus of this study is therefore to quantify the impact of LUC between 1750 and 1860 on aerosol concentrations and PI-to-PD RF calculations from ACI. We use the UK Met Office HadGEM3-UKCA coupled-chemistry-climate model to calculate the impacts of anthropogenic emissions and anthropogenic LUC on aerosol size distributions in both 1750 and 1860. We prescribe LUC using the KK10 historical dataset of land cover change. Monoterpene emissions are coupled directly to the prescribed LUC through the JULES land surface scheme in HadGEM3. Fire emissions from LUC were calculated offline using the fire module LPJ-LMfire in the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model. To separate out the impacts of LUC from

  6. Changes in bird-migration patterns associated with human-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C; Martín, Carlos A; Alonso, Javier A

    2017-02-01

    Many bird populations have recently changed their migratory behavior in response to alterations of the environment. We collected data over 16 years on male Great Bustards (Otis tarda), a species showing a partial migratory pattern (sedentary and migratory birds coexisting in the same breeding groups). We conducted population counts and radio tracked 180 individuals to examine differences in survival rates between migratory and sedentary individuals and evaluate possible effects of these differences on the migratory pattern of the population. Overall, 65% of individuals migrated and 35% did not. The average distance between breeding and postbreeding areas of migrant individuals was 89.9 km, and the longest average movement of sedentary males was 3.8 km. Breeding group and migration distance had no effect on survival. However, mortality of migrants was 2.4 to 3.5 times higher than mortality of sedentary birds. For marked males, collision with power lines was the main cause of death from unnatural causes (37.6% of all deaths), and migratory birds died in collisions with power lines more frequently than sedentary birds (21.3% vs 6.3%). The percentage of sedentary individuals increased from 17% in 1997 to 45% in 2012. These results were consistent with data collected from radio-tracked individuals: The proportion of migratory individuals decreased from 86% in 1997-1999 to 44% in 2006-2010. The observed decrease in the migratory tendency was not related to climatic changes (temperatures did not change over the study period) or improvements in habitat quality (dry cereal farmland area decreased in the main study area). Our findings suggest that human-induced mortality during migration may be an important factor shaping the migration patterns of species inhabiting humanized landscapes.

  7. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  8. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Beaudreau, Anne H.; Whitney, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at least 25 marine

  9. Spatial pattern of land use change and its driving force in Jiangsu Province.

    PubMed

    Du, Xindong; Jin, Xiaobin; Yang, Xilian; Yang, Xuhong; Zhou, Yinkang

    2014-03-18

    Scientific interpretation of the mechanism of land use change is important for government planning and management activities. This study analyzes the land use change in Jiangsu Province using three land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2008. The study results show that there was a significant change in land use. The change was mainly characterized by a continuous built-up land expansion primarily at the expense of cropland loss, and the trend became increasingly rapid. There was an obvious regional difference, as most of the cropland loss or built-up land expansion took place in southern Jiangsu, where the rate of built-up land expansion was faster than in central and northern Jiangsu. Meanwhile, the spatial pattern changed remarkably; in general, the number of patches (NumP) showed a declining trend, and the mean patch size (MPS) and patch size standard deviation (PSSD) displayed increase trends. Furthermore, the relative importance of selected driven factors was identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and general linear model (GLM). The results showed that not only the relative importance of a specific driving factor may vary, but the driven factors may as well. The most important driven factor changed from urban population (UP), secondary gross domestic product (SGDP) and gross domestic product (GDP) during 2000-2005 to resident population (RP), population density (POD) and UP during 2005-2008, and the deviance explained (DE) decreased from 91.60% to 81.04%. Policies also had significant impacts on land use change, which can be divided into direct and indirect impacts. Development policies usually had indirect impacts, particularly economic development policies, which promote the economic development to cause land use change, while land management policies had direct impacts. We suggest that the government should think comprehensively and cautiously when proposing a new development strategy or plan.

  10. Spatial Pattern of Land Use Change and Its Driving Force in Jiangsu Province

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xindong; Jin, Xiaobin; Yang, Xilian; Yang, Xuhong; Zhou, Yinkang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interpretation of the mechanism of land use change is important for government planning and management activities. This study analyzes the land use change in Jiangsu Province using three land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2008. The study results show that there was a significant change in land use. The change was mainly characterized by a continuous built-up land expansion primarily at the expense of cropland loss, and the trend became increasingly rapid. There was an obvious regional difference, as most of the cropland loss or built-up land expansion took place in southern Jiangsu, where the rate of built-up land expansion was faster than in central and northern Jiangsu. Meanwhile, the spatial pattern changed remarkably; in general, the number of patches (NumP) showed a declining trend, and the mean patch size (MPS) and patch size standard deviation (PSSD) displayed increase trends. Furthermore, the relative importance of selected driven factors was identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and general linear model (GLM). The results showed that not only the relative importance of a specific driving factor may vary, but the driven factors may as well. The most important driven factor changed from urban population (UP), secondary gross domestic product (SGDP) and gross domestic product (GDP) during 2000–2005 to resident population (RP), population density (POD) and UP during 2005–2008, and the deviance explained (DE) decreased from 91.60% to 81.04%. Policies also had significant impacts on land use change, which can be divided into direct and indirect impacts. Development policies usually had indirect impacts, particularly economic development policies, which promote the economic development to cause land use change, while land management policies had direct impacts. We suggest that the government should think comprehensively and cautiously when proposing a new development strategy or plan. PMID:24646864

  11. Patterns of 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps: The CORDEX RCM ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Zubler, Elias; Fischer, Andreas; Winter, Kevin J.-P. M.; Gobiet, Andreas; Liniger, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    The European Alps are a hot spot of climate change and of related impacts on a large variety of natural and socioeconomic systems. Due to their physiographic complexity and their location between distinct climatic zones, climate change and climate impact assessments in this region are challenging and often associated with substantial uncertainties. In particular, previous studies have highlighted the added value of high-resolution climate models to capture fine scale spatio-temporal Alpine climate variability and to assess climate change impacts for high elevation regions. Against this background, we here exploit the currently available CORDEX multi-GHG-multi-model ensembles to assess 21st century climate change over the European Alps. We focus on the spatial change pattern, explicitly including elevation dependencies, and on the uncertainties of the projections. For this purpose we analyze the available EURO-CORDEX and Med-CORDEX ensembles carried out at resolutions of 12 km and 50 km. The results largely confirm the findings of previous studies based on the ENSEMBLES experiments, but also yield a number of new insights. The projected increase of winter precipitation, for instance, appears to be stronger and more robust while the model agreement on summer drying is less pronounced. Elevation dependencies of the near-surface temperature change can be substantial. In springtime, strongest warming occurs at medium elevations where snow cover changes are largest, indicating a contribution of the snow albedo feedback to the vertical profile of near-surface warming confirming previous works. These elevation dependencies, however, can differ between the high and the low resolution RCM ensemble. Obvious model deficiencies in the Alpine area were identified. For instance, several high-resolution RCM versions (12 km runs) tend to constantly accumulate snow cover at some isolated grid cells resulting in a distortion of the temperature change signal.

  12. Predicting Climate Change using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank; Ragone, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source climate model featuring O(105) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Using the theoretical framework of the pullback attractor and the tools of response theory we propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting - at any lead time and in an ensemble sense - the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as their spatial patterns. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  13. Age-related changes in the use of regular patterns for auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna; Schröger, Erich; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    A recent approach to auditory processing suggests a close relationship of regularity processing in auditory sensory memory (ASM) and stream segregation, such that within-stream regularities can be used to stabilize stream segregation. The present study investigates age-related changes in how regular patterns are used for auditory scene analysis (ASA), when the stream containing the regularity is attended or unattended. In order to accomplish an intensity level deviant detection task, participants had to segregate the task-relevant pure tone sequence from an irrelevant distractor pure tone sequence, which randomly varied in level. In three conditions a simple spectro-temporal regularity ("Isochronous"), a more complex spectro-temporal regularity ("Rhythmic"), or no regularity ("Random") was embedded in either the attended target sequence (Experiment 1), or the unattended distractor sequence (Experiment 2). When the sequence containing the regularity was attended, older participants showed a similar increase of performance to younger adults in the conditions with regular patterns ("Isochronous" and "Rhythmic") compared to the "Random" condition. In contrast, when the sequence containing the regularity was unattended, older adults showed a specific performance decline compared to younger adults in the "Isochronous" condition. Results suggest a link between impaired automatic processing of regularities in ASM, and age-related deficits in the use of regular patterns for ASA.

  14. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O`Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist`s choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  15. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2], soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  16. Changes in running pattern due to fatigue and cognitive load in orienteering.

    PubMed

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Divert, Caroline; Banizette, Marion; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on running biomechanics in normal running, in normal running with a cognitive task, and in running while map reading. Nineteen international and less experienced orienteers performed a fatiguing running exercise of duration and intensity similar to a classic distance orienteering race on an instrumented treadmill while performing mental arithmetic, an orienteering simulation, and control running at regular intervals. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance did not reveal any significant difference between mental arithmetic and control running for any of the kinematic and kinetic parameters analysed eight times over the fatiguing protocol. However, these parameters were systematically different between the orienteering simulation and the other two conditions (mental arithmetic and control running). The adaptations in orienteering simulation running were significantly more pronounced in the elite group when step frequency, peak vertical ground reaction force, vertical stiffness, and maximal downward displacement of the centre of mass during contact were considered. The effects of fatigue on running biomechanics depended on whether the orienteers read their map or ran normally. It is concluded that adding a cognitive load does not modify running patterns. Therefore, all changes in running pattern observed during the orienteering simulation, particularly in elite orienteers, are the result of adaptations to enable efficient map reading and/or potentially prevent injuries. Finally, running patterns are not affected to the same extent by fatigue when a map reading task is added.

  17. Changing practice patterns of school-based occupational therapists in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Naomi; Kovshi, Moriah

    2004-01-01

    Following the enactment of the Special Education Law in Israel in 1988, school-based occupational therapists (OTs) were expected to modify their practice patterns by, providing services within the classroom or other educational settings, increasing collaboration with other team members, and implementing indirect intervention models such as monitoring and consultation. The purpose of this study was to examine the intervention patterns of school-based OTs in Israel. The study sample included 77 school-based OTs. The survey was carried out through a questionnaire which included: (1) background information, (2) implementation and perceptions towards intervention models, and (3) team-work practices of the OTs. The findings indicated that most of the time (76.9%) OTs still implement the 'direct therapy' model, working outside the classroom and focusing on improving performance components. These findings imply that school-based OTs in Israel are still in the process of changing their practice patterns, and are mostly applying the medical model. However, due to the relatively small sample, it is important to repeat this survey using a larger sample of OTs who work in different settings and with various age groups.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem.

  19. Stability and change in patterns of peer victimization and aggression during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Amie; Farrell, Albert; Liu, Weiwei; Sullivan, Terri

    2013-01-01

    This study identified classes of adolescents who differed in their patterns of reported aggression and victimization, examined the stability of these patterns, and explored factors associated with changes in patterns across time. Participants were 477 students from an urban and an adjoining county school system. The overall sample was 48% male and had an average age of 11.3 years. The urban sample was predominantly African American (80%); the county sample was primarily Caucasian (40%) and African American (38%). Self-report aggression and victimization measures completed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of seventh grade were analyzed using latent class analyses and latent transition analyses. Support was found for four classes: nonvictimized aggressors, aggressive-victims, predominantly victimized, and well-adjusted youth. Emotion dysregulation, anxiety, and site were associated with membership in the aggressive-victim class in the expected direction, providing support for the validity of the classes. The well-adjusted class was the most stable in class membership over time; the predominantly victimized class was the least stable. In addition, nonvictimized aggressors and predominantly victimized youth were more likely than those in the well-adjusted class to transition into the aggressive-victim class. These findings suggest notable stability in aggressor/victim classes over time and emphasize the importance of developing prevention programs that target the unique needs of distinct aggressor/victim classes in adolescence.

  20. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  1. The Connection between the Presence of Melanoma and Changes in Fibre Diffraction Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    James, Veronica J.; Kirby, Nigel

    2010-10-08

    An accurate diagnosis of melanomas at an early stage correlates directly with a better prognosis. However the incidence of melanoma is still increasing along with the number of related deaths. Melanoma cells grow extremely fast, with the result that many patients present after metastasis has occurred, too late for effective treatment. This paper describes the changes in the fibre diffraction patterns of skin that indicate the presence of a melanoma. Identification of these changes would provide an alternative early low-cost, reliable diagnostic test which could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities using rotating anode X-ray generators or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle x-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons.

  2. The Connection between the Presence of Melanoma and Changes in Fibre Diffraction Patterns

    PubMed Central

    James, Veronica J.; Kirby, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis of melanomas at an early stage correlates directly with a better prognosis. However the incidence of melanoma is still increasing along with the number of related deaths. Melanoma cells grow extremely fast, with the result that many patients present after metastasis has occurred, too late for effective treatment. This paper describes the changes in the fibre diffraction patterns of skin that indicate the presence of a melanoma. Identification of these changes would provide an alternative early low-cost, reliable diagnostic test which could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities using rotating anode X-ray generators or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle x-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons. PMID:22206040

  3. Global view of the upper level outflow patterns associated with tropical cyclone intensity changes during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L.; Gray, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the upper tropospheric outflow patterns which occur with tropical cyclone intensification and weakening over all of the global tropical cyclone basins during the year long period of the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) are discussed. By intensification is meant the change in the tropical cyclone's maximum wind or central pressure, not the change of the cyclone's outer 1 to 3 deg radius mean wind which we classify as cyclone strength. All the 80 tropical cyclones which existed during the FGGE year are studied. Two-hundred mb wind fields are derived from the analysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) which makes extensive use of upper tropospheric satellite and aircraft winds. Corresponding satellite cloud pictures from the polar orbiting U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and other supplementary polar and geostationary satellite data are also used.

  4. Establishing the common patterns of future tropospheric ozone under diverse climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan J.; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Baro, Rocio; Montávez, Juan P.

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of climate change on air quality may affect long-term air quality planning. However, the policies aimed at improving air quality in the EU directives have not accounted for the variations in the climate. Climate change alone influences future air quality through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. As such, the aim of this work is to check whether the projected changes in gas-phase air pollution over Europe depends on the scenario driving the regional simulation. For this purpose, two full-transient regional climate change-air quality projections for the first half of the XXI century (1991-2050) have been carried out with MM5+CHIMERE system, including A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Experiments span the periods 1971-2000, as a reference, and 2071-2100, as future enhanced greenhouse gas and aerosol scenarios (SRES A2 and B2). The atmospheric simulations have a horizontal resolution of 25 km and 23 vertical layers up to 100 mb, and were driven by ECHO-G global climate model outputs. The analysis focuses on the connection between meteorological and air quality variables. Our simulations suggest that the modes of variability for tropospheric ozone and their main precursors hardly change under different SRES scenarios. The effect of changing scenarios has to be sought in the intensity of the changing signal, rather than in the spatial structure of the variation patterns, since the correlation between the spatial patterns of variability in A2 and B2 simulation is r > 0.75 for all gas-phase pollutants included in this study. In both cases, full-transient simulations indicate an enhanced enhanced chemical activity under future scenarios. The causes for tropospheric ozone variations have to be sought in a multiplicity of climate factors, such as increased temperature, different distribution of precipitation patterns across Europe, increased photolysis of primary and secondary pollutants due to lower cloudiness, etc

  5. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  6. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  7. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues underlying the implementation of industrial mobilization policy

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews the background and current status of industrial preparedness in the United States and analyzes ways to implement new policy procedures. What will it take to assure that the United States can be mobilize its industry rapidly to support a major conventional war The report reaches nine important conclusions: (1) Mobilization and industrial preparedness policy must be linked and integrated with other aspects of national security policy and the national military strategy. (2) The United States cannot reverse the flow of time and go back to a period of industrial superiority and self-sufficiency. (3) The United States must come to grips with its responsibilities for providing war materiel for Allies. (4) Similarly, the United States must recognize the interdependency of international trade and industrial production. (5) Graduated Mobilization Response needs to be adopted by the government and DOD and integrated into industrial preparedness policy. (6) The DOD industrial surge program should be fully funded. (7) Industrial preparedness planning should be funded now on a priority basis. (8) Organizational responsibilities and relationships for industrial preparedness have to be clarified, strengthened, and supported. (9) Finally, it is necessary to pay attention to this problem now. The report concludes by suggesting that the United States must develop a unified, clear statement of preparedness policy, linked with other security/military policies and strategies. This must be accomplished with some swiftness, and with the cognizance of current (and most likely to continue) domestic an international economic interdependencies.

  8. Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Attanapola, Chamila T

    2004-06-01

    Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles.

  9. Changes in measured spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological response after partial deforestation in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiekenkamp, I.; Huisman, J. A.; Bogena, H. R.; Graf, A.; Lin, H. S.; Drüe, C.; Vereecken, H.

    2016-11-01

    Although the hydrological effects of land use change have been studied extensively, only few datasets are available to accurately describe, model, and predict detailed changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological fluxes and states due to land use change. The Wüstebach catchment within the TERENO (TERrestrial Environmental Observatories) network in Germany provides a unique monitoring setup to measure the major components of the water balance (evapotranspiration, discharge, precipitation) and the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture before and after a partial deforestation. Here, we present five years of measured hydrological data, including all major water budget components three years before and two years after a partial deforestation. A data-driven approach was used to understand changes and related feedback mechanisms in spatiotemporal hydrological response patterns. As expected from earlier studies, the partial deforestation caused a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in discharge. A closer look at the high resolution datasets revealed new insights in the intra-annual variability and relationship between the water balance components. The overall decrease in evapotranspiration caused a large increase in soil water storage in the deforested region, especially during the summer period, which in turn caused an increase in the frequency of high discharge in the same period. Although the evapotranspiration in the forested region was larger on average, the deforested region showed a higher evapotranspiration during part of the summer period. This could be related to wetter conditions in the deforested area, accompanied with the emergence of grass vegetation. At the same time, wetter soil moisture conditions in the deforested area increased the spatial variance of soil moisture in the summer and therewith altered the relationship between spatial mean and variance. Altogether, this study illustrates that detailed spatiotemporal monitoring can

  10. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  11. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  12. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  13. Spatial allocation of future landscape patterns for biomass and alleviation of hydrologic impacts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssegane, H.; Negri, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. Concurrently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase of 2 to 4°C over the next 100 years above the preindustrial baseline, beginning as early as 2016 to 2035 over all seasons in the North America. This climate change is projected to further strain water resources currently stressed by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops on strategically selected sub-field areas in an agricultural landscape has the potential to increase the environmental and economic sustainability if location and choice of the crops result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and therefore cause minimal indirect land use change. This study identified sub-field marginal areas in an agricultural watershed using soil-based environmental sustainability criteria and a crop productivity index. Future landscape patterns (FLPs) were developed by allocating bioenergy crops (switchgrass: Panicum virgatum or shrub willows: Salix spp.) to these marginal areas (20% of the watershed). SWAT hydrologic model and dynamically downscaled climatic projection were used to asses impact of climate change on extreme flow conditions, total annual production of commodity and bioenergy crops, and water quality under current and future landscape patterns for the mid-21st century (2045-2055) and late 21st century (2085-2095) climatic projections. The frequency of flood and drought conditions was projected to increase while the corresponding durations to decrease. Sediment yields were projected to increase by 85% to 170% while FLPs would mitigate this increase by 26% to 32%.

  14. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  15. Holocene shelf sedimentation patterns off equatorial East Africa constrained by climatic and sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Meyer, Inka; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial East Africa experienced significant variations in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions during the Holocene. These environmental changes influenced sedimentation patterns on the continental shelf. To date, however, little is known about the sediment source, its transport to, and deposition on, the Tanzanian shelf. This paper presents a new high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record off northeast Tanzania (equatorial East Africa) and provides insights into how sedimentation patterns responded to climatic and oceanographic changes during the Holocene. Based on grain-size distribution patterns and mineral assemblages, three types of shelf sediments were identified: Type I (fine-grained terrigenous sediment) is dominated by clay minerals that originated from continental weathering; Type II (coarse-grained terrigenous sediment) is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz, derived from reworking of pre-existing deposits; and Type III (biogenic marine sediment), with low- and high-magnesium calcite, was produced by marine carbonate-secreting organisms. The high input of Type I sediment during the early Holocene (10-8 cal kyr BP) was caused by river mouth bypassing. This supply-dominated regime was controlled by intense river discharge and subsequent resuspension of mud in shelf settings, responding to the humid climate in the hinterland and sea-level rise with low rate off Tanzania. The first occurrence of Type II sediments was around 8 cal kyr BP and dominated when sedimentation rates lowered. This accommodation-dominated regime was caused by shoreface bypassing due to an arid climate and sea-level highstand. Type III sediments increased significantly from the early to late Holocene, resulting from the weakening dilution effect of the terrigenous component. The sedimentation pattern on the Tanzanian shelf shifted from allochthonous to autochthonous sedimentation constrained by climatic changes and relative sea-level fluctuations at the end of the early

  16. Climate forcings of changes in paleoprecipitation patterns in Brazil from oxygen isotope ratios on speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, F.; Cheng, H.; Barreto, E. S.; Wang, X.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Karmann, I.; Burns, S. J.; Auler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope records in speleothems have provided new insights into changes in the tropical precipitation patterns over South America during Holocene. This is evident in the antiphasing observed between rainfall in northeastern Brazil and in areas affected by the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM), such as southern Brazil, the Amazon and the tropical Andes on orbital time-scales (Cruz et al., 2009). This pattern is attributed to changes in the strength of both Hadley and Walker-cells due to the influence of insolation on the global summer monsoons. A higher incoming austral summer insolation can intensify the SASM by favoring moisture convergence in the Amazon Basin and promote a substantial increase in monsoon precipitation in southern Brazil. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil experiences arid conditions because of increased west-east upper-level subsidence induced by the convection in the monsoon core. A new speleothem record from Bahia State in NE Brazil confirms this antiphasing pattern of long-term precipitation for last 90 ky B.P. in Brazil, but in contrast with what is seen in southern Brazil, the records from the NE part of the country are mostly in phase with the Chinese speleothem records. Besides, it also shows that insolation exerts a strong forcing during MIS 5c to 5a, which is not as apparent during the MIS 4, 3 and 2. We suggest that the glacial boundary conditions play an important role in the SASM intensification between 60 and 20 ky during the latter marine isotope stages triggering wetter and drier conditions in southern and northeastern Brazil, respectively. On the other hand, the abrupt increases in precipitation during Heinrich events indicate a similar rainfall pattern everywhere in Brazil and suggest a more direct response from changes in oceanic conditions on millennial time-scales, which is relatively independent of monsoon activity in South America. References Cruz, F.W; Vuille, M.; Burns, S.J.; Wang, X.; Cheng H; Werner M

  17. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  18. Climate change and grazing interact to alter flowering patterns in the Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2014-05-01

    Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns. Such land-use changes will co-occur with climate change, and while both are potentially important determinants of future ecosystem functioning, interactions between them remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of grazing by large herbivores and climate manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) on flower number and flowering species richness in mountain steppe of northern Mongolia. In this region, sedentary pastoralism is replacing nomadic pastoralism, and temperature is predicted to increase. Grazing and OTCs interacted to affect forb flowering richness, which was reduced following grazing removal, and reduced by OTCs in grazed plots only. This interaction was directly linked to the soil moisture and temperature environments created by the experimental treatments: most species flowered when both soil moisture and temperature levels were high (i.e. in grazed plots without OTCs), while fewer species flowered when either temperature, or moisture, or both, were low. Removal of grazing increased the average number of graminoid flowers produced at peak flowering in Year 1, but otherwise grazing removal and OTCs did not affect community-level flower composition. Of four abundant graminoid species examined individually, three showed increased flower number with grazing removal, while one showed the reverse. Four abundant forb species showed no significant response to either treatment. Our results highlight how climate change effects on mountain steppe could be contingent on land-use, and that studies designed to understand ecosystem response to climate change should incorporate co-occurring drivers of change, such as altered grazing regimes.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Patterns of Gene Expression in Avian Song Control Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Replogle, Kirstin; Drnevich, Jenny; Lent, Karin L.; Wissman, Anne Marie; Farin, Federico M.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; Clayton, David F.; Perkel, David J.; Brenowitz, Eliot A.

    2012-01-01

    Photoperiod and hormonal cues drive dramatic seasonal changes in structure and function of the avian song control system. Little is known, however, about the patterns of gene expression associated with seasonal changes. Here we address this issue by altering the hormonal and photoperiodic conditions in seasonally-breeding Gambel's white-crowned sparrows and extracting RNA from the telencephalic song control nuclei HVC and RA across multiple time points that capture different stages of growth and regression. We chose HVC and RA because while both nuclei change in volume across seasons, the cellular mechanisms underlying these changes differ. We thus hypothesized that different genes would be expressed between HVC and RA. We tested this by using the extracted RNA to perform a cDNA microarray hybridization developed by the SoNG initiative. We then validated these results using qRT-PCR. We found that 363 genes varied by more than 1.5 fold (>log2 0.585) in expression in HVC and/or RA. Supporting our hypothesis, only 59 of these 363 genes were found to vary in both nuclei, while 132 gene expression changes were HVC specific and 172 were RA specific. We then assigned many of these genes to functional categories relevant to the different mechanisms underlying seasonal change in HVC and RA, including neurogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, dendrite arborization and axonal growth, angiogenesis, endocrinology, growth factors, and electrophysiology. This revealed categorical differences in the kinds of genes regulated in HVC and RA. These results show that different molecular programs underlie seasonal changes in HVC and RA, and that gene expression is time specific across different reproductive conditions. Our results provide insights into the complex molecular pathways that underlie adult neural plasticity. PMID:22529977

  20. Changing Patterns of the Floating Population in China during 2000-2010*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Zhen; Ma, Zhongdong

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 and 2010 Chinese Population Censuses and applying a consistent definition of migration, this paper examines changing patterns of China's floating population during 2000-2010. We find that during the first decade of the 21st century, there have been significant changes in China's floating population, as reflected in continuing rise of interprovincial floating population and the rise of the floating population in China's western and interior regions, geographic diversification of destinations for the floating population, a major increase in interprovincial return migration, and significant improvement in education and occupational profiles among the floating population. We argue that these patterns are driven by a combination of complex domestic and international factors, including the newly released Labor Law, removal of agricultural tax, the western China development program, increased investment in education by the Chinese government, and the global financial crisis. We also discuss several challenges facing the floating population in the coming years, which include equality of educational opportunity for migrant children and adequate housing and social welfare protection for the floating population. Finally, we reflect on the future of migration research in China. PMID:26213427

  1. Changing Patterns of the Floating Population in China during 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zai; Li, Zhen; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the 2000 and 2010 Chinese Population Censuses and applying a consistent definition of migration, this paper examines changing patterns of China's floating population during 2000-2010. We find that during the first decade of the 21(st) century, there have been significant changes in China's floating population, as reflected in continuing rise of interprovincial floating population and the rise of the floating population in China's western and interior regions, geographic diversification of destinations for the floating population, a major increase in interprovincial return migration, and significant improvement in education and occupational profiles among the floating population. We argue that these patterns are driven by a combination of complex domestic and international factors, including the newly released Labor Law, removal of agricultural tax, the western China development program, increased investment in education by the Chinese government, and the global financial crisis. We also discuss several challenges facing the floating population in the coming years, which include equality of educational opportunity for migrant children and adequate housing and social welfare protection for the floating population. Finally, we reflect on the future of migration research in China.

  2. Changes in visual search patterns of pathology residents as they gain experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Weinstein, Ronald S.

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study was to examine and characterize changes in the ways that pathology residents examine digital or "virtual" slides as they gain more experience. A series of 20 digitized breast biopsy virtual slides (half benign and half malignant) were shown to 6 pathology residents at three points in time - at the beginning of their first year of residency, at the beginning of the second year, and at the beginning of the third year. Their task was to examine each image and select three areas that they would most want to zoom on in order to view the diagnostic detail at higher resolution. Eye position was recorded as they scanned each image. The data indicate that with each successive year of experience, the residents' search patterns do change. Overall it takes significantly less time to view an individual slide and decide where to zoom, significantly fewer fixations are generated overall, and there is less examination of non-diagnostic areas. Essentially, the residents' search becomes much more efficient and after only one year closely resembles that of an expert pathologist. These findings are similar to those in radiology, and support the theory that an important aspect of the development of expertise is improved pattern recognition (taking in more information during the initial Gestalt or gist view) as well as improved allocation of attention and visual processing resources.

  3. Neural pattern change during encoding of a narrative predicts retrospective duration estimates

    PubMed Central

    Lositsky, Olga; Chen, Janice; Toker, Daniel; Honey, Christopher J; Shvartsman, Michael; Poppenk, Jordan L; Hasson, Uri; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    What mechanisms support our ability to estimate durations on the order of minutes? Behavioral studies in humans have shown that changes in contextual features lead to overestimation of past durations. Based on evidence that the medial temporal lobes and prefrontal cortex represent contextual features, we related the degree of fMRI pattern change in these regions with people’s subsequent duration estimates. After listening to a radio story in the scanner, participants were asked how much time had elapsed between pairs of clips from the story. Our ROI analyses found that duration estimates were correlated with the neural pattern distance between two clips at encoding in the right entorhinal cortex. Moreover, whole-brain searchlight analyses revealed a cluster spanning the right anterior temporal lobe. Our findings provide convergent support for the hypothesis that retrospective time judgments are driven by 'drift' in contextual representations supported by these regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16070.001 PMID:27801645

  4. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  5. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-03-10

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  6. Dynamic patterns of nitrogen: Phosphorus ratios in forest soils of China under changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leiyi; Li, Pin; Yang, Yuanhe

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry is essential for understanding biogeochemical cycle and ecosystem functioning. However, large-scale patterns in soil stoichiometry are not yet fully understood along environmental gradients nor over the temporal scale. Using a comprehensive data set and artificial neural network approach, we evaluated spatial and temporal patterns in topsoil N and P concentrations and N:P ratio across China's forests. Our results revealed that soil weathering stage, climatic factors (i.e., temperature and precipitation), and forest types jointly explained approximately 34.1% and 30.4% of spatial variations in soil N and P, respectively. By contrast, only precipitation could explain the variation in N:P ratio, with soil N:P ratio exhibiting a trend of increase along the precipitation gradient. The observed spatial patterns in soil N:P ratio were consistent with previous findings derived from plants and microbes, suggesting that variation in precipitation may induce the imbalance of N:P stoichiometry in forest ecosystems. Our results also indicated that topsoil N:P ratios exhibited a significant increase from the 1980s to 2000s. However, the associations of N:P dynamics with a single element largely depended on forest type. In evergreen forests, soil N:P dynamics were caused by increasing N and decreasing P. Conversely, N:P changes in deciduous broadleaf forests were triggered only by soil N accumulation. Overall, these results demonstrated a stoichiometric shift in soil N:P both spatially and temporally, implying that nutrient imbalance between soil N and P may be accelerated under global change scenarios.

  7. Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro

    2008-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures

  8. Environmental Change in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chong; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-28

    Chengde city is located in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in northern China near the capital city of Beijing, which has experienced large-scale ecological construction in the past three decades. This study quantitatively assessed the environmental changes in Chengde through observation records of water resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, and vegetation activity and investigated the possible causes. From the late 1950s to 2002, the streamflow presented a downward trend induced by climate variability and human activities, with contribution ratios of 33.2% and 66.8%, respectively. During 2001-2012, the days of levels I and II air quality presented clear upward trends. Moreover, the air pollutant concentration was relatively low compared with that in the adjacent areas, which means the air quality has improved more than that in the neighboring areas. The water quality, which deteriorated during 1993-2000, began to improve in 2002. The air and water quality changes were closely related to pollutant emissions induced by anthropogenic activities. During 1982-2012, the vegetation in the southeastern and central regions presented restoration trends, whereas that in the northwestern area showed degradation trends. The pixels with obvious degradation trends correlated significantly with annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. Ecological engineering also played a positive role in vegetation restoration. This analysis can be beneficial to environment managers in the active response and adaptation to the possible effects of future climate change, population growth, and industrial development and can be used to ensure sustainable development and environmental safety.

  9. Ontogenetic change of body color patterns in laboratory-raised juveniles of six terrestrial hermit crab species.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Katsuyuki; Tsuru, Takuma; Sanda, Tetsuya; Fujikawa, Shunsuke; Dan, Shigeki; Kitada, Shuichi

    2017-01-30

    We examined the ontogenetic change of body color patterns in the laboratory-raised juveniles of six terrestrial hermit crab species, including Birgus latro, Coenobita brevimanus, C. cavipes, C. purpureus, C. rugosus, and C. violascens, which commonly occur in the southern islands, Japan. The body color patterns of coenobitid juveniles were species-specific. The diagnostic features of body color patterns enable identification of juveniles of coenobitid crab species in the wild, thereby helping to understand the precise habitats of each coenobitid species.

  10. Coastal change rates and patterns: Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Gmirkin, Rick; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative project between the U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the National Park Service (NPS) has been developed to create an inventory of geologic resources for National Park Service lands on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The NPS Geologic Resources Inventories are recognized as essential for the effective management, interpretation, and understanding of vital park resources. In general, there are three principal components of the inventories: geologic bibliographies, digital geologic maps, and geologic reports. The geologic reports are specific to each individual park and include information on the geologic features and processes that are important to the management of park resources, including ecological, cultural and recreational resources. This report summarizes a component of the geologic inventory concerned specifically with characterizing the coastal geomorphology of the beach system within Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (NHP) and describes an analysis that utilizes georeferenced and orthorectified aerial photography to understand the spatial and temporal trends in shoreline change from 1950 to 2002. In addition, spatial patterns of beach change were examined and a beach stability map was developed. Both the shoreline change rates and the beach stability map are designed to help Park personnel effectively manage the valuable park resources within the context of understanding natural changes to the KAHO beach system.

  11. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    PubMed Central

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry. PMID:27302371

  12. Epigenetic change detection and pattern recognition via Bayesian hierarchical hidden Markov models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Zang, Miao; Xiao, Guanghua

    2013-06-15

    Epigenetics is the study of changes to the genome that can switch genes on or off and determine which proteins are transcribed without altering the DNA sequence. Recently, epigenetic changes have been linked to the development and progression of disease such as psychiatric disorders. High-throughput epigenetic experiments have enabled researchers to measure genome-wide epigenetic profiles and yield data consisting of intensity ratios of immunoprecipitation versus reference samples. The intensity ratios can provide a view of genomic regions where protein binding occur under one experimental condition and further allow us to detect epigenetic alterations through comparison between two different conditions. However, such experiments can be expensive, with only a few replicates available. Moreover, epigenetic data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical model, combined with hidden Markov processes with four states for modeling spatial dependence, to detect genomic sites with epigenetic changes from two-sample experiments with paired internal control. One attractive feature of the proposed method is that the four states of the hidden Markov process have well-defined biological meanings and allow us to directly call the change patterns based on the corresponding posterior probabilities. In contrast, none of existing methods can offer this advantage. In addition, the proposed method offers great power in statistical inference by spatial smoothing (via hidden Markov modeling) and information pooling (via hierarchical modeling). Both simulation studies and real data analysis in a cocaine addiction study illustrate the reliability and success of this method.

  13. Changing practice patterns in the management of primary breast cancer: Consensus Development Program.

    PubMed Central

    Kosecoff, J; Kanouse, D E; Brook, R H

    1990-01-01

    In the last decade, new knowledge has emerged concerning the efficacy of treatment for breast cancer. For that reason, the National Institutes of Health devoted a consensus conference to this topic. To determine whether the consensus conference had influenced practice patterns, and to evaluate the level of quality of care given to women with breast cancer, the medical records of 573 patients treated in ten hospitals throughout the state of Washington were abstracted and analyzed. Results showed no changes with respect to the consensus conference's recommendations for use of a total mastectomy with axillary dissection or the use of a two-step procedure in which the biopsy is performed first and therapeutic options are discussed before a definitive surgery is undertaken. Analyses of quality of care issues not addressed by the consensus conference revealed that 4 percent of the sample were explicitly staged preoperatively and 29 percent postoperatively and that little changed over time in the use of sentinel laboratory tests. These results also show that consensus recommendations will not necessarily change physicians' behavior even where change is possible, and that quality of care in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer still needs to be addressed. PMID:2254089

  14. Changes in precipitation pattern and risk of drought over India in the context of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anoop; Liu, Shaw Chen

    2014-07-01

    Precipitation pattern has changed over many regions in recent decades. There are evidences of increased heavy precipitation and decreased light precipitation in widespread parts of the globe due to global warming. Many studies over Indian region focus on heavy precipitation and risk of floods. But few works discuss the changes in light precipitation and risk of droughts. In this study, changes in total dry days, prolonged dry spells, light precipitation, and risk of drought as indicated by Modified Palmer Index (MPI) over India during six decades (1951-2010) are examined quantitatively in the context of global warming. It is found that there are increases of 49% ± 21% and 33% ± 17% in prolonged dry spells and total dry days, respectively, over India for each degree Kelvin (K) increase in global mean temperature. There is an increase of 51% ± 24% K-1 in drought index MPI (<= - 2.0). There is also a reduction of 31 ± 14% K-1in light precipitation days over India. These changes are more severe over northeastern and western part of India. Increases in prolonged dry spells, total dry days, and decreases in light precipitation relate well with the increases in drought index MPI (<= - 2.0). These results suggest that there is an increased risk of drought due to increased prolonged dry spells, total dry days, and decreased light precipitation days over India as a result of global warming.

  15. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry.

  16. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change.

    PubMed

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R; Wallace, Carden C; Gothmann, Anne M; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-06-15

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry.

  17. Changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries with cysts induced by dexamethasone administration.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, A; Majewski, M; Jana, B

    2014-09-01

    We revealed earlier that induction of ovarian cysts in gilts by dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt (DXM) administration from the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (EC) changed the cholinergic innervation of the gonad. In the present study, the innervation of porcine ovaries by vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive (IR) fibres, after induction of cystic changes from the middle luteal phase of the EC, was determined. The cystic changes were induced by DXM injections from days 7 to 21 of the EC, and 11 days later, the ovaries were collected. In the cystic ovaries, VAChT-, nNOS- and SOM-IR fibres were found around cysts and small tertiary follicles; nNOS-IR and also VAChT-IR fibres were observed near secondary follicles and veins; and VAChT- and nNOS-IR fibres were not found around cortical arteries. The number of VIP-IR fibres increased near the cysts and within the ground plexus, while the number of VAChT-IR fibres decreased within the medullar part of this structure. Thus, our study showed changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of the porcine cystic ovaries induced from the middle phase of the cycle and confirmed that cystic ovary innervation depends partly on the phase of the EC in which the induction of cysts was started.

  18. Special Section. An Organizational Change Process: The Mississippi Valley Industrial Teacher Education Conference's (MVITEC) Structured Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An Editor's Note and three presentations are included: "Balancing Traditions and Contemporary Needs" (G. Eugene Martin); "The Historic Role of the Mississippi Valley Industrial Teacher Education Conference" (Rupert N. Evans); and "The National Association of Industrial and Technical Teacher Educators" (Scott D.…

  19. 78 FR 19495 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval Changes: Manufacturing Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a scale-up and... Oral Dosage Forms--Scale-Up and Post-Approval Changes: Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls, In...

  20. The Crisis in Railroad Collective Bargaining: A Study of the Institutional Impediments to Change in the Industrial Relations System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W., Jr.

    The rapid technological and employment changes have had a serious impact on the railroad industrial relations system and its manpower. The organization of the collective bargaining system and the Railway Labor Act have seriously impeded rather than aided the meeting of the challenges of these developments. This study recommends a recasting of the…

  1. An Overview of Finance Services in the San Francisco Region: Some Possible Responses to a Changing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Margaret

    As part of a review of the finance program at California's City College of San Francisco (CCSF), a project was undertaken to explore trends in the banking and finance industry to identify pre-service and in-service training needs and determine CCSF's role in meeting those needs. A review of trends found profound changes in the banking and finance…

  2. Complex and changing patterns of natural selection explain the evolution of the human hip.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Roseman, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    Causal explanations for the dramatic changes that occurred during the evolution of the human hip focus largely on selection for bipedal function and locomotor efficiency. These hypotheses rest on two critical assumptions. The first-that these anatomical changes served functional roles in bipedalism-has been supported in numerous analyses showing how postcranial changes likely affected locomotion. The second-that morphological changes that did play functional roles in bipedalism were the result of selection for that behavior-has not been previously explored and represents a major gap in our understanding of hominin hip evolution. Here we use evolutionary quantitative genetic models to test the hypothesis that strong directional selection on many individual aspects of morphology was responsible for the large differences observed across a sample of fossil hominin hips spanning the Plio-Pleistocene. Our approach uses covariance among traits and the differences between relatively complete fossils to estimate the net selection pressures that drove the major transitions in hominin hip evolution. Our findings show a complex and changing pattern of natural selection drove hominin hip evolution, and that many, but not all, traits hypothesized to play functional roles in bipedalism evolved as a direct result of natural selection. While the rate of evolutionary change for all transitions explored here does not exceed the amount expected if evolution was occurring solely through neutral processes, it was far above rates of evolution for morphological traits in other mammalian groups. Given that stasis is the norm in the mammalian fossil record, our results suggest that large shifts in the adaptive landscape drove hominin evolution.

  3. Spatial and seasonal patterns in climate change, temperatures, and precipitation across the United States.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Robert W; Solomon, Susan; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2009-05-05

    Changes in climate during the 20th century differ from region to region across the United States. We provide strong evidence that spatial variations in US temperature trends are linked to the hydrologic cycle, and we also present unique information on the seasonal and latitudinal structure of the linkage. We show that there is a statistically significant inverse relationship between trends in daily temperature and average daily precipitation across regions. This linkage is most pronounced in the southern United States (30-40 degrees N) during the May-June time period and, to a lesser extent, in the northern United States (40-50 degrees N) during the July-August time period. It is strongest in trends in maximum temperatures (T(max)) and 90th percentile exceedance trends (90PET), and less pronounced in the T(max) 10PET and the corresponding T(min) statistics, and it is robust to changes in analysis period. Although previous studies suggest that areas of increased precipitation may have reduced trends in temperature compared with drier regions, a change in sign from positive to negative trends suggests some additional cause. We show that trends in precipitation may account for some, but not likely all, of the cause point to evidence that shows that dynamical patterns (El Niño/Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, etc.) cannot account for the observed effects during May-June. We speculate that changing aerosols, perhaps related to vegetation changes, and increased strength of the aerosol direct and indirect effect may play a role in the observed linkages between these indices of temperature change and the hydrologic cycle.

  4. Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of warming tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica L.; Chown, Steven L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3–0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species’ vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach. PMID:27933165

  5. Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of warming tolerance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica L; Chown, Steven L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3-0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species' vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach.

  6. Using Self-Organising Maps to investigate long-term changes in deep Adriatic water patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Šepić, Jadranka; Matijević, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The paper attempts to document long-term changes in deep Adriatic water patterns by applying the Self-Organising Maps (SOM) method to temperature, salinity, dissolved-oxygen content, orthophosphate and total inorganic nitrogen profiles sampled at a single deep station in the South Adriatic Pit (SAP) over a half century (1957-2009). Seasonality observed in upper layers has been removed by the least-squares fitting of the annual and semi-annual sinusoidal functions. The sensitivity of the SOM to various parameter combinations reveals the importance of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen for mapping different water patterns, while nutrients have less influence on quality and applicability of SOM solutions to the extraction of characteristic SAP water profiles. The quality of fit obtained for different combination of the measured parameters introduced to a SOM suggests that the incomplete combinations of input parameters increase an imperfection in the applicability of SOMs to the dataset. Two modes of long-term changes in the SAP obtained by the SOM analyses are discussed with respect to the processes that drive the variability in the area, e.g., the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillation: where the first mode is characterised by rapid changes in the transition of SAP water masses, observed before 1980s (less adoptable by the SOMs), and the second mode is characterised by steady transitions (better adoptable by the SOMs), observed in the 1990s and the 2000s. The SOM method is found to have certain advantages when compared to other methods that have previously been used to distinguish the Adriatic water masses, as it does not depend on predefinition of water mass sources and allows for gaps in series.

  7. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

  8. Global Climate Change and Sedimentation Patterns in the Neogene Baringo Basin, Central Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J. D.; Wilson, K. E.; Hill, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Tugen Hills are part of a ~100 km N-S tilted fault block, just west of Lake Baringo within the Central Kenyan Rift Valley. Sediments exposed in this block span the last 16 Ma and have yielded abundant and diverse fossil assemblages including a number of hominoid and hominid specimens. Much research has also focused on documenting the paleoecology of the succession through analyses of fossil floral, faunal, and biogeochemical proxies. Data from the Tugen Hills have revealed a complex evolutionary history of ecosystems characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity with no clear evidence of any long-term trends. While these studies suggest that the patterns of heterogeneity may be shifting at short time-scales (104-105 ka), limited temporal resolution has until now generally precluded assessments of environmental change at these scales. Recently published investigations in the Baringo Basin have provided evidence of orbitally mediated environmental change over periods which include hominid fossil localities (Deino et al., 2006; Kingston et al., 2007). The Baringo data represent the only empirical evidence for significant local environmental shifts that can directly be correlated with insolation patterns in equatorial Africa. Sedimentation patterns in the Baringo Basin between ca. 2.70 and 2.55 Ma, controlled by climatic factors, provide a detailed paleoenvironmental record including a sequence of diatomites that record rhythmic cycling of major freshwater lake systems consistent with ~23 kyr Milankovitch precessional periodicity modulated by eccentricity. The timing of the paleolakes most closely approximates insolation maximum for the June/July 30○N insolation curve, suggesting that precipitation patterns in the region are controlled by the African monsoon system. More recent fieldwork has identified older sequences that similarly demonstrate rhythmic cycling of freshwater lake systems. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar dating of intercalated tephra reveals that

  9. Assessing Patterns of Change in Anthropometric Dimensions: Secular Trends of U.S. Army Females, 1946-1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A2ý6O 0869 TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-93/013 ASSESSING PATTERNS OF CHANGE IN ANTHROPOMETRIC DIMENSIONS: SECULAR TRENDS OF U.S. ARMY FEMALES ...DEMOGRAPHY 6 SIZES(DIMENSIONS) FEMALE SOLDIERS SECULAR TRENDS 16. PRICE CODE HUMAN BODY SIZE FEMALESQTANLYS 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATIOIN 13. SECURITY...publications have been extensive and are sincerely appreciated. ix Assessing Patterns of Change in Anthropometric Dimensions: Secular Trends of U.S. Army Females

  10. Changes in blast zone albedo patterns around new martian impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubar, I. J.; Dundas, C. M.; Byrne, S.; Geissler, P.; Bart, G. D.; McEwen, A. S.; Russell, P. S.; Chojnacki, M.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-03-01

    "Blast zones" (BZs) around new martian craters comprise various albedo features caused by the initial impact, including diffuse halos, extended linear and arcuate rays, secondary craters, ejecta patterns, and dust avalanches. We examined these features for changes in repeat images separated by up to four Mars years. Here we present the first comprehensive survey of the qualitative and quantitative changes observed in impact blast zones over time. Such changes are most likely due to airfall of high-albedo dust restoring darkened areas to their original albedo, the albedo of adjacent non-impacted surfaces. Although some sites show drastic changes over short timescales, nearly half of the sites show no obvious changes over several Mars years. Albedo changes are more likely to occur at higher-latitude sites, lower-elevation sites, and at sites with smaller central craters. No correlation was seen between amount of change and Dust Cover Index, relative halo size, or historical regional albedo changes. Quantitative albedo measurements of the diffuse dark halos relative to their surroundings yielded estimates of fading lifetimes for these features. The average lifetime among sites with measurable fading is ∼15 Mars years; the median is ∼8 Mars years for a linear brightening. However, at approximately half of sites with three or more repeat images, a nonlinear function with rapid initial fading followed by a slow increase in albedo provides a better fit to the fading behavior; this would predict even longer lifetimes. The predicted lifetimes of BZs are comparable to those of slope streaks, and considered representative of fading by global atmospheric dust deposition; they last significantly longer than dust devil or rover tracks, albedo features that are erased by different processes. These relatively long lifetimes indicate that the measurement of the current impact rate by Daubar et al. (Daubar, I.J. et al. [2013]. Icarus 225, 506-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j

  11. A changing time: the International Society for Cellular Therapy embraces its industry members.

    PubMed

    Deans, Robert; Gunter, Kurt C; Allsopp, Timothy; Bonyhadi, Mark; Burger, Scott R; Carpenter, Melissa; Clark, Tara; Cox, Charles S; Driscoll, Dawn; Field, Ed; Huss, Ralf; Lardenoije, René; Lodie, Tracey A; Mason, Chris; Neubiser, Richard; Rasko, John E J; Rowley, Jon; Maziarz, Richard T

    2010-11-01

    The last decade has seen a dramatic rise in the development of new cellular therapeutics in a wide range of indications. There have been acceptable safety profiles reported in early studies using blood-derived and adherent stem cell products, but also an inconsistent efficacy record. Further expansion has been hindered in part by a lack of capital (both private and public) and delayed entry into the cell therapy space by large healthcare and pharmaceutical companies, those members of the industry most reliably able to initiate and maintain advanced-phase clinical trials. With recognition that the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) is uniquely positioned to serve the global translational regenerative medicine research community as a network hub for scientific standards and policy, the ISCT commissioned the establishment of an Industry Task Force (ITF) to address current and future roles for industry. The objectives of the ITF were to gather information and prioritize efforts for a new Commercialization Committee (CC) and to construct innovative platforms that would foster constructive and synergistic collaborations between industry and ISCT. Recommendations and conclusions of the ITF included that the new CC: (1) foster new relationships with therapeutic and stem cell societies, (2) foster educational workshops and forums to cross-educate and standardize practices, (3) create industry subcommittees to address priority initiatives, with clear benchmarks and global implementation, and (4) establish a framework for a greater industry community within ISCT, opening doors for industry to share the new vision for commercialization of cell therapy, emphasizing the regenerative medicine space.

  12. The changing pattern of contraception in Lahore, Pakistan: 1963-80.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F; Hussain, M

    1985-07-01

    This paper attempts to test the dictum that social change begins in better educated, economically well-off and relatively less tradition-bound strata of the urban society and that it then spreads to the lower social strata and eventually affects the rural populations also. It analyzes temporal changes in the prevalence of contraception as reported by female respondents in 2 sample surveys conducted in the city of Lahore during 1963 and 1980. Altogether 1960 ever-married females aged over 15 were interviewed in the 1963 survey and 993 in the 1980 survey. Compared to 1980 respondents, those in the 1963 survey were older, educated and belonged to a medium or high socioeconomic status category. In 1963, 18% of the respondents were not aware of any method of contraception; by 1980 this proportion was reduced to 11%. The most spectacular change was observed in the prortion of respondents who were practising family planning. In 1963, only 7% of the respondents had ever used any method of contraception; this proportion increased to 48% in 1980. Moreover, substantial differences were noted with regard to the methods of contraception used. The use of condoms seems to have declined while that of the IUD the pill, sterilization and withdrawal seems to have increased. It is interesting that abstinence remained an important method of contraception. Use of contraception is found to vary with age, education and socioeconomic status of respondents. The degree of association between these 3 characteristics and contraceptive usage increased substantially from 1963 to 1980. 1980 survey results indicate that current as well as ever use of contraception show an inverted V-shaped pattern with age and parity. The prevalence of contraception increases with age, reaching a maximum of 41% for current users and 63% for ever users in the age group 35-39. A similar pattern is observed in relation to the parity of respondents with a maximum amongst women who had borne 6 children. Education shows

  13. Changing Precipitation Patterns or Waning Glaciers? Identifying Water Supply Vulnerabilities to Climate Change in the Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Z. S.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Bolivian Andes have become an iconic example for the impacts of climate change. Glaciers are rapidly melting and some have already completely disappeared. More than 75 percent of the water consumed by 2 million people living on the flanks of the Bolivian Andes comes from mountains and it is often cited that the dwindling ice threatens the water supply of the expanding and destitute population living in the twin cities of La Paz and El Alto. However, the wet and the warm seasons and the cold and dry seasons coincide, causing high precipitation and ice melt—and therefore high streamflows—to occur only in the austral summer (October-March); during the austral winter, cold conditions limit glacier melt. This suggests that reductions in the water supply could be influenced more by changing precipitation amounts than continued glacial mass-wasting. We hypothesize that precipitation is the principal component of groundwater recharge for the aquifers at the base of the central Cordillera Real. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from rivers partially fed by glaciers, groundwater, and glacial melt water can help determine the relative contribution of precipitation and glacial melt to important water supplies. During the dry season in August 2010, we sampled 23 sites that follow the flow path of water in the Condiriri watershed, beginning in the glacial headwaters and ending several kilometers upriver from Lake Titicaca. We collected five samples at the toe of the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier and four samples from three tributary rivers that drain glaciated headwaters, which include meltwater from the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier. W also collected 14 water samples from shallow and deep wells in rural communities within 40 kilometers of the glaciers. If the isotopic values of groundwater are similar to rain values, as we suspect, precipitation is likely the largest contributor to groundwater resources in the region and will suggest that changing precipitation patterns present the

  14. Incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer in England and Wales: Changing patterns and ethnic variations

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Khan, Shahid A; Crossey, Mary ME; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore recent trends, modes of diagnosis, ethnic distribution and the mortality to incidence ratio of primary liver cancer by subtypes in England and Wales. METHODS: We obtained incidence (1979-2008) and mortality (1968-2008) data for primary liver cancer for England and Wales and calculated age-standardised incidence and mortality rates. Trends in age-standardised mortality (ASMR) and incidence (ASIR) rates and basis of diagnosis of primary liver cancer and subcategories: hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct and unspecified liver tumours, were analysed over the study period. Changes in guidelines for the diagnosis of primary liver cancer (PLC) may impact changing trends in the rates that may be obtained. We thus explored changes in the mode of diagnosis as reported to cancer registries. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of these tumours by ethnicity. Most of the statistical manipulations of these data was carried out in Microsoft excel® (Seattle, Washington, United Sttaes). Additional epidemiological statistics were done in Epi Info software (Atlanta, GA, United Sttaes). To define patterns of change over time, we evaluated trends in ASMR and ASIR of PLC and intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (IHBD) using a least squares regression line fitted to the natural logarithm of the mortality and incidence rates. We estimated the patterns of survival over subsequent 5 and 10 years using complement of mortality to incidence ratio (1-MIR). RESULTS: Age-standardised mortality rate of primary liver cancer increased in both sexes: from 2.56 and 1.29/100000 in 1968 to 5.10 and 2.63/100000 in 2008 for men and women respectively. The use of histology for diagnostic confirmation of primary liver cancer increased from 35.7% of registered cases in 1993 to plateau at about 50% during 2005 to 2008. Reliance on cytology as a basis of diagnosis has maintained a downward trend throughout the study period. Although approximately 30% of the PLC registrations had

  15. Changing Global Patterns of Urban Exposure to Flood and Drought Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guneralp, B.; Guneralp, I.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The studies that quantify the human and economic costs of increasing exposure of cities to various natural hazards consider climate change and increasing population and economic activity, but assume constant urban extent. Accurate estimates of the potential losses due to changing exposure of cities, however, require that we know where they will grow in the future. Here, we present the first-ever estimates of the changing exposure of urban infrastructure to floods and droughts due to urban land expansion from 2000 to 2030. Although the percent of land that is urban within the Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases globally only slightly to 13% by 2030, the amount of urban land is predicted to increase 230% to 234,000 km2. In 2000, about 30% of global urban land (i.e., nearly 200,000 km2) was located in the high-frequency flood zones; by 2030, this will reach 40%, (i.e., over 700,000 km2). The emerging coastal metropolitan regions in Africa and Asia will be larger than those in the developed countries and thus will have larger areas exposed to flooding. The urban extent in drylands will increase nearly 300,000 km2, reaching almost 500,000 km2. Urban land exposed to both floods and droughts is expected to increase over 250%. There are significant geographical variations in the rates and magnitudes of urban expansion exposed to floods or droughts or both. Our findings show that even without factoring in the potential impacts from climate change, the extent of urban areas exposed to flood and drought hazards will increase, respectively, 2.7 and almost 2 times by 2030. Our global view on changing geographical patterns of urban exposure to flood and drought hazards can facilitate effective mitigation and adaptation against these hazards at multiple scales.

  16. Simulating The Change In Agricultural Fruit Patterns In The Context of River Basin Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloecking, B.; Laue, K.; Stroebl, B.

    A new concept has been developed for the integrated analysis of impacts of Global Change and direct human activities on the environment and the society in mesoscale river basins. The main steps of this approach are: (1) Developing a set of regional scenarios of change considering expected changes in climate, economic, demographic and social development, (2) Identification of indicators of sustainability for the impact assessment, (3) Impact analysis of the defined scenarios of development, (4) Evalu- ation of the different scenarios on the basis of the impact analysis to elaborate new stategies in regional development. All steps include consultations with actors and stakeholders. The concept is applied in the western part of Thuringia (7.500 km2), covering the basin of the Unstrut river. This part of the German Elbe river basin is highly suited for food production under the present conditions. Therefore it is a good site for vulnerability studies focused on agriculture. The development of agricultural land-use scenarios for the Unstrut region will be done in form of a bottom-up approach based on adaptation reactions of example farms within the expected boundary condi- tions such as the global food markets and other global economic trends as well as in- ternational agreements. Representing the present conditions in Thuringia, a referential land-use scenario was developed, assuming a complete realisation of the AGENDA 2000 resolutions. Impacts of changed land use in combination with climate change scenarios on plant production and on availability and quality of water are been inves- tigated with the help of a spatial distributed river basin model. A GIS-based approach was developed to locate the spatially not explicit land use scenarios. This approach allows to reproduce the agricultural fruit patterns of a region in a river basin model without taking into account the real field boundaries. First simulation results for the referential climate and land-use scenario

  17. Predicting Climate Change Using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco; Lunkeit, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O(10^5 ) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting—at any lead time and in an ensemble sense—the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO_2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as in their spatial patterns. The quality of the predictions obtained for the surface temperature fields is rather good, while in the case of precipitation a good skill is observed only for the global average. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  18. Predicting Climate Change Using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco; Lunkeit, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O(10^5) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting—at any lead time and in an ensemble sense—the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO_2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as in their spatial patterns. The quality of the predictions obtained for the surface temperature fields is rather good, while in the case of precipitation a good skill is observed only for the global average. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Chen, Guangsheng; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Banger, Kamaljit; Zhang, Bowen

    2014-08-08

    The North American east coast has experienced significant land-use and climate changes since the beginning of the 20th century. In this study, using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model 2.0 driven by time-series input data of land use, climate and atmospheric CO2, we examined how these driving forces have affected the spatiotemporal trends and variability of evapotranspiration (ET) in this region during 1901–2008. Annual ET in the North American east coast during this period was 648.3 ± 38.6 mm/year and demonstrated an increasing trend. Factorial model simulations indicated that climate variability explained 76% of the inter-annual ET variability. Although land-use change only explained 16% of the ET temporal variability, afforestation induced the upward trend of ET and increased annual ET by 12.8 mm/year. Elevated atmospheric CO2 reduced annual ET by 0.84 mm, and its potential impacts under future atmospheric CO2 levels could be much larger than estimates for the historical 1901–2008 period. Climate change determined the spatial pattern of ET changes across the entire study area, whereas land-use changes dramatically affected ET in watersheds with significant land conversions. In spite of the multiple benefits from afforestation, its impacts on water resources should be considered in future land-use policy making. As a result, elevated ET may also affect fresh water availability for the increasing social and economic water demands.

  20. Monitoring, analyzing and simulating of spatial-temporal changes of landscape pattern over mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Ruimei; Wang, Shuangting

    2014-11-01

    According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and Land changes, multi- objective information processing is employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover in mining areas. In this paper, multi-temporal remotely sensed data were selected to monitor the pattern, distri- bution and trend of LUCC and predict its impacts on ecological environment and human settlement in mining area. The monitor, analysis and simulation of LUCC in this coal mining areas are divided into five steps. The are information integration of optical and SAR data, LULC types extraction with SVM classifier, LULC trends simulation with CA Markov model, landscape temporal changes monitoring and analysis with confusion matrixes and landscape indices. The results demonstrate that the improved data fusion algorithm could make full use of information extracted from optical and SAR data; SVM classifier has an efficient and stable ability to obtain land cover maps, which could provide a good basis for both land cover change analysis and trend simulation; CA Markov model is able to predict LULC trends with good performance, and it is an effective way to integrate remotely sensed data with spatial-temporal model for analysis of land use / cover change and corresponding environmental impacts in mining area. Confusion matrixes are combined with landscape indices to evaluation and analysis show that, there was a sustained downward trend in agricultural land and bare land, but a continues growth trend tendency in water body, forest and other lands, and building area showing a wave like change, first increased and then decreased; mining landscape has undergone a from small to large and large to small process of fragmentation, agricultural land is the strongest influenced landscape type in this area, and human activities are the primary cause, so the problem should be pay more attentions by government and other organizations.

  1. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    PubMed

    Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  2. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  3. Interdecadal change in the lagged relationship between the Pacific-South American pattern and ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Tseng, Yu-heng; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Zhao, Sen; Lee, June-Yi

    2016-11-01

    A significant interdecadal change in the lagged relationship between the austral summer Pacific-South American (PSA) pattern and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the following austral summer (the PSA serving as a precursor signature to ENSO events) has been detected by analysis of a 91-year historical record. Strong correlations between the PSA and ENSO occurred during the periods 1956-1975 and 1990-2004 [referred to as the high correlation (HC) periods], but the correlations were weak for the periods 1928-1956 and 1975-1990 [referred to as the low correlation (LC) periods]. Both the processes of surface air-sea coupling in the extratropical/tropical Pacific, and subsurface ocean temperature evolution along the equator associated with the PSA, were found to be stronger during the HC periods than during the LC periods, thereby resulting in a stronger influence of the PSA on the subsequent ENSO during the HC periods. Changes in the PSA-ENSO relationship can be attributed mainly to interdecadal changes in the intensity of the austral summer PSA. The latter was found to have contributions from both the modulation of the Pacific decadal oscillation and long-term variations in the Southern Annular Mode.

  4. Factors Influencing Changes in Eating Patterns Among Hong Kong Young Adults Transitioning to Tertiary Education.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sin Tung; Capra, Sandra; Leveritt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Transitioning to tertiary education is a significant life course event that has the potential to influence lifelong eating patterns. This study used a theoretic model developed from a life course perspective to examine factors influencing the change of food choices among 31 young adults in Hong Kong after they moved on to tertiary education. Qualitative analysis of transcripts based on the constant comparative method revealed that present life course experiences, especially increased autonomy, and social-environmental factors strongly influenced young adults' present food choices. A model was developed from life course theory and social-ecological theory to reflect the factors that led to change of food choices among participants. The model provides unique insights on food choices of the future adult population. It could also be used as a reference for the development of nutrition education interventions targeting tertiary students as they experience increased autonomy. In conclusion, food choices of young adults on transitioning to tertiary education are strongly influenced by increased autonomy and change of social and environmental factors.

  5. Changes in growth patterns in mouse condylar cartilage associated with skeletal maturation and senescence.

    PubMed

    Livne, E; Weiss, A; Silbermann, M

    1990-01-01

    The squamoso-mandibular joint (SMJ) represents one of the most active joints in the mouse. In the young animal the main function of condylar cartilage in the SMJ is to serve as a growth center for the developing mandible. This first phase of skeletal growth lasts up to the age of 6-8 weeks, and is manifested by appositional growth of cartilage followed by endochondral ossification. Thereafter, the condylar cartilage gradually changes its function and serves mainly as an articulating surface for the joint. Consequently, the cartilage changes from a calcifying hyaline cartilage to a fibrous non-calcifying cartilage. The latter phase lasts through the stage of maturation (6 months of age) and it is manifested by a combination of appositional and interstitial patterns of cellular growth. Thereafter, the third phase develops which is characterized by degenerative changes that typify the aging process. In vivo autoradiography with [3H]-thymidine indicated that in the very young animal labeled cells are confined to the chondroprogenitor (proliferative) zone of the condylar cartilage. With maturation, the dimension of this zone as well as the number of labeled cells decrease, so that by 3 months of age the labeling index decreases by 30%. By the age of 6, 12 and 18 months, almost no cells take up the radioisotope while the total number of cells declines. During senescence only a very limited interstitial growth is taking place, a feature that might be associated with the repair processes that accompany the onset of osteoarthritic lesions.

  6. Maize Opaque Endosperm Mutations Create Extensive Changes in Patterns of Gene ExpressionW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Brenda G.; Beatty, Mary K.; Singletary, George W.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Dilkes, Brian P.; Larkins, Brian A.; Jung, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Maize starchy endosperm mutants have kernel phenotypes that include a brittle texture, susceptibility to insect pests, and inferior functional characteristics of products made from their flour. At least 18 such mutants have been identified, but only in the cases of opaque2 (o2) and floury2 (fl2), which affect different aspects of storage protein synthesis, is the molecular basis of the mutation known. To better understand the relationship between the phenotypes of these mutants and their biochemical bases, we characterized the protein and amino acid composition, as well as the mRNA transcript profiles, of nearly isogenic inbred lines of W64A o1, o2, o5, o9, o11, Mucuronate (Mc), Defective endosperm B30 (DeB30), and fl2. The largest reductions in zein protein synthesis occur in the W64A o2, DeB30, and fl2 mutants, which have ∼35 to 55% of the wild-type level of storage proteins. Zeins in W64A o5, o9, o11, and Mc are within 80 to 90% of the amount found in the wild type. Only in the cases of o5 and Mc were significant qualitative changes in zein synthesis observed. The pattern of gene expression in normal and mutant genotypes was assayed by profiling endosperm mRNA transcripts at 18 days after pollination with an Affymetrix GeneChip containing >1400 selected maize gene sequences. Compared with W64A sugary1, a mutant defective in starch synthesis, alterations in the gene expression patterns of the opaque mutants are very pleiotropic. Increased expression of genes associated with physiological stress, and the unfolded protein response, are common features of the opaque mutants. Based on global patterns of gene expression, these mutants were categorized in four phenotypic groups as follows: W64A+ and o1; o2; o5/o9/o11; and Mc and fl2. PMID:12368507

  7. Changes in Nuclear Orientation Patterns of Chromosome 11 during Mouse Plasmacytoma Development1

    PubMed Central

    Schmälter, Ann-Kristin; Righolt, Christiaan H.; Kuzyk, Alexandra; Mai, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Studying changes in nuclear architecture is a unique approach toward the understanding of nuclear remodeling during tumor development. One aspect of nuclear architecture is the orientation of chromosomes in the three-dimensional nuclear space. We studied mouse chromosome 11 in lymphocytes of [T38HxBALB/c]N mice with a reciprocal translocation between chromosome X and 11 (T38HT(X;11)) exhibiting a long chromosome T(11;X) and a short chromosome T(X;11) and in fast-onset plasmacytomas (PCTs) induced in the same strain. We determined the three-dimensional orientation of chromosome 11 using a mouse chromosome 11 specific multicolor banding probe. We also examined the nuclear position of the small translocation chromosome T(X;11) which contains cytoband 11E2 and parts of E1. Chromosomes can point either with their centromeric or with their telomeric end toward the nuclear center or periphery, or their position is found in parallel to the nuclear border. In T38HT(X;11) nuclei, the most frequently observed orientation pattern was with both chromosomes 11 in parallel to the nuclear border (“PP”). PCT cells showed nuclei with two or more copies of chromosome 11. In PCTs, the most frequent orientation pattern was with one chromosome in parallel and the other pointing with its centromeric end toward the nuclear periphery (“CP”). There is a significant difference between the orientation patterns observed in T38HT(X;11) and in PCT nuclei (P < .0001). PMID:26500032

  8. Changing patterns of "drug abuse" in the United States: connecting findings from macro- and microepidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Zili

    2002-01-01

    Trend analyses of the U.S. monitoring data systems (the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and the Monitoring the Future Study) and of the country's surveillance program, the Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG), indicate that several new "drug abuse" patterns have emerged over the past several years. For adolescents, drug use rates are converging for females and males, the mean age at which youngsters initiate drug use has declined, and more young adolescents are reporting using drugs. Furthermore, emergent new drug use patterns are being observed by the CEWG. The use of drugs such as Rohypnol, the injecting of crack-cocaine, and the spread of methamphetamines by new traffickers challenge our existing knowledge and understanding of drug use and its prevention. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has funded several large longitudinal studies that follow selected children and adolescents into their twenties, and some into their thirties. This research has been a rich source of information on the determinants of initiating and continuing drug abuse. Yet the findings from the surveys have not been well explored by the longitudinal studies, nor have the findings from the longitudinal studies been used in the surveys to better understand the observed changing trends in drug use patterns. This paper addresses six issues that have been observed from the findings from analyses of data from the surveys or macroepidemiologic studies. Information from the sub-population or micro-epidemiologic studies are reviewed for possible hypotheses to explain each issue. Suggestions for further research and implications for prevention also are presented.

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of recent area change of glacier systems on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Alison; Murray, Tavi; Luckman, Adrian; Vaughan, David

    2013-04-01

    Glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) have recently shown changes in extent, velocity and thickness. Understanding the response of glaciers to warming air temperatures and ocean circulation changes in this region is critical for understanding future mass balance changes, and yet there is little quantification of change in the mass balance of individual basins and the processes controlling changes in their extent. One reason for this is that the AP is a complex mountainous glacier system and without a topographic model at sufficient resolution the boundaries between individual glacier systems have been difficult to identify. With outlines it becomes possible to calculate changes in area and compare characteristics of individual glaciers. We present a new Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and a new drainage basin data set for the Antarctic Peninsula, along with an assessment of changes in area of marine-terminating glacier systems from the 1940s to 2010. We explain the methodology used in producing the new 100-m DEM of the region using ASTER GDEM, and the semi-automated drainage basin delineation method based on this DEM. This approach has resulted in outlines for 1598 glacier systems: these include outlet and mountain glaciers, ice caps, piedmonts, ice-covered islands and 'ice walls'. Of these, 903 are marine-terminating glaciers, all of which have coastal-change data at various time periods since the 1940s. Area calculations, along with other attributes, were assigned to individual basins, thus enabling comparative statistical analyses. We give a summary of these changes both by overall area change and by change in extent at 5-year time intervals, and describe patterns of ice loss both spatially (by latitude and by specific regions) and temporally (trends across time intervals). Although 90% of the 903 glaciers have reduced in size since the earliest recorded date, the area lost varies considerably between glaciers. Largest area loss has occurred to glaciers flowing

  10. Changing patterns of attempted suicide in Greece: clinicoepidemiological and psychodynamic data.

    PubMed

    Ierodiakonou, C S; Iacovides, A; Ierodiakonou-Benou, I

    1998-01-01

    Greece is known to have one of the lowest rates of both completed and attempted suicides. Yet during the last three decades the pattern of suicide attempts has shown some differentiations, which point to possible changes in family structure and social behavior, bringing the pattern closer to that of western countries. While in 1971-72 the ratio of male to female attempters was 1:4.6, in 1994-96 it was 1:2.3 - the mean age rose from early to middle adulthood - more married people attempted suicide than before - more attempters took alcohol before the act etc. There are, nevertheless, many steady features, e.g. the low rates of attempters in old age (above 65 years: 7.9% of the total), the methods used, the type of preceding stressful life events (more financial than emotional in males), no drug abuse etc. Since the low rates of suicide attempts in Greece have been attributed to cultural parameters and the close bonds in the family, psychodynamic studies were also carried out, which showed that adolescent attempters preserve the ability for outward aggression and their self-destructive act is due to other than intrapsychic factors (usually social and relational problems).

  11. Estimating the regional climate responses over river basins to changes in tropical sea surface temperature patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chii-Yun; Forest, Chris E.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    We investigate how to identify and assess teleconnection signals between anomalous patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) changes and climate variables related to hydrologic impacts over different river basins. The regional climate sensitivity to tropical SST anomaly patterns is examined through a linear relationship given by the global teleconnection operator (GTO, also generally called a sensitivity matrix or an empirical Green's function). We assume that the GTO defines a multilinear relation between SST forcing and regional climate response of a target area. The sensitivities are computed based on data from a large ensemble of simulations using the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 (CAM 3.1). The linear approximation is evaluated by comparing the linearly reconstructed response with both the results from the full non-linear atmospheric model and observational data. The results show that the linear approximation can capture regional climate variability that the CAM 3.1 AMIP-style simulations produce at seasonal scales for multiple river basins. The linear method can be used potentially for estimating drought conditions, river flow forecasting, and agricultural water management problems.

  12. Patterns of histological changes following hepatic electrolytic ablation in an ex-vivo perfused model.

    PubMed

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Ong, Seok Ling; West, Kevin; McGregor, Angus; Maddern, Guy J; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Lloyd, David M; Dennison, Ashley R

    2012-10-01

    Electrolytic ablation (EA) destroys the liver by releasing toxic radicles and producing modifications in the local pH without increasing the tissue temperature. We assessed the histological changes produced by EA using an ex-vivo perfused model. Five porcine livers were harvested, preserved in ice and reperfused for six hours in an extracorporeal circuit using autologous normothermic blood. One hour after reperfusion EA was performed and liver biopsies collected at the end of the experiments. The main necrotic zone consisted of coagulative necrosis, sinusoidal dilatation and haemorrhage with an unusual morphological pattern. The coagulative necrosis and haemorrhage affected mainly the peripheral area of the lobule with relative sparing of the area surrounding the centrilobular vein. Contrasting with this sinusoidal dilatation appeared to be more prominent in the centrilobular area. EA produces patterns of tissue destruction that have not been observed with the more commonly used thermal techniques. Further studies should obtain more information about the influence of adjacent biliary and vascular structures so that appropriate clinical trials can be designed.

  13. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, J.; Lovejoy, C.; Crevecoeur, S.; Vincent, W. F.

    2015-07-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a North-South permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa, and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify factors controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley, however the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial keystone species.

  14. Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably

  15. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  16. Long-term spatial pattern change in a semi-arid plant community: The role of climate and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Rob W.; Matesanz, Silvia; Valladares, Fernando; Klotz, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The spatial pattern of plant communities can be an indicator of the processes that regulate community structure and their interplay with environmental drivers such as climate. However, to exploit such indicators we need a fuller understanding of the links between spatial pattern and climate. We examined variation in spatial pattern of annuals/biennials and perennials in a range margin steppic plant community in Germany over 26 years. We assessed change in spatial pattern through time, and how this change was related to local variation in climate and community composition. We found increasing dissociation between annuals/biennials and perennials through time, and a response of spatial pattern to summer temperature and precipitation. These responses are associated with the occurrence of Centaurea stoebe, a species which establishes in the community mid-way through the recording period. Our results indicate that in some circumstances spatial patterning of vegetation may not be directly linked to environmental severity, and that species turnover rather than changes in the interactions or abundance of species already in the community can influence the observed dynamics of vegetation spatial pattern. Thus, they support calls for a better understanding of the context-specificity of plant-plant interactions, their translation to spatial pattern, and their regulation by climate and other drivers such as species turnover.

  17. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry 1999: Mergers and Other Corporate Combinations, The

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Presents data about corporate combinations involving investor-owned utilities in the United States, discusses corporate objectives for entering into such combinations, and assesses their cumulative effects on the structure of the electric power industry.

  18. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    PubMed

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality.

  19. Phase-change material-based nanoantennas with tunable radiation patterns.

    PubMed

    Alaee, R; Albooyeh, M; Tretyakov, S; Rockstuhl, C

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a novel switchable plasmonic dipole nanoantenna operating at mid-infrared frequencies that exploits phase-change materials. We show that the induced dipole moments of a nanoantenna, where a germanium antimony telluride (Ge3Sb2Te6 or GST for short) nanopatch acts as a spacer between two coupled metallic nanopatches, can be controlled in a disruptive sense. By switching GST between its crystalline and amorphous phases, the nanoantenna can exhibit either an electric or a balanced magneto-electric dipole-like radiation. While the former radiation pattern is omnidirectional, the latter is directive. Based on this property exciting switching devices can be perceived, such as a metasurface whose functionality can be switched between an absorber and a reflector. The switching between stable amorphous and crystalline phases occurs on timescales of nanoseconds and can be achieved by an electrical or optical pulse.

  20. [Austerity policies and changes in healthcare use patterns. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Urbanos Garrido, Rosa; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzes the main changes in healthcare use patterns in Spain related to the economic recession and to the measures taken to address it. The impact of the reform of drug copayment is examined; the number of prescriptions has decreased, although the effects of this reform on adherence, access to necessary and effective treatments, and health, are still unknown. This article also describes how waiting times and waiting lists for surgery have increased in recent years, as has the population's dissatisfaction with the national health system. Analysis of microdata from the Spanish national health surveys for 2006 and 2011/12 show that the economic recession is deterring the use of uncovered dental visits among the lowest social class. We recommend clearer definition of the role played by copayments within the national health system, and focussing on those who most need healthcare in order to prevent the more socioeconomically advantaged collectives from consuming a larger share of available services after the cuts.

  1. Changing Patterns of Mental Hospital Discharges and Readmissions in the Past Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, G. Edgar; Wanklin, James; Ladd, K. B.

    1965-01-01

    The discharge and readmission pattern for the non-organic psychoses (chiefly schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychoses) was studied for three-year periods: immediately before extensive use of modern therapies (1940-42), when electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) alone was extensively used (1950-52), and finally when tranquillizers had been added (1956-58). Patients were followed up for four years after either admission or discharge. The cohort method was used. With the use of ECT alone discharge took place at an earlier period after admission but was associated with a higher rate of readmission. With the addition of tranquillizers the improvement in rate of discharge continued for the whole four years after admission and the readmission rate was reduced to that seen in the first period. The rate of changing factors other than specific therapies is discussed. PMID:14308904

  2. [Dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ke-Li; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2007-09-01

    By using the 1986, 1993 and 2003 Landsat TM images and with the help of GIS, the dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi in 1986-2003 were analyzed. The results showed that in the past 17 years, the desertification area in the zone decreased by 206,655.2 hm2, with the patches in landscape structure reduced and fragmentation abated. Fortunately, the desertification degree decreased obviously, and moderate and light desertification took the leading position. From 1986 to 2003, the spatial centroid of desertification landscape patches expanded southwestward and northeastward, giving serious threat to the ecological safety of the southeast and northeast loess gully and hilly areas.

  3. Changing patterns of pneumoconiosis mortality--United States, 1968-2000.

    PubMed

    2004-07-23

    Pneumoconioses are caused by the inhalation and deposition of mineral dusts in the lungs, resulting in pulmonary fibrosis and other parenchymal changes. Many persons with early pneumoconiosis are asymptomatic, but advanced disease often is accompanied by disability and premature death. Known pneumoconioses include coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), silicosis, asbestosis, mixed dust pneumoconiosis, graphitosis, and talcosis. No effective treatment for these diseases is available. This report describes the temporal patterns of pneumoconiosis mortality during 1968-2000, which indicates an overall decrease in pneumoconiosis mortality. However, asbestosis increased steadily and is now the most frequently recorded pneumoconiosis on death certificates. Increased awareness of this trend is needed among health-care providers, employers, workers, and public health agencies.

  4. Does the Euro crisis change the cross-correlation pattern between bank shares and national indexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze if the Euro crisis, which started in 2009, changes the cross-correlation pattern of bank shares with the national stock indexes in both in Eurozone and non-Eurozone countries. We study all banks listed in the main stock indexes of European Union countries, applying the detrended cross-correlation coefficient. An increase in the correlation indicates that the banking sector now has a greater influence in the national index, while a decrease in the correlation means the opposite. Our results show that 19 of the 39 banks analyzed in the Eurozone increased their correlation with national indexes, whilst in the non-Eurozone countries this happened with 14 of the 24 studied banks. While some authors argue that the crisis may have been aggravated by the weight of banks in the economy, Eurozone policy makers should pay attention to this feature.

  5. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H.; Hol, W. H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  6. Changes in the spectral pattern of selenium accumulation in Coleus blumei and the effects of chelation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miaohao H; Yuan, Juhong H

    2015-04-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoremediation has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass production plants. This study investigated changes in the spectral pattern of selenium (Se) accumulation in Coleus blumei Benth. (coleus) plants grown in hydroponics with 1.0 mg/l sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and the effects of (S,S)-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) thereon through X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. When EDDS concentrations were in the range of 0-1.0 mmol/l, Se content increased significantly; however, at EDDS concentrations above this range, the symptoms of Se toxicity were alleviated in coleus leaves. Application of EDDS over 1.0 mmol/l significantly decreased total Se uptake in the leaves and roots of the plants. The powder diffraction patterns of the roots and leaves displayed sharp crystalline peaks, which were characteristic of an organic molecule with crystallinity. Our results revealed the presence of high amounts of C, O, Mg, Al, Si, K and Ca in the roots and leaves under Se-induced stress with different concentrations of EDDS. There were no changes in the chemical compositions of the roots and leaves, but the contents were influenced by Se-induced stress and EDDS treatment. This study demonstrated the importance of applying XRD, EDXS and FTIR methods toward a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of EDDS-induced Se accumulation in plants.

  7. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally).

  8. Using Atmospheric Circulation Patterns to Detect and Attribute Changes in the Risk of Extreme Climate Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Horton, D. E.; Singh, D.; Swain, D. L.; Touma, D. E.; Mankin, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high cost of extreme events and the growing evidence that global warming is likely to alter the statistical distribution of climate variables, detection and attribution of changes in the probability of extreme climate events has become a pressing topic for the scientific community, elected officials, and the public. While most of the emphasis has thus far focused on analyzing the climate variable of interest (most often temperature or precipitation, but also flooding and drought), there is an emerging emphasis on applying detection and attribution analysis techniques to the underlying physical causes of individual extreme events. This approach is promising in part because the underlying physical causes (such as atmospheric circulation patterns) can in some cases be more accurately represented in climate models than the more proximal climate variable (such as precipitation). In addition, and more scientifically critical, is the fact that the most extreme events result from a rare combination of interacting causes, often referred to as "ingredients". Rare events will therefore always have a strong influence of "natural" variability. Analyzing the underlying physical mechanisms can therefore help to test whether there have been changes in the probability of the constituent conditions of an individual event, or whether the co-occurrence of causal conditions cannot be distinguished from random chance. This presentation will review approaches to applying detection/attribution analysis to the underlying physical causes of extreme events (including both "thermodynamic" and "dynamic" causes), and provide a number of case studies, including the role of frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns in the probability of hot, cold, wet and dry events.

  9. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  10. Environmental Change in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chong; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Chengde city is located in the agro–pastoral transitional zone in northern China near the capital city of Beijing, which has experienced large-scale ecological construction in the past three decades. This study quantitatively assessed the environmental changes in Chengde through observation records of water resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, and vegetation activity and investigated the possible causes. From the late 1950s to 2002, the streamflow presented a downward trend induced by climate variability and human activities, with contribution ratios of 33.2% and 66.8%, respectively. During 2001–2012, the days of levels I and II air quality presented clear upward trends. Moreover, the air pollutant concentration was relatively low compared with that in the adjacent areas, which means the air quality has improved more than that in the neighboring areas. The water quality, which deteriorated during 1993–2000, began to improve in 2002. The air and water quality changes were closely related to pollutant emissions induced by anthropogenic activities. During 1982–2012, the vegetation in the southeastern and central regions presented restoration trends, whereas that in the northwestern area showed degradation trends. The pixels with obvious degradation trends correlated significantly with annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. Ecological engineering also played a positive role in vegetation restoration. This analysis can be beneficial to environment managers in the active response and adaptation to the possible effects of future climate change, population growth, and industrial development and can be used to ensure sustainable development and environmental safety. PMID:26828508

  11. The daily changing pattern of hydrogen peroxide in New Zealand surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, R.

    1996-05-01

    Concerns are rising about a global change of climate, which is based on changes of UV irradiance, rainfall, and temperature for example. One possible impact of increased UV irradiance on lake ecosystems is increased formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Studies on the temporal and spatial behavior of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lake waters may be a precondition for a better understanding of the impact of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were measured during daytime every 2 h at several depths in a catena of lakes of different trophic states including oligotrophic lakes Selfe and Oxbow, eutrophic Lake Hayes, dystrophic Lake Hochstetter, and a hypertrophic oxidation pond. The daily patterns of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of the various lakes can be explained firstly by the turnover regime of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which results out of simultaneous biological or chemical decay and formation yield (ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed per UV radiation dose) and secondly by internal transport. As in dystrophic, eutrophic, and hypertrophic lakes with high turnover, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed near the surface and the decay is rapid over the entire water column, a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern with sharp temporal and vertical gradients develops. In contrast, oligotrophic lakes allow deeper penetration of UV radiation, thus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed over greater depths. Further, the (biological) decay is slower than in lakes of higher trophic state leading to less sharp gradients within the daily H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern. Input of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by wet deposition can contribute considerably to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lakes, whereas dry deposition and groundwater flow do not.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; ...

    2014-08-08

    The North American east coast has experienced significant land-use and climate changes since the beginning of the 20th century. In this study, using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model 2.0 driven by time-series input data of land use, climate and atmospheric CO2, we examined how these driving forces have affected the spatiotemporal trends and variability of evapotranspiration (ET) in this region during 1901–2008. Annual ET in the North American east coast during this period was 648.3 ± 38.6 mm/year and demonstrated an increasing trend. Factorial model simulations indicated that climate variability explained 76% of the inter-annual ET variability. Although land-use changemore » only explained 16% of the ET temporal variability, afforestation induced the upward trend of ET and increased annual ET by 12.8 mm/year. Elevated atmospheric CO2 reduced annual ET by 0.84 mm, and its potential impacts under future atmospheric CO2 levels could be much larger than estimates for the historical 1901–2008 period. Climate change determined the spatial pattern of ET changes across the entire study area, whereas land-use changes dramatically affected ET in watersheds with significant land conversions. In spite of the multiple benefits from afforestation, its impacts on water resources should be considered in future land-use policy making. As a result, elevated ET may also affect fresh water availability for the increasing social and economic water demands.« less

  13. Spider Trait Assembly Patterns and Resilience under Fire-Induced Vegetation Change in South Brazilian Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Podgaiski, Luciana R.; Joner, Fernando; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco; Ibanez, Sebastien; Mendonça, Milton de S.; Pillar, Valério D.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to environmental change

  14. Brain activation patterns of motor imagery reflect plastic changes associated with intensive shooting training.

    PubMed

    Baeck, Jong-Su; Kim, Yang-Tae; Seo, Jee-Hye; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Sung-Mook; Woo, Minjung; Kim, Woojong; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-09-01

    Evidence from previous studies has suggested that motor imagery and motor action engage overlapping brain systems. As a result of this observation that motor imagery can activate brain regions associated with actual motor movement, motor imagery is expected to enhance motor skill performance and become an underlying principle for physical training in sports and physical rehabilitation. However, few studies have examined the effects of physical training on motor imagery in beginners. Also, differences in neural networks related to motor imagery before and after training have seldom been studied. In the current study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question of whether motor imagery can reflect plastic changes of neural correlates associated with intensive training. In fact, motor imagery was used in this study as a tool to assess the brain areas involved in shooting and involved in learning of shooting. We discovered that use of motor imagery resulted in recruitment of widely distributed common cortical areas, which were suggested to play a role in generation and maintenance of mental images before and after 90 h of shooting training. In addition to these common areas, brain activation before and after 90 h of shooting practice showed regionally distinct patterns of activity change in subcortical motor areas. That is, basal ganglia showed increased activity after 90 h of shooting practice, suggesting the occurrence of plastic change in association with gains in performance and reinforcement learning. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to reach a level of expertise, the brain would change through initial reinforcement of preexistent connections during the training period and then use more focused neural correlates through formation of new connections.

  15. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  16. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  17. Carbonate cycle stacking patterns and hierarchies of orbitally forced eustatic sealevel change

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, C.N.; Wilkinson, B.H. )

    1993-05-01

    Ordered stacking of meter-scale upward-shallowing cycles, manifested as repeated thickness hierarchies within cratonic carbonate sequences, has been considered primary evidence for causal relations between orbitally forced climate change and eustatic sealevel variation. Explicit in this argument is the assumption that each individual cycle represents a single sealevel rise. Sensitivity testing of one-dimensional forward models incorporating a depth threshold of carbonate accumulation indicates that multiple upward-shallowing cycles may originate during any single rise in sealevel. Variation in resultant cycle stacking pattern is sensitive to changes in sealevel amplitude, sedimentation rate, and subsidence rate, with highest stacking ratios (ratio of number of cyclic units to number of eustatic periods) produced by low sealevel amplitudes and high sedimentation and subsidence rates. These relations indicate that direct correlation between multiple-frequency eustatic sealevel variations and meter-scale cycle stacking hierarchies is unwarranted. Thus, prevalent interpretations regarding the stacking record of orbital forcing in ancient carbonate rock sequences should be reevaluated.

  18. The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is a major, non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a global level. Type-2 diabetes results when the body does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin it produces. Type-2 diabetes is the leading cause of premature deaths. Improperly managed, it can lead to a number of health issues, including heart diseases, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. Type-2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is most common type of diabetes, usually begins when a person is in his or her mid-50s, but diabetes is not inevitable. Minor changes in your lifestyle can greatly reduce your chances of getting this disease. Therefore, in order to prevent this condition, action should be taken regarding the modifiable factors that influence its development-lifestyle and dietary habits. However, with proper testing, treatment and lifestyle changes, healthy eating as a strategy, promote walking, exercise, and other physical activities have beneficial effects on human health and prevention or treatment of diabetes, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable public health importance. PMID:24741641

  19. Changes in orthodontic care patterns in a predoctoral children's dentistry clinic.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stanley A

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in orthodontic care patterns over a sixteen-year period in a university clinical setting. The average numbers of students, clinical procedures, and orthodontic appliances were examined from the time period 1988-2003. Appliance number and type were evaluated as a function of increased predoctoral and postdoctoral class sizes, student to faculty ratios, and decreased operating budgets for faculty recruitment. For the period 1988-98, the insertion of orthodontic appliances by dental students remained constant. A permanent increase in the predoctoral class size occurred in 1996 without an increase in faculty support, contributing to a decline in appliance insertions by students from 1999 to 2003. This time period also saw major increases in the postdoctoral class size and a reorganization of the clinical facility that then began to require the pairing of dental students to provide comprehensive care, thus decreasing their clinical exposure to the care of children. The overall clinical experience at the predoctoral level in orthodontic procedures declined, which resulted in a change in clinical requirements and new methods to ensure clinical competency.

  20. MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern)-induced changes in plasma membrane-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Uhlíková, Hana; Solanský, Martin; Hrdinová, Vendula; Šedo, Ondrej; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Hejátko, Jan; Lochman, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Plant plasma membrane associated proteins play significant roles in Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) mediated defence responses including signal transduction, membrane transport or energetic metabolism. To elucidate the dynamics of proteins associated with plasma membrane in response to cryptogein, a well-known MAMP of defence reaction secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea, 2D-Blue Native/SDS gel electrophoresis of plasma membrane fractions was employed. This approach revealed 21 up- or down-regulated protein spots of which 15 were successfully identified as proteins related to transport through plasma membrane, vesicle trafficking, and metabolic enzymes including cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme and glutamine synthetase. Observed changes in proteins were also confirmed on transcriptional level by qRT-PCR analysis. In addition, a significantly decreased accumulation of transcripts observed after employment of a mutant variant of cryptogein Leu41Phe, exhibiting a conspicuous defect in induction of resistance, sustains the contribution of identified proteins in cryptogein-triggered cellular responses. Our data provide further evidence for dynamic MAMP-induced changes in plasma membrane associated proteins.

  1. Changes in Cortical Activation Patterns in Language Areas following an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; Mammino, Kevin; McGregor, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic “Spin” exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance). Thirty participants completed their assigned intervention (16 Spin; 14 Balance) with pre- and postintervention assessments of a semantic verbal fluency task during fMRI and estimated VO2max testing. There was a significant increase in the change scores for estimated VO2max of the Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Semantic verbal fluency output within the scanner was also improved in the Spin group as compared to controls at postassessment. Group fMRI comparisons of IFG activity showed lower activity in the right IFG following the intervention in the aerobic Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Regression analysis of imaging data with change in both estimated VO2max and semantic verbal fluency was negatively correlated with activity in right IFG. The current work is registered as clinical trial with NCT01787292 and NCT02787655. PMID:28367334

  2. Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in Hetao irrigation district, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinhui; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenwu

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzed spatial and temporal changes in land use in an irrigation district covering an area of 1.7 million ha in Northern China by GIS analyses and also investigated changes in landscape pattern using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS over the study period from 1986 to 2000. The decreases in farmland and the increases in grassland area mainly resulted from the policy of grain for green and converting slope farmland into pasture from China government. In spite of the efforts to conserve the fragile ecosystem, the land degradation, including soil salinization and grassland degradation, was spreading rapidly. The area of alkali-saline land increased by 22493 ha and about 50555 ha of dense grassland degraded into mid-density grassland. In terms of landscape fragmentation, both farmland and dense grassland showed the tendency of increased fragmentation. Both adverse natural conditions and human activities are responsible for the land degradation expansion in Hetao irrigation district, but the root causes are increasing population pressure and irrational human activities, such as flooding irrigation method and over-grazing. To prevent land degradation from spreading, population control and improvement of the management are prerequisite approaches.

  3. Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in Hetao irrigation district, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinhui; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenwu

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed spatial and temporal changes in land use in an irrigation district covering an area of 1.7 million ha in Northern China by GIS analyses and also investigated changes in landscape pattern using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS over the study period from 1986 to 2000. The decreases in farmland and the increases in grassland area mainly resulted from the policy of grain for green and converting slope farmland into pasture from China government. In spite of the efforts to conserve the fragile ecosystem, the land degradation, including soil salinization and grassland degradation, was spreading rapidly. The area of alkali-saline land increased by 22493 ha and about 50555 ha of dense grassland degraded into mid-density grassland. In terms of landscape fragmentation, both farmland and dense grassland showed the tendency of increased fragmentation. Both adverse natural conditions and human activities are responsible for the land degradation expansion in Hetao irrigation district, but the root causes are increasing population pressure and irrational human activities, such as flooding irrigation method and over-grazing. To prevent land degradation from spreading, population control and improvement of the management are prerequisite approaches.

  4. Longitudinal patterns of change in eye-hand coordination in children aged 8-16 years.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Lennon J; Telford, Rohan M; Cunningham, Ross B; Semple, Stuart J; Telford, Richard D

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced eye-hand coordination (EHC) is associated with greater participation in physical activity. No longitudinal studies have examined the change in throw-catch EHC from childhood to mid-adolescence. We investigated the development of EHC with an object control test from childhood to mid-adolescence in boys and girls. Evaluated at age 8, 10, 12 and 16 years, EHC was measured as the aggregate success rate of a throw and wall-rebound catch test. The test involved 40 attempts of progressive increasing difficulty, as determined by increased distances from a wall and transitions from two-handed to one-handed catches. Outcomes were treated as quasi-binomial and modelled by generalised linear mixed logistic regression analysis. EHC improved with age from childhood to mid-adolescence, although boys were more adept at each age (p<0.001). The patterns of change in EHC with increasing age varied according to the degree of difficulty of the task (p<0.001); throw and two-handed catch proficiency developing earlier than throw and one-handed catch in both sexes. Boys' EHC was better than girls' as early as age 8 years and male proficiency was maintained through to mid-adolescence. The proficiency of throw and two-handed catch rates developed faster than throw and one-handed catch rates for both sexes.

  5. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07770.001 PMID:26441403

  6. Changes in the Patterns and Trends of Droughts across Land and Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damberg, L.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies indicate that frequency of extreme events such as droughts has increased particularly in the past century. Documenting changes in droughts requires long-term records of observations with suitable temporal and spatial coverage. A key variable for drought monitoring is precipitation which is typically used to describe meteorological droughts. Most studies of historical droughts have been based on analysis of long-term gauge (point) measurements of precipitation. However, the spatial distribution of rain gauges is not sufficient to provide reliable estimates of the spatial distributions of draughts in a global scale. In this study, a merged multi-satellite real-time precipitation data (1979-present) is used by combining long-term GPCP data with real-time satellite observations to monitor droughts in the past three decades. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI; McKee et al (1993)) is implemented to evaluate changes in the spatial extent of droughts across land, ocean and the entire globe. Trends and spatial patterns are investigated for moderate to severe droughts (SPI between -1 to -2) and extreme droughts (SPI below -2). While no significant trend for extreme droughts (SPI below -2) has been observed over land, moderate to severe droughts (SPI between -1 to -2) show a significant trend in spatial extent across both land and ocean.

  7. Changes in composition and sulfation patterns of glycoaminoglycans in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ucakturk, Ebru; Akman, Orkun; Sun, Xiaojun; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Dolgun, Anil; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are heterogeneous, linear, highly charged, anionic polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharides units. GAGs have some biological significance in cancer progression (invasion and metastasis) and cell signaling. In different cancer types, GAGs undergo specific structural changes. In the present study, in depth investigation of changes in sulfation pattern and composition of GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS)/heparin (HP), chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan (HA) in normal renal tissue (NRT) and renal cell carcinoma tissue (RCCT) were evaluated. The statistical evaluation showed that alteration of the HS (HSNRT = 415.1 ± 115.3; HSRCCT = 277.5 ± 134.3), and CS (CSNRT = 35.3 ± 12.3; CSRCCT = 166.7 ± 108.8) amounts (in ng/mg dry tissue) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Sulfation pattern in NRT and RCCT was evaluated to reveal disaccharide profiles. Statistical analyses showed that RCCT samples contain significantly increased amounts (in units of ng/mg dry tissue) of 4SCS (NRT = 25.7 ± 9.4; RCCT = 117.1 ± 73.9), SECS (NRT = 0.7 ± 0.3; RCCT = 4.7 ± 4.5), 6SCS (NRT = 6.1 ± 2.7; RCCT = 39.4 ± 34.7) and significantly decreased amounts (in units of ng/mg dry tissue) of NS6SHS (RCCT = 28.6 ± 6.5, RCCT = 10.2 ± 8.0), NS2SHS (RCCT = 44.2 ± 13.8; RCCT = 27.2 ± 15.0), NSHS (NRT = 68.4 ± 15.8; RCCT = 50.4 ± 21.2), 2S6SHS (NRT = 1.0 ± 0.4; RCCT = 0.4 ± 0.3), and 6SHS (NRT = 60.6 ± 17.5; RCCT = 24.9 ± 12.3). If these changes in GAGs are proven to be specific and sensitive, they may serve as potential biomarkers in RCC. Our findings are likely to help us to show the direction for further investigations to be able to bring different diagnostic and prognostic approaches in renal tumors.

  8. Changing Patterns in the Clinical Pathological Features of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from Debrecen, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Miltényi, Zsófia; Simon, Zsófia; Páyer, Edit; Váróczy, László; Gergely, Lajos; Jóna, Ádám; Illés, Árpád

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Hodgkin lymphoma shows a well-known geographic pattern, but temporal changes have been found recently as well. Patients and Methods. 439 Hodgkin lymphoma patients' clinicopathological and treatment data were processed in calendar periods of approximately ten years. The patients were treated at our department from 1980 until the end of 2008. Results. The first period (1980–89) contained 177 patients, the second (1990–99) 147, and the third (2000–08) 115 Hodgkin lymphoma patients. The mean age of the patients was 40.1, 35.9, and 36.8 years in order. The male/female ratio: 1.42, 1.45, 1.05 in order. Contrary-wise a unimodal age group pattern could have been seen with an incidence peak between 30 and 39 in the past decades. The incidence of classical mixed cellularity histological subtype is decreasing (43.7%, 58.23%, 42.6%, P = 0.0098 (it is only significant in the second period)); classical nodular sclerosis shows an increasing tendency (25%, 27.32%, 34.78%, P = 0.1734). The first incidence peak is predominantly created by classical nodular sclerosis, meanwhile the second peak by classical mixed cellularity. The number of early-stage patients (59.12%) is beyond the advanced stage (40%) in the last decade. Meanwhile, the number of second-stage patients was increasing (25.8%, 26.35%, 49.56%  P < 0.0001) and of patients in third stage was decreasing (53.4 %, 50.67%, 20%  P < 0.0001). The 5- and 10-year overall survival data were progressing: 59.7 %, 77.4 %, and 90.5 % and 44.1 %, 70.6 % and 90.5 % (expected survival) in the last decade. Conclusions. Changes can be explained by the altered nature of Hodgkin lymphoma, the changes in socioeconomic status and the development of diagnostic and therapy methods. PMID:22195285

  9. Changes in PAD patterns of group I muscle afferents after a peripheral nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, M; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1996-01-01

    reconnected with tendon organs 2-12 weeks after the nerve crush (mean PAD changed from 0.05 +/- 0.04 to 0.32 +/- 0.17 mV). The results obtained indicate that the PAD patterns of the afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents are changed after crushing their axons in the periphery: stimulation of the bulbar RF appears to produce larger PAD in fibers reconnected with muscle spindles, and stimulation of cutaneous afferents produces larger PAD in fibers reconnected with tendon organs. It is suggested that these alterations in the patterns of PAD of muscle afferents result from central changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences acting on the segmental pathways mediating the PAD. Although the functional role of these changes has not been established, they may reflect compensatory changes aimed to adjust information arising from damaged afferents.

  10. Patterns of change in tree islands in Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge from 1950 to 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, L.A.; Portier, Kenneth M.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Size, shape, orientation, and distribution of tree islands in a remnant of northern Everglades wetland were examined from 1950 and 1991 aerial photography. The objectives were to quantify the patterns of tree islands in Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, to determine if the patterns of tree islands had changed between the two dates, and to relate the tree island patterns to modeled pre- and post-drainage hydrologic patterns. There was considerable variation in the patterns of tree islands spatially and temporally. Changes in the size and shape of tree islands from 1950 to 1991 are consistent with changes in the modeled pre- and post-drainage hydrologic patterns. Photo plots along the edges of the refuge, where hydroperiods are longer and depths deeper than they were historically, show a decrease in tree island size and in overall area of tree islands in the plots. Photo plots in the interior, where hydroperiods are shorter than they were pre-drainage, show an increase in tree island area. Overall, there is a tendency for more tree islands to be irregularly shaped in the 1991 photo plots than in the 1950 plots, a reflection of the loss of water flow, reduction of pulse magnitude, and the ponding of water along the perimeter dikes. This study illustrates the importance of considering long-term changes in hydroperiod, depths, and water flows in the restoration of this area.

  11. History of Physicists in Industry. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. Joseph; Butler, Orville R.

    2008-01-01

    This project is the first systematic study of the organizational structure, communications patterns, and archival records of industrial physicists in the U.S., and it provides general guidelines for understanding and documenting their work. The study confirms that the organization and management of industrial R&D is volatile, changing in response…

  12. [Changes in the microvascular pattern of the periodontal ligament in an experimental tooth extrusion].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K

    1989-08-01

    Forty eight adult cats were employed to investigate the serial changes of vascular patterns of the periodontal ligament on tooth extrusion. The right upper canines have been successively extruded (initial load 40 gr) with a open coil spring. The experimental periods were set on 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. On each experimental period, the microvascular casts of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone around the experimental tooth were prepared for the scanning electron microscopy, utilizing the acrylic plastic injection method (Taniguchi and Ohta, et al. 1952 and 1955). And the serial sections of the surrounding tissues of the experimental tooth were made. In order to elucidate the mode of the tooth movement, the load of applied force and the distance of extrusion were measured. Results obtained were as follows: 1. The experimental tooth was extruded rapidly during first two weeks. The speed reduced gradually afterwards. 2. The new vascularization was seen around the apex first, then widely spread in the periodontal ligament. And the remarkable trabecula-shaped bone formation were observed around the venous networks of the root apex after two week period. 3. The tissue reactions after the tooth extrusion delayed in comparison with the movement of the tooth. 4. Although the tissue reactions of the root apex of the extruded tooth were originally similar to the one in the transverse tooth movement, slight differences were found in timing of the tissue change and shape of the capillary network. The findings of the tissue change showed that the light force was indicated in extrusion of the tooth. And the range of action of the force applied should be limited in orthodontic clinic.

  13. Changes in pupil size following panretinal retinal photocoagulation: conventional laser vs pattern scan laser (PASCAL).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, I; Perente, I; Saracoglu, B; Yazici, A T; Taskapili, M

    2016-10-01

    PurposeTo evaluate and compare the possible changes in pupil size subsequent to panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) via conventional laser and pattern scan laser (PASCAL).Patients and methodsForty eyes of 40 patients with diabetic retinopathy were included. 20 eyes had a PRP via conventional laser and formed Group 1. 20 eyes had a PRP via PASCAL laser and formed Group 2. The participants underwent standard ophthalmologic examination at baseline. Automated infrared pupillometry were performed at baseline and month 1.ResultsThe mean pupillary measurements (mm) for Group 1 (in the order photopic, mesopic, and scotopic conditions) were 2.88±0.34, 3.38±0.40, and 3.95±0.38, and changed to 3.64±0.42, 4.18±0.42, and 4.58±0.48, respectively. There was significant increase in pupil size at month 1 (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.00, respectively). For Group 2, they were 2.90±0.38, 3.43±0.36, and 3.90±0.40, and changed to 3.18±0.42, 3.74±0.36, and 4.10±0.38, respectively. There was significant increase in pupil size at month 1 (P=0.018, P=0.014, and P=0.014, respectively). The pupil size increased significantly in both groups in all illumination conditions.ConclusıonWe have demonstrated via automated infrared pupillary measurements that PRP may significantly increase pupil size whether it is performed with conventional laser or PASCAL laser.

  14. Changes in soil properties due to irrigation with paper industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ratna P; Prasad, Jagdish; Joshi, A P

    2008-10-01

    The effect of irrigation by the effluent of paper industry versus well water on properties of soils in three seasons was studied in Nagpur district, Maharashtra. The effluent had high total dissolved salts and biological oxygen demand than well water. pH, EC and availability of N, P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, particularly in surface layer of paper industry effluent irrigated soil at different seasons found to increase compared to well water irrigated soils, but heavy metals (non-essential nutrients) were within the permissible limits.

  15. Global observation of nitrous oxide: changes in growth rate and spatial patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. D.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, J. D.; Crotwell, A. M.; Mondeel, D. J.; Elkins, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) currently exerts the third largest climate forcing of the long-lived greenhouse gases, after CO2 and CH4. N2O is also involved in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. It is produced by microbial activity in soils and oceans, and also by industry. The atmospheric burden of N2O has increased more than 20% from its preindustrial level of ~270 nmol mol-1 (ppb). Much of this increase is related to the application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers, including manure. The NOAA Global Monitoring Division has measured the atmospheric mole fraction of N2O at Earth's surface in air samples collected around the globe (since the late 1970s) and at in situ sites mostly in the Western Hemisphere (since 1998). ). Measurements of the global burden and growth rate constrain global emissions, e.g. 18.2 ± 2.7 Tg N yr-1 in 2013, where most of the uncertainty is related to uncertainty in the global lifetime. The average growth rate of N2O from 1990 to 2010 was ~0.75 ppb yr-1. Since 2004, however, the growth rate has been increasing, and is now about 25% higher than the 1990-2010 average. Between 2010 and 2013 the growth rate averaged ~0.95 ppb yr-1. As the growth rate increased from 2004-2013, gradients derived from surface, zonal-mean N2O mole fraction, such the mean pole-to-pole difference, and the difference between NH temperate latitudes and the southern polar region, decreased. This suggests a change in the distribution of N2O emissions over this period. We will present our N2O data and examine trends, gradients, and other features that could shed light on recent changes in the growth rate. We will also compare N2O gradients to those of other trace gases, such as SF6.

  16. (FRANCE) USING THE QUIC MODEL (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) TO STUDY AIR FLOW AND DISPERSION PATTERNS IN DESERTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its continuing development and evaluation, the QUIC model (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex) was used to study flow and dispersion in complex terrain for two cases. First, for a small area of lower Manhattan near the World Trade Center site, comparisons were made bet...

  17. USING THE QUIC MODEL (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) TO STUDY AIR FLOW AND DISPERSION PATTERNS IN DESERTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its continuing development and evaluation, the QUIC model (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex) was used to study flow and dispersion in complex terrain for two cases. First, for a small area of lower Manhattan near the World Trade Center site, comparisons were made bet...

  18. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested.

  19. Changes in DNA methylation patterns in subjects exposed to low-dose benzene.

    PubMed

    Bollati, Valentina; Baccarelli, Andrea; Hou, Lifang; Bonzini, Matteo; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cavallo, Domenico; Byun, Hyang-Min; Jiang, Jiayi; Marinelli, Barbara; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier A; Yang, Allen S

    2007-02-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation patterns, including global hypomethylation, gene-specific hypermethylation/hypomethylation, and loss of imprinting (LOI), are common in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and other cancer tissues. We investigated for the first time whether such epigenetic changes are induced in healthy subjects by low-level exposure to benzene, a widespread pollutant associated with AML risk. Blood DNA samples and exposure data were obtained from subjects with different levels of benzene exposure, including 78 gas station attendants, 77 traffic police officers, and 58 unexposed referents in Milan, Italy (personal airborne benzene range, < 6-478 microg/m(3)). Bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing was used to quantitate DNA methylation in long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and AluI repetitive elements as a surrogate of genome-wide methylation and examine gene-specific methylation of MAGE-1 and p15. Allele-specific pyrosequencing of the H19 gene was used to detect LOI in 96 subjects heterozygous for the H19 imprinting center G/A single-nucleotide polymorphism. Airborne benzene was associated with a significant reduction in LINE-1 (-2.33% for a 10-fold increase in airborne benzene levels; P = 0.009) and AluI (-1.00%; P = 0.027) methylation. Hypermethylation in p15 (+0.35%; P = 0.018) and hypomethylation in MAGE-1 (-0.49%; P = 0.049) were associated with increasing airborne benzene levels. LOI was found only in exposed subjects (4 of 73, 5.5%) and not in referents (0 of 23, 0.0%). However, LOI was not significantly associated with airborne benzene (P > 0.20). This is the first human study to link altered DNA methylation, reproducing the aberrant epigenetic patterns found in malignant cells, to low-level carcinogen exposure.

  20. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.