Science.gov

Sample records for changing industrial patterns

  1. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    SciTech Connect

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  2. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  3. Students Working in the Melbourne Sex Industry: Education, Human Capital and the Changing Patterns of the Youth Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Students in Australia are entering the sex industry as a pragmatic response to increasing education costs and a reduction in government income support. This paper examines the lived experiences of a group of 40 young women, all post-secondary education students, working in the Melbourne sex industry. Their experiences suggest that while the…

  4. The changing solar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.

    1990-03-01

    The July 1989 announcement that Atlantic Richfield had agreed to sell its ARCO Solar division to Siemens of West Germany sent shock waves throughout the U.S. photovoltaics (PV) industry, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and among investigators. The largest PV manufacturer in the world was being sold because it had failed to make enough money for its parent company, and a foreign company was purchasing it - presumably because no U.S. company or investor package had come up with a high enough offer. Given the millions of dollars in government financed research and development funds that ARCO had benefited from, some government officials talked of blocking the sale, an effort that could only have succeeded if it was demonstrated that the sale would compromise national security - which was not the case. With the acquisition scheduled to be completed on February 28, 1990 - the newly acquired company will be called Siemens Solar Industries - many in the industry were wondering what the impact on the industry would be. Would buy-America sentiment help Siemens Solar's competitors Would investors become nervous over the potential profitability of any PV companies and pull back Would it become more difficult to obtain R D funds from a now gun-shy Department of Energy These questions are discussed.

  5. Do Changes in the Chemical Industry Imply Changes in Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Speculates about the future responsiveness of chemical engineering curricula to changes in the chemical industry. Focuses on changes in the chemical industry, the status of academia, and possible curricular changes. (DDR)

  6. Instructional Materials: The Changing Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1975-01-01

    The beleaguered educational publishing industry is making a valiant stand against a storm of challenges. From eradicating bias in textbooks to verifying textbook effectiveness, many problems must be faced. The industry responds by cooperating with educators. (Editor)

  7. Technological Change in Regulated Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, William M., Ed.

    The articles in this volume discuss how well industries operating under government regulation respond to technical innovation: do the effects of regulations vary among industries, and if so, does this result from variations in the regulatory approach, the organization of the firms, or the nature of the technology? Industries considered include…

  8. Changes in patterns of risk.

    PubMed

    Hankins, C

    1998-06-01

    Against the background of debate about the nature of risk in relation to HIV transmission, and resultant changes in risk discourse from risk group to risk behaviour to risk situation, declines in the velocity of HIV spread are being documented in countries with high levels of political commitment and multi-sectoral approaches. Biological markers of sexual activity such as sexually transmitted disease incidence and HIV prevalence corroborate reports that young adults in Uganda and Thailand are increasingly adopting preventive behaviours. Risk perception, perceived social and community norms and self-efficacy influence behavioural change, but structural and contextual factors, including resource constraints affecting HIV prevention programmes and the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and social marginalization and stigmatization affecting access of vulnerable populations to the means of prevention play determinant roles. Both patterns of risk for HIV infection and our understanding of them are evolving. More research is required to gain knowledge and understanding of factors such as partner concurrency as well as cultural and socio-economic determinants and contextual underpinnings of sexual and drug injecting networks. This is an essential first step to mobilizing communities to take action at the individual, partnership and community levels to reduce risk.

  9. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  10. Patterns of Conceptual Change in Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demastes, Sherry S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the patterns of students' conceptual restructuring within the theoretical framework of biologic evolution. Results indicate that many conceptions in this content are closely interwoven, so that a change in one conception requires a change in many others. Reports four patterns of conceptual change: cascade, wholesale, incremental, and…

  11. Structural change in industry and futures for the electricity industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.; Harris, G.

    1995-06-01

    The electricity supply industry in the United States has been experiencing major technological changes and economics of the business have altered dramatically since the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This opening of power generation business to competition was under-pinned by significant increases in gas turbine efficiency, commercialization of smaller units with high efficiencies, low gas prices, and cost consciousness on the part of independent power producers (IPPs) and major industrial customers. The pace of change continues to accelerate, driven by ongoing technological innovations and customer demands for better, more customized services and lower costs. The purpose of this report is to provoke further thought on the likely course of structural change in the electric utility industry over the next twenty years. The prime focus of the report is on technological change and its impact on economics, and the resulting organizational and structural change. This report begins with a brief look at structural change in several capital-intensive industries to identify common patterns applicable to the electricity industry. The industries selected have network-like operations, similar to the electric utility industry. This is followed by two scenarios which illuminate different plausible futures for the electric power industry. The report concludes with insights on the potential course of regulations and suitable strategies to prosper during the transition phase.

  12. Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.S.

    1992-12-31

    A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

  13. Cyberinfrastructure: Changing a Cottage Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    Drawn from a recent ECAR research study, this article addresses the importance of five CI technologies to various academic areas in research and in teaching and learning at present and how survey respondents think the importance of these technologies might change in the near future. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables and 7 notes.)

  14. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  15. Patterns of Change within the Publishing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirianni, F. J.

    This is one of several papers presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It reviews the controversy between book publishers and the Authors Guild concerning the control of already published materials and the future of publishing, and it analyzes the market structure in order to put the issues into perspective. Some…

  16. Industrial cogeneration dealing with power pricing changes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1978, with the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) and with increasing utility retail rates, cogeneration of electrical power by industry has become possible and economically attractive. The State of Florida undertook the task of implementing the intent of PURPA through a series of workshops, regulatory hearings, and orders starting in 1980 and continuing today. However, current and potential cogenerators face uncertainties about power pricing and backup power rates that make cogeneration, in many cases, too risky for the business climate of the 1980s. The industrial cogenerator must deal with a public utility concerning power pricing without any leverage, except Public Service Commission Rulings. Therefore, the cogenerator must be capable of adapting its operation to the changing pricing situation to optimize the value of the cogeneration. This paper provides insight into how USS Agri-Chemicals, an industrial cogenerator in the State of Florida, has adapted its cogeneration to the changing public utility power pricing.

  17. Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Jeffery, Tonya D.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion is an integrated science lesson that uses the 5E lesson cycle to tie together science with language arts, mathematics, literature, technology, engineering and social studies in an engaging format applicable for young learners. This lesson has been uniquely designed for the purpose of providing elementary…

  18. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  19. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.; Ochiai, H.; Sugimori, Y.; Shoji, D.; Takeda, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Nakajima, I.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, S.; Horikawa, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed land use classification for a large urban area of Tokyo was made using MSS digital data. It was found that residential, commercial, industrial, and wooded areas and grasslands can be successfully classified. A mesoscale vortex associated with large ocean current, Kuroshio, which is a rare phenomenon, was recognized visually through the analysis of MSS data. It was found that this vortex affects the effluent patterns of rivers. Lava flowing from Sakurajima Volcano was clearly classified for three major erruptions (1779, 1914, and 1946) using MSS data.

  20. Real-Time Pattern Recognition - An Industrial Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitton, Gary M.

    1981-11-01

    Rapid advancements in cost effective sensors and micro computers are now making practical the on-line implementation of pattern recognition based systems for a variety of industrial applications requiring high processing speeds. One major application area for real time pattern recognition is in the sorting of packaged/cartoned goods at high speed for automated warehousing and return goods cataloging. While there are many OCR and bar code readers available to perform these functions, it is often impractical to use such codes (package too small, adverse esthetics, poor print quality) and an approach which recognizes an item by its graphic content alone is desirable. This paper describes a specific application within the tobacco industry, that of sorting returned cigarette goods by brand and size.

  1. [Changes in marriage patterns in Java].

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1991-06-01

    "The paper reviews the changes that have taken place in the marriage pattern among rural Javanese. Low age at marriage and decision regarding marriage made by the parents were the norms in the past. Consummation of marriage was frequently delayed. Although marriage has been highly valued in the society, [the] divorce rate was high. With the advance of education and social progress in general, changes have taken place. Age at marriage has gone up, parental role in marital decision making has declined and the divorce rate has dropped significantly." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Circulation pattern classification for climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, J.; Bardossy, A.

    2003-04-01

    Several circulation pattern classifications developed for different European regions were compared regarding their mutual dependence. Circulation pattern (CP) classifications, both subjective and objective, for the British Isles, Germany and Greece were taken into account. Statistical tests were applied in order to investigate the relationships between each pair of CP classifications. It was found that each pair of classifications can not be considered to be independent. Time dependence of the relationship between CP classifications shows anomaleous behavior only when one of the classifications is subjective. This can be due to a gradual change in the methodology. Thus, one should use these classifications for climate evolution studies with care. Results showing the inter-dependence of different CP classifications were motivation for developing one classification which would be valid in every European region. For this purpose an objective and automated classification was applied. By means of daily 700 hPa data, 13 CPs were defined which explain the variability of local precipitation in 27 stations spread over the whole of Europe. The validation of this classification proved that there is almost no information lost when comparing this classification with local classifications. Based on this classification method the air pressure outputs from Global Circulation Models will be classified. Subsequently the classified circulation patterns will be used for climate change studies. For this purpose statistical downscaling of precipitation will be applied.

  3. Abrupt climate change: Mechanisms, patterns, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    In the span of only a few decades, the global temperature can soar by more than a dozen degrees Celsius, a feat that 20 years ago was considered improbable, if not impossible. But recent research in the nascent field of rapid climate change has upended the dominant views of decades past. Focusing primarily on events during and after the most recent glaciation, from 80,000 years ago, the AGU monograph Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts, edited by Harunur Rashid, Leonid Polyak, and Ellen Mosley-Thompson, explores the transient climate transitions that were only recently uncovered in climate proxies around the world. In this interview, Eos talks to Harunur Rashid about piecing together ancient climes, the effect of abrupt change on historical civilizations, and why younger researchers may be more worried about modern warming than their teachers.

  4. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.; Loureiro, F.

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  5. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. ); Loureiro, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  6. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  7. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns.

    PubMed

    Olascoaga, María J; Haller, George

    2012-03-27

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer.

  8. Changing pattern of gastric cancer in Oxfordshire.

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Castellanos, E; Sitas, F; Shepherd, N A; Jewell, D P

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the incidence rates of histologically confirmed gastric carcinoma in Oxfordshire in two five year periods (1960-64, 1984-88). Data were available for 215 patients in the first period, and 200 in the second. The overall incidence fell from 18/100,000 to 15/100,000 but when analysed for site, the incidence of antral tumours fell from 10 to 4.5/100,000. In contrast, there was an increase from 2.8 to 5.2/100,000 of tumours of the cardia. These changes were more pronounced in men. There was a marked association between smoking and tumours of the cardia (relative risk 4.5). Helicobacter pylori was associated with 37.5% of tumours in the 1960s series compared with 25% in the later series. The changing patterns of incidence of gastric carcinoma may, in part, be related to changes in smoking habits and perhaps a change in incidence of H pylori infection. Images Figure 2 PMID:1446851

  9. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work Reorganization and Industrial Relations Change"…

  10. Exploring spatial patterns of farmland transactions and farmland use changes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Sheng; Chen, Tzu-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Strong economic incentives stimulate the conversion of farmland to non-farm uses possessing higher economic benefits, and rising land values can result in further conversions in the surrounding areas. However, previous studies focused exclusively on the analysis of attribute data, without concern for location or geographic information. Our study focuses on the application of spatial analysis method by exploring the magnitude and patterns of farmland use changes and farmland transactions in Tainan County in southwestern Taiwan. The results show that farmland use changes and transactions appear to cluster in specific locations-near urban planning areas, industrial parks, and science parks. Clustered farmland use changes indicate both excessive development of some farmland and possible protection of other farmland, while clustered farmland transactions indicate potential pressure for future conversion to non-farming uses. Overall, the spatial analyses indicate (without necessarily implying a cause-and-effect relationship) that the greater the farmland use change, the greater the number of farmland transactions. This approach to exploring the spatial patterns in and the interaction between farmland use change and farmland transactions can be applied to other regions facing increasing competition for farmland conversions and may be a useful tool for monitoring both urban expansion and increased farmland transactions. These occurrences should be closely monitored by governments to avoid excessive loss of farmland.

  11. [Landscape pattern changes in urbanization of Pudong New District, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Li, Junxian; Wu, Jianping; Song, Yongchan

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important anthropogenic impacts on natural landscape, while urban landscape pattern can reflect the urbanization process and its ecological consequences. In this paper, landscape metrics combined with gradient analysis was employed to analyze the landscape pattern changes of Pudong New District in Shanghai, based on the land use datasets derived from 1:50,000 aerial photos of 1994 and 2000, respectively. The results demonstrated that the landscape pattern of Pudong changed dramatically in its ever-increasing urbanization. The land cover, which was dominated by agriculture in 1994, gradually transformed to urban land use, such as residential area, public facilities, and industry. The percentage of agriculture land use decreased from 71.45% to 41.32%, while the urban land use hold 18.2% in 1994 but rose to 41.9% in 2000. Synoptic landscape characteristics showed the increased patch numbers (from 4.08 to 28.65 ind. x km(-2)), diminished area-weighted mean (from 24.43 to 1.75 km2), decreased aggregation index (from 98.31 to 95.09), and augmented landscape diversity and evenness, all of which demonstrated the higher landscape fragmentation and landscape heterogeneity induced by urbanization. The landscape pattern along the urban-rural gradient reflected the different urbanization stages, and the expanding urban frontier in different years in Pudong New District could be identified precisely with class-level landscape indices. The changes in landscape pattern along the transect suggested that the quantitative analysis of landscape dynamics, especially the landscape metrics combined with gradient analysis, could be a robust tool to study urban morphology, urban structure, and ecological consequences during urbanization.

  12. Persistent Differences in Mortality Patterns across Industrialized Countries

    PubMed Central

    d'Albis, Hippolyte; Esso, Loesse Jacques; Pifarré i Arolas, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has provided the theoretical background for the expectation of convergence in mortality patterns. We formally test and reject the convergence hypothesis for a sample of industrialized countries in the period from 1960 to 2008. After a period of convergence in the decade of 1960 there followed a sustained process of divergence with a pronounced increase at the end of the 1980's, explained by trends within former Socialist countries (Eastern countries). While Eastern countries experienced abrupt divergence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, differences within Western countries remained broadly constant for the whole period. Western countries transitioned from a strong correlation between life expectancy and variance in 1960 to no association between both moments in 2008 while Eastern countries experienced the opposite evolution. Taken together, our results suggest that convergence can be better understood when accounting for shared structural similarities amongst groups of countries rather than through global convergence. PMID:25181447

  13. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  14. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  15. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W.; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Ribas, Camila C.; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D.; Auler, Augusto S.

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to ‘Refugia Hypothesis’, is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  16. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate. PMID:23361002

  17. The Changing Face of Labor in the Newspaper Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwis, Gail L.

    Noting that the employment practices of both large and small newspapers are changing as a result of automation, this paper deals with how automation is affecting the industry employment picture in general and the union employment picture in particular, how the changing employment picture is altering the industry's economic condition, and how…

  18. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  19. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Watson, Keith J

    2011-08-23

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade — ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals — threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  20. Change and progress in the HVAC industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smithart, E.

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficiency challenges presented to the Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) industry and its customers in the 1970s became even greater when combined with environmental mandates in the 1980s. Despite the fact that HVAC machinery worldwide depended on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a United Nations agreement called the Montreal Protocol, signed in 1987, mandated that CFCs would have to be phased out of production by January 1, 1996, because of indications that CFCs were damaging the stratospheric ozone layer. Thus the industry was forced to find alternative refrigerant chemicals while developing the new equipment that could use the alternatives in an efficient way. After development of two major alternatives, HCFC-123 and HFC-134a, the HVAC industry had to develop new large air conditioners, called chillers, that could efficiently use the alternative refrigerants. Today, new chiller designs, working in concert with efficient building cooling systems, result in energy efficiencies far greater than could be attained only a few years ago. The new reality of the CFC production phase-out and better-than-ever chiller efficiency offers new opportunities for HVAC customers to save money while protecting the environment by containing existing CFC stocks, converting selected existing chillers and replacing others with more efficient machinery. The HVAC industry, by facing the dual challenges of energy efficiency and environmental stewardship, has created opportunities for their customers. These opportunities underline the fact that being business-wise can also be earth-wise.

  1. Understanding Electricity Use Changes in the Jordanian Industrial Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghandoor, A.; Al-Hinti, I.

    2009-08-01

    Industrial electricity demand is responsible for about 31% of total electricity demand in Jordan. This paper analyzes the changes in industrial electricity demand during 1998-2005 years and identifies the factors affecting this demand. In order to gain greater insight into past electricity use changes, a Laspeyers decomposition approach was used to disaggregate changes in the electricity demand of the Jordanian industrial sector into production, structural, and efficiency effects. To accomplish the objectives of this paper, the Jordanian industrial sector was disaggregated into seven sub-sectors: mining of chemical and fertilizer minerals, paper, plastics, petroleum, cement, iron and steel, and others industries. A major finding of this paper is that although increased industrial production caused electricity demand to increase between 1998 and 2005, significant improvements in energy efficiency and structural shift have contributed to reducing the rate of this increase.

  2. Patterns of Change in the Cities of New Jersey; Minorities, Negroes and Puerto Ricans, Affected by, and Affecting, These Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Max

    This 1962 report analyzes trends in population changes in New Jersey cities and the effect on the community of the rise in school segregation, trends in industry and automation, patterns in the containment of minority-group housing, and financing in city budgets. Tables and graphs present relevant statistical data. Conclusions and some areas in…

  3. Occupational Employment Statistics Program. Staffing Patterns in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    The material in the publication is intended to acquaint users with the occupational composition of the various nonmanufacturing industries in the State of Indiana. It is directed particularly to those who are concerned with designing academic and vocational education programs in order to supply workers to fill the needs of industry and to…

  4. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  5. Changing Career Patterns. ERIC Digest No. 219.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    The linear career path that once kept people working in the same job is not the standard career route for today's workers. Instead, many workers are now pursuing varied career paths that reflect sequential career changes. Although job mobility no longer carries the stigma once associated with job change, it can still be emotionally stressful. Job…

  6. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  7. Changes in Patterns of Health Care: Plus Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofalvi, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an update of Herman's article ["Changes in Patterns of Health Care," "School Health Review," 1(9-14)1969] that focuses on the changes in patterns of health care. He discusses the poverty, insurance, and access to medical care as well as the quality of medical care for adults and minors. He stresses that…

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  9. Patterns of demographic change in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, D H

    1992-06-01

    Considerable scholarly debate has focused on the nature of demographic change in the Americas before and after 1492. Recent research on human skeletal samples and related archeological materials suggests that morbidity and mortality were increasing throughout much of the Western Hemisphere before 1492 in response to increased population density, increased sedentism, and changing subsistence. The evidence suggests that after 1492 population reduction was caused not by continental pandemics but by localized or regional epidemics augmented by social and economic disruption. The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable Native American population recovery, fueled both by improvements in health care and changing definitions of "being Indian."

  10. Changes in the Graphic Arts Industry in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rene-Simon

    1992-01-01

    Major changes affecting Swiss graphic arts are photocomposition, replacement of letterpress with offset printing, scanners, and microcomputers and laser printers for desktop publishing. Effects on workers include monotony, alienation, and apprehension. Sex discrimination continues in the industry. (SK)

  11. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: Selected Issues, 1998

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Provides an analytical assessment of the changes taking place in the electric power industry, including market structure, consumer choice, and ratesetting and transition costs. Also presents federal and state initiatives in promoting competition.

  12. An Industry Perspective on Changes Needed in Agricultural Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 focus groups, 42 agribusiness representatives suggested a need to change the agriculture curriculum to allow an agriculture industry option. They emphasized the development of business skills, communication skills, teamwork, leadership, and analytical thinking. (SK)

  13. Non-communicable diseases: is their emergence in industrialized societies related to changes in neuroendocrine function?

    PubMed

    Bickler, S W

    2000-05-01

    This hypothesis suggests that industrialization alters the human neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine changes come about because of changes in environmental stimuli. It is further proposed that changes in neuroendocrine function can account for the contrasting pattern of non-communicable diseases in traditional and industrialized societies. The hypothesis is based on subtle clinical differences in traditional and industrialized societies, and the evolving concept of neuroendocrine regulation of physiological processes. Compared to traditional societies, individuals from industrialized communities tend to have lower pain tolerance, slower gastrointestinal transit-time, and a greater chance of having a calcified pineal gland. These changes parallel the increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases in industrialized societies. There is sufficient reason to suspect the variations in pain tolerance, gastrointestinal transit-time and pineal gland calcification represent changes in neuroendocrine function. Programming of the neuroendocrine system by environmental events early in life is one possible mechanism whereby these changes might be effected. Understanding the physiological changes that occur with industrialization, and how environmental stimuli interact with the developing neuroendocrine system might lead to new strategies for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. PMID:10859694

  14. Potential Changes in Disease Patterns and Pharmaceutical Use in Response to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Redshaw, Clare H.; Stahl-Timmins, Will M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Davidson, Iain; Depledge, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    As climate change alters environmental conditions, the incidence and global patterns of human diseases are changing. These modifications to disease profiles and the effects upon human pharmaceutical usage are discussed. Climate-related environmental changes are associated with a rise in the incidence of chronic diseases already prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere, for example, cardiovascular disease and mental illness, leading to greater use of associated heavily used Western medications. Sufferers of respiratory diseases may exhibit exacerbated symptoms due to altered environmental conditions (e.g., pollen). Respiratory, water-borne, and food-borne toxicants and infections, including those that are vector borne, may become more common in Western countries, central and eastern Asia, and across North America. As new disease threats emerge, substantially higher pharmaceutical use appears inevitable, especially of pharmaceuticals not commonly employed at present (e.g., antiprotozoals). The use of medications for the treatment of general symptoms (e.g., analgesics) will also rise. These developments need to be viewed in the context of other major environmental changes (e.g., industrial chemical pollution, biodiversity loss, reduced water and food security) as well as marked shifts in human demographics, including aging of the population. To identify, prevent, mitigate, and adapt to potential threats, one needs to be aware of the major factors underlying changes in the use of pharmaceuticals and their subsequent release, deliberately or unintentionally, into the environment. This review explores the likely consequences of climate change upon the use of medical pharmaceuticals in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:23909463

  15. Potential changes in disease patterns and pharmaceutical use in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Clare H; Stahl-Timmins, Will M; Fleming, Lora E; Davidson, Iain; Depledge, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    As climate change alters environmental conditions, the incidence and global patterns of human diseases are changing. These modifications to disease profiles and the effects upon human pharmaceutical usage are discussed. Climate-related environmental changes are associated with a rise in the incidence of chronic diseases already prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere, for example, cardiovascular disease and mental illness, leading to greater use of associated heavily used Western medications. Sufferers of respiratory diseases may exhibit exacerbated symptoms due to altered environmental conditions (e.g., pollen). Respiratory, water-borne, and food-borne toxicants and infections, including those that are vector borne, may become more common in Western countries, central and eastern Asia, and across North America. As new disease threats emerge, substantially higher pharmaceutical use appears inevitable, especially of pharmaceuticals not commonly employed at present (e.g., antiprotozoals). The use of medications for the treatment of general symptoms (e.g., analgesics) will also rise. These developments need to be viewed in the context of other major environmental changes (e.g., industrial chemical pollution, biodiversity loss, reduced water and food security) as well as marked shifts in human demographics, including aging of the population. To identify, prevent, mitigate, and adapt to potential threats, one needs to be aware of the major factors underlying changes in the use of pharmaceuticals and their subsequent release, deliberately or unintentionally, into the environment. This review explores the likely consequences of climate change upon the use of medical pharmaceuticals in the Northern Hemisphere.

  16. Urbanization and cancer: changing mortality patterns?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1983-10-01

    "Analysis of the relationship between cancer rates and urbanization for United States counties for the period 1950-54 reveals the expected urban/rural differences for many digestive, urinary and respiratory organ cancers and for female breast cancer. Similar urban/rural differences existed in many other Western countries. By 1970-75, however, urban/rural differences in the United States had substantially narrowed." It is noted that "available data do not allow formal tests of the relationship between these changes and specific etiological factors, but the data suggest that the spatial convergence is related to the changing geography of such risk factors as smoking, alcohol consumption, manufacturing, and socioeconomic status and to the diminished size and role of the white foreign-born population, as well as to such confounding factors as medical practices and population migration."

  17. Characteristic occurrence patterns of micropollutants and their removal efficiencies in industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Chang-Won; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and removal efficiencies of various kinds of micropollutants were investigated and the relationships between the input sources of industrial wastewater and occurrence patterns of each micropollutant were identified at nine on-site industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The distribution pattern of each compound varied according to the WWTP type and several micropollutants were significantly related with specific industries: chlorinated phenols (ClPhs) with paper and metal industries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with petrogenic- and pyrogenic-related industries, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with the paper industry, and chlorinated benzenes (ClBzs) with dye-related industries. The activated sludge (AS) process was very efficient in the removal of ClPhs and PAHs, and the filtration process in the removal of PCDD/Fs and 1,4-dioxane. Generally, the removal efficiencies of each micropollutant varied according to the WWTP type. PMID:21140016

  18. Changes in Smoking Patterns During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Homish, Gregory G.; Colder, Craig R.; Schuetze, Pamela; Gray, Teresa R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of smoking during pregnancy among low-income smokers and differences on demographics, psychopathology, and smoking outcome expectancies among women with different smoking trajectories. The sample consisted of 215 urban pregnant smokers living in the United States. Results indicated four trajectories of smoking and significant changes over time within each trajectory. Persistent smokers had the highest demographic and mental health risks, reported higher craving compared to light smokers, and were more likely to endorse smoking to reduce negative affect, for state enhancement motives. Implications for intervention are discussed. The study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. PMID:23581507

  19. The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W

    1978-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images PMID:632824

  20. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  1. Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western…

  2. Changes in Occupational Employment in the Food and Kindred Products Industry, 1977-1980. Technical Note No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary

    The extent to which occupational staffing patterns change over time was examined in a study focusing on the Food and Kindred Products industry--Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 20. Data were taken from the 1977 and 1980 Occupational Employment Statistics program coordinated by the United States Department of Labor Statistics. Actual 1980…

  3. Understanding changes in precipitation patterns in Tuscany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Caporali, E.

    2009-09-01

    In the context of climate change science is important to understand if hydro-meteorological and environmental variables are already subjected to modifications and eventually quantify these changes as trends or general non-stationary behaviors. An important issue related to this science is covered by the modification of precipitation regime and its implications in term of drought periods, water resources availability or flood risk modification. The general lack of long sequences of data and the frequent gaps in time series increase the difficulties in analyze long periods of climatic events. Here the authors provide a spatial analysis of trends of several indexes of precipitation regime. Through spatial interpolation techniques, a specific methodology is adopted to include a number of data higher than usual, which include the gauges with very short time series, even only 1 year long. The characteristics of precipitation regime analyzed include common indexes as Total Annual Precipitation (TAP) and number of wet days (precipitation > 1 mm), and other indexes able to characterize specific precipitation features like the Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI), the number of days with more than 10 mm of precipitation, the maximum number of consecutive dry days (precipitation < 1 mm), the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the 1 day maximum precipitation. The study is carried out in the central part of Italy (Tuscany), using a dataset containing totally 896 recording rain gauges. The period of analysis, ranging from 1916 to 2008, is quite long in comparison to other studies. The territory analyzed is subdivided in a 1 km square grid, every time series of the indexes for every cell is investigated by means of the Mann-Kendall test, modified to take into account the autocorrelation, thus realizing a distributed trend analyses. The results show a significant reduction of the number of days with more than 10 mm of precipitation and of the maximum number of consecutive

  4. Longitudinal changes in dietary patterns during adult life.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G D; McNaughton, S A; Bramwell, G D; Wadsworth, M E J

    2006-10-01

    Despite the growing interest in dietary patterns, there have been few longitudinal investigations. The objective of the present study was to extend an earlier method of dietary pattern assessment to longitudinal binary data and to assess changes in patterns over time and in relation to socio-demographic covariates. A prospective national cohort of 1265 participants completed a 5 d food diary at three time-points during their adult life (at age 36 years in 1982, 43 years in 1989 and 53 years in 1999). Factor analysis identified three dietary patterns for women (fruit, vegetables and dairy; ethnic foods and alcohol; meat, potatoes and sweet foods) and two patterns in men (ethnic foods and alcohol; mixed). Trends in dietary pattern scores were calculated using random effects models. Marked changes were found in scores for all patterns between 1989 and 1999, with only the meat, potatoes and sweet foods pattern in women recording a decline. In a multiple variable model that included the three time-points, socio-demographic variables and BMI time-dependent covariates, both non-manual social class and higher education level were also strongly associated with the consumption of more items from the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern and the mixed pattern for men (P < 0.0001) and the fruit, vegetables and dairy pattern and the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern for women (P < 0.01). In conclusion, longitudinal changes in dietary patterns and across socio-economic groups can assist with targeting public health initiatives by identifying stages during adult life when interventions to improve diet would be most beneficial to health.

  5. Public Policy Implications of Changing Student Attendance Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longanecker, David A.; Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the challenges that changing student characteristics and attendance patterns pose for policymakers. Describes how federal and state policies can influence attendance patterns (through funding programs, contracting with private entities to provide services, creating incentives for private action, and mandating action through law or…

  6. Factors governing change in water withdrawals for U.S. industrial sectors from 1997 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A

    2014-03-18

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that U.S. water withdrawals have been steady since 1980, but the population and economy have grown since then. This implies that other factors have contributed to offsetting decreases in water withdrawals. Using water withdrawal data from USGS and economic data from Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), direct and total water withdrawals were estimated for 134 industrial summary sectors in the 1997 U.S. economic input-output (EIO) table and 136 industrial sectors in the 2002 EIO table. Using structural decomposition analysis (SDA), the change in water withdrawals for the economy from 1997 to 2002 was allocated to changes in population, GDP per capita, water use intensity, production structure, and consumption patterns. The changes in population, GDP per capita, and water use intensity led to increased water withdrawals, while the changes in production structure and consumption patterns decreased water withdrawals from 1997 to 2002. Consumption patterns change was the largest net contributor to the change in water withdrawals. The model was used to predict aggregate changes in total water withdrawals from 2002 to 2010 due to known changes in population and GDP per capita; a more complete model assessment must await release of updated data on USGS water withdrawals and EIO data.

  7. Industrialization, energy efficiency and environmental protection in Asian industrializing countries: The role of technological change

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.

    1995-06-01

    Rapid industrialization in many Asian developing countries has caused an explosive growth in energy consumption and an unsustainable environmental pressure: local water and atmospheric pollution are compromising the results of economic growth with health and ecological destruction, whereas increasing emission of greenhouse gases contributes to the global climate change. The key question is how to orient this industrialization process toward a more energy efficient and environmentally sound direction in order to avoid the errors made by the present day developed countries during their industrialization period. Rapid uptake of technological innovation, fostered by a high turnover of the capital stock and a strong trade orientation, and advantages as latecomers in the industrialization process may help these countries to adopt the latest available technologies in the form of clean process innovations, thus ``leap-frogging`` some of the problems associated with industrialization and avoiding many of the more serious environmental impacts of old technologies. This paper focuses its analysis on the role of technologic change in the greening of industrialization processes of Asian developing countries. After analyzing the technological causes of energy and environmental problems created by the rapid industrialization process in these Asian countries, the paper suggests that not only should the ``end-of-the-pipe`` cleaning technologies be widely promoted, but also the clean process innovations be encouraged, thus tackling the pollution problems in their roots.

  8. Changing Skills in Metalworking Industries: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchiers, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Transformations in the French metalworking industries have given rise to numerous studies on employment and job content in metallurgy over the past decade. One study related technical transformations to changes in the skills content of certain categories of workers. Although automation results in the elimination of certain know-how belonging to an…

  9. Technological Change in Michigan's Tool and Die Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald N.

    This study was conducted to answer four questions about the tool and die industry in Michigan. These were: (1) What are the current production techniques? (2) To what extent are these industrialists aware of new technologies? (3) What technical and economic factors affect technological change? and (4) To what extent will new technologies replace…

  10. Technological Change in the Auto Industry. CAW Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, David; Wareham, Jeff

    Today the auto industry is going through the most radical restructuring it has experienced since its birth. Included in this upheaval is a dramatic reorganization of the workplace, and technology has been both a catalyst and a central part of such change. The issues involved touch every facet of workplace life: job classifications and demarcation…

  11. Industrial Change and Black Men's Relative Earnings: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroman, Wayne

    This study examines the relative earnings of black men from a time series perspective covering 1930 to 1990. Regression analyses were fitted to annual data to isolate factors responsible for changes in relative earnings. National and regional data on population growth and employment growth by industry were analyzed to determine the degree of…

  12. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  13. Women's dietary patterns change little from before to during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Siân M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular method of dietary patterns analysis, but our understanding of its use to describe changes in dietary patterns over time is limited. Using a FFQ, we assessed the diets of 12,572 nonpregnant women aged 20-34 y from Southampton, UK, of whom 2270 and 2649 became pregnant and provided complete dietary data in early and late pregnancy, respectively. Intakes of white bread, breakfast cereals, cakes and biscuits, processed meat, crisps, fruit and fruit juices, sweet spreads, confectionery, hot chocolate drinks, puddings, cream, milk, cheese, full-fat spread, cooking fats and salad oils, red meat, and soft drinks increased in pregnancy. Intakes of rice and pasta, liver and kidney, vegetables, nuts, diet cola, tea and coffee, boiled potatoes, and crackers decreased in pregnancy. PCA at each time point produced 2 consistent dietary patterns, labeled prudent and high-energy. At each time point in pregnancy, and for both the prudent and high-energy patterns, we derived 2 dietary pattern scores for each woman: a natural score, based on the pattern defined at that time point, and an applied score, based on the pattern defined before pregnancy. Applied scores are preferred to natural scores to characterize changes in dietary patterns over time because the scale of measurement remains constant. Using applied scores, there was a very small mean decrease in prudent diet score in pregnancy and a very small mean increase in high-energy diet score in late pregnancy, indicating little overall change in dietary patterns in pregnancy.

  14. Changes in limb striking pattern: effects of speed and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Southard, D

    1989-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in an arm striking pattern as a result of practice and the effects of speed and accuracy requirements on such changes. The task was to strike a baseball-size foam ball from a batting tee adjusted to the height of each subject's iliac crest. Ten righthanded subjects, initially displaying an inefficient striking pattern, volunteered for this study. All subjects performed the task according to the following conditions: (1) speed, (2) accuracy, and (3) speed and accuracy. Each subject completed 10 trials in each condition (randomly ordered) for five consecutive days. A high-speed camera (64 fps) was used to photograph subjects' striking patterns for each condition over the 5-day period. Analysis of variance of joint angles at arm reversal and contact and velocity of hand relative to the glenohumeral axis at contact revealed that subjects initially constrained limb segments to act in a unitary fashion; then, with practice, a more efficient pattern was developed. The requirement of speed was found to enhance a change in limb configuration, whereas the requirement of accuracy, and subsequent reduction in speed, impeded the development of a more efficient striking pattern. Analysis of radial error revealed no differences in accuracies to the target by either condition or day of practice. A graphic analysis of segmental angular momentum versus relative time showed that joint angle changes allowed subjects to transfer angular momentum and thereby increase the velocity of the hand at contact. PMID:2489862

  15. Changes in limb striking pattern: effects of speed and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Southard, D

    1989-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in an arm striking pattern as a result of practice and the effects of speed and accuracy requirements on such changes. The task was to strike a baseball-size foam ball from a batting tee adjusted to the height of each subject's iliac crest. Ten righthanded subjects, initially displaying an inefficient striking pattern, volunteered for this study. All subjects performed the task according to the following conditions: (1) speed, (2) accuracy, and (3) speed and accuracy. Each subject completed 10 trials in each condition (randomly ordered) for five consecutive days. A high-speed camera (64 fps) was used to photograph subjects' striking patterns for each condition over the 5-day period. Analysis of variance of joint angles at arm reversal and contact and velocity of hand relative to the glenohumeral axis at contact revealed that subjects initially constrained limb segments to act in a unitary fashion; then, with practice, a more efficient pattern was developed. The requirement of speed was found to enhance a change in limb configuration, whereas the requirement of accuracy, and subsequent reduction in speed, impeded the development of a more efficient striking pattern. Analysis of radial error revealed no differences in accuracies to the target by either condition or day of practice. A graphic analysis of segmental angular momentum versus relative time showed that joint angle changes allowed subjects to transfer angular momentum and thereby increase the velocity of the hand at contact.

  16. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  17. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.; Keegan, P.

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  18. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues.

  19. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    SciTech Connect

    Koleff, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  20. The phylogenetic pattern of speciation and wing pattern change in neotropical Ithomia butterflies (Lepidoptera: nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Jiggins, Chris D; Mallarino, Ricardo; Willmott, Keith R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2006-07-01

    Species level phylogenetic hypotheses can be used to explore patterns of divergence and speciation. In the tropics, speciation is commonly attributed to either vicariance, perhaps within climate-induced forest refugia, or ecological speciation caused by niche adaptation. Mimetic butterflies have been used to identify forest refugia as well as in studies of ecological speciation, so they are ideal for discriminating between these two models. The genus Ithomia contains 24 species of warningly colored mimetic butterflies found in South and Central America, and here we use a phylogenetic hypothesis based on seven genes for 23 species to investigate speciation in this group. The history of wing color pattern evolution in the genus was reconstructed using both parsimony and likelihood. The ancestral pattern for the group was almost certainly a transparent butterfly, and there is strong evidence for convergent evolution due to mimicry. A punctuationist model of pattern evolution was a significantly better fit to the data than a gradualist model, demonstrating that pattern changes above the species level were associated with cladogenesis and supporting a model of ecological speciation driven by mimicry adaptation. However, there was only one case of sister species unambiguously differing in pattern, suggesting that some recent speciation events have occurred without pattern shifts. The pattern of geographic overlap between clades over time shows that closely related species are mostly sympatric or, in one case, parapatric. This is consistent with modes of speciation with ongoing gene flow, although rapid range changes following allopatric speciation could give a similar pattern. Patterns of lineage accumulation through time differed significantly from that expected at random, and show that most of the extant species were present by the beginning of the Pleistocene at the latest. Hence Pleistocene refugia are unlikely to have played a major role in Ithomia diversification.

  1. Optical and SAR data integration for automatic change pattern detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, B.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Automatic change pattern mapping in urban and sub-urban area is important but challenging due to the diversity of urban land use pattern. With multi-sensor imagery, it is possible to generate multidimensional unique information of Earth surface features that allow developing a relationship between a response of each feature to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical sensors to track the change automatically. Thus, a SAR and optical data integration framework for change detection and a relationship for automatic change pattern detection were developed. It was carried out in three steps: (i) Computation of indicators from SAR and optical images, namely: normalized difference ratio (NDR) from multi-temporal SAR images and the normalized difference vegetation index difference (NDVI) from multi-temporal optical images, (ii) computing the change magnitude image from NDR and ΔNDVI and delineating the change area and (iii) the development of an empirical relationship, for automatic change pattern detection. The experiment was carried out in an outskirts part of Ho Chi Minh City, one of the fastest growing cities in the world. The empirical relationship between the response of surface feature to optical and SAR imagery has successfully delineated six changed classes in a very complex urban sprawl area that was otherwise impossible with multi-spectral imagery. The improvement of the change detection results by making use of the unique information on both sensors, optical and SAR, is also noticeable with a visual inspection and the kappa index was increased by 0.13 (0.75 to 0.88) in comparison to only optical images.

  2. Changes of multispectral soil patterns with increasing crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data and automatic data processing were used to map surface soil patterns and to follow the changes in multispectral radiation from a field of maize (Zea mays L.) during a period from seeding to maturity. Panchromatic aerial photography was obtained in early May 1970 and multispectral scanner missions were flown on May 6, June 30, August 11 and September 5, 1970 to obtain energy measurements in 13 wavelength bands. The orange portion of the visible spectrum was used in analyzing the May and June data to cluster relative radiance of the soils into eight different radiance levels. The reflective infrared spectral band was used in analyzing the August and September data to cluster maize into different spectral categories. The computer-produced soil patterns had a striking similarity to the soil pattern of the aerial photograph. These patterns became less distinct as the maize canopy increased.

  3. Climate Change Risk Appraisal in the Austrian Ski Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfsegger, C.

    2009-04-01

    Ski tourism is an economically and culturally important industry in many parts of Europe. A growing number of studies in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia have concluded that climate change has potentially serious implications for the sustainability of ski operations by reducing the average length of ski seasons and, where applicable, increasing snowmaking costs. To date, however, the climate change risk awareness and adaptive responses of stakeholders in the ski industry have not been examined. A survey of managers at low elevation ski areas in Austria was undertaken to explore their perceptions of climate change (past and future), how climate change had/will affect their operations, and their adaptive responses (past and planned). The results indicate that climate change is not perceived to be a serious threat to ski operations and that with technological adaptation, principally snowmaking, ski area managers believe they will be able to effectively cope with climate change in the 21st century. The consequences of these perceptions for the future operation of these ski areas are discussed and conclusions drawn for the future of ski tourism in Austria.

  4. Changing Patterns of Cultural Imperialism in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, John

    Using Belize, Central America, as an example, this paper illustrates some of the changing patterns of cultural imperialism that can presently be viewed in the emerging nations of the world. Cultural imperialism is defined as the process whereby the culture of a weaker nation is dominated by that of a stronger nation. In September 1981, Belize,…

  5. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  6. University-Industry Collaboration: Patterns of Growth for Low- and Middle-Level Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Brint, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Following landmark legislation passed more than 20 years ago, university-industry relationships have now become central to understanding the changing role of research universities in American Society. The paper analyzes the development of university-industry partnerships during the 1990s. Past studies have used a broad array of measures of ties…

  7. Changes in disease patterns and related social trends.

    PubMed

    Powles, J

    1992-08-01

    Both the material and non-material aspects of social life are viewed as determinants of major transformations in the patterns of fatal disease and injury. A 'worst case' scenario for the burden of fatal disease is taken as a poor agrarian society precariously dependent on starchy staples and a narrow range of other foods. In such a society life expectancy may be as low as 20. However in many 'pre-modern' societies the regime of roughly matching fertility and mortality levels was set at a 'submaximal' level, with completed fertility rates moderated by marriage conventions. The relative importance of the factors contributing to the historical decline in fatal infection continues to be debated. Evidence on the central role of maternal literacy in the recent decline in Third World mortality suggests the importance of changes in the body of civil society as well as the activities of professionals and public agencies. The decline in fatal infections has been offset to varying extents by an increase in non-communicable disease (NCD): the Mediterranean and East Asia having smaller epidemics of NCDs and Eastern Europe having sustained rises of NCDs. Most industrialised countries have experienced declines in overall NCD mortality in the last 2 decades. Both the fall in fatal infection and the rise and early fall of NCDs can usefully be viewed against the baseline of hunter gatherer cultures. When this is done, the relationship between economic development and disease is seen to be complex. Much 'progress' has been achieved by countering (and then doing better than countering) the adverse effects of earlier developments. Although most members of the generation now alive have experienced marked health benefits from economic and technical advance, it is unclear whether these gains can be both sustained and generalised. It is possible that adverse lagged effects of current industrial (and military) activities will disrupt the habitat of future generations of our species through

  8. Contrast discrimination, non-uniform patterns and change blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Brown, K C; Orbach, H S

    1998-01-01

    Change blindness--our inability to detect large changes in natural scenes when saccades, blinks and other transients interrupt visual input--seems to contradict psychophysical evidence for our exquisite sensitivity to contrast changes. Can the type of effects described as 'change blindness' be observed with simple, multi-element stimuli, amenable to psychophysical analysis? Such stimuli, composed of five mixed contrast elements, elicited a striking increase in contrast increment thresholds compared to those for an isolated element. Cue presentation prior to the stimulus substantially reduced thresholds, as for change blindness with natural scenes. On one hand, explanations for change blindness based on abstract and sketchy representations in short-term visual memory seem inappropriate for this low-level image property of contrast where there is ample evidence for exquisite performance on memory tasks. On the other hand, the highly increased thresholds for mixed contrast elements, and the decreased thresholds when a cue is present, argue against any simple early attentional or sensory explanation for change blindness. Thus, psychophysical results for very simple patterns cannot straightforwardly predict results even for the slightly more complicated patterns studied here. PMID:9872004

  9. Investigation of impact of environmental changes on precipitation pattern of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, A R; Hassan, I; Khan, Q U Z; Kamal, M A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, variability in precipitation pattern of Pakistan due to environmental and climatic changes has been studied. Maps have been generated to depict global precipitation variation. Precipitation data of 25 stations of Pakistan have been used. These data were taken from Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results of two global climate models, namely Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research's third generation general circulation model and National Center for Atmospheric Research's first generation precipitation circulation model for A2 scenario have been applied to investigate the changes. It is observed that precipitation pattern will change significantly in the future. The occurrence of precipitation in all seasons for Pakistan is expected to increase with almost uniform distribution across a season. Average annual precipitation of the country will undergo an increase in the range of +57 to +71 % as compared to average of the base period.

  10. Patterns of Glacier Change in the American West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A. G.; Basagic, H. J.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    We examine a century of glacier area change in the American West, exclusive of Alaska, using historic photography, historic maps, and recent aerial photos. Of the approximately 3200 glaciers and permanent snow masses, we track about 400 glaciers across a region that spans from Washington to California and Colorado to Montana. All glaciers have retreated since 1900 with the greatest change in Montana (Lewis Range) and the Sierra Nevada of California, and the least change in Washington including the North Cascades and the Olympic Peninsula. The pattern since 1970s is more complex, with the majority of glaciers having retreated since the 1970s, some vastly more than others. The glaciers that exhibit relatively little retreat are largely restricted to the high stratovolcanoes >3500m in elevation. In these cases we infer elevated snow accumulation at higher elevations compensates for increased ablation (melt) at lower elevations. In addition, many of the most stable glaciers are debris covered in their lower elevations, due to rock fall from the relatively weak volcanic edifice. Small glaciers, <1 km2, show great variability in their behavior, with a few glaciers at equilibrium or slightly advancing, to the majority retreating, with some losing 67% of their area. These differences are more difficult to explain. We infer that local climatic/topographic influences play a dominant role in the magnitude of change while regional climate patterns control the sign of the change. Temporal patterns of glacier change are very similar across broad regions while the magnitude of that change is particular to individual glaciers.

  11. Brain development and aging: overlapping and unique patterns of change.

    PubMed

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Dale, Anders M; Østby, Ylva; Grydeland, Håkon; Richardson, George; Westlye, Lars T; Roddey, J Cooper; Hagler, Donald J; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Holland, Dominic; Fjell, Anders M

    2013-03-01

    Early-life development is characterized by dramatic changes, impacting lifespan function more than changes in any other period. Developmental origins of neurocognitive late-life functions are acknowledged, but detailed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain maturation and direct comparisons with aging are lacking. To these aims, a novel method was used to measure longitudinal volume changes in development (n=85, 8-22 years) and aging (n=142, 60-91 years). Developmental reductions exceeded 1% annually in much of the cortex, more than double to that seen in aging, with a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Cortical reductions were greater than the subcortical during development, while the opposite held in aging. The pattern of lateral cortical changes was similar across development and aging, but the pronounced medial temporal reduction in aging was not precast in development. Converging patterns of change in adolescents and elderly, particularly in the medial prefrontal areas, suggest that late developed cortices are especially vulnerable to atrophy in aging. A key question in future research will be to disentangle the neurobiological underpinnings for the differences and the similarities between brain changes in development and aging. PMID:23246860

  12. Temporal patterns in rates of community change during succession.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristina J

    2007-06-01

    While ecological dogma holds that rates of community change decrease over the course of succession, this idea has yet to be tested systematically across a wide variety of successional sequences. Here, I review and define several measures of community change rates for species presence-absence data and test for temporal patterns therein using data acquired from 16 studies comprising 62 successional sequences. Community types include plant secondary and primary succession as well as succession of arthropods on defaunated mangrove islands and carcasses. Rates of species gain generally decline through time, whereas rates of species loss display no systematic temporal trends. As a result, percent community turnover generally declines while species richness increases--both in a decelerating manner. Although communities with relatively minor abiotic and dispersal limitations (e.g., plant secondary successional communities) exhibit rapidly declining rates of change, limitations arising from harsh abiotic conditions or spatial isolation of the community appear to substantially alter temporal patterns in rates of successional change. PMID:17479464

  13. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  14. The Epidemiologic Transition: Changing Patterns of Mortality and Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiologic transition describes changing patterns of population age distributions, mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and causes of death. A number of critiques of the theory have revealed limitations, including an insufficient account of the role of poverty in determining disease risk and mortality, a failure to distinguish adequately the risk of dying from a given cause or set of causes from the relative contributions of various causes of death to overall mortality, and oversimplification of the transition patterns, which do not fit neatly into either historical periods or geographic locations. Recent developments in epidemiologic methods reveal other limitations. A life course perspective prompts examination of changes in causal pathways across the life span when considering shifts in the age distribution of a population as described by the epidemiologic transition theory. The ecological model assumes multiple levels of determinants acting in complex and interrelated ways, with higher level determinants exhibiting emergent properties. Development, testing, and implementation of innovative approaches to reduce the risks associated with the sedentary lifestyle and hyper nutrition in developed countries should not overshadow the continuing threat from infectious diseases, especially resistant strains or newly encountered agents. Interventions must fit populations and the threats to health they experience, while anticipating changes that will emerge with success in some areas. This will require new ways of thinking that go beyond the epidemiologic transition theory. PMID:20161566

  15. Changes of glycoprotein patterns in sera of humans under stress.

    PubMed

    Barisic, K; Lauc, G; Dumic, J; Pavlovic, M; Flogel, M

    1996-02-01

    Stress exhibits adverse effects on many vital processes in which glycoproteins play a significant role(e.g. cell-cell/matrix interactions, immune response, neoplastic growth, implantation, prenatal development), yet only scarce attention has been directed towards studying stress induced changes in glycoprotein patterns. Using SDS-electrophoresis, blotting and digoxigenin-labelled lectins (Sambucus nigra agglutinin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, Datura stramonium agglutinin, Maackia amurensis agglutinin and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin),sera were analysed from 30 individuals chosen randomly from a severely stressed population of 309 male volunteers with no specific medical symptoms. Significant changes were found in glycoprotein pattern and content, compared with healthy controls of matching age and sex. Occasionally minor non-specific deviations from the reference values for several analytes (haemoglobin, glucose, bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase) were detected in the tested group, but glycoprotein GP4S (Mr = 45 000), detected by Datura stramonium agglutinin and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, appeared in 96.7% of samples of the stressed population. The same population also revealed an approximately 500-fold increase of GP37 in comparison with the control sera. These results suggest that stress, as a non-specific syndrome, induces specific biochemical changes, which could be of diagnostic relevance as risk makers before any more serious symptoms of stress-related consequences have developed.

  16. Effects Climate Change on Water Resources Availability and Vegetation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, S.; Pizzolla, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2012-12-01

    Society is facing growing environmental problems that require new research efforts to understand the way ecosystems operate and survive and their mutual relationships with the hydrologic cycle. Ecohydrology faces this task with the aim to provide better understanding of implications of land use changes on terrestrial ecosystems and better comprehension of climatic changes effects on terrestrial ecosystems. The scope of the present research is to deepen our understanding on the mutual relationship between climate, vegetation and basin water budget within an ecohydrological framework. With this aim, a coupled hydrological/ecological model is adopted to describe simultaneously vegetation pattern evolution and hydrological water budget at the basin scale. Analyses have been carried out over the Basilicata Region (in Southern Italy) that is an ideal test area located in the core of the Biodiversity Hotspot area of the Mediterranean basin with a significant variety of climatic conditions ranging from humid to semi-arid and arid. The hydrological analysis have been carried out using a recently formulated framework for the water balance at the daily level linked with a spatial model for the description of the spatial organization of vegetation. This makes possible to quantitatively assess the effects on soil water balance of future climatic scenario and to identify the most vulnerable area of the region under study. Results describe the non-linear relationship between climatic forcing, vegetation patterns and water budget. It is interesting to underline that in the most vulnerable ecosystems small change in climatic conditions may produce significant transformation on vegetation patterns and water resources availability.

  17. Rapid and recent changes in fungal fruiting patterns.

    PubMed

    Gange, A C; Gange, E G; Sparks, T H; Boddy, L

    2007-04-01

    Information on responses of higher organisms to climate change is dominated by events in spring. Far less is known about autumnal events and virtually nothing about communities of microorganisms. We analyzed autumnal fruiting patterns of macrofungi over the past 56 years and found that average first fruiting date of 315 species is earlier, while last fruiting date is later. Fruiting of mycorrhizal species that associate with both deciduous and coniferous trees is delayed in deciduous, but not in coniferous, forests. Many species are now fruiting twice a year, indicating increased mycelial activity and possibly greater decay rates in ecosystems.

  18. Climate change and latitudinal patterns of intertidal thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Helmuth, Brian; Harley, Christopher D G; Halpin, Patricia M; O'Donnell, Michael; Hofmann, Gretchen E; Blanchette, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    The interaction of climate and the timing of low tides along the West Coast of the United States creates a complex mosaic of thermal environments, in which northern sites can be more thermally stressful than southern sites. Thus, climate change may not lead to a poleward shift in the distribution of intertidal organisms, as has been proposed, but instead will likely cause localized extinctions at a series of "hot spots." Patterns of exposure to extreme climatic conditions are temporally variable, and tidal predictions suggest that in the next 3 to 5 years "hot spots" are likely to appear at several northern sites. PMID:12411702

  19. Pollution tolerance and distribution pattern of plants in surrounding area of coal-fired industries.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, A K; Tripathi, B D

    2007-04-01

    Higher concentration of SO2 and particulate matters was reported in surrounding areas of coal-fired industries which influences the distribution pattern of plants. Sensitive plant species are abolished from such areas, however, only pollution tolerant species survive under stress conditions. The present study was designed to investigate the vegetation composition around coal-fired industries i.e. brick industries. To categorise plants as sensitive or resistant air pollution tolerance index (APTI) value was calculated. Out of 99 plants studied, Ricinus communis with APTI 81.10 was found to be the most resistant wild plant showing uniform distribution at all the polluted sites. On the other hand, Lepidium sativum with APTI 5.27 was recorded as the most sensitive plant and found to be present only at the less polluted sites.

  20. Exploring Morphological Process Indicators in Regional Patterns of Shoreline Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, E. D.; List, J. H.; Murray, A. B.

    2007-12-01

    Beach morphology changes over a continuum of time and spatial scales, from ephemeral patterns (100 - 102 m alongshore) such as cusps and scarps that develop and dissipate over days to weeks, to persistent plan-view bumps in the shoreline (103 - 105 m), such as promontories, embayments, and capes, that tend to erode and accrete over years to millennia. Localized sediment cycling at smaller scales is strongly associated with cross-shore transport, while theoretical and data-analysis findings attribute large-scale shoreline evolution to alongshore sediment-transport processes; deep-water incident waves interacting with a sediment- covered shoreface are predicted to set up gradients in alongshore sediment transport that, depending on their approach angle, can exaggerate or smooth away shoreline perturbations. Patterns of alongshore sediment flux thus produce a correlation between shoreline-position change and shoreline curvature that depends on whether high- or low-angle waves dominated the wave climate over a given time span. Recent work on the northern North Carolina Outer Banks using lidar surveys to measure shoreline position shows a significant negative correlation, strongest at long time (decadal) and spatial (km) scales, between position change and shoreline curvature, suggestive of diffusion driven by a low-angle-dominated regional wave climate over the last decade. Correlations between position change and shoreline curvature, however, can arise from processes other than gradients in alongshore transport strictly related to shoreline curvature. Near the towns of Kitty Hawk, Kill Devil Hills, and Nags Head, a series of oblique sandy bars and gravel-floored troughs ~1 km wide define the nearshore bathymetry for approximately 5 - 8 km alongshore. Wave propagation over these features likely causes alongshore variations in breaking wave height and angle that affect alongshore sediment transport and patterns of shoreline change. From annual lidar surveys and vehicle

  1. The pattern of endocranial ontogenetic shape changes in humans.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Simon; Gunz, Philipp; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Humans show a unique pattern of brain growth that differentiates us from all other primates. In this study, we use virtual endocasts to provide a detailed description of shape changes during human postnatal ontogeny with geometric morphometric methods. Using CT scans of 108 dried human crania ranging in age from newborns to adults and several hundred landmarks and semi-landmarks, we find that the endocranial ontogenetic trajectory is curvilinear with two bends, separating three distinct phases of shape change. We test to what extent endocranial shape change is driven by size increase and whether the curved ontogenetic trajectory can be explained by a simple model of modular development of the endocranial base and the endocranial vault. The hypothesis that endocranial shape change is driven exclusively by brain growth is not supported; we find changes in endocranial shape after adult size has been attained and that the transition from high rates to low rates of size increase does not correspond to one of the shape trajectory bends. The ontogenetic trajectory of the endocranial vault analyzed separately is nearly linear; the trajectory of the endocranial base, in contrast, is curved. The endocranial vault therefore acts as one developmental module during human postnatal ontogeny. Our data suggest that the cranial base comprises several submodules that follow their own temporally and/or spatially disjunct growth trajectories.

  2. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  3. Innovative semielliptical seismic pattern improving line-change efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walus, Artur; Gucma, Lucjan; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a new method for conducting turns by vessels towing seismic cables. A comparison was made between the traditional way of turning to indicate the advantages of the proposed pattern. In order to improve the overview of the complete geometry of a towed streamer system, a model of marine seismic research quality coefficients was applied. The turning method was tested onboard a seismic vessel towing eight streamers of 6 km in length. A significant reduction of time required for line-change was achieved (up to 45 % depending on ocean current speed and direction, speed of the vessel, skills of navigating team). The introduced quality coefficient of geophysical research works is based on the mathematical model of positions deviation of streamers geophones with relation to their idealized position. The model was created to be used while the vessel is on a steady course to improve the quality of acquired data; however, it was found useful during line changes as well.

  4. Decadal changes of phenological patterns over Arctic tundra biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, G. J.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Wang, H.

    2008-12-01

    The northern high latitudes have experienced a continuous and accelerated trend of warming during the past 30 years, with most recent decade ranks the warmest years since 1850. Warmer springs are especially evident throughout the Arctic. Meanwhile, Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in all months, with late summer experiences the most significant declining. Warming in the north is also evident from observations of early melting of snow and reducing snow cover. Now a key question is: in the warmth limited northern biome, what will happen to the phenological patterns of tundra vegetation as the global climate warms and seasonality of air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover shift? To answer the question we examined the onset of vegetation greenness, senescence of greenness, length of growing season, and dates of peak greenness along Arctic bioclimate gradients (subzones) to see how they change over years. Here, we combine multi-scale sub-pixel analysis and remote sensing time-series analysis to investigate recent decadal changes in vegetation phenology along spatial gradients of summer temperature and vegetation in the Arctic. The datasets used here are AVHRR 15-day 8 km time series, AVHRR 8-day 1 km dataset, and MODIS 8-day 500m Collection 5 dataset. There were detectable changes in phenological pattern over tundra biome in past two decades. Increases of vegetation greenness were observed in most of the summer periods in low arctic and mid-summer in high arctic. Peak greenness appeared earlier in high arctic and declined slower after peak in low arctic. Generally, tundra plants were having longer and stronger photosynthesis activities, and therefore increased annual vegetation productivities. Field studies have observed early growth and enhanced peak growth of many deciduous shrub species in tundra plant communities. These changes in seasonality are very likely to alter surface albedo and heat budget, modify plant photosynthesis

  5. Detecting regional changes in myocardial contraction patterns using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ortiz, Gerardo I.; Chandrashekara, Raghavendra; Rhode, Kawal S.; Razavi, Reza; Hill, Derek L. G.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Measuring changes in cardiac motion patterns can assist in diagnosing the onset of arrhythmia and ischaemia and in the follow-up of treatment. This work presents a methodology for measuring such motion changes from MR images. Non-rigid registration is used to track cardiac motion in a sequence of 3D tagged MR images. We use a cylindrical coordinate system to subdivide the myocardium into smaller anatomically meaningful regions and to express motion derived measurements such as displacement and strain for each myocardial region during the cardiac cycle. In the first experiment we have evaluated the proposed methods using synthetic image sequences where the ground truth was available. These images were generated using a cardiac motion simulator for tagged MRI. Normal and abnormal motion fields were produced by modifying parameters in a small region of the myocardium. In the second experiment we have acquired two separate tagged MR image sequences from five healthy volunteers. Both acquisitions have been carried out without moving the volunteer inside the scanner, thus avoiding potential misregistration errors due to subject motion between scans. In addition, one of volunteers was subjected to stress during one of the scans. In the final experiment we acquired tagged MR images from a patient with super-ventricular tachyarrhythmia, before and after radio frequency ablation. The image acquisition and catheter intervention were performed with a combined X-ray and MRI system. Detection results were correct on synthetic data and no region was incorrectly classified as having significant changes in the repetition studies. Significant changes in motion pattern were measured in the stress and ablation studies. Furthermore, results seem to corroborate that the ablation regularised cardiac contraction.

  6. Sigh-induced changes of breathing pattern in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Kerstin; Latzin, Philipp; Fouzas, Sotirios; Proietti, Elena; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar W; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2015-01-01

    Sighs are thought to play an important role in control of breathing. It is unclear how sighs are triggered, and whether preterm birth and lung disease influence breathing pattern prior to and after a sigh in infants. To assess whether frequency, morphology, size, and short-term variability in tidal volume (VT) before, during, and after a sigh are influenced by gestational age at birth and lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, BPD) in former preterm infants and healthy term controls measured at equivalent postconceptional age (PCA). We performed tidal breathing measurements in 143 infants during quiet natural sleep at a mean (SD) PCA of 44.8 (1.3) weeks. A total of 233 sighs were analyzed using multilevel, multivariable regression. Sigh frequency in preterm infants increased with the degree of prematurity and severity of BPD, but was not different from that of term controls when normalized to respiratory rate. After a sigh, VT decreased remarkably in all infants (paired t-test: P < 0.001). There was no major effect of prematurity or BPD on various indices of sigh morphology and changes in VT prior to or after a sigh. Short-term variability in VT modestly increased with maturity at birth and infants with BPD showed an earlier return to baseline variability in VT following a sigh. In early infancy, sigh-induced changes in breathing pattern are moderately influenced by prematurity and BPD in preterm infants. The major determinants of sigh-related breathing pattern in these infants remain to be investigated, ideally using a longitudinal study design. PMID:26564066

  7. Changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological response after partial deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiekenkamp, Inge; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Lin, Henry; Drüe, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of land use change on hydrology can be extremely challenging. It requires looking beyond the current structure and functioning of hydrological systems to predict how the system is influenced in a changed setting. Although the hydrological effects of land use change have been studied extensively, only few high resolution datasets are available to accurately describe, model and predict detailed changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological fluxes and states due to land use change. The TERENO test site Wüstebach provides a unique monitoring setup to measure the major components of the water balance (evapotranspiration, discharge, precipitation) and the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture before and after a partial deforestation. Here, we present 5 years of measured hydrological data, including soil moisture and water budget component data 3 years before and 2 years after the partial deforestation. A data-driven investigation was used to understand changes and related feedback mechanisms in spatiotemporal hydrological response patterns. The effects of deforestation on soil moisture and evapotranspiration were analyzed by comparing states and fluxes for the control and the deforested area. The effects on discharge characteristics were analyzed using discharge metrics, including baseflow separation, peakflow rates and time to peak. Changes in preferential flow occurrence were identified using a sensor response time analysis of soil moisture measurements before and after the deforestation where preferential flow was identified as a non-sequential sequence of sensor response times within the soil. As expected from earlier studies, the partial deforestation caused a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in discharge. A closer look at the high resolution datasets however reveals new insights in the intra-annual variability of the water balance components. The overall decrease in evapotranspiration caused a large increase in soil

  8. Pattern Scaling for Developing Change Scenarios in Water Supply Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, A.; Pierson, D.; Frie, A.

    2014-12-01

    Change factor methodology (CFM), or delta change factor methodology, is a type of pattern scaling. Although a variety of methods are available to develop scenarios, CFMs are widely used for their ease and speed of application and their capability to directly scale local data according to changes suggested by the global climate model (GCM) scenarios. Change factors (CFs) can be calculated and used in a number of ways to estimate future climate scenarios, but no clear guidelines are available in the literature to decide which methodologies are most suitable for different applications. This study compares and contrasts several categories of CFM (additive versus multiplicative and single versus multiple) for a number of climate variables. The study employs several theoretical examples as well as an applied study from the New York City water supply. Results show that in cases where the frequency distribution of the GCM baseline climate is close to the frequency distribution of the observed climate, or when the frequency distribution of the GCM future climate is close to the frequency distribution of the GCM baseline climate, additive and multiplicative single CFMs provide comparable results. Two options to guide the choice of CFM are suggested: the first is a detailed methodological analysis for choosing the most appropriate CFM, and the second is a default method for circumstances in which a detailed methodological analysis is too cumbersome.

  9. Changing Patterns of Fungal Toxins in Crops: Challenges for Analysts.

    PubMed

    Miller, J David

    2016-07-01

    This short review discusses the need to manage climate-driven expansion of old toxins in new geographic areas (e.g., aflatoxin or fumonisin in corn in historically cooler areas, and ergot where rainfall and cropping patterns have changed). In addition, a renewed consideration of the toxins that can occur in feed sources used in cool-season dairy areas is needed (e.g., silage and distillers dry grains with solubles). A separate issue concerns genetic changes that are occurring in the species that cause Fusarium head blight/Gibberella ear rot. Small differences in climate appear to determine the distribution of the two dominant populations (native to the new world and from Asia). The chemotype that produces deoxynivalenol via the monoacetate at the 3 position results in the accumulation of somewhat more deoxynivalenol than the native population, which involves the monoacetate at the 15 position. There are also genetic changes occurring that have resulted in populations that produce different metabolites. Similarly, an increase in the area where Aspergillus flavus can thrive and the discovery of the sexual stage of this fungus have raised the potential of genetic change accelerated by climate. To address all these issues, new methods and increased availability of reference standards, as well as training and awareness, will be required. PMID:27455926

  10. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-01-01

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions. PMID:12769457

  11. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  12. Uncertainty levels in predicted patterns of anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Tim P.; Hegerl, Gabriele; Knutson, Tom; Tett, Simon

    2000-06-01

    This paper investigates the uncertainties in different model estimates of an expected anthropogenic signal in the near-surface air temperature field. We first consider nine coupled global climate models (CGCMs) forced by CO2 increasing at the rate of 1%/yr. Averaged over years 71-80 of their integrations, the approximate time of CO2 doubling, the models produce a global mean temperature change that agrees to within about 25% of the nine model average. However, the spatial patterns of change can be rather different. This is likely to be due to different representations of various physical processes in the respective models, especially those associated with land and sea ice processes. We next analyzed 11 different runs from three different CGCMs, each forced by observed/projected greenhouse gases (GHG) and estimated direct sulfate aerosol effects. Concentrating on the patterns of trend of near-surface air temperature change over the period 1945-1995, we found that the raw individual model simulations often bore little resemblance to each other or to the observations. This was due partially to large magnitude, small-scale spatial noise that characterized all the model runs, a feature resulting mainly from internal model variability. Heavy spatial smoothing and ensemble averaging improved the intermodel agreement. The existence of substantial differences between different realizations of an ensemble produced by identical forcing almost requires that detection and attribution work be done with ensembles of scenario runs, as single runs can be misleading. Application of recent detection and attribution methods, coupled with ensemble averaging, produced a reasonably consistent match between model predictions of expected patterns of temperature trends due to a combination of GHG and direct sulfate aerosols and those observed. This statement is provisional since the runs studied here did not include other anthropogenic pollutants thought to be important (e.g., indirect

  13. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control. Aims: To study the changing trends in resistance patterns of MRSA at our hospital. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study was carried out in a 750 bed tertiary care hospital in south India. Material and Methods: One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA which were obtained in 2004-2011 were identified by using oxacillin, cefoxitin disc diffusion test and oxacillin screening agar test. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done for commonly used non beta lactam anti-Staphylococcal drugs, as well as for anti-MRSA drugs like vancomycin, linezolid, mupirocin and rifampicin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined by using Vancomycin HiComb strip (Himedia, Mumbai, India). Statistical Analysis which was done: Chi-square test and proportions were used to compare the two groups. Results: MRSA isolates showed high resistance to co-trimoxazole (82.3%), ciprofloxacin (76.4%), gentamicin (64.7%) and tetracycline (49%) as compared to other drugs. High prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance was detected, particularly among outpatients. Multi resistant MRSA with a ≥ 3 non-beta lactam agent resistance was 79%. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, mupirocin and rifampicin. MRSA had displayed increase in resistance to most antibiotics except tetracycline in recent years. Conclusions: Taking into consideration the prevalence of multidrug resistance in MRSA, resistance patterns should be evaluated periodically and antibiotic therapy should be guided by susceptibility testing. PMID:24179914

  14. Facilitating Adaptation to Changing Storm Surge Patterns in Western Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Holman, A.; Reynolds, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal regions of North America are already experiencing the effects of climate change and the consequences of new storm patterns and sea level rise. These climate change effects are even more pronounced in western Alaska where the loss of sea ice in early winter and spring are exposing the coast to powerful winter storms that are visibly altering the landscape, putting coastal communities at risk, and are likely impacting important coastal wildlife habitat in ways we don't yet understand. The Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative has funded a suite of projects to improve the information available to assist managers and communities to adapt changes in coastal storms and their impacts. Projects range from modeling tide, wave and storm surge patters, to ShoreZone and NHD mapping, to bathymetry mapping, community vulnerability assessments and risks to important wildlife habitat. This group of diverse projects has helped stimulate momentum among partners which will lead to better tools for communities to respond to dangerous storms. For example, the State of Alaska and NOAA are working together to compile a series of community-scale maps that utilize best-available datasets to streamline communication about forecasted storm surges, local elevations and potentially impacted infrastructure during storm events that may lead to coastal flooding.

  15. Insensitivity of Global Neolithic Transition Patterns On Climatic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, K. W.

    Aiming to assess the relative importance of climate events on human history through- out the Holocene here a recently build model is employed. In the model 196 world regions are resolved which mainly differ in their food extraction potential (FEP) and potential number of agricultures. Both regional features are estimated using exist- ing vegetation maps. An array of state variables describes farming to foraging ratio, domestication success, technological and organizational development and population density. Deterministic rules for their time evolution are derived from a growth func- tion, an adaptation principle and a diffusion submodel. Overall model validity can be demonstrated by a striking similarity of simulated patterns and archaeological evi- dence. It is demonstrated that abrupt as well as smooth climatic changes, induced by FEP modifications, do not significantly affect development trajectories of Neolithic communities or global transition patterns. The stability of this result is tested through conducting numerical experiments based on massive parameter variation. However, population density always reacts sensitively, leading to the emergence of distinct mi- gration waves. An in-depth analysis of the differential model behavior provides new arguments in the face of recent or established theories linking climatic factors with human development.

  16. Wheelchair propulsion efficiency: movement pattern adaptations to speed changes.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Y C; Spaepen, A J; Lysens, R J

    1994-11-01

    Low mechanical efficiency values in wheelchair propulsion are usually explained on the basis of the supply of force and power generated during the push phase. The purpose of this study is to analyze the movement and muscular activity pattern in handrim wheelchair propulsion, focusing on both the push and recovery phases. Data on cardiorespiratory and propulsion technique parameters were obtained from 40 wheelchair basketball players with extensive experience in wheelchair propulsion in six situations: two exercise levels (60% and 80% of individual VO2peak), and three velocities (1.11, 1.67, and 2.22 m.s-1) with constant power output on a treadmill. A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements was applied with "exercise level" and "speed" as the main factors. A significant effect on gross mechanical efficiency was found when the velocity was increased from 1.67 to 2.22 m.s-1. Decreased mechanical efficiency could be explained by a significant change in the acceleration of the wheelchair-user system during recovery, caused by arm and trunk movements, inducing inertial forces to act on the wheelchair. Consequently, mechanical work increased significantly during the recovery phase. These findings indicate that studies on mechanical efficiency in wheelchair propulsion should not only be focussed on power supply during the push phase, but also on the movement pattern during recovery.

  17. Change of radiation pattern in a plasma monopole antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Shokri, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have numerically solved the dispersion equation of the surface wave propagating on a uniform collisional plasma column. The electric field and surface current distributions have been computed in different situations. We have investigated the effect of plasma frequency variation on the spatial distribution of the surface current. Results show that varying the electron density of the plasma column enables the plasma column to work as a plasma monopole antenna with a fixed geometrical structure and excited frequency which is able to create different radiation patterns. Our numerical analysis also shows that a little change in the radius of the plasma column has a strong influence on the current distribution at the excited frequency in RF region. This effect can be ignored in the usual (metallic) antenna while it is very important in designing of the plasma monopole antenna.

  18. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Sik; Hong, Yean Ju; Choi, Hyun Woo; Song, Hyuk; Byun, Sung June; Uhm, Sang Jun; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner. PMID:27232503

  19. Changing patterns of methaqualone abuse. A survey of 246 fatalities.

    PubMed

    Wetli, C V

    1983-02-01

    Of 246 methaqualone-related deaths identified during an 11-year period (1971 through 1981), 76% have occurred since 1977 and 72% have involved fatal trauma. One third of the victims died in vehicular crashes. Sharp increases in methaqualone-related traumatic suicides, nonvehicular accidents, and homicides have occurred since 1978. This report discusses demographic and toxicological findings, particularly in regard to counterfeit methaqualone. The pattern of fatal methaqualone abuse has changed from an overdose phenomenon in the early 1970s to one of traumatic death. Victims frequently have exhibited poor judgment, impulsive behavior, and somnolence while attempting to function in their environment. The socioeconomic impact of recreational methaqualone abuse should be curtailed by appropraite governmental action and restraint in the prescribing of methaqualone.

  20. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun Sik; Hong, Yean Ju; Choi, Hyun Woo; Song, Hyuk; Byun, Sung June; Uhm, Sang Jun; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner. PMID:27232503

  1. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  3. Change is Not Always Linear: The Study of Nonlinear and Discontinuous Patterns of Change in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Adele M.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Feldman, Greg; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2009-01-01

    The study of discontinuities and nonlinear change has been a fruitful endeavor across the sciences, as these shifts can provide a window into the organization of complex systems and the processes that are associated with transition. A common assumption in psychotherapy research has been that change is gradual and linear. The research designs and statistics used to study change often reflect this assumption, but some recent research reveals other patterns of change. We briefly review relevant literature on dynamical systems theory and on life transition and post-traumatic growth to highlight the significance of nonlinear and discontinuous change across areas of psychology. We describe recent applications of these ideas and methods to the study of change in psychotherapy and encourage their use to complement more traditional clinical trial designs. PMID:17316941

  4. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  5. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  6. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  7. Comments on "Child Survival and Changing Fertility Patterns in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, K A

    1992-01-01

    The distillation of Zeba Sathar's article on the determinants of fertility decline and child mortality decline is that marriage age and contraceptive surgery could be important factors in bringing about changes in both fertility and child mortality in Pakistan. The concern is that 80 out of 115 million Pakistanis live in rural areas where marriage age is very low and program efforts are limited or nonexistent. The question is raised about how to effectuate changes in attitudes in rural areas to increase marriage age. Another point is made about the simplicity of explanations for fertility and mortality change, when the reality is a complex host of interactive socioeconomic, cultural, social, and program factors that are responsible for fertility at present levels. The suggestion is for development of a more appropriate model of fertility at the micro level which illuminates the interaction of these factors in determining fertility. Sathar is reported to have concluded that the impact of infant and child mortality on fertility was inconclusive. The changing patterns of fertility are likely to bring about a change in the demand for children and a lesser preference for gender; this status change for women will further reduce child mortality and fertility. Large family sizes are postulated to be associated with close spacing and greater concentrations of children under 5 years of age competing for physical resources and having a high risk of infection with inadequate parental attention and care. These conditions occur in families with low income and little parental education. Institutional and community services also affect child mortality. There are also examples of educational opportunity and income equality as factors bringing about demographic change in Sri Lanka and Kerala, India. The author speculates that an outcome of development is increased educational attainment and more equitable distribution of income. Low levels of maternal education are associated with

  8. Attribution of changes in precipitation patterns in African rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E.; Jones, R. G.; Halladay, K.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    circulation model (AGCM) simulations within the weather@home project, and analysing statistics of precipitation in the dry season of the Congo Basin rainforests. Because observed data sets in that region are of very poor quality we show how validation methods not only relying on such data have been used to investigate the applicability of PEA analysis from large model ensembles to this tropical region. Additionally we will present results for the same region but generated with a very large ensemble of regional climate simulations which allows analysing the importance of a realistic simulation of small scale precipitation processes for attribution studies in a tropical climate. We highlight that PEA analysis has the potential to provide valuable scientific evidence of recent or anticipated climatological changes in the water cycle, especially in regions with sparse observational data and unclear projections of future changes. However, the strong influence of SST tele-connection patterns on tropical precipitation provides more challenges in the set-up of attribution studies than studies on mid-latitude rainfall.

  9. A new optical pressure sensor interrogated by speckles pattern for oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperandio, Vinicius M.; Pontes, Maria J.; Neto, Anselmo F.; Webster, Lucas G.

    2015-09-01

    A new optical pressure control concept in petroleum industry based on laser speckle analysis, with inherent safety light, is investigated in this work. A plastic optical fiber (POF) utilized to instrument a conventional manometer enabled pressure monitoring of a system that is interrogated by speckle photography technique. Specklegrams were imaged on a CCD camera and then analyzed, after Mathematical Morphology Filter, regarding its movement. Tests demonstrated that the speckle pattern movement is radial towards the center of pressure and accordingly reverse during depressurization within 5% maximum error.

  10. Can soil change be assessed for the Victorian dairy industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarons, Sharon R.; Crawford, Douglas; Imhof, Mark; Gourley, Cameron

    2015-07-01

    Meeting the increased demand for dairy products will require careful management of soils to minimise land degradation and sustain increased production. Key to providing farmers with the tools to manage their soils sustainably, is firstly understanding the soil types currently managed by dairy farmers, and secondly quantifying changes in soil properties in response to management. The Victorian Land Use Information System was interrogated to identify dairy land parcels and these data overlaid on soil survey information to identify the dominant soil orders managed by dairy farmers in the three dairy regions of Victoria. Of the approximately 590,000 hectares of dairy land identified across the state, Sodosols (33%), Chromosols (20%), Dermosols (16%), and Vertosols (11%) are the major soil Orders represented, although the dominant soil Orders vary for each region. Legacy data from research and extension activities undertaken between 1995 and 2010 were collated to understand regional differences in dairy soil properties. All soil properties were significantly and positively skewed with higher median pH, EC and available K in northern Victorian soils. Further analysis compared the 1995 to 2010 data with data from samples analysed by the government analytical laboratory between 1973 and 1980 to assess any differences over 38 years. The older soil chemical data were also positively skewed but had lower median soil pH, Olsen P and available K, consistent with the greater use of inputs by the industry in more recent years.

  11. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  12. Changing patterns of dental caries: a survey of 20 countries.

    PubMed

    Renson, C E

    1986-07-01

    Data on oral health, sugar consumption, fluoride availability and other preventive programmes from twenty selected developed and developing countries were reviewed to identify the changes in oral health in children and causes associated with these changes during the past 20 years. Nine developed (industrialized) countries showed apparent substantial reduction (30-50 per cent) in the prevalence of dental caries in 5 and 12 year old children during the past decade. The countries are: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom and the USA. Caries in Thailand and Nigeria and other developing countries appear to have increased considerably. The most probable reasons for the decrease in dental caries in children in the developed countries were considered to be associated with: the widespread exposure to fluoridated water, fluoride supplements, especially the regular use of fluoridated toothpaste; the provision of preventive oral health services; the increased dental awareness through organised health education programmes; the ready availability of dental resources. The factor common to all countries with a substantial reduction in caries was fluoride, either as fluoridated water or toothpaste. Countries with decreased caries but no fluoridated water supplies all had experienced a rapid increase in the availability and the use of fluoridated toothpaste during the past 10 years. The contribution of improved dental health programmes, other than those involving fluoride, could not be adequately assessed. These changes, which appear to be continuing, have relevance also to similar countries which might just be entering the reduction phase, or for which that phase may already have begun, though it is as yet unnoticed and unreported. They also have relevance to developing countries in indicating how caries and perhaps periodontal disease have been controlled and prevented. It is inevitable that in developed countries with reducing

  13. Tolerance adaptation and precipitation changes complicate latitudinal patterns of climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2010-07-13

    Global patterns of biodiversity and comparisons between tropical and temperate ecosystems have pervaded ecology from its inception. However, the urgency in understanding these global patterns has been accentuated by the threat of rapid climate change. We apply an adaptive model of environmental tolerance evolution to global climate data and climate change model projections to examine the relative impacts of climate change on different regions of the globe. Our results project more adverse impacts of warming on tropical populations due to environmental tolerance adaptation to conditions of low interannual variability in temperature. When applied to present variability and future forecasts of precipitation data, the tolerance adaptation model found large reductions in fitness predicted for populations in high-latitude northern hemisphere regions, although some tropical regions had comparable reductions in fitness. We formulated an evolutionary regional climate change index (ERCCI) to additionally incorporate the predicted changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. Based on this index, we suggest that the magnitude of climate change impacts could be much more heterogeneous across latitude than previously thought. Specifically, tropical regions are likely to be just as affected as temperate regions and, in some regions under some circumstances, possibly more so.

  14. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  15. The American Industrial Relations System in a Time of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Recent trends that affect the U.S. system of industrial relations are examined. The most important of these is internationalization. The U.S. industrial relations system is compared with that of Europe and Japan, and suggestions for improving our competitiveness in international markets are made. (Author/RM)

  16. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  17. Land use/land cover change and their effects on landscape patterns in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian; Wang, Shengli

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of land use and land cover change (LUCC) drives the change of landscape patterns and limits the availability of products and services for human and livestock. LUCC can undermine environmental health. Thus, this study aimed to develop an understanding of LUCC in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China, an arid area experiencing dramatic water and land resource use. A time series of satellite images (1964, 1973, 1989, 1999, and 2009) were used to calculate the index of landscape patterns to study the processes involved in changes to land uses and landscape patterns and the influence of this changes on landscape patterns. The results show that land uses in the Yanqi Basin have changed dramatically since 1964 with grassland being mainly converted to cropland. Landscape fragmentation and diversity have decreased in the study area, although landscape fragmentation increased from 1964 to 1999 and then decreased by 2009. The index of landscape diversity decreased from 1.64 in 1964 to 0.71 in 2009. The heterogeneity and complexity of the landscape increased during this period. In contrast, the index of dominance decreased from 0.85 in 1964 to 0.83 in 2009. Land use change drives landscape patterns of the development of the watershed toward diversity and a fragmented structure. Population growth, economic development, and industrial policies were the dominant driving forces behind LUCC in the Yanqi Basin. Sustainable use of land resources is a significant factor in maintaining economic development and environmental protection in this arid inland river basin.

  18. Changing migratory patterns in the Jackson elk herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Eric K.; Foley, Aaron M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Bruce L.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Brimeyer, Douglas G.; Fairbanks, W. Sue; Sawyer, Hall; Cross, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory behavior in ungulates has declined globally and understanding the causative factors (environmental change vs. human mediated) is needed to formulate effective management strategies. In the Jackson elk herd of northwest Wyoming, demographic differences between summer elk (Cervus elaphus) population segments have led to changes in migratory patterns over a 35-year time period. The proportion of short-distance migrants (SDM) has increased and the proportion of long-distance migrants (LDM) has concurrently declined. The probability of winter-captured elk on the National Elk Refuge being LDM decreased from 0.99 (95% CI = 0.97–1.00) to 0.59 (95% CI = 0.47–0.70) from 1978 to 2012. We tested 4 hypotheses that could contribute toward the decline in the LDM segment: behavioral switching from LDM to SDM, differential survival, harvest availability, and calf recruitment. Switching rates from LDM to SDM were very low (0.2% each elk-year). Survival rates were similar between LDM and SDM, although harvest availability was relatively low for SDM that tended to use areas close to human development during the hunting season. Average summer calf/cow ratios of LDM declined from 42 to 23 calves per 100 cows from 1978–1984 to 2006–2012. Further, during 2006–2012, LDM summer calf/cow ratios were less than half of SDM (23 vs. 47 calves per 100 cows). Our data suggest recruitment is the driving factor behind the declining proportion of LDM in this region. Effectiveness of altering harvest management strategies to conserve the LDM portion of the Jackson elk herd may be limited.

  19. Turtle mating patterns buffer against disruptive effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lucy I.; Stokes, Kimberley L.; Fuller, Wayne J.; Godley, Brendan J.; McGowan, Andrew; Snape, Robin; Tregenza, Tom; Broderick, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    For organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), skewed offspring sex ratios are common. However, climate warming poses the unique threat of producing extreme sex ratio biases that could ultimately lead to population extinctions. In marine turtles, highly female-skewed hatchling sex ratios already occur and predicted increases in global temperatures are expected to exacerbate this trend, unless species can adapt. However, it is not known whether offspring sex ratios persist into adulthood, or whether variation in male mating success intensifies the impact of a shortage of males on effective population size. Here, we use parentage analysis to show that in a rookery of the endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas), despite an offspring sex ratio of 95 per cent females, there were at least 1.4 reproductive males to every breeding female. Our results suggest that male reproductive intervals may be shorter than the 2–4 years typical for females, and/or that males move between aggregations of receptive females, an inference supported by our satellite tracking, which shows that male turtles may visit multiple rookeries. We suggest that male mating patterns have the potential to buffer the disruptive effects of climate change on marine turtle populations, many of which are already seriously threatened. PMID:22279164

  20. Turtle mating patterns buffer against disruptive effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lucy I; Stokes, Kimberley L; Fuller, Wayne J; Godley, Brendan J; McGowan, Andrew; Snape, Robin; Tregenza, Tom; Broderick, Annette C

    2012-06-01

    For organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), skewed offspring sex ratios are common. However, climate warming poses the unique threat of producing extreme sex ratio biases that could ultimately lead to population extinctions. In marine turtles, highly female-skewed hatchling sex ratios already occur and predicted increases in global temperatures are expected to exacerbate this trend, unless species can adapt. However, it is not known whether offspring sex ratios persist into adulthood, or whether variation in male mating success intensifies the impact of a shortage of males on effective population size. Here, we use parentage analysis to show that in a rookery of the endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas), despite an offspring sex ratio of 95 per cent females, there were at least 1.4 reproductive males to every breeding female. Our results suggest that male reproductive intervals may be shorter than the 2-4 years typical for females, and/or that males move between aggregations of receptive females, an inference supported by our satellite tracking, which shows that male turtles may visit multiple rookeries. We suggest that male mating patterns have the potential to buffer the disruptive effects of climate change on marine turtle populations, many of which are already seriously threatened.

  1. Changing patterns of treatment for chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Farouk, R; Gunn, J; Duthie, G S

    1998-05-01

    To assess changing patterns of treatment for chronic anal fissure, a retrospective analysis of treatment for chronic anal fissure within one hospital between January 1990 and December 1996 was undertaken. A total of 221 patients received treatment for a chronic anal fissure in this period, of whom 209 had a surgical procedure. Manual dilatation of the anus was performed in 21 patients (10%) and has not been performed since 1995. Lateral internal sphincterotomy was performed in 183 patients (88%) and continues to be the mainstay of treatment. Five female patients (2%) were identified as having a sphincter defect by anal manometry combined with endoanal ultrasound and were treated by an anal advancement flap. From 1996 onwards, 15 patients (7%) were treated by topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) paste as the first line of treatment. Of these patients, nine have experienced healing of their fissure, and three have had relief of pain without healing of the fissure. Three have gone on to have a lateral internal sphincterotomy. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the primary form of treatment for chronic anal fissure. GTN cream has increasingly been offered as preliminary treatment over the last 12 months. Perioperative use of endoanal ultrasound allowed identification of patients who may be at high risk of postoperative incontinence from a sphincterotomy. An anal advancement flap has been used as an alternative surgical approach for these patients.

  2. Changes in basketball shooting patterns as a function of distance.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Burton, A W

    1999-12-01

    The effect of distance on the accuracy and movement form in basketball shooting was examined using a dynamic systems approach. Five male and five female young adults (M = 26 yr.) with no basketball experience beyond regular physical education shot a basketball 20 times at each of eight distances from 5 to 40 ft. (Natural condition). Also, they pretended to shoot the ball 5 times at each of the eight distances, for a total of 200 shots each (Pretend condition). In the Natural condition, shooting accuracy significantly decreased as shooting distance increased. Across both conditions and across four body components (feet position, hand position, trunk rotation, and jump height), the participants shifted from one movement pattern to another 86.3% of the time as shooting distance increased. The distances at which the transitions occurred were significantly shorter in the Natural than the Pretend condition for the feet and hand components but not the trunk and jump-height components. These results indicated that shooting a basketball at increasing distances can be portrayed as a dynamic system characterized by abrupt changes in at least four body components at critical distances.

  3. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  4. Managing culture change in the commercial nuclear industry and the DOE weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, A.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Culture is the basic pattern of shared beliefs, behaviors, and assumptions acquired over time by the people in the organization. Culture is learned and can be modified over time. Many failures in managing change in recent years in the commercial nuclear industry and in the DOE weapons complex can be attributed to not accepting the central axiom of safety, health, and environmental matters. This paper presents specific lessons learned from experiences in commercial nuclear power and US Department of Energy weapons facilities restarts: (1) the attributes of problem plants and symptoms that predict impending regulatory doom; (2) the root causes of plant shutdown by regulators; (3) management infrastructure problems; and (4) actions required by management to effect the culture shift necessary to resume operations.

  5. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Results Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems. PMID:24423020

  6. High Level Manpower and Technological Change in the Steel Industry: Implications for Corporate Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, Dale L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that high level manpower plays in the establishment of new technologies at the plant and industry level. The steel industry was selected as an appropriate industry to approach these questions due to: its considerable technological changes; its straightforward, easier-to-understand technology; its…

  7. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  8. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  9. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  10. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel. PMID:26396286

  11. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel.

  12. Industrial age to information age organizations: Changing business ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.

  13. Process Innovation and Changes in Industrial Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    American industry in the 19th century switched from wood to coal as its primary energy resource. The history of this switch is reviewed, along with the history of preceding similar trends in Europe and later trends in the switch from coal to oil and gas. (Author/MA)

  14. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  15. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  16. Changes in the North American ferroalloys industry structure and trends in the industry during the past 20 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Didaleusky, J.R.; Jorgenson, J.D.; Corathers, L.A.; Fenton, M.D.; Kuck, P.H.; Papp, J.F.; Polyak, D.E.; Shedd, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis of changes in the North American (Canada, Mexico, and the United States) ferroalloys industry between 1987 and 2007 includes the locations and types of ferroalloy plants in North America and the changes in production, imports, exports, pricing, and the structure of ownership since 1987, which was just prior to the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Significant events affect the supply of and demand for North American ferroalloys -- changes in end uses, global industry structure, political stability, and technology. Mergers and acquisitions in the ferroalloys industries of North America and their impact on trade are other significant issues in international trade as are antidumping and countervailing duty orders, and trade agreements and policies related to ferroalloys occurring during this period and affecting the North American region. Raw materials and energy supply to the ferroalloy industry, the logistics involved in the trade of North American ferroalloys, and the use of ferroalloys within major downstream industries are also important factors. Emphasis is placed on the bulk ferroalloys—ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferrosilicon, and silicomanganese. Other ferroalloys investigated include those of boron, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, titanium, tungsten, and vanadium.

  17. GUI Change Method according to Roles of Widgets and Change Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirogane, Junko; Iwata, Hajime; Fukaya, Kazuhiro; Fukazawa, Yoshiaki

    To develop usable software, it is necessary to develop Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) in iterative steps, such as evaluating the usability of GUIs and improving GUIs. In improving GUIs, developers are often required to modify both the GUI and the logic code of the software. In our research, to facilitate GUI improvement, we propose a method of auto-matically searching for code to be modified and suggesting how to modify them. To search for appropriate code to be modified, we define the roles of widgets according to their purpose and the patterns for how to change GUIs. In our method, how to change GUIs is specified, and then the parts of source programs that are required to be modified are searched for. Also, we classify methods for each widget according to their functions. Using this classification, a method of modifying the code that is searched for is suggested.

  18. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed. PMID:27432072

  19. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed.

  20. Analysis of Prison Industries and Recommendations for Change. Study of the Economic and Rehabilitative Aspects of Prison Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This volume presents a study undertaken in Connecticut to identify short-term and long-term strategies for changing prison industries into self-supporting labor systems while simultaneously promoting the rehabilitation of prison inmates. Individual tasks performed as part of the study include a job market survey, an inmate manpower survey, and a…

  1. Investigation of changes in water resources and grain production in China: changing patterns and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Wei; Hu, Yunjin; Dai, Xiangqian; Song, Xingyuan

    2015-11-01

    Water resources are very important for grain production in China. In this study, we investigate the changes in streamflow and grain production in China from 1956 to 2008. Since the 1980s, the increase of total grain production was mainly contributed by northern China where significantly decreasing precipitation and available water resources were observed. From 1985 to 2008, northern China accounted for 92.9 % of the national total grain production growth. Consequently, the main grain production area has shifted from the south to the north. However, the shift was mismatching the spatial distributions and temporal changes in precipitation and available water resources in China. During 1956 through 2008, precipitation decreased in the main grain production areas of the northern China by 1.23-1.27 mm per year. During the same period, observed streamflows in the five major rivers in northern China decreased by 13.4-92.4 %. Current grain production in northern China is dependent on overexploitation of groundwater. From 1987 to 2000, the average groundwater table declined 10.8 m with a maximum decrease of 34.8 m in North China Plain. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change and projected industrial development exacerbate the uncertainty of grain supply by northern China in the future. This study also indicated the potential of southern China for a more important role in ensuring sustainable food security of China, with increasing precipitation and streamflows observed in the Yangtze River and Pearl River basins.

  2. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and hemeroby in Ximen Island wetland, Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cui; Xie, Xue-Fen; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Bian, Hua-Jing; Xu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Abstract: The hemeroby type classification system of Ximen Island wetland of Zhejiang Province was established based on the multiple datasets: SOPT-5 image data with a spatial resolution of 5 m in 2007 and 2010, its wetland land cover and land use status, the National Land Use Classification (on trail), and sea area use classification of marine industry standards as well as remote sensing data features. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship between the landscape pattern and the degree of hemeroby in Ximen Island was investigated with the landscape indices and hemeroby index (HI) derived from the landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that the wetland landscape spatial heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance index dropped, and the landscape shape index complexity was low. The human disturbance center developed from a dispersion type to a concentration type. The landscape type of the disturbance center was bare land and settlement. The HI rose up from the sea to the land. Settlement, wharf and traffic land had the highest HI. The HI of the mudflat cultivation, mudflats and raft-cultivation dramatically changed. Marine-terrestrial interlaced zone showed a low total HI with unstable characteristics. The number of patches declined of undisturbed, partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes. Mean patch areas of partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes increased, and that of the undisturbed decreased. Mean shape index of the undisturbed landscape decreased, while the partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes showed a trend of shape complication. PMID:25898624

  3. Gaze Patterns of Gross Anatomy Students Change with Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S.; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study…

  4. Investigation of the environmental change pattern of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery clearly identifies the relationships between the status of erosion, effluent patterns affected by the coastal current, and the cultural construction activities. Simple photographic techniques can be used for detecting water mass distribution separately from cloud cover and also noise caused by reflected sunlight from wave surfaces. Polluted water does not diffuse continuously into the oceanic water, but forms masses in the water in the Kuroshio area. The polluted or turbid water in the area just north of the Tomogashima Channel, the south outlet of the Osaka Bay, shows that the northward tidal current runs in a clockwise eddy at the tidal period when the imagery was taken. Such an eddy-like pattern of tidal current had never been revealed by conventional oceanographic data. A front between an oceanic water mass and a polluted water mass runs in a NW-SE direction in the central part of the Osaka Bay. The patterns of turbid water discharged from the Kii River and Yoshino River show a northward tidal current in the North Kii Straits. The pattern of lighter turbid or polluted water located in the northwest region of the North Kii straits suggests the existence of a clockwise eddy in the straits.

  5. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  6. Changing world patterns of drug abuse, 1945-1974.

    PubMed

    Ball, J C; Graff, H; Chien, K

    1975-07-01

    New patterns of drug abuse have rapidly appeared in the Western world since the Second World War. These patterns are characterized by the rapid introduction and spread of manufactured substances adopted from medicine. Interest has been sustained among illicit users by the search for new mood altering drugs. Both recreational use and multiple drug patterns are becoming increasingly predominant. Western youth has taken the forefront in the new patterns, especially in the rise of marijuana. Sex differentials are rapidly decreasing as more females are smoking. In the United States, hallucinogens have also been abused in large amounts. This reveals an important difference from Europe, where hallucinogen abuse has been low, but amphetamine abuse has been as high or higher than in the United States. Spread has been rapid throughout the populations studied, both from the colleges to the secondary schools, and from country to country, based on current rapid methods of communication and transportation. These data are important in formulating hypotheses for study and control of both epidemic and endemic drug abuse.

  7. Patterns of Change in Marital Satisfaction over the Newlywed Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavner, Justin A.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Although marital satisfaction starts high and declines for the average newlywed, some spouses may follow qualitatively distinct trajectories. Using 8 self-reports of satisfaction collected over 4 years from 464 newlywed spouses, we identified 5 trajectory groups, including patterns defined by high intercepts and no declines in satisfaction,…

  8. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular proteomes of the Penicillium chrysogenum throughout pilot and industrial processes were investigated by using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, respectively. We detected a total of 223 spots corresponding to 154 proteins and 231 spots corresponding to 157 proteins throughout pilot and industrial processes, respectively. The levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (5.1- and 2.5-fold) under the pilot process, while its levels were no significant changes under the industrial process at 140 and 170 h when compared with that at 2 h. The levels of isocitrate lyase and fumarate hydratase were increased significantly under the industrial process, while their levels had no obvious changes after 20 h of fermentation throughout the pilot process. These results indicate that there were remarkable differences in carbohydrate metabolism (including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) of P. chrysogenum during the pilot and industrial fermentations, which likely result in alterations of the primary metabolism and penicillin biosynthesis. Moreover, the differences in the levels of proteins involved in amino acid metabolisms (including valine, cysteine, and α-aminoadipic acid biosynthesis) indicated that the pilot and industrial processes influenced the supplies of penicillin precursors. Compared with that at 2 h, the maximum levels of superoxide (6.9-fold, at 32 h) and catalase (9-fold, at 80 h) during the industrial process and the maximum levels of superoxide (1.2-fold, at 20 h) and catalase (7.7-fold at 128 h) during the pilot process revealed the significant difference in cell redox homeostasis and stress responses during scale-up fermentation. Particularly, 10 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N synthetase and 4 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N (IPN) acyltransferase in pilot and industrial processes were identified, respectively. The levels of IPN acyltransferase (spots

  9. Pattern Discovery and Change Detection of Online Music Query Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Fu

    In this paper, an efficient stream mining algorithm, called FTP-stream (Frequent Temporal Pattern mining of streams), is proposed to find the frequent temporal patterns over melody sequence streams. In the framework of our proposed algorithm, an effective bit-sequence representation is used to reduce the time and memory needed to slide the windows. The FTP-stream algorithm can calculate the support threshold in only a single pass based on the concept of bit-sequence representation. It takes the advantage of "left" and "and" operations of the representation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm only scans the music query stream once, and runs significant faster and consumes less memory than existing algorithms, such as SWFI-stream and Moment.

  10. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  11. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M L

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stations. Establishing automated systems presents many challenges for laboratory management, including project and hardware selection, budget justification, implementation, validation, training, and support. To address these management challenges, the rationale for project selection and implementation, the obstacles encountered, project outcome, and learning points for several automated systems recently implemented in the Quality Control Laboratories at Eli Lilly are presented. PMID:18925014

  12. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M L

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stations. Establishing automated systems presents many challenges for laboratory management, including project and hardware selection, budget justification, implementation, validation, training, and support. To address these management challenges, the rationale for project selection and implementation, the obstacles encountered, project outcome, and learning points for several automated systems recently implemented in the Quality Control Laboratories at Eli Lilly are presented.

  13. The Changing Nature and Patterns of Work and Implications for VET. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Peter; Wilson, Bruce; Ewer, Peter

    An overview of recent literature on changes in the nature and patterns of work and their implications for vocational education and training (VET) is offered. Changes in the nature and patterns of work present significant challenges to the VET sector. More women have entered the work force; unemployment has reemerged as a significant factor;…

  14. Diversifying meat consumption patterns: consumers' self-reported past behaviour and intentions for change.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Terhi; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pouta, Eija; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Kotro, Jaana; Forsman-Hugg, Sari

    2012-09-01

    This study analysed meat consumption patterns among Finnish consumers, considering both stated past changes and intended future changes. Consumer segments with different patterns of and reasons for change were identified. Latent class analysis revealed six consumer clusters that formed three major cluster blocks. The first block, comprising 48% of the consumers, had established consumption patterns and no intentions to change them. In the second block, with 13% of the consumers, consumption patterns had already shifted towards more vegetables and less meat. The third block, with 39% of the consumers, was identified to be in the middle of a change with a general tendency to reduce the use of meat and increase the use of vegetables. Although the environmental effects of meat and animal welfare issues were important reasons for change in some clusters, healthiness was the most salient stated reason for changing consumption habits.

  15. Strategies for changing clinicians' practice patterns. A new perspective.

    PubMed

    Wyszewianski, L; Green, L A

    2000-05-01

    How can we persuade clinicians to adopt proven practices? Education, incentives, feedback, social marketing, and various other change strategies have inconsistent and unpredictable effects. We propose a theoretical framework that can provide a reliable basis for selecting effective change strategies. We divide clinicians into 4 categories on the basis of their responses to new information about the effectiveness of clinical strategies. We similarly divide the universe of practice change strategies into knowledge-oriented and behavior-oriented methods. We then show why specific combinations of these strategies are likely to be consistently effective for each of the 4 categories of clinicians. PMID:10836780

  16. Changes in Training Opportunities in South Wales, 1945-1998: The Views of Key Informants. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Paul; Gorard, Stephen; Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Furlong, John

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines analysis of secondary…

  17. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  18. Teacher Education in Industrialized Nations: Issues in Changing Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, Nobuo K., Ed; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.

    The original essays in this book examine reform-related issues in teacher education in Great Britain, Canada, Japan, Ukraine, the United States, and Western Europe. They also review the social context of the teacher, the economics and value of teaching, the pace of change, government policy and teacher control of the profession, and the evolving…

  19. Changed pattern of regional glucose metabolism during yoga meditative relaxation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, H; Lele, V R; Kuwert, T; Langen, K J; Rota Kops, E; Feinendegen, L E

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlc) are able to delineate cerebral metabolic responses to external or mental stimulation. In order to examine possible changes of brain metabolism due to Yoga meditation PET scans were performed in 8 members of a Yoga meditation group during the normal control state (C) and Yoga meditative relaxation (YMR). Whereas there were intraindividual changes of the total CMRGlc, the alterations were not significant for intergroup comparison; specific focal changes or changes in the interhemispheric differences in metabolism were also not seen; however the ratios of frontal vs. occipital rCMRGlc were significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) during YMR. These altered ratios were caused by a slight increase of frontal rCMRGlc and a more pronounced reduction in primary and secondary visual centers. These data indicate a holistic behavior of the brain metabolism during the time of altered state of consciousness during YMR.

  20. Land use changes and its impacts on air quality and atmospheric patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D.; Mazzoli, C. R.; Martins, L. D.; Martins, J. A.; Carvalho, V.; Andrade, M.

    2013-05-01

    Possible modifications on atmospheric patterns and air quality caused by land use changes are discussed in this work. With the increasing interest in alternative energy sources, mainly due to the replacement of fossil fuels, large part of the Brazilian territory is being used for sugar cane cultivation. The resultant modifications in land use and some activities associated to this crop are studied with some detail through numerical modeling of the atmosphere. The same tool was applied to study the effect of surface type and emission sources over urban areas in the neighborhoods of the cultivated areas, in particular those located in the Metropolitan Area of Campinas, inside the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main focus of this work was to identify some relationship between these two types of land use modification and its influence on the regional atmospheric circulation patterns and air quality over agricultural and urban areas affected by biomass burning and the traditional sources of pollutants, such as industries and vehicles. First, the effect of urban areas was analyzed and it was possible to identify typical patterns associated with urban heat islands, especially over the city of Campinas. In this region, air temperature differences up to 3 K were detected during night time. During the day, due to the atmospheric conditions of the studied period, this effect was not significant. Afterwards, the effect of sugar cane cultivated regions was discussed. The results show that the regions of sugar cane grow can significantly modify the surface energy fluxes, with direct consequences to the standards of local temperature and humidity and over nearby regions. Sensitivity tests were carried out during part of September, 2007, through the substitution of the sugar cane by a generic crop in the model, and show that during the day the cultivated areas can present temperatures up to 0,65 k higher than those in the case of the generic one. Throughout the dispersion module

  1. Bacterial isolates in chronic suppurative otitis media: a changing pattern?

    PubMed

    Adoga, A A; Bakari, A; Afolabi, O A; Kodiya, A M; Ahmad, B M

    2011-01-01

    The most frequently isolated organism in chronic suppurative otitis media from different parts of the world is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pattern from this bacteriological study from our region is different. This study was carried out on 97 patients presenting to the outpatient clinic of the National Ear Care Center, Kaduna. Nigeria from May 2008 to April 2009. The patients were aged between 1 year and 75 years comprising 50) males and 47 females giving a male to female ratio of 1:1. Most of the patients (n=40, 41.2%) were in the age group 1-10) years. Seventy-five (77.3%) patients had a positive culture while in 22 (22.7%) patients there was no growth. Gram-negative bacteria comprised 80% of the isolates. The predominant organisms cultured were Klebsiella sp (n=31, 41.3%), Escherichia coli (n=22, 29.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6, 8%). The gram-positive isolates were Streptococcus sp (n=8, 10.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=7, 9.3%). In-vitro drug sensitivity pattern of all isolates shows that they were more sensitive to Ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and Perfloxacin. Klebsiella sp. Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp. are the leading pathogenic organisms in chronic suppurative otitis media in our region and their ensitivity rates are highest to the quinolone antibiotics, which are relatively cheap, readily available as ototopic agents and lack ototoxic effects. PMID:21970268

  2. Spatial patterns of hydro-social metrics in the Northeastern United States from the Colonial Era through the Industrial Revolution (1600-1920)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherell, B. B.; Bain, D. J.; Salant, N.; Aloysius, N. R.

    2009-12-01

    Humans impact the hydrologic cycle at local, regional and global scales. Understanding how spatial patterns of human water use and hydrologic impact have changed over time is important to future water management in an era of increasing water constraints and globalization of high water-use resources. This study investigates spatial dependence and spatial patterns of hydro-social metrics for the Northeastern United States from 1600 to 1920 through the use of spatial statistical techniques. Several relevant hydro-social metrics, including water residence time, surface water storage (natural and human engineered) and per capita water availability, are analyzed. This study covers a region and period of time that saw significant population growth, landscape change, and industrial growth. These changes had important impacts on water availability. Although some changes such as the elimination of beavers, and the resulting loss of beaver ponds on low-order streams, are felt at a regional scale, preliminary analysis indicates that humans responded to water constraints by acting locally (e.g., mill ponds for water power and water supply reservoirs for public health). This 320-year historical analysis of spatial patterns of hydro-social metrics provides unique insight into long-term changes in coupled human-water systems.

  3. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P.

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions.

  4. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions. PMID:26615891

  5. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions.

  6. Potential industrial applications for composite phase-change materials as thermal energy storage media

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1989-07-01

    Considerable effort has been spent by the US Department of Energy and its contractors over the last few years to develop composite phase-change materials (CPCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). This patented TES medium consists of a phase-change material (typically a salt or metal alloy) that is retained within the porous structure of a supporting material (typically a ceramic). The objectives of this study were to (1) introduce CPCMs to industries that may not otherwise be aware of them, (2) identify potentially attractive applications for CPCM in industry, (3) determine technical requirements that will affect the design of CPCM's for specific applications, and (4) generate interest among industrial firms for employing CPCM TES in their processes. The approach in this study was to examine a wide variety of industries using a series of screens to select those industries that would be most likely to adopt CPCM TES in their processes. The screens used in this study were process temperature, presence of time-varying energy flows, energy intensity of the industry, and economic growth prospects over the next 5 years. After identifying industries that passed all of the screens, representatives of each industry were interviewed by telephone to introduce them to CPCM TES, assess technical requirements for CPCM TES in their industry, and determine their interest in pursuing applications for CPCM TES. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Changing environmental strategies over time: an empirical study of the steel industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Clemens, B

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates how environmental strategies change over time. We submit evidence from the US steel industry that firms have modified their strategies over time. We offer that US industry passed through three stages--cost minimization, cost-effective compliance, and beneficial environmental controls. We compare typologies of environmental strategies and choose that of C. Oliver as the most appropriate. We investigate how environmental strategies in the steel industry changed over time a 4-year period. We offer that a further understanding of Oliver's strategies may increase understanding of the relationship between business and government on environmental issues. One over-arching problem in our field is the need to adequately operationalize how firms change strategies and pass through different stages. We hope that our study will help future researchers and practitioners better articulate the concepts of environmental strategies over time. Our study focused on the steel industry in the United States. We chose the US steel industry as one of the major environmental actors in the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency ranks the iron and steel industry as the largest industrial source of toxic environmental contamination. We encourage researchers to evaluate and test our methodology and findings in other contexts--both in other nations and different industries.

  8. Patterns of Change in Cognitive Function with Anastrozole Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, John; Gentry, Amanda; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Berga, Sarah; Brufsky, Adam; Casillo, Frances; Dailey, Meredith; Erickson, Kirk; Kratofil, Frances; McAullife, Priscilla; Rosenzweig, Margaret; Ryan, Christopher; Sereika, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The study purpose was to examine and compare the effect of the first 18 months anastrozole therapy on cognitive function in women with breast cancer. Methods This large, longitudinal cohort study was composed of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer who receive chemotherapy-plus-anastrozole (n=114) or anastrozole alone (n=173) and a control group (n=110). Cognitive function was assessed before systemic therapy and at six, 12, and 18 months after therapy initiation and at comparable timepoints in controls. Results The chemotherapy-plus-anastrozole and anastrozole alone groups had poorer executive function than controls at nearly all timepoints (p<.0001 to p=.09). A pattern of deterioration in working memory and concentration was observed during the first six months of anastrozole therapy for the chemotherapy-plus-anastrozole (p<.0001; p<.0009 respectively) and anastrozole alone groups (p=.0008; p=.0002 respectively). This was followed by improved working memory and concentration from six to 12 months in both groups. The anastrozole alone group had a second decline in working memory and concentration from 12 to 18 months post-initiation of therapy (p<.0001; p=.02). Conclusion Women with breast cancer had poorer executive functioning from pre-therapy through the entire first 18 months of therapy. A pattern of decline in working memory and concentration with initial exposure to anastrozole was observed. Women receiving anastrozole alone had a second deterioration in working memory and concentration from 12 to 18 months post-therapy initiation. The longer term (> 18 months) effects of anastrozole on cognitive function remain to be determined. PMID:25906766

  9. Antibiotics: the changing regulatory and pharmaceutical industry paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bax, Richard; Green, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Drug licensing is changing. Previously, regulators prioritized the licensing of innovative drugs that fulfilled a high unmet medical need for a small number of patients, including orphan, cancer and HIV medicines. Alternatives to large and costly prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trials have led to a more bespoke development, such as adaptive design studies. Regulators have recently agreed to include much-needed narrow-spectrum antibiotics, active against certain MDR bacteria, in this paradigm. The background to why big pharmaceutical companies have largely deserted the antibacterial research arena, and the proposals that are hoped to reinvigorate their interest, are presented.

  10. Physiologically induced color-pattern changes in butterfly wings: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Joji M

    2008-07-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the butterfly wing color-pattern determination can be facilitated by experimental pattern changes. Here I review physiologically induced color-pattern changes in nymphalid butterflies and their mechanistic and evolutionary implications. A type of color-pattern change can be elicited by elemental changes in size and position throughout the wing, as suggested by the nymphalid groundplan. These changes of pattern elements are bi-directional and bi-sided dislocation toward or away from eyespot foci and in both proximal and distal sides of the foci. The peripheral elements are dislocated even in the eyespot-less compartments. Anterior spots are more severely modified, suggesting the existence of an anterior-posterior gradient. In one species, eyespots are transformed into white spots with remnant-like orange scales, and such patterns emerge even at the eyespot-less "imaginary" foci. A series of these color-pattern modifications probably reveal "snap-shots" of a dynamic morphogenic signal due to heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps. The conventional gradient model can be revised to account for these observed color-pattern changes. PMID:18638480

  11. Physiologically induced color-pattern changes in butterfly wings: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Joji M

    2008-07-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the butterfly wing color-pattern determination can be facilitated by experimental pattern changes. Here I review physiologically induced color-pattern changes in nymphalid butterflies and their mechanistic and evolutionary implications. A type of color-pattern change can be elicited by elemental changes in size and position throughout the wing, as suggested by the nymphalid groundplan. These changes of pattern elements are bi-directional and bi-sided dislocation toward or away from eyespot foci and in both proximal and distal sides of the foci. The peripheral elements are dislocated even in the eyespot-less compartments. Anterior spots are more severely modified, suggesting the existence of an anterior-posterior gradient. In one species, eyespots are transformed into white spots with remnant-like orange scales, and such patterns emerge even at the eyespot-less "imaginary" foci. A series of these color-pattern modifications probably reveal "snap-shots" of a dynamic morphogenic signal due to heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps. The conventional gradient model can be revised to account for these observed color-pattern changes.

  12. Growth in family income inequality, 1970-1990: industrial restructuring and demographic change.

    PubMed

    Chevan, A; Stokes, R

    2000-08-01

    Industrial restructuring and changing population composition frequently have been treated as competing explanations of growing U.S. income inequality. Using the Gini coefficient, we employ a model of conditional change to explore the relative effects of each on changes of family income distribution between 1970 and 1990, across 784 metropolitan areas and public use microdata areas (PUMAs). Changes in both industrial structure and population characteristics are found to have significant and opposite effects on family income distribution, although there are sharp differences by decade in the dynamics that underlie increasing inequality. Our central conclusion is that it is too soon to eliminate deindustrialization as a significant cause of increased earnings inequality.

  13. Private health insurance: New measures of a complex and changing industry

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Ross H.; Trapnell, Gordon R.

    1984-01-01

    Private health insurance benefit payments are an integral component of estimates of national health expenditures. Recent analyses indicate that the insurance industry has undergone significant changes since the mid-1970's. As a result of these study findings and corresponding changes to estimating techniques, private health insurance estimates have been revised upward. This has had a major impact on national health expenditure estimates. This article describes the changes that have occurred in the industry, discusses some of the implications of those changes, presents a new methodology to measure private health insurance and the resulting estimate levels, and then examines concepts that underpin these estimates. PMID:10310950

  14. Changing Patterns of Interracial Marriage in a Multiracial Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    We use incidence data from the 1980 Census and 2008 American Community Survey to track recent trends in interracial marriage. Intermarriage with Whites increased rapidly among Blacks but stalled among Asians and American Indians. Black-White intermarriage increased threefold over 1980-2008, independent of changing socioeconomic status, suggesting…

  15. Patterns and Composition of Weight Change in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Ryan J.; Morgan, Amy L.; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2015-01-01

    While it is well documented that college freshmen gain weight, there is a dearth of studies examining critical time periods for this weight change. Freshmen living on campus (n = 103; 21M, 82F) visited the laboratory in August/September, November, January, February/March, and April/May. Measurements at each visit included: weight, waist…

  16. Changing Patterns of Transition from School to University Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Celia; Newman, Kate; Noss, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Uses documentary analysis and an informal case study to locate antecedents of a shift towards lack of preparedness among college entrants and a general shift towards a more utilitarian higher education. Concludes that changes put in place to make mathematics more widely useful may result in losing the features which make it marketable. (Author/MM)

  17. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  18. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C; Koven, Charles D; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Miller, Charles E

    2016-07-12

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  19. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    SciTech Connect

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  20. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  1. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  2. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the

  3. Will Climate Change Affect Outbreak Patterns of Planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M. P.; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G.; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998–2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks. PMID:24618677

  4. State-induced technological change in the United States nuclear power industry 1947-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bischak, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in the United States was the consequence of sustained state economic intervention to induce technological change and to promote the private development of civilian nuclear power. State planning, research and development funding, safety regulation and technology transfers from the military to private sector, are the principal instruments by which the state-induced technological change in nuclear power. This dissertation presents a historical and empirical analysis of the political and economic determinants of state-induced technical change. The first three chapters present an economic history showing that state research and regulatory policies determined the direction of technical change through regulation-induced innovations, while the competitive dynamics of the private-sector nuclear development determined the rate of technological change in the nuclear power industry. The next chapter presents an empirical study based on the results of a simultaneous multiple regression analysis of the inter-industry determinants of federal research intensity in the nuclear power industry and 25 other manufacturing and energy industries. A final chapter develops another two-equation simultaneous model to estimate the determinants of federal research intensity in the nuclear industry from 1961 to 1983.

  5. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  6. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  7. Fertility pattern of mothers in a changing rural environment.

    PubMed

    Thimmayamma, B V; Rao, P; Rao, K W

    1981-09-01

    A study conducted in a rural area of India over a decade reveals an improvement in the socioeconomic status of families, yet the effect of an increase in monetary income could not be seen on diet and nutritional status because of the rise in prices of food and nonfood items. Yet, a declining trend in the mortality pattern of preschool children was observed over the years. As part of the same study, information collected on the reproductive performance of rural mothers in both 1961 and 1974 is reported here. Data available on 138 mothers in 1961 regarding their reproductive performance was compared with that collected on 101 mothers (including 42 immigrant mothers) in 1974. A comparison also was made regarding infant and child deaths in the 2 study periods. Information collected about the fertility pattern of the same mothers (33) in both the study periods also was compared. There was no difference in the age at 1st delivery of mothers in the 2 study periods, but the duration of the marriage was comparatively less in 1974, primarily due to the younger age of mothers. A significant increase in the percentage of hospital deliveries was observed in 1974. Mothers studied in 1974 had a significantly lower fertility as compared with those in 1961, mostly due to immigrant mothers. No mother had adopted family planning in 1961, but about 9% of the mothers in 1974 had undergone a tubal ligation (after 7-8 deliveries). There was a significant increase in the percentage of literate mothers in 1974 as comapred with those in 1961, and this increase was seen more in the younger age group of mothers in 1974. When the live births/mother by age group were analyzed, the overall decrease ws mainly attributable to the influence of immigrant mothers as well as to the younger age group of mothers among the local residents in 1974. This trend was not observed among the older age group of others in the 2 study periods. The avarage spacing between live births was 2.7 years in 1961, 2

  8. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Iles, Carley E.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.

    2016-01-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1–6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8–10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20th and late 19th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions – a significant (p<0.1) decrease in streamflow following eruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability. PMID:27279897

  9. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    PubMed

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  10. Characteristic patterns in the response of boreal summer monsoons to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepert, B.; Giannini, A.; Feichter, J.; Blitz, C.; Camargo, S.

    2006-12-01

    Here we constitute an attempt at integrating the complexity of interactions between thermodynamic and dynamical facets of precipitation adjustments to anthropogenic forcings in the 20th century. As previously shown (Liepert et al., 2004 and Feichter et al., 2004) the aerosols in climate model simulations reduce the GHG induced increase in evaporation and precipitation in the annual mean, global mean sense, when the present-day average is compared to pre-industrial. This suppressed global water cycle constitutes a reduced moisture transport from the oceans to the landmasses. The Indian summer monsoon, however, may be an exception. In this paper, formerly published climate simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slap ocean and an interactive aerosol module are reexamined in combination with data analyses to assess the role that archetypical pattern of land atmosphere and ocean atmosphere interactions play in adjusting the monsoon to anthropogenic GHG and aerosol forcing. Here we suggest that moisture transport to the Indian subcontinent is disturbed by two competing radiative forcings: earlier melting of winter snow coverage in the Himalaya and reduced Northern Indian Ocean heating due to aerosols. We will provide arguments that both processes are important and need to be considered simultaneously for assessing effects of climate change on future Asian summer monsoon rainfall.

  11. The changing pattern of Tinea capitis in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    East-Innis, A; Rainford, L; Dunwell, P; Barrett-Robinson, D; Nicholson, A M

    2006-03-01

    The species of dermatophyte fungi causing tinea capitis vary from country to country and may also change with time. This study was done to identify the predominant organisms causing tinea capitis in the Jamaican population. It was a retrospective study looking at all fungal culture requests to the Microbiology Department at the University Hospital of the West Indies during the period January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002. The results showed a gradual switch from the dominance of Microsporum audouinii (61.5%) in 1998 to the dominance of Trichophyton tonsurans (85%) in 2002. The mean age was 8.6. Females constituted 55.7% of positive cases and males, 44.3%. PMID:16921700

  12. Changing supply and earning patterns of the mental health workforce.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, R M; Ivey, S L; Garrett, A B

    1998-11-01

    The authors examine recent trends in the supply and earnings of various mental health providers from 1989 to 1995. The makeup of the mental health workforce is fundamentally different now than a decade ago. The number and earnings of psychiatrists have been relatively flat. The number of psychologists increased by 24%, with their earnings rising rapidly in the 1980s, and remaining level since 1990. The number of clinically trained social workers increased by 87% over the same period, and the number of advanced practice nurses certified in mental health specialties almost doubled, with the earnings of these master's-level providers increasing steadily over the period described. These trends are discussed in the context of major changes in the financing and delivery of mental health care.

  13. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    PubMed

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change. PMID:19339402

  14. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  15. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  16. Changing Migration Patterns Within the United States. Resource Papers for College Geography No. 77-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.

    In this study migration is examined as a component of population change. Decisions involved in migration are discussed. Source of migration data are suggested. Generalized in-migration and out-migration fields are described. Migration patterns before 1975 and recent migration patterns are examined and decisions underlying the latter are analyzed.…

  17. Continuity and Change: Patterns of Mate Selection and Marriage Ritual in a Malay Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, Heather

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected primarily through participant observation, open-ended interviews and discussions with selected informants. A description is given of the village, occupants, and traditional patterns of mate selection and marriage rituals. The second section deals with changing patterns, those of young village women with postsecondary education…

  18. Changing muscle patterns in a segmental epidermal field.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Caveney, S

    1980-08-01

    The spatial rearrangements that take place during metamorphosis in the abdominal sternites and associated retractor muscles of the beetle Tenebrio molitor are described. This paper provides the descriptive background needed to consider whether a morphogenetic gradient is involved in specifying the position at which adult muscle attachments develop. (Experimental work in support of this gradient hypothesis is published in a companion paper.) The ventral abdominal retractor muscles are extensively remodelled at metamorphosis so that the adult muscles differ considerably in appearance from the larval muscles from which they are derived. In particular, there is a change in both the absolute and relative positions of the sites of muscle attachment. Rearrangement of muscles takes place during both the prepupal period and the pupal stage. It is achieved by means of two separate and temporally distinct mechanisms. Epidermal remodelling in the pre-pupal period results in the movement of attached retractor muscles (epidermokinetic muscle movement). In the pupal stage, however, the muscles move over the basal surface of the epidermis (myokinetic muscle movement). Myokinetic movements may be brought about by extension of myoblast processes from the metamorphosing muscles. These findings are considered in terms of Poyarkoff's theory that the pupa serves as an integumental mould, approximating the shape of the adult, within which certain adult muscles develop.

  19. Changing pattern of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zeegelaar, J E; Steketee, W H; van Thiel, P P A M; Wetsteyn, J C F M; Kager, P A; Faber, W R

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in western countries seems to be appearing more frequently. Our aim was to determine if there has been a shift in countries where CL is acquired and whether the incidence has changed, and to assess current diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities. In a retrospective study medical records of patients with the diagnosis of CL at the Departments of Tropical Dermatology and Tropical Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from 1990 to 2000 were analysed. CL was diagnosed in 78 patients. The majority was acquired in Belize, Surinam, French Guyana and Bolivia. Giemsa stains were positive for the parasite in impression smears from 43% and in biopsies from 71%. Seventy-eight per cent of cases were culture-positive and 89% were PCR-positive. Sixty-two patients were treated systemically: pentavalent antimony (32), pentamidine isetionate (11), itraconazole (19), and 13 locally, the majority with a combination of cryosurgery and intralesional pentavalent antimony. Imported CL is becoming more frequent, with South and Middle American countries being important sources of infection. Multiple tests, of which PCR is the most sensitive, are required to confirm the diagnosis. Systemic treatment was given to the majority of the patients.

  20. Changing hysterectomy patterns after introduction of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B; Olive, D L

    1994-08-01

    Physicians reviewed the records of all 670 patients at Southeastern Regional Medical Center in Lumberton, North Carolina, who underwent hysterectomy during 1990-1992 to compare the differences between abdominal hysterectomies and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The proportion of abdominal hysterectomies at the center fell considerably after introduction of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy in 1992 (51.5% in 1990, 45.5% in 1991, and 35.6% in 1992; p = .0012). The proportion of unassisted vaginal hysterectomies did not change, however (e.g., 54.5% in 1991 and 54.3% in 1992). The mean length of stay was longer for abdominal hysterectomy patients than for unassisted and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy patients (4.03 vs. 2.65 and 2.32 days, respectively; p = .0001). Hospital costs were significantly greater for laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy than for the other 2 hysterectomy methods ($11,931 vs. $7,031 for abdominal and $5343 unassisted vaginal; p = .0001). Increased operating time and charges for disposable staples and other instruments accounted for the increased costs. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy patients suffered complications at basically the same rate as the abdominal and unassisted vaginal hysterectomy groups (16% vs. 20% and 12%, respectively). These results suggest that even though laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy can reduce the number of patients who need to undergo laparotomy for a hysterectomy, the hospital costs are much greater for than the conventional method.

  1. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  2. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  3. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Ojeda, Ana; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier; Alberola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  4. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  5. Variations in the Pattern of Pubertal Changes in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. A.; Tanner, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development. The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years. On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys. The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years. Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5440182

  6. Changes in Nitrogen Tropical Deposition Driven by Biomass Burning and Industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. B.; Holland, E. A.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L.

    2003-12-01

    Until few years ago, N deposition studies and the consequences for ecosystems were focused on North Hemisphere, where most of the modern N deposition occurs. Nowadays, the pattern of N deposition has changed over the globe, calling attention to other geographical areas, including tropical regions which were the important pre-industrially(Matson et al., 1999). Substantial increases of NOx and SO2 emissions have been observed in Asia and in some regions of the tropics due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and deforestation (Ayers et al., 2000; Lara et al., 2001). Nevertheless,little information is available for developing regions of tropical and sub-tropical areas, where land-use changes are intense and followed by rapid urbanization, associated with a large industrial expansion. Such information is relevant, since recent estimates show that in a near future more than half of N inputs related to energy consumption in the Earth will take place in tropical and subtropical regions (Galloway et al., 1994). In addition, tropical terrestrial and aquatic systems appear to function differently from temperate systems, where N limitation is more severe than in the tropics (Matson et al, 1999). Conclusions based only in studies conducted in temperate regions may not be valid for tropical and sub-tropical regions. In the tropics the annual nitrogen wet deposition range from 2 to 10 kg N/ha/yr (Williams et al., 1997; Lara et al., 2001; IGAC 2003), according to the land cover. Brazil is largely tropical. It is considered a developing country, where developed areas with large urban centers, a large number of industries, and a high-technology agricultural system coexists with developing areas with low-technology and frontier-type agricultural systems and remote regions such as Amazon Basin. These anthropogenic activities are increasing the N wet deposition from an annual rate of 3.0 kg N/ha/yr in remote areas to an annual rate of 5.6 kg N/ha/yr in disturbed regions. If

  7. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  8. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  9. Pattern-histogram-based temporal change detection using personal chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugurlu, Yucel; Obi, Takashi; Hasegawa, Akira; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1999-05-01

    An accurate and reliable detection of temporal changes from a pair of images has considerable interest in the medical science. Traditional registration and subtraction techniques can be applied to extract temporal differences when,the object is rigid or corresponding points are obvious. However, in radiological imaging, loss of the depth information, the elasticity of object, the absence of clearly defined landmarks and three-dimensional positioning differences constraint the performance of conventional registration techniques. In this paper, we propose a new method in order to detect interval changes accurately without using an image registration technique. The method is based on construction of so-called pattern histogram and comparison procedure. The pattern histogram is a graphic representation of the frequency counts of all allowable patterns in the multi-dimensional pattern vector space. K-means algorithm is employed to partition pattern vector space successively. Any differences in the pattern histograms imply that different patterns are involved in the scenes. In our experiment, a pair of chest radiographs of pneumoconiosis is employed and the changing histogram bins are visualized on both of the images. We found that the method can be used as an alternative way of temporal change detection, particularly when the precise image registration is not available.

  10. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  11. Extensive changes to alternative splicing patterns following allopolyploidy in natural and resynthesized polyploids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renchao; Moshgabadi, Noushin; Adams, Keith L

    2011-09-20

    Polyploidy has been a common process during the evolution of eukaryotes, especially plants, leading to speciation and the evolution of new gene functions. Gene expression levels and patterns can change, and gene silencing can occur in allopolyploids--phenomena sometimes referred to as "transcriptome shock." Alternative splicing (AS) creates multiple mature mRNAs from a single type of precursor mRNA. Here we examined the evolution of AS patterns after polyploidy, with natural and two resynthesized allotetraploid Brassica napus lines, using RT-PCR and sequencing assays of 82 AS events in duplicated gene pairs (homeologs). Comparing the AS patterns between the two homeologs in natural B. napus revealed that many of the gene pairs show different AS patterns, with a few showing variation that was organ specific or induced by abiotic stress treatments. In the resynthesized allotetraploids, 26-30% of the duplicated genes showed changes in AS compared with the parents, including many cases of AS event loss after polyploidy. Parallel losses of many AS events after allopolyploidy were detected in the two independently resynthesized lines. More changes occurred in parallel between the two lines than changes specific to each line. The PASTICCINO gene showed partitioning of two AS events between the two homeologs in the resynthesized allopolyploids. AS changes after allopolyploidy were much more common than homeolog silencing. Our findings indicate that AS patterns can change rapidly after polyploidy, that many genes are affected, and that AS changes are an important component of the transcriptome shock experienced by new allopolyploids.

  12. Multidimensional patterns of change in outpatient psychotherapy: the phase model revisited.

    PubMed

    Stulz, Niklaus; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    In this study, groups of psychotherapy outpatients were identified on the basis of shared change patterns in the three dimensions of the phase model of psychotherapeutic outcome: well-being, symptom distress, and life functioning. Treatment courses provided by a national provider network of a managed care company in the United States (N = 1128) were analyzed using growth mixture models. Several initial patient characteristics (treatment expectations, amount of prior psychotherapy, and global assessment of functioning) allowed for the discrimination between three patient groups of shared change patterns. Those patterns can be classified into three groups as phase model consistent, partial rapid responders, or symptomatically highly impaired patients with each having typical change patterns. PMID:17674397

  13. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Patterns and Changes in Anthropometry: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern. PMID:21811635

  14. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  15. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  16. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  17. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  18. Changes in spatiotemporal land use patterns in selected hydrogeomorphic areas of China and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences exist in land use/cover pattern and its change between the P. R. China and the USA. In order to describe those differences, land use changes in representative regions were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Xiamen City, Changzhutan region and Liupan Mountains regions were selected to ...

  19. Electroencephalographic Coherence and Learning: Distinct Patterns of Change during Word Learning and Figure Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Peter; Hogan, Michael; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen; Fischer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    One likely mechanism in learning new skills is change in synchronous connections between distributed neural networks, which can be measured by coherence analysis of electroencephalographic patterns. This study examined coherence changes during the learning of two tasks, a word association task and a figure association task. Although learning…

  20. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  1. Coping with an Intra-Institutional Relocation: Changes in Resident and Staff Behavior Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Rudolf H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied an intra-institutional relocation of a long-term care facility by documenting changes in the environment and in residents' and staff members' use of space and patterns of behavior. Behavioral changes were conceptualized as attempts to adapt to the larger design and altered layout of the new facility. (JAC)

  2. Changing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A journeywoman machinist and civilian employee at Robbins Air Force Base in Georgia (the first woman to complete a machinist apprenticeship program run by the Air Force), says that it is not unattractive work for a woman. (Author/AJ)

  3. [Wetland landscape pattern change based on GIS and RS: a review].

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Ting; Xi, Min; Li, Yue; Kong, Fan-Long; Chen, Wan

    2013-04-01

    Wetland is an ecological landscape with most biodiversity in nature, which has unique ecological structure and function, and contains abundant natural resources to provide material guarantee for human's living and development. Wetland landscape pattern is the comprehensive result of various ecological processes, and has become a hot issue in wetland ecological study. At present, the combination of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies is an important way to study the wetland landscape pattern change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the wetland landscape change based on GIS and RS from the aspects of the research methods of wetland landscape pattern, index of wetland landscape pattern, and driving forces of wetland landscape pattern evolution, and discussed the applications of the combination of GIS and RS in monitoring the wetland landscape pattern change, the index selection of wetland landscape pattern, and the driving mechanisms of the combined action of human and nature. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future-studies were prospected.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Automated and Nonautomated Job Patterns in the Southern California Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasow, Paul; Massarik, Fred

    There is a great imbalance between the effort devoted to technological change and the attention given to the social and economic consequences of this change. Although automation has strong implications for society, the real problem is not the changes themselves; instead, it is our failure to understand and adjust for these changes. Using data…

  5. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  6. Changes in latitude, changes in attitude - emerging biogeographic patterns of invasion in the Northeast Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeographic patterns of invasion of near-coastal and estuarine species in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are beginning to emerge based on surveys by U.S. EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and the EPA/USGS synthesis of native and nonindigenous species ...

  7. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  8. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of land cover change and grassland degradation pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area].

    PubMed

    Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-Hong; Xue, Da-Yuan; Cai, Liang

    2012-05-01

    Based on field survey data, remote sensing images and statistical data, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal differentiation of land use and grassland degradation patterns in Yangtze River headwaters area in 1987-2007, and discussed the main natural factors (elevation, position and slope) leading to the changes of this area's grassland ecological environment. In 1987-2007, the fragmentation of this area' s landscape patterns had an increasing trend, and natural environment and climate change were the main driving forces of land use pattern change. There existed significant differences in the areas of grassland degradation at different altitudes. Grassland degradation mainly occurred at altitudes 4800-5100 m. The grassland degradation area tended to increase with increasing elevation, and the proportions of the degradation area varied greatly over different slopes and aspects. The climate in the study area became warm and dry, and the spatial structure of regional land cover changed obviously. The distribution patterns of grassland degradation at different elevation, position and slope coincided with alpine environment and human disturbances, suggesting that alpine environment and climatic change were the decisive factors to the grassland ecosystem pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area. PMID:22919830

  9. Changing Relations between Universities and Research Policy and Industry: Catalyst or Deterrent to Unity of Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, Henry

    European institutions of higher education must let changing economic conditions play a bigger role in their decisions about what research to emphasize. As costs escalate, constraints on government spending force a shift of funding priorities toward research of more strategic value to industry. There are many ways that universities and industry…

  10. The Influence of Business and Industry as Drivers for Change in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The rationale underpinning UK higher education (HE) has changed significantly over the last 20 years. Government policy dictates that 50% of 18-30 year-olds should be in HE by the year 2010. Students enter HE almost solely for the exchange value of the qualification and the expectation of enhanced career prospects in business and industry. This…

  11. The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

  12. Changing drainage patterns within South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA, 1964-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fountain, A.G.; Vaughn, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical patterns of water drainage are presented for South Cascade Glacier for four different years between 1964 and 1992, during which the glacier was thinning and receding. The theoretical pattern compares well, in a broad sense, with the flow pattern determined from tracer injections in 1986 and 1987. Differences between the patterns may result from the routing of surface meltwater in crevasses prior to entering the body of the glacier. The changing drainage pattern was caused by glacier thinning. The migration of a drainage divide eventually rerouted most of the surface meltwater from the main stream that drained the glacier in 1987 to another, formerly smaller, stream by 1992. On the basis of projected glacier thinning between 1992 and 1999, we predict that the drainage divide will continue to migrate across the glacier.

  13. Staffing Patterns in the Wholesale and Retail Trade Industry in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    Directed towards designers of vocational education training programs, the document presents statistical data and discussion concerning employment trends in Indiana for various industries in the wholesale and retail trade sector. Data are based on a survey conducted in 1973-74, covering 5,986 establishments and 202,070 employees, with a usable…

  14. Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

  15. [Changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization in Erdos of Inner Mongolia and related driving forces].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Han, Xing-Guo; Wu, Jian-Guo

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization is the most drastic form of land use change, which affects the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services far beyond the limits of cities. Based on the land use data in three time periods and by the method of landscape pattern analysis, this paper analyzed the change characteristics of the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization in the four Banners of East Erdos at different spatial scales. Urbanization had profound effects on the local ecology, society, and economics. The landscape as a whole became more fragmented and complex, and different patch types exhibited distinctive spatial characteristics and were affected to different degrees at class-level. Desert and urban land varied greater, and cropland was most affected by urbanization. Resources factors, increase of urban population, and development of economy were the main socio-economic driving factors to the changes in the local landscape spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization.

  16. Spatial scaling patterns and functional redundancies in a changing boreal lake landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Uden, Daniel R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using longterm data (1996–2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial modeling was used to differentiate groups of invertebrate species exhibiting spatial patterns in composition and abundance (that is, deterministic species) from those lacking spatial patterns (that is, stochastic species). We then determined the functional feeding attributes of the deterministic and stochastic invertebrate species, to infer resilience. Between one and three distinct spatial patterns in invertebrate composition and abundance were identified in approximately one-third of the species; the remainder were stochastic. We observed substantial differences in metrics between deterministic and stochastic species. Functional richness and diversity decreased over time in the deterministic group, suggesting a loss of resilience in regional invertebrate communities. However, taxon richness and redundancy increased monotonically in the stochastic group, indicating the capacity of regional invertebrate communities to adapt to change. Our results suggest that a refined picture of spatial resilience emerges if patterns of both the deterministic and stochastic species are accounted for. Spatially extensive monitoring may help increase our mechanistic understanding of community-level responses and resilience to regional environmental change, insights that are critical for developing management and conservation agendas in this current period of rapid environmental transformation.

  17. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions.

  18. Lipid changes due to fenofibrate treatment are not associated with changes in DNA methylation patterns in the GOLDN study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mithun; Irvin, M. Ryan; Sha, Jin; Aslibekyan, Stella; Hidalgo, Bertha; Perry, Rodney T.; Zhi, Degui; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Absher, Devin; Ordovas, Jose M.; Arnett, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    Fenofibrate lowers triglycerides (TG) and raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) in dyslipidemic individuals. Several studies have shown genetic variability in lipid responses to fenofibrate treatment. It is, however, not known whether epigenetic patterns are also correlated with the changes in lipids due to fenofibrate treatment. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the changes in DNA methylation among the participants of Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. A total of 443 individuals were studied for epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation, assessed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array, before and after a 3-week daily treatment with 160 mg of fenofibrate. The association between the change in DNA methylation and changes in TG, HDLc, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were assessed using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, baseline lipids, and study center as fixed effects and family as a random effect. Changes in DNA methylation were not significantly associated with changes in TG, HDLc, or LDLc after 3 weeks of fenofibrate for any CpG. CpG changes in genes known to be involved in fenofibrate response, e.g., PPAR-α, APOA1, LPL, APOA5, APOC3, CETP, and APOB, also did not show evidence of association. In conclusion, changes in lipids in response to 3-week treatment with fenofibrate were not associated with changes in DNA methylation. Studies of longer duration may be required to detect treatment-induced changes in methylation. PMID:26483836

  19. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  20. Effects of economic change on male morbidity in neighbouring industrial and rural municipalities in northern Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Diderichsen, F; Janlert, U

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the health effects of economic changes in a rural and industrial community. DESIGN--This was a historical cohort study with retrospective information on exposure and information on health outcome from a mailed questionnaire (response rate 82.5%). SETTING--An industrial and a rural community in northern Sweden. PARTICIPANTS--Participants included all men born in a rural community and a random sample of men born in a neighbouring industrial community 1915-1924 and alive in 1984 (N = 1989). MAIN RESULTS--Morbidity was higher in the cohort born in the rural municipality in which more profound changes in the socioeconomic structure had occurred. Even when taking such factors as childhood deprivation, migration, socioeconomic status, early retirement, unemployment, and single living into consideration, most of the differences in morbidity in the two municipalities still remained. However, the changes in employment conditions alone do not appear to explain the differences in morbidity that were found. CONCLUSION--The higher morbidity in the rural community indicates a health effect of the profound economic changes in that community but this difference cannot be explained by crude indicators of exposure to migration, unemployment, and other indicators of economic change. PMID:1494076

  1. Climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial europe: new evidence from wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Li, Guodong; Lee, Harry F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the macroeconomy in pre-industrial Europe has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study follows the combined paradigms of evolutionary economics and ecological economics, in which wavelet analysis (spectrum analysis and coherence analysis) is applied as the first attempt to examine the relationship between climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial Europe in the frequency domain. Aside from confirming previous results, this study aims to further substantiate the association between climate change and macroeconomy by presenting new evidence obtained from the wavelet analysis. Our spectrum analysis shows a consistent and continuous frequency band of 60-80 years in the temperature, grain yield ratio, grain price, consumer price index, and real wage throughout the study period. Besides, coherence analysis shows that the macroeconomic structure is shaped more by climate change than population change. In addition, temperature is proven as a key climatic factor that influences the macroeconomic structure. The analysis reveals a unique frequency band of about 20 years (15-35 years) in the temperature in AD1600-1700, which could have contributed to the widespread economic crisis in pre-industrial Europe. Our findings may have indications in re-examining the Malthusian theory.

  2. Climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial europe: new evidence from wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Li, Guodong; Lee, Harry F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the macroeconomy in pre-industrial Europe has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study follows the combined paradigms of evolutionary economics and ecological economics, in which wavelet analysis (spectrum analysis and coherence analysis) is applied as the first attempt to examine the relationship between climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial Europe in the frequency domain. Aside from confirming previous results, this study aims to further substantiate the association between climate change and macroeconomy by presenting new evidence obtained from the wavelet analysis. Our spectrum analysis shows a consistent and continuous frequency band of 60-80 years in the temperature, grain yield ratio, grain price, consumer price index, and real wage throughout the study period. Besides, coherence analysis shows that the macroeconomic structure is shaped more by climate change than population change. In addition, temperature is proven as a key climatic factor that influences the macroeconomic structure. The analysis reveals a unique frequency band of about 20 years (15-35 years) in the temperature in AD1600-1700, which could have contributed to the widespread economic crisis in pre-industrial Europe. Our findings may have indications in re-examining the Malthusian theory. PMID:26039087

  3. Climate Change and the Macroeconomic Structure in Pre-Industrial Europe: New Evidence from Wavelet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Li, Guodong; Lee, Harry F.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the macroeconomy in pre-industrial Europe has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study follows the combined paradigms of evolutionary economics and ecological economics, in which wavelet analysis (spectrum analysis and coherence analysis) is applied as the first attempt to examine the relationship between climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial Europe in the frequency domain. Aside from confirming previous results, this study aims to further substantiate the association between climate change and macroeconomy by presenting new evidence obtained from the wavelet analysis. Our spectrum analysis shows a consistent and continuous frequency band of 60–80 years in the temperature, grain yield ratio, grain price, consumer price index, and real wage throughout the study period. Besides, coherence analysis shows that the macroeconomic structure is shaped more by climate change than population change. In addition, temperature is proven as a key climatic factor that influences the macroeconomic structure. The analysis reveals a unique frequency band of about 20 years (15–35 years) in the temperature in AD1600-1700, which could have contributed to the widespread economic crisis in pre-industrial Europe. Our findings may have indications in re-examining the Malthusian theory. PMID:26039087

  4. A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine Cȏntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009

  5. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    PubMed

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-09-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employment (less than two months) and it decreased significantly with longer duration. Such mortality excesses had not been recorded among the 1168 workers of the same industry employed one year or more, previously studied in similar fashion. Interviews among a random sample of 52 workers employed for less than two months seem to indicate that the prevalence of smoking, exposures to asbestos, and occupational accidents in other hazardous industries were higher for these workers than for the reference population. Furthermore, unmarried men were overrepresented among the study cohort. These findings support previous observations indicating that short term workers share atypical features related to high mortality from various causes. It is suggested that mortality in this subgroup should be analysed separately in occupational studies.

  6. Extensive changes to alternative splicing patterns following allopolyploidy in natural and resynthesized polyploids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renchao; Moshgabadi, Noushin; Adams, Keith L

    2011-09-20

    Polyploidy has been a common process during the evolution of eukaryotes, especially plants, leading to speciation and the evolution of new gene functions. Gene expression levels and patterns can change, and gene silencing can occur in allopolyploids--phenomena sometimes referred to as "transcriptome shock." Alternative splicing (AS) creates multiple mature mRNAs from a single type of precursor mRNA. Here we examined the evolution of AS patterns after polyploidy, with natural and two resynthesized allotetraploid Brassica napus lines, using RT-PCR and sequencing assays of 82 AS events in duplicated gene pairs (homeologs). Comparing the AS patterns between the two homeologs in natural B. napus revealed that many of the gene pairs show different AS patterns, with a few showing variation that was organ specific or induced by abiotic stress treatments. In the resynthesized allotetraploids, 26-30% of the duplicated genes showed changes in AS compared with the parents, including many cases of AS event loss after polyploidy. Parallel losses of many AS events after allopolyploidy were detected in the two independently resynthesized lines. More changes occurred in parallel between the two lines than changes specific to each line. The PASTICCINO gene showed partitioning of two AS events between the two homeologs in the resynthesized allopolyploids. AS changes after allopolyploidy were much more common than homeolog silencing. Our findings indicate that AS patterns can change rapidly after polyploidy, that many genes are affected, and that AS changes are an important component of the transcriptome shock experienced by new allopolyploids. PMID:21900601

  7. The impact of future changes in weather patterns on extreme sea levels over southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colberg, Frank; McInnes, Kathleen L.

    This study first compares two methods by which the global, variable resolution Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) is forced by reanalysis over Australia. The methods are the spectral nudging and bias-corrected sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. Surface winds and sea level pressure are compared since these influence coastal sea levels. SST forcing was found to better preserve the mean and standard deviation of these quantities. Second, a hydrodynamic model is used to model sea levels over southern Australia over 1980-1999 and 2080-2099 to investigate how changes in weather patterns affect extreme sea levels. Forcing from one Global Climate Model (GCM) and two CCAM simulations in which CCAM was used to downscale two GCMs over Australia with bias-corrected SST forcing (including the GCM considered in this study) were used. While there are differences in the spatial patterns of change between seasons over the modeled coastline between the three models, extreme sea levels were mostly lower in the future period over the southern mainland coastline from autumn to spring due to reduced westerlies in the climate models. The sea level changes around Tasmania varied from positive to negative depending on the model and season. The projected extreme sea level changes were within 10 cm of current climate values. This suggests that over southern Australia extreme sea level changes will be dominated by changes in mean sea level due to thermal expansion and ice sheet and glacier melt rather than changes in weather patterns.

  8. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds' algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry "unstable across time" subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

  9. Investigating the Connections between Oil and Gas Industry Affiliation and Climate Change Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, S. M.; Bunnell, D.; Danielson, C.; Borglum, S.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to the research on scientific aspects of climate change, significant work has also been done on the perception of climate change among various sectors of the population. This is an important area of research as in many cases the science policy of a country is a function of the popular sentiment. One area of interest is the relationship between education, specifically in related areas such as earth sciences and engineering, to one's views on climate change. While research has shown that there is a correlation between higher education and an acceptance of human caused climate change, this work looks into the question more specifically. The question asked here is: given a group of people with education and experience in the earth sciences, does the area of employment affect how they view the issue? In other words, does an engineer or geoscientist working in the oil and gas industry look at the data relating to climate change in the same way an equivalently educated engineer or geoscientist working in another field does? An understanding of whether or not employment in the oil and gas industry has a similar effect on views of climate change as political or religious ideologies may help in fostering communication between disciplines and working together for solutions. In order to look at this question, a survey is being conducted of members in the petroleum engineering community. The survey is designed along the lines of similar surveys to measure the respondents understanding of, concern with, and beliefs about climate change. It also includes other correlating factors such as political and religious views. A second group of engineers in fields that typically place them outside of the oil and gas industry are being surveyed as a control group. The results will determine whether individuals with similar educational backgrounds look at the data connected with climate change differently based on the field in which they work, and if so, are there other

  10. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry. PMID:18075108

  11. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  12. Patterns of Value Change During the Life Span: Some Evidence From a Functional Approach to Values.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Valdiney V; Vione, Kátia C; Milfont, Taciano L; Fischer, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    Little research has examined mean-level change in values across the life span. Using large cross-sectional data (N = 36,845) from the five geo-social regions in Brazil, this study examines how mean levels of basic values differ as a function of age (from age 12 to 65; M = 28) and whether age effects are moderated by gender. Results show that mean-level value change is substantial throughout the life course. We observed both linear and curvilinear patterns of change as well as differential patterns by gender. The observed value change is consistent with age-related life circumstances and psychosocial development. Age effects are also value dependent, supporting the notion that values have different functions for different developmental stages. PMID:26187119

  13. Electricity consumption and structural change in manufacturing industry in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Tyler, S.; Campbell, C.

    1990-04-01

    This report presents data and analysis on historic trends in electricity consumption and economic output in manufacturing industry for a number of newly-industrialized and developing countries. Combining energy and economic data, we show trends in manufacturing electricity intensity, and analyze the causes of change in intensity to the extent possible. For several of the countries we also show trends in electricity intensity at the sub-sectoral level. Since 1975, there have been large increases in aggregate intensity in Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Venezuela, large decreases in Taiwan and China, and little net change in South Korea and India. While interpretation of trends is hampered by lack of data, the evidence suggests that the effect of change in the composition of manufacturing output on aggregate electricity intensity was much less important than the effect of change in intensity at the sub-sectoral level. Though we were unable to analyze change in composition within sub-sectors, it is evident that is affected electricity intensity. Comparison of aggregate manufacturing electricity use per unit of value-added (converted to US dollars) show that intensity in the mid-1980s varied by more than a factor of two among six countries. China and India, both of whom have relatively old equipment in their industries, are at the top of the range, while South Korea and Taiwan, both of whom have relatively new equipment, are at the low end. With the exception of India, there is a clear correlation between electricity intensity and the average price of electricity to industry. Comparison of intensity among 2-digit sectors, which gives a better sense of the relative efficiency of countries, also shows a considerable range for most sectors. 28 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Call for an industry standard for pattern transfer models for usage in OPC and design for manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Thomas; Grimm, Wolfgang; Thiele, Jörg

    2006-03-01

    Lately, "Design for Manufacturability" (DFM) can be found in almost any self-respecting EDA vendor's top-five list of most critical and urgent strategic topics. While the envisioned DFM activities cover a broad spectrum of topics, the exact definition of DFM continues to evade capture [1]. However, it appears self-evident that an important portion of DFM hinges upon the availability of models accurately describing the pattern transfer from the layout to the wafer, here called "pattern transfer models" (PTMs). In combination with a suitable design environment, PTMs will allow physical designers to optimize their layout, thus ensuring the structural integrity over the process window upon transfer to the wafer. In this paper, we argue that PTMs have an importance comparable to that of the "electrical device models" (EDMs) widely used for circuit simulation. We point out some striking analogies between PTMs and EDMs, as far as the basic concepts and use models are concerned. Furthermore, we highlight the significant differences in the EDA land-scapes for both model types, most importantly the fact that an industry standard only exists for EDMs. Based on the consequences for EDA vendors and users, as well as manufacturing cooperations that derive from this situation, we formulate the call for an industry standard for PTMs for usage in "Optical Proximity Correction" (OPC) and DFM.

  15. Recent changes of weather patterns in North America. Progress report for period ending April 1, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, G.J.; Karl, T.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains information dealing with climatic change in North America. Results gathered from present and previous DOE contracts are discussed. These include: usage of the Historical Climatology Network, characteristics of recent climate change, impacts of increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, seasonal trends, geographic and seasonal distribution of temperature anomalies, paleoclimates, weather pattern differences between eastern and western regions, daily temperature variations, general circulation models, and results of oceanic circulation.

  16. Patterns and structures of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan

    2015-01-01

    Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region. PMID:25816147

  17. Patterns and structures of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan

    2015-01-01

    Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region.

  18. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt. PMID:24384369

  19. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt.

  20. Potential Impacts of Precipitation Change on Large-Scale Patterns of Tree Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Azaele, S.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2010-12-01

    Forests are globally important ecosystems host to outstanding biological diversity. Widespread efforts have addressed the impacts of climate change on biodiversity in these ecosystems. We show that a metacommunity model founded on basic ecological processes offers direct linkage from large-scale forcing, such as precipitation, to tree diversity patterns of the Mississippi-Missouri River System and its sub-regions. We quantify changes in tree diversity patterns under various projected precipitation patterns, resulting in a range of responses. Uncertainties accompanying global climate models necessitate the use of scenarios of biodiversity. Here, we present results from scenarios with the largest losses and gains in tree diversity. Our results suggest that species losses under scenarios with the most dramatic contractions tend to be greater in magnitude, spatial extent, and statistical significance than gains under alternative scenarios. These findings are expected to have important implications for conservation policy and resource management.

  1. Potential impacts of precipitation change on large-scale patterns of tree diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Azaele, S.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2010-11-01

    Forests are globally important ecosystems host to outstanding biological diversity. Widespread efforts have addressed the impacts of climate change on biodiversity in these ecosystems. We show that a metacommunity model founded on basic ecological processes offers direct linkage from large-scale forcing, such as precipitation, to tree diversity patterns of the Mississippi-Missouri River System and its subregions. We quantify changes in tree diversity patterns under various projected precipitation patterns, resulting in a range of responses. Uncertainties accompanying global climate models necessitate the use of scenarios of biodiversity. Here we present results from scenarios with the largest losses and gains in tree diversity. Our results suggest that species losses under scenarios with the most dramatic contractions tend to be greater in magnitude, spatial extent, and statistical significance than gains under alternative scenarios. These findings are expected to have important implications for conservation policy and resource management.

  2. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quan; Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing; Xie, Guoxin

    2016-10-01

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal-insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  3. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland. PMID:22007462

  4. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland.

  5. Daily changes of individual gait patterns identified by means of support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Horst, F; Kramer, F; Schäfer, B; Eekhoff, A; Hegen, P; Nigg, B M; Schöllhorn, W I

    2016-09-01

    Despite the common knowledge about the individual character of human gait patterns and about their non-repeatability, little is known about their stability, their interactions and their changes over time. Variations of gait patterns are typically described as random deviations around a stable mean curve derived from groups, which appear due to noise or experimental insufficiencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of intrinsic inter-session variability in more detail by proving separable characteristics of gait patterns between individuals as well as within individuals in repeated measurement sessions. Eight healthy subjects performed 15 gait trials at a self-selected speed on eight days within two weeks. For each trial, the time-continuous ground reaction forces and lower body kinematics were quantified. A total of 960 gait patterns were analysed by means of support vector machines and the coefficient of multiple correlation. The results emphasise the remarkable amount of individual characteristics in human gait. Support vector machines results showed an error-free assignment of gait patterns to the corresponding individual. Thus, differences in gait patterns between individuals seem to be persistent over two weeks. Within the range of individual gait patterns, day specific characteristics could be distinguished by classification rates of 97.3% and 59.5% for the eight-day classification of lower body joint angles and ground reaction forces, respectively. Hence, gait patterns can be assumed not to be constant over time and rather exhibit discernible daily changes within previously stated good repeatability. Advantages for more individual and situational diagnoses or therapy are identified.

  6. Industry Self-Regulation to Improve Student Health: Quantifying Changes in Beverage Shipments to Schools

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Brendan M.; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a data collection and monitoring system to independently evaluate the self-regulatory effort to reduce the number of beverage calories available to children during the regular and extended school day. We have described the data collection procedures used to verify data supplied by the beverage industry and quantified changes in school beverage shipments. Methods. Using a proprietary industry data set collected in 2005 and semiannually in 2007 through 2010, we measured the total volume of beverage shipments to elementary, middle, and high schools to monitor intertemporal changes in beverage volumes, the composition of products delivered to schools, and portion sizes. We compared data with findings from existing research of the school beverage landscape and a separate data set based on contracts between schools and beverage bottling companies. Results. Between 2004 and the 2009–2010 school year, the beverage industry reduced calories shipped to schools by 90%. On a total ounces basis, shipments of full-calorie soft drinks to schools decreased by 97%. Conclusions. Industry self-regulation, with the assistance of a transparent and independent monitoring process, can be a valuable tool in improving public health outcomes. PMID:22897528

  7. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time

    PubMed Central

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status. PMID:22859591

  8. Some Problems and Solutions in the Study of Change: Significant Patterns in Client Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoolmiller, Mike; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Applied latent growth curve methodology to study of patterns of change in client resistance during parent training therapy of 68 mothers of children with confirmed conduct problems. Pretherapy maternal characteristics of inept discipline and antisocial behavior predicted chronically high levels of resistance. Lack of negative curvature of…

  9. A Biomechanical Model to Estimate Corrective Changes in Muscle Activation Patterns for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qi; Buchanan, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    We have created a model to estimate the corrective changes in muscle activation patterns needed for a person who has had a stroke to walk with an improved gait—nearing that of an unimpaired person. Using this model, we examined how different functional electrical stimulation (FES) protocols would alter gait patterns. The approach is based on an electromyographically (EMG) driven model to estimate joint moments. Different stimulation protocols were examined which generated different corrective muscle activation patterns. These approaches grouped the muscles together into flexor and extensor groups (to simulate FES using surface electrodes) or left each muscle to vary independently (to simulate FES using intramuscular electrodes). In addition, we limited the maximal change in muscle activation (to reduce fatigue). We observed that with the two protocols (grouped and ungrouped muscles), the calculated corrective changes in muscle activation yielded improved joint moments nearly matching those of unimpaired subjects. The protocols yielded different muscle activation patterns, which could be selected based on practical condition. These calculated corrective muscle activation changes can be used in studying FES protocols, to determine the feasibility of gait retraining with FES for a given subject and to determine which protocols are most reasonable. PMID:18762296

  10. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Observable Moon Phases and Pattern of Change in Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe selected content knowledge held by 52 preservice elementary teachers about the observable phases of the moon and the monthly pattern of change in observable phases. Data were obtained from participants in a physics course before and after they received inquiry-based instruction designed to promote…

  11. Simultaneous imaging of blood flow and hemoglobin concentration change in skin tissue using NIR speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizu, Yoshihisa; Hirata, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Nishidate, Izumi; Yokoi, Naomichi

    2009-07-01

    We propose a method for imaging simultaneously blood flow and hemoglobin concentration change in skin tissue using speckle patterns acquired at two wavelengths of 780 and 830 nm. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is useful for time-varying analysis of blood circulation in human forearm skin tissue from one set of sequential speckle images.

  12. The Changing Patterns of Individual and School Effects on Educational Transitions. Evidence from Catalan Data (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students' educational career,…

  13. Do No-Loan Policies Change the Matriculation Patterns of Low-Income Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Glen R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether there is discernable variation in the matriculation patterns of low-income students at public flagship institutions around changes in institutional financial-aid policies that target resident, low-income students with need-based aid. Overall, our results suggests that need is not being met on the extensive margin and that…

  14. MONITORING CHANGES IN STRESSED ECOSYSTEMS USING SPATIAL PATTERNS OF ANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the feasibility of using changes in spatial patterns of ants-distribution on experimental plots as an indicator of response to environmental stress. We produced contour maps based on relative abundances of the three most common genera of ants based on pit-fall trap ca...

  15. The Alliance in Couple Therapy: Partner Influence, Early Change, and Alliance Patterns in a Naturalistic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anker, Morten G.; Owen, Jesse; Duncan, Barry L.; Sparks, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the alliance and outcome in couple therapy and examine whether the alliance predicted outcomes over and above early change. The authors also investigated partner influence and gender and sought to identify couple alliance patterns that predicted couple outcomes. Method:…

  16. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  17. HISTORICAL PATTERNS OF HABITAT CHANGES AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN THE DESERT AND SHORT HORNED LIZARDS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Historical environmental change is thought to have played an important role in the diversification of the biota of western North America. Many patterns of diversification have been associated with glacial-interglacial cycles of the latest Pleistocene. To evaluate the relativ...

  18. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status.

  19. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  20. Changes in plantar load distribution and gait pattern following foot drop correction in leprosy affected patients.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Mrinmoy; Joshua, Jerry; Mahato, Nidhu

    2015-09-01

    This study was done to compare the changes in plantar load (weight distribution) and gait patterns before and after tibialis posterior transfer surgery in people affected by leprosy. Changes in gait patterns were observed and proportionate changes in plantar load were quantified using data captured by a baropodometer. All the eight patients who underwent tibialis posterior transfer surgery in 2013 in our hospital were included in the study. In addition to the regular pre-operative and post-operative assessments, the patients also underwent baropodometric evaluation. There was a significant change in plantar load at the heel, lateral border and forefoot. Using the foot pressure scan, it was noted that the progression of the centre of mass (displayed graphically as 'the gait line') was also affected by the altered pattern of weight distribution. This study reiterates the importance of tibialis posterior transfer because: it restores the normal gait pattern of 1, 2, 3 (where 1 is heel strike, 2 is mid foot contact and 3 is forefoot contact) and provides a more uniform distribution of planter load. PMID:26665356

  1. Changing Patterns of Information Storage and Retrieval in American Libraries and Educational Resource Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didier, Elaine K.

    At most schools and universities, the traditional roles of the library and computing services organizations have begun to converge as the technologies they use to store, transmit, and retrieve information and, in some cases, the information itself, become increasingly similar. Examples of the changing patterns of information storage and retrieval…

  2. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources.

    PubMed

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications.

  3. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources

    PubMed Central

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications. PMID:27092246

  4. Changing Patterns in Consumer Behavior Engendered by the Changing Status of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Linda G.

    A review of research suggests that female participation in the work force in the United States creates change in the socioeconomic status of women and thus in their consumer behavior. In 1950, 25 percent of married women were in the labor force; in 1975, 44 percent worked outside the home. The increasing number of married working women has led to…

  5. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. the reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  6. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  7. A Study on Effect of Technological Change on the Frequency of Child Labour in the Indian Match Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham, C. Muthu; Palanivel, R. V.; Anbarasan, R.; Sinthuja, M.

    2012-08-01

    The Indian match industry in the southern state of Tamil Nadu has been characterized by child labour and a stagnant technology for over half a century. We investigate the technological changes and industrial restructuring, catalyzed by the changing duty structure that has moved the match industry towards greater mechanization. Our examination indicates that increased mechanization in the production processes has implied greater demand for skilled labour and a decline in child labour.

  8. [Effects of land use change on landscape pattern vulnerability in Yinchuan Basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Landscape pattern vulnerability reflects the instability and sensitivity of ecological system to external disturbances and helps to understand the status and trend of ecological environment. This paper used landscape sensitivity index and landscape adaptability index to construct the landscape pattern vulnerability index of Yinchuan Basin, and got the distribution of the landscape pattern vulnerability in 2001 and 2013. Our study explored the effect of the land use degree composite index, the integrated land use dynamic degree, the importance index of land use change and various types of land transfer on landscape pattern vulnerability. Results showed that the land use degree composite index was mainly caused by the increase of the arable land, forest and the construction land. The higher proportion of the arable land or forest, the lower the vulnerability was, and the construction land had the opposite effect. With the increase of integrated land use dynamic degree, the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability, followed by grassland, and the forest significantly decreased the vulnerability, followed by the arable land. As the importance index of land use change increasing, the arable land could significantly decrease the vulnerability, followed by the forest, the grassland had a weaker trend with no obvious pattern, and the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability. When the arable land, forest and the grassland were the maintypes of land use transfer, the increasing proportion of the construction land increased the vulnerability. When the construction land was the main type of land use transfer, the grassland and forest improved the vulnerability and the arable land had the opposite effect. Changes in the number of land use types influenced the spatial structure of land use to a certain extent, which could offer a reference on using and developing the land resources scientifically. The ternary diagram could reflect the impact

  9. [Effects of land use change on landscape pattern vulnerability in Yinchuan Basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Landscape pattern vulnerability reflects the instability and sensitivity of ecological system to external disturbances and helps to understand the status and trend of ecological environment. This paper used landscape sensitivity index and landscape adaptability index to construct the landscape pattern vulnerability index of Yinchuan Basin, and got the distribution of the landscape pattern vulnerability in 2001 and 2013. Our study explored the effect of the land use degree composite index, the integrated land use dynamic degree, the importance index of land use change and various types of land transfer on landscape pattern vulnerability. Results showed that the land use degree composite index was mainly caused by the increase of the arable land, forest and the construction land. The higher proportion of the arable land or forest, the lower the vulnerability was, and the construction land had the opposite effect. With the increase of integrated land use dynamic degree, the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability, followed by grassland, and the forest significantly decreased the vulnerability, followed by the arable land. As the importance index of land use change increasing, the arable land could significantly decrease the vulnerability, followed by the forest, the grassland had a weaker trend with no obvious pattern, and the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability. When the arable land, forest and the grassland were the maintypes of land use transfer, the increasing proportion of the construction land increased the vulnerability. When the construction land was the main type of land use transfer, the grassland and forest improved the vulnerability and the arable land had the opposite effect. Changes in the number of land use types influenced the spatial structure of land use to a certain extent, which could offer a reference on using and developing the land resources scientifically. The ternary diagram could reflect the impact

  10. A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine Cȏntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009

  11. Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends.

    PubMed

    Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2015-06-25

    Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface temperature extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in extreme temperature occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of extreme temperatures over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns. PMID:26108856

  12. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia. PMID:25372787

  13. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  14. Research on landscape pattern change in Niyanghe watershed based on remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunyun; Ke, Changqing

    2007-06-01

    In this paper Landsat images, including MSS in 1978, TM in 1988 and ETM in 2001, and ancillary data were selected to investigate the landscape pattern change in Niyanghe watershed. Firstly, the images were classified respectively to get the three landscape maps; then some landscape pattern analytical indices such as number of patch, shape index, contagion, fractal dimension, Shannon index and evenness index were introduced to describe the temporal-spatial change of landscape pattern in the study area assisted by spatial analytical techniques of GIS. The results showed that bare-land was the main landscape type. During the periods of 1978-1988 and 1988-2001, the increased arable land area was the largest, and the increase speed was the fastest compared with all other landscape types, the significant newly-increased arable land derived from bare-land and grassland. The area of grassland increased rapidly. The area of bare-land decreased gradually every year, whereas bare-land was mainly converted into arable land and grassland. Forest land area has decreased recently because of being reclaimed into arable land. From 1978 to 2001, the extent of fragmentation, evenness and diversity increased, contagion index decreased conversely, shape of landscape types became more and more complicated. The main driving factors for landscape pattern change were human factors such as population growth, consumption demands, economy development, transportation, policy, and so on.

  15. Changing social contact patterns under tropical weather conditions relevant for the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, T-C; Fu, Y-C; Hwang, J-S

    2015-01-01

    Weather conditions and social contact patterns provide some clues to understanding year-round influenza epidemics in the tropics. Recent studies suggest that contact patterns may direct influenza transmission in the tropics as critically as the aerosol channel in temperate regions. To examine this argument, we analysed a representative nationwide survey dataset of contact diaries with comprehensive weather data in Taiwan. Methods we used included model-free estimated relative changes in reproduction number, R 0; relative changes in the number of contacts; and model-based estimated relative changes in mean contacts using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Overall, social contact patterns clearly differ by demographics (such as age groups), personal idiosyncrasies (such as personality and happiness), and social institutions (such as the division of weekdays and weekend days). Further, weather conditions also turn out to be closely linked to contact patterns under various circumstances. Fleeting contacts, for example, tend to diminish when it rains hard on weekdays, while physical contacts also decrease during weekend days with heavy rain. Frequent social contacts on weekdays and under good weather conditions, including high temperature and low absolute humidity, all might facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases in tropical regions.

  16. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Wendy R; Shipp, Abbie J; Payne, Stephanie C; Culbertson, Satoris S

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors contribute insight into the temporal nature of work attitudes, examining how job satisfaction changes across the 1st year of employment for a sample of organizational newcomers. The authors examined factors related to job change (i.e., voluntary turnover, prior job satisfaction) and newcomer experiences (i.e., fulfillment of commitments, extent of socialization) that may strengthen or weaken the job satisfaction pattern. Results of a study of 132 newcomers with data collected at 4 unique time periods show a complex curvilinear pattern of job satisfaction, such that satisfaction reached a peak following organizational entry and decreased thereafter. However, examination of moderating factors revealed that individuals who reported less satisfaction with their prior job and those having more positive experiences on the new job, such as greater fulfilled commitments and a higher degree of socialization, were most likely to experience this pattern. Findings from this study offer important implications for theory and research on changes in newcomer attitudes over time as well as practical insight on key factors that shape the pattern of job attitudes as individuals enter and experience a new workplace.

  17. Detection of changes in SEMG signals with myofascial pain using the pattern-classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Huang, Pao-Tieh

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial pain on the upper back (MFPUB) has been a common occupational hazard associated with consistent computer use. Investigations into any sort neuromuscular functional changes due to myofascial pain are rare. This study aims to differentiate the wavelet energy patterns of the surface electromyography signals measured from 30 normal and 26 patient subjects using the K-means clustering process. The results show that the wavelet energy pattern of patient subjects was different to that of normal subject and reveals a sensitivity of 57.69% at a specificity of 76.67% in the identification of myofascial pain. Therefore, this model could provide a reliable feature for clinical diagnosis of myofascial pain.

  18. Selecting climate simulations for impact studies based on multivariate patterns of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlik, Thomas; Gobiet, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    In climate change impact research it is crucial to carefully select the meteorological input for impact models. On the one hand, the number of feasible impact simulations is often restricted by practical constraints, which necessitates the selection of few climate simulations out of a larger ensemble without underestimating the spread of the entire ensemble. On the other hand, model selection should consider the fact that ensembles of climate simulations are often ensembles of opportunity, which may be subject to model inter-dependencies and biases. Bearing this in mind, we introduce an approach for model selection consisting of three steps: First, using principal component analysis for a multitude of meteorological parameters, to find common patterns of climate change within the multi-model ensemble. Second, detecting model similarities regarding these multivariate patterns using cluster analysis. And third, sampling models from each cluster, leading to a subset of representative simulations. We present an application based on the ENSEMBLES regional multi-model ensemble with the aim to provide input for a variety of climate impact studies. For meteorological parameters based on daily average values, we find that the two most dominating patterns of climate change relate to temperature and humidity patterns. For this specific set of parameters, the ensemble can be reduced from 20 to 5 simulations, still maintaining the essential climate change patterns of the whole ensemble. The proposed method enables the user to shrink the ensemble to a few representative members, conserving the model spread and accounting for model similarity. This reduces computational costs for climate impact modeling and enhances the quality of the ensemble at the same time, as it prevents double-counting of dependent simulations which would lead to biased statistics.

  19. Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohensky, Erin L.; Smajgl, Alex; Brewer, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how individuals engage with climate change is critical for developing successful climate adaptation policies. Indonesia ranks among the world's top CO2 emitters, affirming its relevance to the global climate change policy arena, yet the dynamics of climate change engagement in Indonesia may differ from developed countries from which much research on this issue derives. We surveyed 6,310 households in two Indonesian regions to investigate patterns in four steps of engagement: observation, risk perception, reactive action (in response to present climate change) and proactive action (in anticipation of future climate change). We show that 89.5% of households exhibited a pattern whereby taking each of these steps in sequence implied taking all steps that precede it. Exceptions occurred in urban areas, where households were more likely to take action without having observed climate change or perceiving risks. In rural areas, households were more likely to observe climate change without taking action. These variations suggest a potentially nonlinear relationship between steps of engagement. We distinguish three types of household requiring adaptation support, and stress that Indonesian climate policy should shift emphasis from raising awareness to identifying broader institutional structures and processes to facilitate household engagement.

  20. Patterns and Impacts of millennial-scale hydroclimatic change in North American during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    A new database of >100 lake-level reconstructions spanning the Holocene from the United States and Canada reveals that long-term patterns of hydroclimatic change in the mid-latitudes were punctuated by a series of abrupt events, particularly at ca. 8 and 5.5 ka. New detailed reconstructions from the Rocky Mountains and the northeast U.S. show that the abrupt changes produced important changes in the gradient of moisture availability across the continent with the mid-continent drying and the Atlantic coast becoming wet at ca 8 ka, and then a reversal of this pattern at 5.5 ka. Both changes are associated with important abrupt changes in North American vegetation, including abrupt shifts in the boundaries of the Great Plains grasslands and including the classic collapse of eastern hemlock (Tsuga) species. Regression analyses indicate that the area of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and Atlantic sea surface temperatures drove the abrupt changes. Archeological data also reveal societal importance of the hydroclimatic changes, which included probably severe reductions in mid-continent river flows.

  1. Foot strike pattern and gait changes during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Wren, Jeremy J; Hoffman, Martin D

    2014-05-01

    Foot strike pattern has not been examined during ultramarathons where fatigue or avoidance of impact might have greater effect on foot strike and other gait parameters than in shorter events. In this study, video analysis from 3 level sites at a 161-km ultramarathon was used to: (a) examine changes in foot strike pattern, stride rate, and stride length; (b) determine if foot strike pattern is related to performance; and (c) ascertain if post-race blood creatine phosphokinase (CK) concentrations differ by foot strike pattern. Rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence was 79.9, 89.0, and 83.9% at 16.5, 90.3, and 161.1 km, respectively. There was a significant distance effect observed between the 90.3 and 161.1-km site for stride rate (p < 0.05) and across all distances for stride length (p < 0.0001), but stride rate and length were stable among the top 20 finishers. There was no effect (p = 0.3) of foot strike pattern on performance. However, top 20 finishers had greater use (p = 0.02) of a non-RFS pattern at 161.1 km than the remaining finishers. There was a trend toward greater post-race blood CK values among non-RFS runners compared with RFS runners, reaching significance at the 90.3 km site (p < 0.05). Thus, the increased RFS prevalence by race midpoint was likely because of greater muscular demands of non-RFS patterns as supported by the higher post-race blood CK concentrations among non-RFS runners. Faster runners maintained higher stride rates and lengths throughout the race and made greater use of a non-RFS pattern at the end of the race compared with the slower finishers.

  2. Spatial pattern of reference evapotranspiration change and its temporal evolution over Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanlei; Wang, Guojie; Huang, Jin; Mu, Mengyuan; Yan, Guixia; Liu, Chunwei; Gao, Chujie; Li, Xing; Yin, Yixing; Zhang, Fangmin; Zhu, Siguang; Hua, Wenjian

    2016-09-01

    Due to the close relationship of climate change with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), detecting changes in ETo spatial distribution and its temporal evolution at local and regional levels is favorable to comprehensively understand climate change-induced impacts on hydrology and agriculture. In this study, the objective is to identify whether climate change has caused variation of ETo spatial distribution in different analysis periods [i.e., long- (20-year), medium- (10-year), and short-term (5-year)] and to investigate its temporal evolution (namely, when these changes happened) at annual and monthly scales in Southwest China (SWC). First, we estimated ETo values using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith equation, based on historical climate data measured at 269 weather sites during 1973-2012. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that the spatial pattern of annual ETo had significantly changed during the past 40 years, particularly in west SWC for the long-term analysis period, and west and southeast SWC in both medium- and short-term periods, which corresponded to the percent area of significant differences which were 21.9, 58.0, and 48.2 %, respectively. For investigating temporal evolution of spatial patterns of annual ETo, Duncan's multiple range test was used, and we found that the most significant changes appeared during 1988-2002 with the significant area of higher than 25.0 %. In addition, for long-, medium-, and short-term analysis periods, the spatial distribution has significantly changed during March, September, November, and December, especially in the corresponding periods of 1988-1997, 1983-1992, 1973-1977, and 1988-2002. All in all, climate change has resulted in significant ETo changes in SWC since the 1970s. Knowledge of climate change-induced spatial distribution of ETo and its temporal evolution would aid in formulating strategies for water resources and agricultural managements.

  3. Hydrologic Sensitivity to Climate Change of Precipitation Patterns via Integrated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, B. K.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on water resources is critical to ecosystems and to human well being. Most previous work has involved coupling hydrologic models to global and regional climate models. While there is impressive agreement among climate models on temperature increase, unfortunately precipitation estimates present "wildly diverging pictures" [Schiermeier, Nature 2010]. In the IPCC AR4 WG1 SPM on page 16 one sees for most of the mid-latitudes that more than 1/3 of the models disagree with the majority on even the sign of any precipitation change and significant agreement of 90% is typically only found in the polar reaches [Oreskes, Philosophy of Science 2010]. Since precipitation is the primary driver of hydrology, therefore coupling of these climate models to hydrology can only yield projections that are highly uncertain. This work instead offers basic insight into the connections between all sorts of climate possibilities and hydrology. The observational climate inputs to GSFLOW basin models have been tweaked to compute the sensitivity of hydrological components to change in many climate variables. Impacts were evaluated from individual changes from a precipitation pattern such as total amounts, event intensities, event rates, durations, frequencies, and season lengths. By considering each precipitation pattern separately, we separate the confounding factors when all are changing at the same time and can then observe the impact of each factor by itself. Sensitivities have been computed for some 20 hydrologic flow components, such as runoff, infiltration, soil ET, interflow, recharge, baseflow, and streamflows. This hydrological system is highly non-linear and so a single set of computed hydrologic sensitivity values only describes the hydrologic partitioning for a single environmental condition. For a more complete picture, hydrological sensitivities have been computed over wide ranges of climate variables, such as a warmer to a colder

  4. Changes in patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary: a shift to synthetic cathinones.

    PubMed

    Péterfi, Anna; Tarján, Anna; Horváth, Gergely Csaba; Csesztregi, Tamás; Nyírády, Adrienn

    2014-01-01

    The spread of synthetic cathinone injecting is a new phenomenon observed in recent years in Hungary. Until 2010, when the first anecdotal reports on cathinone injecting appeared, injecting was associated with the use of heroin and amphetamine. In this paper we review available evidence of the changes in the drug market and a concurrent shift in patterns of injecting drug use that have been taking place in Hungary since 2010. Remarkable changes have been observed in police seizures data since 2010. While new psychoactive substances have appeared, the availability of heroin has dropped significantly. A qualitative study in 2011 revealed that these market changes correlate with changes in patterns of injecting drug use: decreasing heroin use and the appearance of mephedrone injecting were reported by treatment and needle and syringe programme (NSP) personnel. These changes are detectable in other routine epidemiological data collection systems in the following years as well (i.e. treatment, drug-related deaths, NSP clientele). Heroin-related treatment demand dropped, as did heroin-related mortality. Parallel to this, a growing number of clients appeared in treatment and in NSPs who were primarily injecting cathinones. The shift to cathinones can be observed in amphetamine and heroin injectors as well. Monitoring changes in patterns of injecting drug use are especially important because of the vulnerability of this drug-user population and the consequences of this high-risk route of drug administration. The realignment observed in Hungary is to be further investigated with regard to its determinants, changes in risk behaviour, and in treatment needs.

  5. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry “unstable across time” subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities. PMID:25132830

  6. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather patterns and the evolution and implications of accompanying surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; McEwen, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    Post-equinox changes in Titan's atmospheric circulation brought clouds and extensive methane rain to low latitudes [1,2]. Observations by Cassini ISS over the ensuing ~1.5 yr revealed surface changes to be short-lived; few rain-darkened areas persisted through 2011. In an unsaturated permeable medium, infiltration rates are >20 mm/week [3], so persistence of surface liquids over several months suggests that either an impermeable layer or the local methane table lies close to the surface. Evaporation rates >1 mm/week are predicted at low latitudes [4] and 20 mm/week has been documented at Titan's poles [5], thus areas where darkening persisted must be saturated ground at the level of a methane table or have had ponded liquid 2.5-50 cm deep. Several smaller areas of surface brightening were also observed, a phenomenon that is less well understood. Cassini VIMS spectra of these regions do not match clouds or other surface units [6]. Interpretations include cleaning by runoff [2] or deposition of a fine-grained volatile solid as the result of evaporative cooling of the surface [6]. In general, brightening has persisted longer than darkening, but these areas are also reverting to their original appearance, possibly due to evaporation/sublimation of the bright material or re-deposition of darker hydrocarbons by aeolian transport or precipitation from the atmosphere. Cassini and Earth-based observers monitor Titan frequently, but few clouds have been observed since Fall 2010, which may indicate that enough methane was removed from the atmosphere and the lapse rate stabilized sufficiently that activity will not resume until the onset of convection at mid-northern latitudes later in northern spring. A similar lapse followed a 2004 outburst of south-polar clouds [7], which also appeared to produce significant rainfall [8]. [1] Turtle et al., GRL 38, L03203, doi:10.1029/2010GL046266, 2011. [2] Turtle et al., Science 331, 10.1126/science.1201063. 2011. [3] Hayes et al., GRL 35

  7. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather patterns and the evolution and implications of accompanying surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Barbara, J. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; West, R. A.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Stofan, E. R.; Schaller, E. L.; Lopes, R. M.; Ray, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Post-equinox changes in Titan's atmospheric circulation brought clouds and extensive methane rain to Titan's low latitudes [1,2]. Observations by Cassini ISS over the ~2 years since the storm revealed most of the changes to be short-lived; only a few darkened patches persisted through Fall 2011. In an unsaturated permeable medium, infiltration rates exceed 20 mm/week [3], so persistence of surface liquids over several months suggests either a shallow impermeable layer or that the local methane table lies close to the surface. Evaporation rates greater than 1 mm/week are predicted in equatorial regions [4] and rates of 20 mm/week have been documented at Titan's poles [5], thus areas where darkening persisted must be saturated ground at the level of a methane table or have had liquid ponded to depths of 2.5-50 cm. Several smaller areas of surface brightening were also observed, a phenomenon that is less well understood. Cassini VIMS spectra of these regions do not match those of clouds or other surface units [6, 7]. Interpretations include cleaning by runoff [2] or deposition of a fine-grained volatile solid as the result of evaporative cooling [6, 7]. In general, brightening has persisted longer than darkening, but these areas are also reverting to their original appearance, which could constrain rates of evaporation/sublimation of the bright material or re-deposition of darker hydrocarbons by aeolian transport or precipitation from the atmosphere. Cassini and Earth-based observers monitor Titan frequently (typically at least a few times per month), but few clouds have been observed since Fall 2010, which may indicate that enough methane was removed from the atmosphere and the lapse rate stabilized sufficiently that activity will not resume until the onset of convection at mid-northern latitudes later in northern spring. A similar lapse followed a 2004 outburst of south-polar clouds [8], which also appeared to produce significant rainfall [9]. [1] Turtle et al., GRL

  8. Spatial pattern of forest cover changes in the northeast China since 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Gao, Zhiqiang; Jing, Yuping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2005-09-01

    Forest is the main body of the land ecosystem. As key part of boreal forest in Eurasia, forest in the northeast China plays an important role in maintaining global carbon cycle and regional ecology security. The northeast China is the highest forest coverage ratio area in China, the forest coverage ratio in total area doesn't change much since reform and opening of China, but the spatial distribution of forest cover changes is in regional difference explicitly. Base on land use data of three period (1986a, 1996a, 2000a) remote sensing image, the research applying statistical analysis models and spatial analysis models, analyzed the forest cover change types, landscape characteristics and spatial distribution pattern from the middle of 1980s to 2000. The research result show that: (1) From 1980s, the main forest cover changes in northeast China was in interchange of forestland and cropland, and interchange of forestland and grassland. Among them, the forested land change plays mainly part, and deforest area is bigger than reforest one. (2) From 1980s, despite the forestland area decreases every year in northeast China, landscape pattern didn't change much, forestland is the main part of landscape, the degree of forest landscape fragmentation dropped every year. It shows that forest cover changes frequently take place at the edge of forest, which indicates that a neighborhood relation plays an important role in the forestland changes. (3) From 1980s, forest cover changes in northeast China most happened in hilly land at about 400m height, and took on obvious zonality in horizontal distribution: degree of forest cover change dropped off from south and north to middle, the degree of reforest dropped off from south to north, and the degree of deforest dropped off from north to south.

  9. Phylogenetic patterns of species loss in Thoreau's woods are driven by climate change.

    PubMed

    Willis, Charles G; Ruhfel, Brad; Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Davis, Charles C

    2008-11-01

    Climate change has led to major changes in the phenology (the timing of seasonal activities, such as flowering) of some species but not others. The extent to which flowering-time response to temperature is shared among closely related species might have important consequences for community-wide patterns of species loss under rapid climate change. Henry David Thoreau initiated a dataset of the Concord, Massachusetts, flora that spans approximately 150 years and provides information on changes in species abundance and flowering time. When these data are analyzed in a phylogenetic context, they indicate that change in abundance is strongly correlated with flowering-time response. Species that do not respond to temperature have decreased greatly in abundance, and include among others anemones and buttercups [Ranunculaceae pro parte (p.p.)], asters and campanulas (Asterales), bluets (Rubiaceae p.p.), bladderworts (Lentibulariaceae), dogwoods (Cornaceae), lilies (Liliales), mints (Lamiaceae p.p.), orchids (Orchidaceae), roses (Rosaceae p.p.), saxifrages (Saxifragales), and violets (Malpighiales). Because flowering-time response traits are shared among closely related species, our findings suggest that climate change has affected and will likely continue to shape the phylogenetically biased pattern of species loss in Thoreau's woods.

  10. Seasonal changes in spatial patterns of two annual plants in the Chihuahuan Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Guo, Q.; Ren, H.; Peng, S.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial pattern of a biotic population may change over time as its component individuals grow or die out, but whether this is the case for desert annual plants is largely unknown. Here we examined seasonal changes in spatial patterns of two annuals, Eriogonum abertianum and Haplopappus gracilis, in initial (winter) and final (summer) densities. The density was measured as the number of individuals from 384 permanent quadrats (each 0.5 m ?? 0.5 m) in the Chihuahuan Desert near Portal, Arizona, USA. We used three probability distributions (binomial, Poisson, and negative binomial or NB) that represent three basic spatial patterns (regular, random, and clumped) to fit the observed frequency distributions of densities of the two annuals. Both species showed clear clumped patterns as characterized by the NB and had similar inverse J-shaped frequency distribution curves in two density categories. Also, both species displayed a reduced degree of aggregation from winter to summer after the spring drought (massive die-off), as indicated by the increased k-parameter of the NB and decreased values of another NB parameter p, variance/mean ratio, Lloyd's Index of Patchiness, and David and Moore's Index of Clumping. Further, we hypothesized that while the NB (i.e., Poisson-logarithmic) well fits the distribution of individuals per quadrat, its components, the Poisson and logarithmic, may describe the distributions of clumps per quadrat and of individuals per clump, respectively. We thus obtained the means and variances for (1) individuals per quadrat, (2) clumps per quadrat, and (3) individuals per clump. The results showed that the decrease of the density from winter to summer for each plant resulted from the decrease of individuals per clump, rather than from the decrease of clumps per quadrat. The great similarities between the two annuals indicate that our observed temporal changes in spatial patterns may be common among desert annual plants. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  12. Evolution of stationary wave patterns in mesospheric water vapor due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirhan Barı, Deniz; Gabriel, Axel; Sezginer Ünal, Yurdanur

    2016-07-01

    The variability in the observed stationary wave patterns of the mesospheric water vapor (H2O) is investigated using CMIP5 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections. The change in the vertical and meridional wave structure at northern mid- and polar latitudes associated to the zonal and meridional eddy heat fluxes is discussed by analyzing the advection of H2O due to residual wind components. The alteration in the characteristics of the stationary wave-1 pattern of the lower mesospheric H2O (up to about 75km) related to change in the projected radiative forcing is observed for the years from 2006 to 2100. Additionally the remarkable effect of the increase in global temperature on the zonal asymmetries in small-scale transient waves and parameterized gravity waves, which largely contribute to the observed stationary wave patterns of H2O in the upper mesosphere, is analyzed. For validation purposes, the derived stratospheric patterns are verified against the eddy heat fluxes and residual advection terms derived from Aura/MLS satellite data between 2004-2010 and the reference period of the CMIP5 MPI dataset (1976-2005) providing confidence in the applied method.

  13. A study of morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers from an industry in central India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manish J.; Koparkar, Anil R.; Joshi, Mohan P.; Hajare, Shilpa T.; Kasturwar, Nandakishor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron is the world's most commonly used metal and can usually be found with other elements in the form of steel. In this era of machines, it is the inevitable part in production of various materials like eyeglass frames, jet aircraft, the space shuttle, automobiles, and surgical instruments. Occupational factors make an important contribution to the global burden of disease, but the reliable data on occupational disease are much more difficult to obtain. Hence, the current study was carried out to find out the morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. was carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee in an iron and steel factory. Worker's detailed information regarding profile was taken in pretested questionnaire format after obtaining the informed written consent and explaining the purpose of study. Workers were also interviewed regarding their years of job, job satisfaction, usage of protective devices, and history of injuries during work. Worker's detailed general and systemic examination was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of morbidities among the workers was 60%. It was observed that commonest morbidity in the workers was lumbago (musculoskeletal pain), that is, 33.25%which was more in Group B (49.73%) than Group A (18.78%), followed by occupational dermatitis (27%) which more common in Group A (33.33%) than Group B (19.79%). It was seen that occupation-related morbidities were more prevalent in Group A, i.e. Exposed group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that occupation-related morbidities were more common in exposed group (EG) than that of nonexposed group (NEG) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:25598617

  14. Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Vollrath, Fritz; Cerling, Claire E; Robinson, Todd J; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2006-01-10

    We use chronologies of stable isotopes measured from elephant (Loxodonta africana) hair to determine migration patterns and seasonal diet changes in elephants in and near Samburu National Reserve in northern Kenya. Stable carbon isotopes record diet changes, principally enabling differentiation between browse and tropical grasses, which use the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, respectively; stable nitrogen isotopes record regional patterns related to aridity, offering insight into localized ranging behavior. Isotopically identified range shifts were corroborated by global positioning system radio tracking data of the studied individuals. Comparison of the stable isotope record in the hair of one migrant individual with that of a resident population shows important differences in feeding and ranging behavior over time. Our analysis indicates that differences are the result of excursions into mesic environments coupled with intermittent crop raiding by the migrant individual. Variation in diet, quantified by using stable isotopes, can offer insight into diet-related wildlife behavior. PMID:16407164

  15. Changes in cerebellar activation pattern during two successive sequences of saccades.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Thomas; Mascolo, Andrea; Yousry, Tarek A; Bense, Sandra; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2002-06-01

    The changes in the cerebellar activation pattern of two successive fMRI scanning runs were determined for visually guided to-and-fro saccades in 12 healthy volunteers familiar with the study paradigm. Group and single subject-analyses revealed a constant activation of the paramedian cerebellar vermis (uvula, tonsils, tuber, folium/declive), which reflects constant ocular motor activity in both runs. A significant decrease in activation of the cerebellar hemispheres found in the second run is best explained by either a decrease in attention or the effects of motor optimization and learning. The significant, systematic changes of the cerebellar activation pattern in two successive runs were not expected, because the ocular motor task was simple, familiar, and highly automated. These findings indicate that similar effects may bias other cerebellar activation studies, in which sensorimotor tasks are repeated in a single session.

  16. Patterns of Change in Psychological Variables Leading up to Competition in Superior Versus Inferior Performers.

    PubMed

    Boat, Ruth; Taylor, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants' race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times. Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant differences in growth trajectories over the 2-week period in mental skills use, social support, and fatigue. The results provide novel insight into how athletes' fluctuating psychological state in the 2 weeks before competition may be crucial in determining performance. PMID:26265338

  17. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border.

    PubMed

    Viña, Andrés; Echavarria, Fernando R; Rundquist, Donald C

    2004-05-01

    This study uses Landsat satellite data to document the rates and patterns of land-cover change along a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador border during a 23-yr period (1973-1996). Human colonization has resulted in extensive deforestation in both countries. Satellite change detection analysis showed that the annual rates of deforestation were considerably higher for the Colombian side of the border. In addition, loss of forest cover on the Colombian side for the study period was almost 43%, while only 22% on the Ecuadorian side. The study found that there is no single factor driving deforestation on either side of the border, but concluded that the higher rates on the Colombian side may be due to higher colonization pressures and intensification of illegal coca cultivation. On the Ecuador side of the border the satellite images documented patterns of deforestation that reflected road networks associated with oil exploration and development.

  18. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Alam, Mohammad T; Heijne, Wilbert H M; van den Berg, Marco A; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-03-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild-type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology.

  19. Genome‐wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Medema, Marnix H.; Alam, Mohammad T.; Heijne, Wilbert H. M.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Summary To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β‐lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome‐wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild‐type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology. PMID:21342474

  20. Heterogeneity and Change in the Patterning of Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority: A Latent Transition Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumsille, Patricio; Darling, Nancy; Flaherty, Brian; Martinez, Maria Loreto

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the patterning of adolescents' beliefs about the legitimate domains of parental authority were modeled in 2,611 Chilean adolescents, 11-16 years old. Transitions in adolescents' belief patterns were studied over 3 years. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed 3 distinct patterns of beliefs--"parent control," "shared control," and…

  1. Does Uncertainty in the Pattern of Tropical SST Changes Underlie Uncertainty Tropical Precipitation Trends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, L. M.; Coelho, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    The provision of robust projections of regional precipitation changes from CMIP3 is a substantial challenge facing the climate community. The need for this information to inform adaptation planning is particularly important in tropical regions, where societal vulnerability to climate variability and change is greatest. Much uncertainty in how tropical precipitation variability may change has been tied to uncertainty in how ENSO events are likely to change. We show that CMIP3 models with a good representation of ENSO project no significant changes for the phenomenon by the end of the 21st century, as do a number of models that represent ENSO less faithfully. Furthermore, ENSO teleconnections are not projected to change in the future. Thus, things like future ENSO-related drought risk can be presented as a combination of precipitation trends, from the models, and precipitation variability, from observations. The question still remains: How best to assess precipitation trends? While the general pattern - wetter equatorial region, drier sub-tropics - is similar among models, the local details can vary considerably suggesting that these trends are not robust at the local-to-regional scale. However, we do find that the models that do ENSO well, agree with each other on spatial details of precipitation changes, more than other models. On the other hand, the patterns of change for tropical Pacific SST differ between these good ENSO models, and all differ from observed trends. Thus, we address the question, if reasonable ENSO variability is important in models for robust tropical precipitation trends, then is it important what tropical SST changes look like? If so, where? If not, what is it that makes this subset of models agree?

  2. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  3. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  4. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  5. To what extent did changes in July temperature influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.

    2014-12-01

    What was the impact of July temperature changes on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air temperature estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy temperature records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these temperature estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of temperature and of temperature changes on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of temperature on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to change. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with temperature controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation changes. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July temperature alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of temperature and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.

  6. Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Lee, Harry F.; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  7. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.

  8. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Flemish, Joseph; Soer, Wouter

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  9. The Patterns of Change in Higher Education Institutions: The Context of the Changing Quality Assurance Mechanisms in England, Japan, and New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the patterns of change in higher education institutions. It examines the contexts of the changing quality assurance mechanisms used by the different types of higher education institutions in England, Japan, and New York State between 2001 and 2007. The paper argues that there were no clear patterns of…

  10. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators.

  11. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators. PMID:27278360

  12. [Land use pattern change in Ejin Delta of Northwest China during 1930-2010].

    PubMed

    Nian, Yan-yun; Wang, Xiao-li; Chen, Lu

    2015-03-01

    The land use and landscape pattern in the lower reaches of the arid inland river basin is meaningful to water resource allocation. Based on the land use data in 1930, 1961, 1990, 2000, 2010, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the change of landscape pattern in the Ejin Delta in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in Northwest China. The results showed that the desert area accounted for 73.4% of the total research area in 2010, and the grassland 20.8%. During the past 80 years, the grassland, farmland and construction land increased. The transformation of land use types were characterized by switching to farmland and construction land. The fragmentation and. diversity of the landscape increased, while the dominance of the landscape decreased. The landscape pattern obviously lied on the water resource and had regional diversity. Land use changes tended to make the landscape well-distributed, diverse and fragmentized. At last, the driving factors and ecological environment effects of land use change were discussed. In a word, to ensure harmonious development between human and eco-hydrology, suggestions such as planning ecological resettlement, limiting farmland area, developing precision agriculture and increasing the proportion of ecological water use should be put forward.

  13. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    PubMed Central

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  14. Long-term change in October rainfall patterns in southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gai, T.; Bitan, A.; Manes, A.; Alpert, P.

    1993-12-01

    A comprehensive study of long-term changes in October rainfall patterns in southern Israel, a semi-arid fringe zone between the Mediterranean coastal plain and the Negev Desert, was carried out. It was earlier postulated that the observed positive trend in October rainfall amounts may result from land-use changes in the area following the installation of the National Water Carrier (NWC) in the early 1960s. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the anticipated local effects, as well as their spatial extent, in order to investigate the possibility of climatic change over a larger synoptic scale. In the study region, a total number of 51 rainfall stations with long-term records up to 55 years, were analyzed, along with six control stations in other parts of the country. All stations were analyzed for trends in early seasonal rainfall, spatial variability during the two reference periods before and after the 60s, and for the ratio between rain per day (RPD) and number of rain days (NRD) during the two periods. The results of the analyses point to a well defined localized climatic change in October rainfall patterns within the study area, that is traceable to intensive and extensive land-use changes following the installation of the NWC.

  15. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state.

  16. Butterfly wing pattern evolution is associated with changes in a Notch/Distal-less temporal pattern formation process.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert D; Serfas, Michael S

    2004-07-13

    In butterflies there is a class of "intervein" wing patterns that have lines of symmetry halfway between wing veins. These patterns occur in a range of shapes, including eyespots, ellipses, and midlines, and were proposed to have evolved through developmental shifts along a midline-to-eyespot continuum. Here we show that Notch (N) upregulation, followed by activation of the transcription factor Distal-less (Dll), is an early event in the development of eyespot and intervein midline patterns across multiple species of butterflies. A relationship between eyespot phenotype and N and Dll expression is demonstrated in a loss-of-eyespot mutant in which N and Dll expression is reduced at missing eyespot sites. A phylogenetic comparison of expression time series from eight moth and butterfly species suggests that intervein N and Dll patterns are a derived characteristic of the butterfly lineage. Furthermore, prior to eyespot determination in eyespot-bearing butterflies, N and Dll are transiently expressed in a pattern that resembles ancestral intervein midline patterns. In this study we establish N upregulation as the earliest known event in eyespot determination, demonstrate gene expression associated with intervein midline color patterns, and provide molecular evidence that wing patterns evolved through addition to and truncation of a conserved midline-to-eyespot pattern formation sequence. PMID:15242612

  17. Butterfly wing pattern evolution is associated with changes in a Notch/Distal-less temporal pattern formation process.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert D; Serfas, Michael S

    2004-07-13

    In butterflies there is a class of "intervein" wing patterns that have lines of symmetry halfway between wing veins. These patterns occur in a range of shapes, including eyespots, ellipses, and midlines, and were proposed to have evolved through developmental shifts along a midline-to-eyespot continuum. Here we show that Notch (N) upregulation, followed by activation of the transcription factor Distal-less (Dll), is an early event in the development of eyespot and intervein midline patterns across multiple species of butterflies. A relationship between eyespot phenotype and N and Dll expression is demonstrated in a loss-of-eyespot mutant in which N and Dll expression is reduced at missing eyespot sites. A phylogenetic comparison of expression time series from eight moth and butterfly species suggests that intervein N and Dll patterns are a derived characteristic of the butterfly lineage. Furthermore, prior to eyespot determination in eyespot-bearing butterflies, N and Dll are transiently expressed in a pattern that resembles ancestral intervein midline patterns. In this study we establish N upregulation as the earliest known event in eyespot determination, demonstrate gene expression associated with intervein midline color patterns, and provide molecular evidence that wing patterns evolved through addition to and truncation of a conserved midline-to-eyespot pattern formation sequence.

  18. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  19. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  20. Separation of factors responsible for change in breathing pattern induced by instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, W; Tobin, M J

    1985-11-01

    Employment of mouthpiece and noseclips (MP + NC) has repeatedly been shown to increase tidal volume (VT), but its effect on respiratory frequency (f) and its subsets is controversial. The mechanisms accounting for this alteration in breathing pattern are poorly understood and may include stimulation of oral or nasal sensory receptors or alteration in the route of breathing. In this study we demonstrated that use of a MP + NC, compared with nonobtrusive measurement with a calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmograph, alters the majority of the volume and time indexes of breathing pattern, with increases in minute ventilation (P less than 0.01), VT (P less than 0.001), inspiratory time (TI, P less than 0.05), expiratory time (TE, P less than 0.05), mean inspiratory flow (P less than 0.05), and mean expiratory flow (P less than 0.05) and a decrease in f(P less than 0.05). Separating the potential mechanisms we found that when the respiratory route was not altered, independent oral stimulation (using an occluded MP) or nasal stimulation (by applying paper clips to the alae nasi) did not change the breathing pattern. In contrast, obligatory oral breathing without additional stimulation of the oral or nasal sensory receptors caused increases in VT (P less than 0.05), TI (P less than 0.05), and TE (P less than 0.01) and a fall in f(P less than 0.05). Heating and humidifying the inspired air did not prevent the alteration in breathing pattern with a MP. Thus change in the respiratory route is the major determinant of the alteration in breathing pattern with a MP + NC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Dynamic Rainfall Patterns and the Simulation of Changing Scenarios: A behavioral watershed response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, M.; Guzman, J.; Steiner, J. L.; Hou, C.; Moriasi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall is one of the fundamental drivers that control hydrologic responses including runoff production and transport phenomena that consequently drive changes in aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the hydrologic responses to changing scenarios (e.g., climate, land use, and management) using environmental models requires a realistic representation of probable rainfall in its most sensible spatio-temporal dimensions matching that of the phenomenon under investigation. Downscaling projected rainfall from global circulation models (GCMs) is the most common practice in deriving rainfall datasets to be used as main inputs to hydrologic models which in turn are used to assess the impacts of climate changes on ecosystems. Downscaling assumes that local climate is a combination of large-scale climatic/atmospheric conditions and local conditions. However, the representation of the latter is generally beyond the capacity of current GCMs. The main objective of this study was to develop and implement a synthetic rainfall generator to downscale expected rainfall trends to 1 x 1 km rainfall daily patterns that mimic the dynamic propagation of probability distribution functions (pdf) derived from historic rainfall data (rain-gauge or radar estimated). Future projections were determined based on actual and expected changes in the pdf and stochastic processes to account for variability. Watershed responses in terms of streamflow and nutrients loads were evaluated using synthetically generated rainfall patterns and actual data. The framework developed in this study will allow practitioners to generate rainfall datasets that mimic the temporal and spatial patterns exclusive to their study area under full disclosure of the uncertainties involved. This is expected to provide significantly more accurate environmental models than is currently available and would provide practitioners with ways to evaluate the spectrum of systemic responses to changing scenarios.

  2. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di

    2016-04-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  3. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Hao, Z.; Zheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after equatorial volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  4. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:26156982

  5. Heterogeneous impact of motion on fundamental patterns of developmental changes in functional connectivity during youth.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Wolf, Daniel H; Ruparel, Kosha; Erus, Guray; Elliott, Mark A; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Jackson, Chad; Prabhakaran, Karthik; Smith, Alex; Hakonarson, Hakon; Verma, Ragini; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2013-12-01

    Several independent studies have demonstrated that small amounts of in-scanner motion systematically bias estimates of resting-state functional connectivity. This confound is of particular importance for studies of neurodevelopment in youth because motion is strongly related to subject age during this period. Critically, the effects of motion on connectivity mimic major findings in neurodevelopmental research, specifically an age-related strengthening of distant connections and weakening of short-range connections. Here, in a sample of 780 subjects ages 8-22, we re-evaluate patterns of change in functional connectivity during adolescent development after rigorously controlling for the confounding influences of motion at both the subject and group levels. We find that motion artifact inflates both overall estimates of age-related change as well as specific distance-related changes in connectivity. When motion is more fully accounted for, the prevalence of age-related change as well as the strength of distance-related effects is substantially reduced. However, age-related changes remain highly significant. In contrast, motion artifact tends to obscure age-related changes in connectivity associated with segregation of functional brain modules; improved preprocessing techniques allow greater sensitivity to detect increased within-module connectivity occurring with development. Finally, we show that subject's age can still be accurately estimated from the multivariate pattern of functional connectivity even while controlling for motion. Taken together, these results indicate that while motion artifact has a marked and heterogeneous impact on estimates of connectivity change during adolescence, functional connectivity remains a valuable phenotype for the study of neurodevelopment.

  6. 78 FR 19495 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval Changes: Manufacturing Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval... post-approval changes (SUPAC) draft guidance for industry entitled ``SUPAC: Manufacturing...

  7. Changes in the free nucleotide and nucleoside pattern of pea seeds in relation to germination

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Major changes in the free nucleotide and nucleoside pattern of germinating pea seeds are described. 2. During the imbibition phase of germination (0–16hr.) there was a 250% increase in ATP content and a parallel fall in AMP content without detectable change in ADP content. Metabolic implications are discussed. 3. The main nucleoside changes during imbibition were a 93% increase in xanthosine content and a 39% fall in adenosine content. 4. During the last phase of germination, leading to the emergence of the radicle, there is a general fall in free nucleotide content. AMP, ADP and ATP contents decreased 73, 48 and 52% respectively. Acetyl-3′-dephosphocoenzyme A concentration fell by 53%. However, the (NADP++NADPH)/(NAD++NADH) ratio increased, and except for uridine content (52% decrease) the nucleoside pattern changed little. 5. A sixfold increase in the concentration of an unidentified UDP-glycosyl compound occurs at this stage, although the content of UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose remained unchanged. 6. No free purine or pyrimidine bases could be detected at any stage of germination. PMID:14340101

  8. [Landscape pattern change at the upper reaches of Minjiang River and its driving force].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhibin; He, Xingyuan; Jiang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yonghua; Hu, Yuanman; Chang, Yu; Li, Yuehui; Han, Wenquan; Liu, Miao

    2004-10-01

    The upper reaches of Minjiang River is an ecological sensitive and vulnerable area in southwest of China. It is of great significance to the ecological pattern safety in China. In this study, we analyzed the landscape pattern change through the interpretation of TM imageries in 1986, 1995 and 2000. The results showed that the matrix landscape in this area was grass landscape. Forest landscape patches were embedded in the grass landscape. The forest landscape area increased from 1986 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2000. However, the number of patches of forest landscape was increasing during all the time. This suggested that the intensity of anthropogenic disturbances including harvesting, forest landscape reclaiming and excessive grazing were persistently increasing from 1986 to 2000. The ecological driving forces of the landscape change in this area were the intensified anthropogenic disturbances as a result of the population boom including the predacious harvesting of forest and excessive grazing. The natural disturbances such as the global climatic change also partly influenced the landscape change in this area.

  9. [Landscape pattern change at the upper reaches of Minjiang River and its driving force].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhibin; He, Xingyuan; Jiang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yonghua; Hu, Yuanman; Chang, Yu; Li, Yuehui; Han, Wenquan; Liu, Miao

    2004-10-01

    The upper reaches of Minjiang River is an ecological sensitive and vulnerable area in southwest of China. It is of great significance to the ecological pattern safety in China. In this study, we analyzed the landscape pattern change through the interpretation of TM imageries in 1986, 1995 and 2000. The results showed that the matrix landscape in this area was grass landscape. Forest landscape patches were embedded in the grass landscape. The forest landscape area increased from 1986 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2000. However, the number of patches of forest landscape was increasing during all the time. This suggested that the intensity of anthropogenic disturbances including harvesting, forest landscape reclaiming and excessive grazing were persistently increasing from 1986 to 2000. The ecological driving forces of the landscape change in this area were the intensified anthropogenic disturbances as a result of the population boom including the predacious harvesting of forest and excessive grazing. The natural disturbances such as the global climatic change also partly influenced the landscape change in this area. PMID:15624811

  10. Evaluating patterns of weight and body composition change among college women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen.

  11. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    PubMed

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet.

  12. Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2013-03-10

    Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array (CFA) for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue (RGB) colors, and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image. We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10,366 test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy.

  13. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25100588

  14. Changing patterns of daily rhythmicity across reproductive states in diurnal female Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Schradera, Jessica A.; Walaszczykb, Erin J.; Smalea, Laura

    2009-01-01

    SCHRADER, J.A., E. J. WALASZCZYK, AND L. SMALE. Changing patterns of daily rhythmicity across reproductive states in diurnal female Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) XXX-XXX, XXXX. -- A suite of changes in circadian rhythms have been described in nocturnal rodents as females go through pregnancy and lactation, but there is no information on such patterns in diurnal species. As the challenges faced by these two groups of animals are somewhat different, we characterized changes in activity and core body temperature (Tb) in female diurnal Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) as they went through a series of reproductive states: virgin, pregnant, pregnant and lactating, lactating only, and post-weaning. The phase of neither rhythm varied, but the amplitude did. Females increased their overall levels of daily activity from early to late pregnancy, regardless of whether they were also lactating. The pattern of activity was less rhythmic during early than mid-lactation, in both non-pregnant and pregnant females, as a consequence of a decrease in daytime relative to nighttime activity. The Tb rhythm amplitude dropped from mid-pregnancy through mid-lactation, and there were rises in Tb troughs during the mid-light and mid-dark phases of the day, though pregnancy and lactation affected Tb at these times in somewhat different ways. This study demonstrates that rhythms in diurnal grass rats change during pregnancy and lactation in different ways than those of nocturnal species that have been studied to date and that the effects of pregnancy and lactation are not additive in any simple way. PMID:19744504

  15. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION, LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW OF STRESSORS AND IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides an overview of land use and land cover (LULC) change and regional to global patterns of that change and responses. Human activities now dominate the Earth's global ecosystem and LULC change is one of the most pervasive and influential activities. LULC change a...

  16. Genomic structural variation contributes to phenotypic change of industrial bioethanol yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Li-Jie; Fang, Ya-Hong; Jin, Xin-Na; Qi, Lei; Wu, Xue-Chang; Zheng, Dao-Qiong

    2016-03-01

    Genomic structural variation (GSV) is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different genetic backgrounds; however, the physiological and phenotypic effects of GSV are not well understood. Here, we first revealed the genetic characteristics of a widely used industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, by whole genome sequencing. ZTW1 was identified as an aneuploidy strain and a large-scale GSV was observed in the ZTW1 genome compared with the genome of a diploid strain YJS329. These GSV events led to copy number variations (CNVs) in many chromosomal segments as well as one whole chromosome in the ZTW1 genome. Changes in the DNA dosage of certain functional genes directly affected their expression levels and the resultant ZTW1 phenotypes. Moreover, CNVs of large chromosomal regions triggered an aneuploidy stress in ZTW1. This stress decreased the proliferation ability and tolerance of ZTW1 to various stresses, while aneuploidy response stress may also provide some benefits to the fermentation performance of the yeast, including increased fermentation rates and decreased byproduct generation. This work reveals genomic characters of the bioethanol S. cerevisiae strain ZTW1 and suggests that GSV is an important kind of mutation that changes the traits of industrial S. cerevisiae strains.

  17. Changing marital and family patterns: a test of the post-modern perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacques, J M

    1998-01-01

    "Four central constructs of the post-modern perspective are extended and tested using secondary analysis of [U.S.] Census data and the NORC General Social Survey: 1972-94 data sets. The modified postmodern themes of: (1) the decline of a single universal family organizational standard, and (2) growing cultural diversity...were supported by examining changes in American family structure, attitudes toward such structural changes, and changing attitudes toward marital and family patterns over the last quarter century. However, little support was found for the greater use of, and reliance on, (3) the mass media. Mixed results were found on the fourth construct, greater variance in, and/or loss of, personal happiness or personal or family life satisfaction."

  18. Phase Change Nanodots Patterning using a Self-Assembled Polymer Lithography and Crystallization Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Raoux, S; Krebs, D; Krupp, L; Topuria, T; Caldwell, M; Milliron, D; Kellock, A; Rice, P; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of scalable phase change materials can be studied on nanoscale structures. In this paper, high density ordered phase change nanodot arrays were fabricated using the lift-off technique on a self-assembled diblock copolymer template, polystyrene-poly(methyl-methacrylate). The size of the nanodots was less than 15 nm in diameter with 40 nm spacing. This method is quite flexible regarding the patterned materials and can be used on different substrates. The crystallization behavior of small scale phase change nanodot arrays was studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction, which showed the phase transition for different materials such as Ge15Sb85, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ag and In doped Sb2Te. The transition temperatures of these nanodot samples were also compared with their corresponding blanket thin films, and it was found that the nanodots had higher crystallization temperatures and crystallized over a broader temperature range.

  19. Pressure support. Changes in ventilatory pattern and components of the work of breathing.

    PubMed

    Van de Graaff, W B; Gordey, K; Dornseif, S E; Dries, D J; Kleinman, B S; Kumar, P; Mathru, M

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the interaction between patient and ventilator during widely varying levels of pressure support (PS) ventilation, we studied 33 patients who had undergone aortocoronary bypass. All patients were without preoperative evidence of lung disease and had left ventricular ejection fractions greater than 45 percent. We assessed both changes in ventilatory pattern and the use of an extension of the Campbell technique to determine the components of the mechanical work of breathing (WOB). Patients were placed on 0, 10, 20, and 30 cm H2O of PS. We found that increasing the pressure support level (PSL) did not change minute ventilation, PCO2, or pH despite large changes in both rate and depth of breathing. The inspiratory time fraction was consistently and progressively reduced as PS increased. Although mean inspiratory flow (MIF) increased by 75 +/- 9 (SE) percent as the PSL increased to 30 cm H2O, mean airway pressure rose only 3.5 +/- 0.1 cm H2O. Observed changes in the resistive and elastic components of WOB at PSL greater than 0 were consistent with values predicted from baseline observations and changes in VT and MIF demonstrating that the Campbell technique of separating resistive and elastic components of the patient's WOB during unassisted ventilation can be extended to the analysis of WOB during mechanical ventilation. We were surprised to observe that although inspiratory WOB fell 67 +/- 13 percent as the PSL increased to 30 cm H2O, postinspiratory work by the inspiratory muscles (WOBPIIM) did not show significant change. The persistence and substantial values of WOBPIIM in some patients suggested the presence of significant patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, especially at higher levels of PS. Total inspiratory WOB per minute, including both patient WOB and WOB by the ventilator, increased by 186 +/- 29 percent, demonstrating that PS results in a respiratory pattern requiring substantially greater total mechanical work.

  20. Assessing biogeographic patterns in the changes in soil invertebrate biodiversity due to acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sugg, P.M.; Kuperman, R.G.; Loucks, O.L. |

    1995-09-01

    We are studying the response of soil faunal communities to a gradient in acidic deposition across midwestern hardwood forests. We have documented a pattern of population decrease and species loss for soil invertebrates along the acidification gradient. We now ask the following question: When confronted with apparent diversity changes along a region-wide pollution gradient, how can one assess the possibility of natural biogeographic gradients accounting for the pattern? As a first approximation, we use published range maps from taxonomic monographs to determine the percent of the regional fauna with ranges encompassing each site. For staphylinid beetles, range data show no sign of a biogeographic gradient. Yet for soil staphylinids, a large decrease is seen in alpha diversity (as species richness) from low to high acid dose sites (from 20 species to 8). Staphylinid species turnover is greatest in the transition from low to intermediate dose sites.

  1. Visual Scanning Patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li; Liu, Yubing; Li, Yunyi; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Gao, Dingguo

    2012-01-01

    Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children's visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD) children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children's deficits in executive function. ASD children's visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed. PMID:23050145

  2. Historical Pattern and Future Trajectories of Terrestrial N2O Emission driven by Multi-factor Global Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is among the most important greenhouse gases only next to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to its long life time and high radiative forcing (with a global warming potential 265 times as much as CO2 at 100-year time horizon). The Atmospheric concentration of N2O has increased by 20% since pre-industrial era, and this increase plays a significant role in shaping anthropogenic climate change. However, compared to CO2- and CH4-related research, fewer studies have been performed in assessing and predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of N2O emission from natural and agricultural soils. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model, DLEM, to quantify the historical and future changes in global terrestrial N2O emissions resulting from natural and anthropogenic perturbations including climate variability, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover changes, and agricultural land management practices (i.e., synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use, manure application, and irrigation etc.) over the period 1900-2099. We focused on inter-annual variation and long-term trend of terrestrial N2O emission driven by individual and combined environmental changes during historical and future periods. The sensitivity of N2O emission to climate, atmospheric composition, and human activities has been examined at biome-, latitudinal, continental and global scales. Future projections were conducted to identify the hot spots and hot time periods of global N2O emission under two emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). It provides a modeling perspective for understanding human-induced N2O emission growth and developing potential management strategies to mitigate further atmospheric N2O increase and climate warming.

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for change detection in speech sound patterns by anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Astikainen, Piia; Mällo, Tanel; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Näätänen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Human infants are able to detect changes in grammatical rules in a speech sound stream. Here, we tested whether rats have a comparable ability by using an electrophysiological measure that has been shown to reflect higher order auditory cognition even before it becomes manifested in behavioral level. Urethane-anesthetized rats were presented with a stream of sequences consisting of three pseudowords carried out at a fast pace. Frequently presented "standard" sequences had 16 variants which all had the same structure. They were occasionally replaced by acoustically novel "deviant" sequences of two different types: structurally consistent and inconsistent sequences. Two stimulus conditions were presented for separate animal groups. In one stimulus condition, the standard and the pattern-obeying deviant sequences had an AAB structure, while the pattern-violating deviant sequences had an ABB structure. In the other stimulus condition, these assignments were reversed. During the stimulus presentation, local-field potentials were recorded from the dura, above the auditory cortex. Two temporally separate differential brain responses to the deviant sequences reflected the detection of the deviant speech sound sequences. The first response was elicited by both types of deviant sequences and reflected most probably their acoustical novelty. The second response was elicited specifically by the structurally inconsistent deviant sequences (pattern-violating deviant sequences), suggesting that rats were able to detect changes in the pattern of three-syllabic speech sound sequence (i.e., location of the reduplication of an element in the sequence). Since all the deviant sound sequences were constructed of novel items, our findings indicate that, similarly to the human brain, the rat brain has the ability to automatically generalize extracted structural information to new items.

  4. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  5. Eolian sediment responses to late Quaternary climate changes: Temporal and spatial patterns in the Sahara

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a compilation of eolian-based records of late Quaternary climate changes in the Sahara. Although the data are relatively sparse, when viewed as a whole, they reveal a general pattern of widespread eolian sediment mobilization prior to 11,000 cal. years BP, eolian sediment stabilization from 11,000 to 5000 cal. years BP, and a return to widespread eolian sediment mobilization after 5000 cal. years BP. Furthermore, an eolian-based record from southern Tunisia reveals the existence of millennial-scale changes in eolian sediment behavior. These millennial-scale variations provide examples of eolian sediment responses to climate changes at a scale intermediate between seasonal and orbital ('Milankovitch') changes, and they are also coincident with abrupt atmospheric and oceanic changes. The general synchroneity of the eolian stratigraphic records and their coincidence with various oceanic and atmospheric changes suggest that global forcing mechanisms have influenced late Quaternary eolian sediment behavior in the Sahara. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. THE CHANGING PATTERN OF BIREFRINGENCE IN PLASMODIA OF THE SLIME MOLD, PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM.

    PubMed

    NAKAJIMA, H; ALLEN, R D

    1965-05-01

    Plasmodia of the acellular slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, reveal a complex and changing pattern of birefringence when examined with a sensitive polarizing microscope. Positively birefringent fibrils are found throughout the ectoplasmic region of the plasmodium. In the larger strands they may be oriented parallel to the strand axis, or arranged circularly or spirally along the periphery of endoplasmic channels. Some fibrils exist for only a few minutes, others for a longer period. Some, particularly the circular fibrils, undergo changes in birefringence as they undergo cyclic deformations. In the ramifying strand region and the advancing margin there is a tendency for fibrils of various sizes to become organized into mutually orthogonal arrays. In some plasmodia the channel wall material immediately adjacent to the endoplasm has been found to be birefringent. The sign of endoplasmic birefringence is negative, and its magnitude is apparently constant over the streaming cycle. The pattern of plasmodial birefringence and its changes during the shuttle streaming cycle of Physarum are considered in the light of several models designed to explain either cytoplasmic streaming alone or the entire gamut of plasmodial motions. The results of this and other recent physical studies suggest that both streaming and the various other motions of the plasmodium may very likely be explained in terms of coordinated contractions taking place in the fibrils which are rendered visible in polarized light.

  7. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.; Vecchia, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Analysis of changes in the expression pattern of claudins using salivary acinar cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko

    2011-01-01

    Primary saliva is produced from blood plasma in the acini of salivary glands and is modified by ion adsorption and secretion as the saliva passes through the ducts. In rodents, acinar cells of salivary glands express claudin-3 but not claudin-4, whereas duct cells express both claudins-3 and -4. The distinct claudin expression patterns may reflect differences in the permeability of tight junctions between acinar and duct cells. To analyze the role of claudins in salivary glands, we established a system for the primary culture of parotid acinar cells, where the expression patterns of claudins are remarkably changed. Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses reveal that the expression levels of claudins-4 and -6 increased, whereas claudins-3 and -10 decreased. We found that the signal to induce those changes is triggered during cell isolation and is mediated by Src and p38 MAP kinase. Here, we introduce the methods used to determine the signal pathway that induces the change in claudin expression.

  9. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield.

    PubMed

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha(-1)year(-1) (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  10. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield.

    PubMed

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha(-1)year(-1) (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions. PMID:27432777

  11. Patterns of Marital Relationship Change across the Transition from One Child to Two

    PubMed Central

    Volling, Brenda L.; Oh, Wonjung; Gonzalez, Richard; Kuo, Patty X.; Yu, Tianyi

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of marital change after the birth of a second child were explored in a sample of 229 married couples, starting in pregnancy, and at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months postpartum. Five trajectory patterns that reflected sudden, persistent decline (i.e., crisis), sudden, short-term decline (i.e., adjustment and adaptation), sudden, short-term gain (i.e., honeymoon effect), linear change, and no change were examined with dyadic, longitudinal data for husbands and wives. Six distinct latent classes emerged using growth mixture modeling: (a) wife decreasing positivity-husband honeymoon (44%), (b) wife increasing conflict-husband adjustment and adaptation (34.5%), (c) wife honeymoon-discrepant spouse positivity (7.4%), (d) wife adjustment and adaptation (6.9%), (e) couple honeymoon with discrepant positivity and negativity (5.2%) and (f) husband adjustment and adaptation (1.7%). Classes were distinguished by individual vulnerabilities (i.e., depression, personality), stresses associated with the transition (i.e., unplanned pregnancy), and adaptive processes (i.e., marital communication, social support). Marital communication, parental depression, and social support emerged as important targets for intervention that can assist parents planning to have additional children. PMID:26568895

  12. Postnatal changes in the growth dynamics of the human face revealed from bone modelling patterns

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Rosas, Antonio; Nieto-Díaz, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Human skull morphology results from complex processes that involve the coordinated growth and interaction of its skeletal components to keep a functional and structural balance. Previous histological works have studied the growth of different craniofacial regions and their relationship to functional spaces in humans up to 14 years old. Nevertheless, how the growth dynamics of the facial skeleton and the mandible are related and how this relationship changes through the late ontogeny remain poorly understood. To approach these two questions, we have compared the bone modelling activities of the craniofacial skeleton from a sample of subadult and adult humans. In this study, we have established for the first time the bone modelling pattern of the face and the mandible from adult humans. Our analyses reveal a patchy distribution of the bone modelling fields (overemphasized by the presence of surface islands with no histological information) reflecting the complex growth dynamics associated to the individual morphology. Subadult and adult specimens show important differences in the bone modelling patterns of the anterior region of the facial skeleton and the posterior region of the mandible. These differences indicate developmental changes in the growth directions of the whole craniofacial complex, from a predominantly downward growth in subadults that turns to a forward growth observed in the adult craniofacial skeleton. We hypothesize that these ontogenetic changes would respond to the physiological and physical requirements to enlarge the oral and nasal cavities once maturation of the brain and the closure of the cranial sutures have taken place during craniofacial development. PMID:23819603

  13. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Milly, P C D; Dunne, K A; Vecchia, A V

    2005-11-17

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems.

  14. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between ‑25 and ‑2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha‑1year‑1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  15. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    PubMed Central

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between −25 and −2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha−1year−1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions. PMID:27432777

  16. Pre-treatment Anxiety Predicts Patterns of Change in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medications for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Forand, Nicholas R.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Some studies report that initial anxiety is associated with equivocal or negative effects in depression treatment. In contrast, at least four studies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) report that anxiety predicts greater or more rapid change in depression. Further exploration is needed to clarify the relationship between initial anxiety and depression change. Questions include the relationship between anxiety and patterns of change and time to relapse, as well the specificity effects to CBT. Method The study assessed the relation of Beck Anxiety Inventory anxiety scores to early rapid change and overall change in Beck Depression Inventory-II depression scores during acute depression treatment. Participants were 178 individuals enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus medications (ADM) for moderate to severe depression. They were 58% female and 83% Caucasian, with an average age of 40 (SD = 11.5). Thirty four percent (34%) were married or cohabitating. Hierarchical linear models including quadratic growth parameters were used to model change. The relation of anxiety to the probability of post-treatment relapse was also examined. Results Findings indicate that higher levels of anxiety predict early rapid change, but not overall change, in both CBT and ADM. However, patients with higher levels of intake anxiety evidenced increased risk for relapse after CBT. Conclusions Early rapid change predicted by anxiety occurs across different treatment conditions, but this early rapid response is not indicative of positive overall outcome in all cases. These findings might indicate that anxiety predicts a response to non-specific “common factors” of treatment. PMID:23647285

  17. Robust inferences on climate change patterns of precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo-Gonçalves, Paulo; Rocha, Alfredo; Santos, João A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a methodology to make statistical significant and robust inferences on climate change from an ensemble of model simulations. This methodology is used to assess climate change projections of the Iberian daily-total precipitation for a near-future (2021-2050) and a distant-future (2069-2098) climates, relatively to a reference past climate (1961-1990). Climate changes of precipitation spatial patterns are estimated for annual and seasonal values of: (i) total amount of precipitation (PRCTOT), (ii) maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), (iii) maximum of total amount of 5-consecutive wet days (Rx5day), and (iv) percentage of total precipitation occurred in days with precipitation above the 95th percentile of the reference climate (R95T). Daily-total data were obtained from the multi-model ensemble of fifteen Regional Climate Model simulations provided by the European project ENSEMBLES. These regional models were driven by boundary conditions imposed by Global Climate Models that ran under the 20C3M conditions from 1961 to 2000, and under the A1B scenario, from 2001 to 2100, defined by the Special Report on Emission Scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Non-parametric statistical methods are used for significant climate change detection: linear trends for the entire period (1961-2098) estimated by the Theil-Sen method with a statistical significance given by the Mann-Kendall test, and climate-median differences between the two future climates and the past climate with a statistical significance given by the Mann-Whitney test. Significant inferences of climate change spatial patterns are made after these non-parametric statistics of the multi-model ensemble median, while the associated uncertainties are quantified by the spread of these statistics across the multi-model ensemble. Significant and robust climate change inferences of the spatial patterns are then obtained by building the climate change patterns using only the

  18. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Beaudreau, Anne H.; Whitney, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at least 25 marine

  19. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Anne H; Whitney, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at least 25 marine

  20. Patterns of 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps: The CORDEX RCM ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Zubler, Elias; Fischer, Andreas; Winter, Kevin J.-P. M.; Gobiet, Andreas; Liniger, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    The European Alps are a hot spot of climate change and of related impacts on a large variety of natural and socioeconomic systems. Due to their physiographic complexity and their location between distinct climatic zones, climate change and climate impact assessments in this region are challenging and often associated with substantial uncertainties. In particular, previous studies have highlighted the added value of high-resolution climate models to capture fine scale spatio-temporal Alpine climate variability and to assess climate change impacts for high elevation regions. Against this background, we here exploit the currently available CORDEX multi-GHG-multi-model ensembles to assess 21st century climate change over the European Alps. We focus on the spatial change pattern, explicitly including elevation dependencies, and on the uncertainties of the projections. For this purpose we analyze the available EURO-CORDEX and Med-CORDEX ensembles carried out at resolutions of 12 km and 50 km. The results largely confirm the findings of previous studies based on the ENSEMBLES experiments, but also yield a number of new insights. The projected increase of winter precipitation, for instance, appears to be stronger and more robust while the model agreement on summer drying is less pronounced. Elevation dependencies of the near-surface temperature change can be substantial. In springtime, strongest warming occurs at medium elevations where snow cover changes are largest, indicating a contribution of the snow albedo feedback to the vertical profile of near-surface warming confirming previous works. These elevation dependencies, however, can differ between the high and the low resolution RCM ensemble. Obvious model deficiencies in the Alpine area were identified. For instance, several high-resolution RCM versions (12 km runs) tend to constantly accumulate snow cover at some isolated grid cells resulting in a distortion of the temperature change signal.

  1. Spatial pattern of land use change and its driving force in Jiangsu Province.

    PubMed

    Du, Xindong; Jin, Xiaobin; Yang, Xilian; Yang, Xuhong; Zhou, Yinkang

    2014-03-18

    Scientific interpretation of the mechanism of land use change is important for government planning and management activities. This study analyzes the land use change in Jiangsu Province using three land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2008. The study results show that there was a significant change in land use. The change was mainly characterized by a continuous built-up land expansion primarily at the expense of cropland loss, and the trend became increasingly rapid. There was an obvious regional difference, as most of the cropland loss or built-up land expansion took place in southern Jiangsu, where the rate of built-up land expansion was faster than in central and northern Jiangsu. Meanwhile, the spatial pattern changed remarkably; in general, the number of patches (NumP) showed a declining trend, and the mean patch size (MPS) and patch size standard deviation (PSSD) displayed increase trends. Furthermore, the relative importance of selected driven factors was identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and general linear model (GLM). The results showed that not only the relative importance of a specific driving factor may vary, but the driven factors may as well. The most important driven factor changed from urban population (UP), secondary gross domestic product (SGDP) and gross domestic product (GDP) during 2000-2005 to resident population (RP), population density (POD) and UP during 2005-2008, and the deviance explained (DE) decreased from 91.60% to 81.04%. Policies also had significant impacts on land use change, which can be divided into direct and indirect impacts. Development policies usually had indirect impacts, particularly economic development policies, which promote the economic development to cause land use change, while land management policies had direct impacts. We suggest that the government should think comprehensively and cautiously when proposing a new development strategy or plan.

  2. [Land use pattern and its dynamic changes in Amur tiger distribution region].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-wen; Wu, Jian-guo; Kou, Xiao-jun; Tian, Yu; Wang, Tian-ming; Mu, Pu; Ge, Jian-ping

    2009-03-01

    Land use and land cover change has been the primary cause for the habitat loss and fragmentation in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). Based on the spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover in the distribution region, as well as their effects on the population dynamics of Amur tiger, this paper analyzed the development process and its characteristics of the main land use types (agricultural land, forest land, and construction land) in this region, with the land use change history being divided chronically into three distinctive periods, i.e., ancient times (prior to 1860), modern times (1860-1949), and contemporary times (after 1949). The results showed that the sporadic land use in ancient times had no significant effects on the survival of Amur tiger, while the extensive and intensive land use after the 1860s was mainly responsible for the decrease of Amur tiger population and its living space. Since 1949, the Amur tiger distribution region has been divided into two parts, i.e., Northeast China and Russia Far East. The differences in land use pattern, policy, and intensity between these two parts led to different survival status of Amur tiger. The key driving forces for the land use change in Amur tiger distribution region were human population increase, policy change, and increased productivity.

  3. Predicting Climate Change using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank; Ragone, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source climate model featuring O(105) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Using the theoretical framework of the pullback attractor and the tools of response theory we propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting - at any lead time and in an ensemble sense - the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as their spatial patterns. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  4. [Land use pattern and its dynamic changes in Amur tiger distribution region].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-wen; Wu, Jian-guo; Kou, Xiao-jun; Tian, Yu; Wang, Tian-ming; Mu, Pu; Ge, Jian-ping

    2009-03-01

    Land use and land cover change has been the primary cause for the habitat loss and fragmentation in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). Based on the spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover in the distribution region, as well as their effects on the population dynamics of Amur tiger, this paper analyzed the development process and its characteristics of the main land use types (agricultural land, forest land, and construction land) in this region, with the land use change history being divided chronically into three distinctive periods, i.e., ancient times (prior to 1860), modern times (1860-1949), and contemporary times (after 1949). The results showed that the sporadic land use in ancient times had no significant effects on the survival of Amur tiger, while the extensive and intensive land use after the 1860s was mainly responsible for the decrease of Amur tiger population and its living space. Since 1949, the Amur tiger distribution region has been divided into two parts, i.e., Northeast China and Russia Far East. The differences in land use pattern, policy, and intensity between these two parts led to different survival status of Amur tiger. The key driving forces for the land use change in Amur tiger distribution region were human population increase, policy change, and increased productivity. PMID:19637615

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem. PMID:25938368

  6. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O`Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist`s choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  7. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-11-09

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2], soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change.

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem.

  9. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    , RSC or liver cancer and exposure to CD and/or VC using both the unlagged and lagged exposure measures: duration, average intensity or cumulative exposure to CD or VC; time since first CD or VC exposure; and duration of CD exposure or time since first CD exposure in presence or absence of VC exposure. We observed elevated and statistically significantly elevated RRs for some analysis subgroups, but these were due to inordinately low death rates in the baseline categories. With the possible exception of all cancer mortality in plant G, our additional adjustment of RRs for pay type revealed no evidence of positive confounding by smoking. We conclude that exposures to CD or VC at the levels encountered in the four study sites do not elevate mortality risks from all cancers, RSC or liver cancer. This conclusion is corroborated by our analysis of general mortality patterns among the CD cohort reported in our companion paper [G. Marsh, A. Youk, J. Buchanich, M. Cunningham, N. Esmen, T. Hall, M. Phillips, Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. I. General mortality patterns, Chem.-Biol. Interact., submitted for publication]. PMID:17007827

  10. Global view of the upper level outflow patterns associated with tropical cyclone intensity changes during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L.; Gray, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the upper tropospheric outflow patterns which occur with tropical cyclone intensification and weakening over all of the global tropical cyclone basins during the year long period of the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) are discussed. By intensification is meant the change in the tropical cyclone's maximum wind or central pressure, not the change of the cyclone's outer 1 to 3 deg radius mean wind which we classify as cyclone strength. All the 80 tropical cyclones which existed during the FGGE year are studied. Two-hundred mb wind fields are derived from the analysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) which makes extensive use of upper tropospheric satellite and aircraft winds. Corresponding satellite cloud pictures from the polar orbiting U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and other supplementary polar and geostationary satellite data are also used.

  11. Establishing the common patterns of future tropospheric ozone under diverse climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan J.; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Baro, Rocio; Montávez, Juan P.

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of climate change on air quality may affect long-term air quality planning. However, the policies aimed at improving air quality in the EU directives have not accounted for the variations in the climate. Climate change alone influences future air quality through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. As such, the aim of this work is to check whether the projected changes in gas-phase air pollution over Europe depends on the scenario driving the regional simulation. For this purpose, two full-transient regional climate change-air quality projections for the first half of the XXI century (1991-2050) have been carried out with MM5+CHIMERE system, including A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Experiments span the periods 1971-2000, as a reference, and 2071-2100, as future enhanced greenhouse gas and aerosol scenarios (SRES A2 and B2). The atmospheric simulations have a horizontal resolution of 25 km and 23 vertical layers up to 100 mb, and were driven by ECHO-G global climate model outputs. The analysis focuses on the connection between meteorological and air quality variables. Our simulations suggest that the modes of variability for tropospheric ozone and their main precursors hardly change under different SRES scenarios. The effect of changing scenarios has to be sought in the intensity of the changing signal, rather than in the spatial structure of the variation patterns, since the correlation between the spatial patterns of variability in A2 and B2 simulation is r > 0.75 for all gas-phase pollutants included in this study. In both cases, full-transient simulations indicate an enhanced enhanced chemical activity under future scenarios. The causes for tropospheric ozone variations have to be sought in a multiplicity of climate factors, such as increased temperature, different distribution of precipitation patterns across Europe, increased photolysis of primary and secondary pollutants due to lower cloudiness, etc

  12. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  13. Quantitative changes in mast cells and microvascular pattern associated with dietary gastric ulceration in rats.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, A P; Tovey, F I; Riley, P A; Clark, C G

    1985-01-01

    The regional distribution of mast cells and the microvascular pattern in the stomach of Wistar rats fed on an ulcerogenic diet were compared with those of control animals. Mounts of the distended stomach were made and stained for blood vessels and mast cells in the subserosal layer. Measurements made under dark ground illumination in 12 operationally defined regions of the serosa demonstrated that the stomach wall in the region around the oesophagus is more richly vascularised and possesses a greater number of mast cells (60 cells per mm2) than other regions. Changes in the mast cells and microvasculature were observed in rats fed an ulcerogenic diet, notably in the zone around the oesophagus, where more than 30% mast cells were degranulated and the mean vascular diameter increased by 26%. The severity of the vascular changes correlated with the location of the ulcers of which 50% were in the zone surrounding the oesophagus.

  14. Computational model of selection by consequences: patterns of preference change on concurrent schedules.

    PubMed

    Kulubekova, Saule; McDowell, J J

    2013-09-01

    The computational model of selection by consequences is an ontogenetic dynamic account of adaptive behavior based on the Darwinian principle of selection by consequences. The model is a virtual organism based on a genetic algorithm, a class of computational algorithms that instantiate the principles of selection, fitness, reproduction and mutation. The computational model has been thoroughly tested in experiments with a variety of single alternative and concurrent schedules. A number of published reports demonstrate that the model generates patterns of behavior that are quantitatively equivalent to the findings from live organisms. The experiments and analyses in this study assess the behavior of the computational model for evidence of preference change phenomena in environments with rapidly changing reinforcement rate ratios. Molar and molecular effects of behavioral adjustment were consistent with those observed in live organisms. The results of this study provide strong evidence supporting the selectionist account of adaptive behavior.

  15. Shoreline change patterns in sandy coasts. A case study in SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Río, Laura; Gracia, F. Javier; Benavente, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Coastal changes on sandy shorelines are continuous and occur at diverse spatial and temporal scales. Gaining knowledge on beach change processes increases our capability to manage risks, especially shoreline erosion, affecting the increasing population living in coastal areas. Processes and factors involved in medium- and short-term beach changes depend on the morphological and dynamic characteristics of the coast. In this work, the decadal behaviour of 58 sandy beaches along the 150 km long South-Atlantic coast of Spain, between the Guadalquivir river mouth and the Strait of Gibraltar, is analysed in order to investigate the relationships between shoreline change patterns and the diverse morphological and dynamic factors controlling beach evolution in the area. For this purpose, georectified aerial photographs spanning the period 1956-2008 were compared in a GIS environment to calculate rates of shoreline change. Short-term evolution of beach profiles was also analysed in selected areas of interest. Results show that the study area exhibits a great variety of shoreline evolution trends, with erosion prevailing in the northern and central sectors and stability or even accretion in the southern sector. In general, sediment availability is the main factor determining coastal erodibility in the area, largely conditioned by the reduction in fluvial sediment supply caused by river basin regulation. Nearshore bathymetry also has a great significance, as it controls wave refraction-diffraction patterns and wave energy concentration on certain zones. Human interventions on the coast also represent a major influence on beach erodibility in the study area. Severe detrimental effects are caused at certain points by shore-normal engineering structures blocking longshore drift. Additionally extensive urban development in backbeach environments has a significant influence on the sediment budget at certain areas. On the basis of these results, a morphological and evolutionary

  16. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  17. Effects of changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Chonan, T; Mulholland, M B; Altose, M D; Cherniack, N S

    1990-10-01

    Breathing during hypercapnia is determined by reflex mechanisms but may also be influenced by respiratory sensations. The present study examined the effects of voluntary changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea at a constant level of chemical drive. Studies were carried out in 15 normal male subjects during steady-state hypercapnia at an end-tidal PCO2 of 50 Torr. The intensity of dyspnea was rated on a Borg category scale. In one experiment (n = 8), the level of ventilation was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (Vspont). In another experiment (n = 9), the minute ventilation was maintained at the level spontaneously adopted at PCO2 of 50 Torr and breathing frequency was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (fspont) with reciprocal changes in tidal volume. The intensity of dyspnea (expressed as percentage of the spontaneous breathing level) correlated with ventilation (% Vspont) negatively at levels below Vspont (r = -0.70, P less than 0.001) and positively above Vspont (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001). At a constant level of ventilation, the intensity of dyspnea correlated with breathing frequency (% fspont) negatively at levels below fspont (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001) and positively at levels above fspont (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). These results indicate that dyspnea intensifies when the level or pattern of breathing is voluntarily changed from the spontaneously adopted level. This is consistent with the possibility that ventilatory responses to changes in chemical drive may be regulated in part to minimize the sensations of respiratory effort and discomfort.

  18. Changes in Brain Tissue and Behavior Patterns Induced by Single Short-Term Fasting in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis. PMID:24224039

  19. Detecting patterns and changes in a complex benthic environment of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit; Kotta, Jonne; Pärnoja, Merli

    2011-01-01

    Today, the knowledge on the distribution of marine habitats is very fragmented and temporal changes in such patterns are even less known. In this study we assessed spatial variability and temporal dynamics of benthic habitat types in a relatively turbid northeastern Baltic Sea coastal environment using the space-borne multispectral sensor QuickBird. Seven broad habitat classes were defined for the study area representing the most typical habitats of the coastal environment. The studied classes were bare sand, the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, hard bottom with ephemeral algae, higher-order plants and/or charophytes on soft bright bottom, dense higher-order plant habitats, and drifting algal mats and deep water (>3 m). Two QuickBird images acquired over a 3 year interval (2005 to 2008) of Western-Estonian archipelago were processed and change detection analysis applied. Although there was a relatively large scatter in reflectance variability within each habitat type, the analyses allowed a clear differentiation of most habitat types. Exceptions were the lack of statistical differences among deep water, drifting algae, and dense higher-order plant communities, as well as among low density higher-order plant and algal communities. Major changes in the spatial patterns of benthic habitats occurred in hydrodynamically active areas. Differences in water properties caused some confusion in classification and therefore resulted in inaccuracies in maps of change. Thus, the used broad habitat classes represent the limit of the method and the multispectral sensors do not allow finer elements of habitats to be captured.

  20. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  1. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  2. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  3. Spatial allocation of future landscape patterns for biomass and alleviation of hydrologic impacts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssegane, H.; Negri, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. Concurrently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase of 2 to 4°C over the next 100 years above the preindustrial baseline, beginning as early as 2016 to 2035 over all seasons in the North America. This climate change is projected to further strain water resources currently stressed by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops on strategically selected sub-field areas in an agricultural landscape has the potential to increase the environmental and economic sustainability if location and choice of the crops result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and therefore cause minimal indirect land use change. This study identified sub-field marginal areas in an agricultural watershed using soil-based environmental sustainability criteria and a crop productivity index. Future landscape patterns (FLPs) were developed by allocating bioenergy crops (switchgrass: Panicum virgatum or shrub willows: Salix spp.) to these marginal areas (20% of the watershed). SWAT hydrologic model and dynamically downscaled climatic projection were used to asses impact of climate change on extreme flow conditions, total annual production of commodity and bioenergy crops, and water quality under current and future landscape patterns for the mid-21st century (2045-2055) and late 21st century (2085-2095) climatic projections. The frequency of flood and drought conditions was projected to increase while the corresponding durations to decrease. Sediment yields were projected to increase by 85% to 170% while FLPs would mitigate this increase by 26% to 32%.

  4. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. PMID:27266302

  5. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    PubMed

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously.

  6. Industrially induced changes in Earth structure at the geysers geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Grant, C.C.; Ross, A.; Julian, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial exploitation is causing clearly-measurable changes in Earth structure at The Geysers geothermal area, California. Production at The Geysers peaked in the late 1980s at ???3.5 ?? 103 kg s-1 of steam and 1800 MW of electricity. It subsequently decreased by about 10% per year [Barker et al., 1992] because of declining reservoir pressure. The steam reservoir coincides with a strong negative anomaly (???0.16, ???9%) in the compressional-to-shear seismic wave speed ratio vP/vS, consistent with the expected effects of low-pressure vapor-phase pore fluid [Julian et al., 1996]. Between 1991 and 1994 this anomaly increased in amplitude by up to about 0.07 (???4%). This is consistent with the expected effects of continued pressure reduction and conversion of pore water to steam as a result of exploitation. These unique results show that vP/vS tomography can easily detect saturation changes caused by exploitation of reservoirs, and is a potentially valuable technique for monitoring environmental change. They also provide geophysical observational evidence that geothermal energy is not a renewable energy source.

  7. The more they stay the same. [Managing change in the electric power and natural gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.P.

    1994-02-15

    The mindset of some senior utility executives can be summarized with three of the most dangerous words in the business vocabulary: Wait and see. That's the major conclusion of a firm's recent survey of 18 senior executives at 10 utilities in the Rocky Mountain, West Coast, and Western Canadian regions. While many executives spoke about change, only two companies were fundamentally transforming their old ways of doing business and introducing genuine innovations. The authors discovered a perception that change in the utility business would be gradual and could be effectively managed through cautious, incremental steps. This go-slow attitude was described by the president of one innovative utility: [open quotes]Some of my peers do not have a clue regarding the acceleration of change in the marketplace.[close quotes] Another respondent characterized his company's response as [open quotes]a hesitant transition.[close quotes] This hesitancy is matched by a slowness to study and adapt successful management practices from other industries practices such as supplier partnerships, cross-training and team building, and more strategic use of information technology. The NIH ([open quotes]Not Invented Here[close quotes]) Syndrome was evident throughout most of the interviews. This article highlights the results of those interviews.

  8. Holocene shelf sedimentation patterns off equatorial East Africa constrained by climatic and sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Meyer, Inka; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial East Africa experienced significant variations in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions during the Holocene. These environmental changes influenced sedimentation patterns on the continental shelf. To date, however, little is known about the sediment source, its transport to, and deposition on, the Tanzanian shelf. This paper presents a new high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record off northeast Tanzania (equatorial East Africa) and provides insights into how sedimentation patterns responded to climatic and oceanographic changes during the Holocene. Based on grain-size distribution patterns and mineral assemblages, three types of shelf sediments were identified: Type I (fine-grained terrigenous sediment) is dominated by clay minerals that originated from continental weathering; Type II (coarse-grained terrigenous sediment) is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz, derived from reworking of pre-existing deposits; and Type III (biogenic marine sediment), with low- and high-magnesium calcite, was produced by marine carbonate-secreting organisms. The high input of Type I sediment during the early Holocene (10-8 cal kyr BP) was caused by river mouth bypassing. This supply-dominated regime was controlled by intense river discharge and subsequent resuspension of mud in shelf settings, responding to the humid climate in the hinterland and sea-level rise with low rate off Tanzania. The first occurrence of Type II sediments was around 8 cal kyr BP and dominated when sedimentation rates lowered. This accommodation-dominated regime was caused by shoreface bypassing due to an arid climate and sea-level highstand. Type III sediments increased significantly from the early to late Holocene, resulting from the weakening dilution effect of the terrigenous component. The sedimentation pattern on the Tanzanian shelf shifted from allochthonous to autochthonous sedimentation constrained by climatic changes and relative sea-level fluctuations at the end of the early

  9. Climate forcings of changes in paleoprecipitation patterns in Brazil from oxygen isotope ratios on speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, F.; Cheng, H.; Barreto, E. S.; Wang, X.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Karmann, I.; Burns, S. J.; Auler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope records in speleothems have provided new insights into changes in the tropical precipitation patterns over South America during Holocene. This is evident in the antiphasing observed between rainfall in northeastern Brazil and in areas affected by the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM), such as southern Brazil, the Amazon and the tropical Andes on orbital time-scales (Cruz et al., 2009). This pattern is attributed to changes in the strength of both Hadley and Walker-cells due to the influence of insolation on the global summer monsoons. A higher incoming austral summer insolation can intensify the SASM by favoring moisture convergence in the Amazon Basin and promote a substantial increase in monsoon precipitation in southern Brazil. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil experiences arid conditions because of increased west-east upper-level subsidence induced by the convection in the monsoon core. A new speleothem record from Bahia State in NE Brazil confirms this antiphasing pattern of long-term precipitation for last 90 ky B.P. in Brazil, but in contrast with what is seen in southern Brazil, the records from the NE part of the country are mostly in phase with the Chinese speleothem records. Besides, it also shows that insolation exerts a strong forcing during MIS 5c to 5a, which is not as apparent during the MIS 4, 3 and 2. We suggest that the glacial boundary conditions play an important role in the SASM intensification between 60 and 20 ky during the latter marine isotope stages triggering wetter and drier conditions in southern and northeastern Brazil, respectively. On the other hand, the abrupt increases in precipitation during Heinrich events indicate a similar rainfall pattern everywhere in Brazil and suggest a more direct response from changes in oceanic conditions on millennial time-scales, which is relatively independent of monsoon activity in South America. References Cruz, F.W; Vuille, M.; Burns, S.J.; Wang, X.; Cheng H; Werner M

  10. Progressive changes in detrusor function and micturition patterns with chroinc bladder ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zuohui; Azad, Roya; Yang, Jing-Hua; Siroky, Mike B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are bothersome constellation of voiding symptoms in men and women as they age. Multiple factors and comorbidities are attributed to this problem but underlying mechanisms of nonobstructive nonneurogenic detrusor overactivity, detrusor underactivity and LUTS remain largely unknown. Our goal was to characterize detrusor function and voiding patterns in relation to muscarinic receptors expression, nerve fiber density, and neural ultrastructure in chronic bladder ischemia. Materials and Methods Iliac artery atherosclerosis and bladder ischemia were produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 8 and 16 weeks after ischemia, micturition patterns and cystometrograms were recorded in conscious rats then bladder blood flow and nonvoiding spontaneous contractions were measured under general anesthesia. Bladder tissues were processed for Western blotting, immunostaining, and transmission electron microscopy. Results Bladder responses to ischemic insult depended on the duration of ischemia. Micturition patterns and cystometric changes at 8-week ischemia suggested detrusor overactivity, while voiding behavior and cystometrograms at 16-week ischemia implied abnormal detrusor function resembling underactivity. Upregulation of muscarinic M2 receptor was found after 8- and 16 weeks of ischemia. Downregulation of M3 and upregulation of M1 were detected at 16-week ischemia. Neural structural damage and marked neurodegeneration were found after 8 and 16 weeks of ischemia, respectively. Conclusions Prolonged ischemia may be a mediating variable in progression of overactive bladder to dysfunctional patterns similar to detrusor underactivity. The mechanism appears to involve differential expression of M1, M2, and M3 receptors, neural structural injury, and progressive loss of nerve fibers. PMID:27437534

  11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  12. Climate change and grazing interact to alter flowering patterns in the Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2014-05-01

    Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns. Such land-use changes will co-occur with climate change, and while both are potentially important determinants of future ecosystem functioning, interactions between them remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of grazing by large herbivores and climate manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) on flower number and flowering species richness in mountain steppe of northern Mongolia. In this region, sedentary pastoralism is replacing nomadic pastoralism, and temperature is predicted to increase. Grazing and OTCs interacted to affect forb flowering richness, which was reduced following grazing removal, and reduced by OTCs in grazed plots only. This interaction was directly linked to the soil moisture and temperature environments created by the experimental treatments: most species flowered when both soil moisture and temperature levels were high (i.e. in grazed plots without OTCs), while fewer species flowered when either temperature, or moisture, or both, were low. Removal of grazing increased the average number of graminoid flowers produced at peak flowering in Year 1, but otherwise grazing removal and OTCs did not affect community-level flower composition. Of four abundant graminoid species examined individually, three showed increased flower number with grazing removal, while one showed the reverse. Four abundant forb species showed no significant response to either treatment. Our results highlight how climate change effects on mountain steppe could be contingent on land-use, and that studies designed to understand ecosystem response to climate change should incorporate co-occurring drivers of change, such as altered grazing regimes.

  13. Climate change and grazing interact to alter flowering patterns in the Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2014-05-01

    Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns. Such land-use changes will co-occur with climate change, and while both are potentially important determinants of future ecosystem functioning, interactions between them remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of grazing by large herbivores and climate manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) on flower number and flowering species richness in mountain steppe of northern Mongolia. In this region, sedentary pastoralism is replacing nomadic pastoralism, and temperature is predicted to increase. Grazing and OTCs interacted to affect forb flowering richness, which was reduced following grazing removal, and reduced by OTCs in grazed plots only. This interaction was directly linked to the soil moisture and temperature environments created by the experimental treatments: most species flowered when both soil moisture and temperature levels were high (i.e. in grazed plots without OTCs), while fewer species flowered when either temperature, or moisture, or both, were low. Removal of grazing increased the average number of graminoid flowers produced at peak flowering in Year 1, but otherwise grazing removal and OTCs did not affect community-level flower composition. Of four abundant graminoid species examined individually, three showed increased flower number with grazing removal, while one showed the reverse. Four abundant forb species showed no significant response to either treatment. Our results highlight how climate change effects on mountain steppe could be contingent on land-use, and that studies designed to understand ecosystem response to climate change should incorporate co-occurring drivers of change, such as altered grazing regimes. PMID:24453007

  14. Suppressing cardiac vagal modulation and changing sleep patterns in rats after chronic ischemic stroke injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiang-Suo; Su, Hsing-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lan, Yi-Yun; Liu, Bi-Yu; Yang, Ding-I; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2012-08-16

    Chronic autonomic function and sleep architecture changes in patients post-stroke are not well understood. Using wireless polysomnographic recordings, this study aimed to investigate the long-term effects on sleep patterns and autonomic function in free moving rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The sleep pattern and heart rate variability (HRV) of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were analyzed. After 7-10days, the rats were divided into two groups: an MCAO group (n=8) and a sham surgery group (n=8). Compared with shams, MCAO rats showed decreased accumulated quiet sleep (QS) time over 24h during the 3rd week. The time percentage, duration and delta power of QS were also significantly decreased in the MCAO group during the dark period. Compared with baseline, there were significant increases in the parasympathetic-associated HRV measures in the sham group, including the total power (TP), high frequency power (HF) and lower frequency power (LF), throughout the post-operative weeks (primarily the 2nd and 3rd weeks), reflecting a developmental increase of parasympathetic modulation; the normalized LF and the LF-HF ratio were unaffected. In great contrast, however, most of the HRV measures in the MCAO group were not significantly changed. Therefore, this study showed that the long-term effects of ischemic stroke injury involve retardation of the establishment of parasympathetic enhancement and disturbance of the normal sleep-wake cycle. PMID:22727146

  15. Activity pattern detection in electroneurographic and electromyogram signals through a heteroscedastic change-point method.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Frausto, M E; Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we propose a heteroscedastic method in the detection of activity patterns of electroneurographic and electromyogram signals involved in rhythmic activities of nerves and muscles, respectively. The electric behavior observed in such signals is characterized by phases of activity and silence. The beginning and the length of electrically active and electrically silent phases in a signal allow us to quantitatively analyze the changes and the effects on a rhythmic activity produced by experimental changes. In order to distinguish between these two phases, signals are assumed to be a sample of a time-dependent, normally distributed random variable with non-constant variance, and that the determination of the variance at each point allows us to determine in which phase is the signal. The parameters of the model are determined by means of an iterative process which maximizes the log-likelihood under the proposed model. Moreover, we apply our method to the determination of the activity phases and silence phases in sequences of experimental and synthetic electroneurographic and electromyogram signals. The results obtained with synthetic data show that the method performs well in the determination of these activity patterns. Finally, the study of particular signals simulated under a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model suggests the robustness of the method with respect to the assumption of independence.

  16. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns.

  17. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-03-10

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  18. [Land cover and landscape pattern changes in Poyang Lake region of China in 1980-2010].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan-le; Ran, Ying-ying; Zhang, Yong-jie; Cao, Xiao-ming; Yang, Fei

    2013-04-01

    Based on the land cover datasets of Poyang Lake region in 1980, 2005, and 2010, and by using GIS, RS, and landscape ecology approaches, this paper studied the land cover and landscape pattern changes in this region from 1980 to 2010, and quantitatively analyzed the land cover types change degree, patch area index, patch shape index, margin density index, and landscape diversity index. In 1980-2010, the main land cover types in this region were paddy field, inland water, evergreen broadleaf forest, and urban built-up area, and their areas and spatial patterns varied dramatically. Overall, the areas of inland water and urban built-up area had a significant increase, while those of paddy field and dry farmland decreased somewhat. Due to the effects of population growth and economic development, the landscape fragmentation degree and landscape diversity index presented a decreasing trend, but the decrement was small, which implied that the previous environmental management of this region had exerted important roles, but a long term challenge was still faced with between the regional environmental protection and sustainable development. PMID:23898669

  19. Changes in visual search patterns of pathology residents as they gain experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Weinstein, Ronald S.

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study was to examine and characterize changes in the ways that pathology residents examine digital or "virtual" slides as they gain more experience. A series of 20 digitized breast biopsy virtual slides (half benign and half malignant) were shown to 6 pathology residents at three points in time - at the beginning of their first year of residency, at the beginning of the second year, and at the beginning of the third year. Their task was to examine each image and select three areas that they would most want to zoom on in order to view the diagnostic detail at higher resolution. Eye position was recorded as they scanned each image. The data indicate that with each successive year of experience, the residents' search patterns do change. Overall it takes significantly less time to view an individual slide and decide where to zoom, significantly fewer fixations are generated overall, and there is less examination of non-diagnostic areas. Essentially, the residents' search becomes much more efficient and after only one year closely resembles that of an expert pathologist. These findings are similar to those in radiology, and support the theory that an important aspect of the development of expertise is improved pattern recognition (taking in more information during the initial Gestalt or gist view) as well as improved allocation of attention and visual processing resources.

  20. Changing Patterns of the Floating Population in China during 2000-2010*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Zhen; Ma, Zhongdong

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 and 2010 Chinese Population Censuses and applying a consistent definition of migration, this paper examines changing patterns of China's floating population during 2000-2010. We find that during the first decade of the 21st century, there have been significant changes in China's floating population, as reflected in continuing rise of interprovincial floating population and the rise of the floating population in China's western and interior regions, geographic diversification of destinations for the floating population, a major increase in interprovincial return migration, and significant improvement in education and occupational profiles among the floating population. We argue that these patterns are driven by a combination of complex domestic and international factors, including the newly released Labor Law, removal of agricultural tax, the western China development program, increased investment in education by the Chinese government, and the global financial crisis. We also discuss several challenges facing the floating population in the coming years, which include equality of educational opportunity for migrant children and adequate housing and social welfare protection for the floating population. Finally, we reflect on the future of migration research in China. PMID:26213427

  1. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  2. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  3. Coastal change rates and patterns: Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Gmirkin, Rick; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative project between the U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the National Park Service (NPS) has been developed to create an inventory of geologic resources for National Park Service lands on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The NPS Geologic Resources Inventories are recognized as essential for the effective management, interpretation, and understanding of vital park resources. In general, there are three principal components of the inventories: geologic bibliographies, digital geologic maps, and geologic reports. The geologic reports are specific to each individual park and include information on the geologic features and processes that are important to the management of park resources, including ecological, cultural and recreational resources. This report summarizes a component of the geologic inventory concerned specifically with characterizing the coastal geomorphology of the beach system within Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (NHP) and describes an analysis that utilizes georeferenced and orthorectified aerial photography to understand the spatial and temporal trends in shoreline change from 1950 to 2002. In addition, spatial patterns of beach change were examined and a beach stability map was developed. Both the shoreline change rates and the beach stability map are designed to help Park personnel effectively manage the valuable park resources within the context of understanding natural changes to the KAHO beach system.

  4. Parabolic flight induces changes in gene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Manak, Michael S; Mayfield, John D; Reyes, Matthew F; Gurley, William B; Ferl, Robert J

    2011-10-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to parabolic flight as part of a comprehensive approach to the molecular biology of spaceflight-related adaptations. In addition, we wished to establish parabolic flight as a tractable operations platform for molecular biology studies. In a succession of experiments on NASA's KC-135 and C-9 parabolic aircraft, Arabidopsis plants were presented with replicated exposure to parabolic flight. Transcriptome profiling revealed that parabolic flight caused changes in gene expression patterns that stood the statistical tests of replication on three different flight days. The earliest response, after 20 parabolas, was characterized by a prominence of genes associated with signal transduction. After 40 parabolas, this prominence was largely replaced by genes associated with biotic and abiotic stimuli and stress. Among these responses, three metabolic processes stand out in particular: the induction of auxin metabolism and signaling, the differential expression of genes associated with calcium-mediated signaling, and the repression of genes associated with disease resistance and cell wall biochemistry. Many, but not all, of these responses are known to be involved in gravity sensing in plants. Changes in auxin-related gene expression were also recorded by reporter genes tuned to auxin signal pathways. These data demonstrate that the parabolic flight environment is appropriate for molecular biology research involving the transition to microgravity, in that with replication, proper controls, and analyses, gene expression changes can be observed in the time frames of typical parabolic flight experiments.

  5. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis.

  6. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis. PMID:27595001

  7. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change.

    PubMed

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R; Wallace, Carden C; Gothmann, Anne M; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry. PMID:27302371

  8. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry.

  9. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Carbon Utilization Patterns in Response to Woody Encroachment into Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C. A.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    Land cover changes occurring in dryland ecosystems, such as woody encroachment, can moderate microbial activity and alter the flow of C and N between litter and soil, ultimately impacting soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. We analyzed the quantity and isotopic composition of microbial phospholipids along a grassland-to-woodland successional chronosequence in southern Texas to determine how microbial community structure and SOC utilization patterns responded to the extent of woody encroachment across two sampling seasons (Spring and Fall). Woody encroachment resulted in significant increases in total microbial biomass and fungal:bacterial ratios along with significant decreases in the ratio of gram-positive:gram-negative bacteria. Compound-specific 13C analysis of microbial phospholipids revealed that gram-negative bacteria and fungi were preferentially utilizing newer, C3-derived inputs, while other microbial groups generally showed no preferential incorporation of newer or older C. This preferential use of newer C in gram-negative bacteria and fungi, combined with their increasing relative abundance, reveals that these microbial groups are most responsive to biogeochemical changes elicited by woody encroachment, potentially to enhanced rhizosphere development or changes in the chemical stability of C inputs. This research provides important information regarding the links between changing plant cover, SOC accrual, and microbial activity in response to a globally relevant environmental perturbation.

  10. Landscape pattern change analyses of land surface radiation during the city expansion in Jinan City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2007-09-01

    The issues of urbanization and Land Use / Cover Change (LUCC) are both hot topics in the global change research which are now bound by human survival and development. This article takes the Shandong Jinan City as case study, and analyzing the impact of LUCC on land surface temperature and radiation during the urbanization advancement. This paper uses two periods of multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM image data, and combining plenty of resources and choosing feasible classification system, and integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) for detecting land cover change. We obtain the Land Use / Cover (LUC) maps of Jinan by visual interpretation and the LUC transfer matrix through GIS technique. And then we analyze the causes of LUCC. Retrieve out the land surface temperature and the land surface radiation by using single Landsat TM/ETM 6 thermal infrared data and weather data. We obtain the surface temperature and radiation distribution maps. Considering the transform of LUC, we analyze their impacts on land surface temperature and radiation in the region. Analyzing and describing the space pattern and time change of the impacts of land use and urbanization on land surface temperature and radiation during the past 6 years in Jinan. And provide a foundation to the researches of urbanization process mechanism and environment protection.

  11. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    PubMed Central

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry. PMID:27302371

  12. Lags in Training Response to Changes in Economic Activity: An Update for Five Industries and an Addition of Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Park, Jin S.; Akdere, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    An expanded investigation of the time it takes training budgets in five, now seven, industries to respond to changes in market demand and productive activity. A serious question, this reflects directly on the ability of the American economy to respond to changes in economic environment. Results indicate that for three of the five initial…

  13. Patterns of mechanical energy change in tetrapod gait: pendula, springs and work.

    PubMed

    Biewener, Andrew A

    2006-11-01

    Kinematic and center of mass (CoM) mechanical variables used to define terrestrial gaits are compared for various tetrapod species. Kinematic variables (limb phase, duty factor) provide important timing information regarding the neural control and limb coordination of various gaits. Whereas, mechanical variables (potential and kinetic energy relative phase, %Recovery, %Congruity) provide insight into the underlying mechanisms that minimize muscle work and the metabolic cost of locomotion, and also influence neural control strategies. Two basic mechanisms identified by Cavagna et al. (1977. Am J Physiol 233:R243-R261) are used broadly by various bipedal and quadrupedal species. During walking, animals exchange CoM potential energy (PE) with kinetic energy (KE) via an inverted pendulum mechanism to reduce muscle work. During the stance period of running (including trotting, hopping and galloping) gaits, animals convert PE and KE into elastic strain energy in spring elements of the limbs and trunk and regain this energy later during limb support. The bouncing motion of the body on the support limb(s) is well represented by a simple mass-spring system. Limb spring compliance allows the storage and return of elastic energy to reduce muscle work. These two distinct patterns of CoM mechanical energy exchange are fairly well correlated with kinematic distinctions of limb movement patterns associated with gait change. However, in some cases such correlations can be misleading. When running (or trotting) at low speeds many animals lack an aerial period and have limb duty factors that exceed 0.5. Rather than interpreting this as a change of gait, the underlying mechanics of the body's CoM motion indicate no fundamental change in limb movement pattern or CoM dynamics has occurred. Nevertheless, the idealized, distinctive patterns of CoM energy fluctuation predicted by an inverted pendulum for walking and a bouncing mass spring for running are often not clear cut, especially

  14. Global patterns in Late Cretaceous Nd data and their relationship to climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Ken; Martin, Ellen; Robinson, Stuart; Jiménez Berrocoso, Álvaro

    2013-04-01

    The geographic and stratigraphic coverage of published Late Cretaceous Nd isotopic data, a paleocirculation proxy, has increased dramatically in the past five years. Sites have now been studied in the Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Southern, and Indian oceans. Pacific samples consistently yield the highest ratios (?Nd(t) values of -6 to -3) throughout the Late Cretaceous. These values are similar to Cenozoic and modern values in the region suggesting a signal dominated by input from young volcanic material. In contrast, Cenomanian-Campanian samples from Demerara Rise in the tropical western Atlantic exhibit values that are generally very low (-17 to -14) both relative to other Late Cretaceous samples and to the modern record. However, Demerara Rise values rise to -8 during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) and to -12 during the Maastrichtian. The low values suggest input from old continental sources and formation of a warm saline intermediate water mass in the western equatorial Atlantic whereas the excursions indicate that that downwelling was interrupted during OAE2 and terminated during the Maastrichtian. At other sites, most ?Nd(t) values fall between -5 and -12 with significant temporal shifts within and differences among sites. Unique interpretations of these patterns is not yet possible, but they suggest Late Cretaceous oceans were characterized by patterns of circulation and mixing more complicated than traditionally discussed. Further and provocatively, apparent changes in circulation inferred from ?Nd data often are correlated with intervals of climate change or ecological perturbations. Cooling during the Campanian and Maastrichtian correlates with a widespread decline in ?Nd values, perhaps signaling increased importance of high latitude source regions. Inferred circulation changes during OAE2 could have influenced the efficiency of nutrient trapping in the North Atlantic promoting enhanced productivity and organic carbon burial. Discriminating

  15. Atmospheric constraints on Plant Water Use Efficiency drivers and patterns of changes since 1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, Margriet; Cox, Peter; Booth, Ben; Lambert, Hugo

    2013-04-01

    Water Use Efficiency (WUE) controls the relationship between the ecosystem water and carbon balance. Because WUE responds to environmental changes it can be used as a metric to quantify the effect of climate change on ecosystems. The actual WUEeco is defined as a ratio of gross primary production and transpiration fluxes. On the leaf scale this is equal to the atmospheric WUEatm, which is a function of the ambient and internal CO2 concentration, the saturated specific humidity and relative humidity. Using observations and the JULES and HadCM3 models we explore on which temporal and spatial scales WUEeco and WUEatm are equal, and how they respond to climate change. Leaf level definitions are valid at site level, where annual WUEeco and WUEatm simulated with JULES are equal and linearly increasing with atmospheric CO2 concentration for a range of sites. For drier sites lower values of both were simulated. The simulated values are within the same range as values derived from eddy covariance observations. Having shown the near equivalence between WUEeco and WUEatm for specific sites, we can use the formula for WUEatm to estimate the change in plant WUE over the 20th century, using observed climatological data and CO2 concentrations. In general WUE is found to increase strongly with the CO2 concentration, but this is offset by warming and drying that increases evaporative demand and therefore reduces WUE. As a result we find complex spatio-temporal patterns of changes in WUE, resulting from the differing drivers of climate change and variation. For example, warming due to the reduction in atmospheric aerosol pollution since the late 1980s reduced WUE in some previously heavily-polluted regions despite the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2. We will describe the methods used to reconstruct WUE from observations, and discuss the spatial and temporal variation of WUE since 1900.

  16. Complex and changing patterns of natural selection explain the evolution of the human hip.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Roseman, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    Causal explanations for the dramatic changes that occurred during the evolution of the human hip focus largely on selection for bipedal function and locomotor efficiency. These hypotheses rest on two critical assumptions. The first-that these anatomical changes served functional roles in bipedalism-has been supported in numerous analyses showing how postcranial changes likely affected locomotion. The second-that morphological changes that did play functional roles in bipedalism were the result of selection for that behavior-has not been previously explored and represents a major gap in our understanding of hominin hip evolution. Here we use evolutionary quantitative genetic models to test the hypothesis that strong directional selection on many individual aspects of morphology was responsible for the large differences observed across a sample of fossil hominin hips spanning the Plio-Pleistocene. Our approach uses covariance among traits and the differences between relatively complete fossils to estimate the net selection pressures that drove the major transitions in hominin hip evolution. Our findings show a complex and changing pattern of natural selection drove hominin hip evolution, and that many, but not all, traits hypothesized to play functional roles in bipedalism evolved as a direct result of natural selection. While the rate of evolutionary change for all transitions explored here does not exceed the amount expected if evolution was occurring solely through neutral processes, it was far above rates of evolution for morphological traits in other mammalian groups. Given that stasis is the norm in the mammalian fossil record, our results suggest that large shifts in the adaptive landscape drove hominin evolution.

  17. Complex and changing patterns of natural selection explain the evolution of the human hip.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Roseman, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    Causal explanations for the dramatic changes that occurred during the evolution of the human hip focus largely on selection for bipedal function and locomotor efficiency. These hypotheses rest on two critical assumptions. The first-that these anatomical changes served functional roles in bipedalism-has been supported in numerous analyses showing how postcranial changes likely affected locomotion. The second-that morphological changes that did play functional roles in bipedalism were the result of selection for that behavior-has not been previously explored and represents a major gap in our understanding of hominin hip evolution. Here we use evolutionary quantitative genetic models to test the hypothesis that strong directional selection on many individual aspects of morphology was responsible for the large differences observed across a sample of fossil hominin hips spanning the Plio-Pleistocene. Our approach uses covariance among traits and the differences between relatively complete fossils to estimate the net selection pressures that drove the major transitions in hominin hip evolution. Our findings show a complex and changing pattern of natural selection drove hominin hip evolution, and that many, but not all, traits hypothesized to play functional roles in bipedalism evolved as a direct result of natural selection. While the rate of evolutionary change for all transitions explored here does not exceed the amount expected if evolution was occurring solely through neutral processes, it was far above rates of evolution for morphological traits in other mammalian groups. Given that stasis is the norm in the mammalian fossil record, our results suggest that large shifts in the adaptive landscape drove hominin evolution. PMID:26164108

  18. Environmental Change in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chong; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-28

    Chengde city is located in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in northern China near the capital city of Beijing, which has experienced large-scale ecological construction in the past three decades. This study quantitatively assessed the environmental changes in Chengde through observation records of water resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, and vegetation activity and investigated the possible causes. From the late 1950s to 2002, the streamflow presented a downward trend induced by climate variability and human activities, with contribution ratios of 33.2% and 66.8%, respectively. During 2001-2012, the days of levels I and II air quality presented clear upward trends. Moreover, the air pollutant concentration was relatively low compared with that in the adjacent areas, which means the air quality has improved more than that in the neighboring areas. The water quality, which deteriorated during 1993-2000, began to improve in 2002. The air and water quality changes were closely related to pollutant emissions induced by anthropogenic activities. During 1982-2012, the vegetation in the southeastern and central regions presented restoration trends, whereas that in the northwestern area showed degradation trends. The pixels with obvious degradation trends correlated significantly with annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. Ecological engineering also played a positive role in vegetation restoration. This analysis can be beneficial to environment managers in the active response and adaptation to the possible effects of future climate change, population growth, and industrial development and can be used to ensure sustainable development and environmental safety.

  19. Patterns of early change and their relationship to outcome and early treatment termination in patients with panic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Rubel, Julian; Boswell, James F.; Shear, M. Katherine; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recently, innovative statistical tools have been used to model patterns of change in psychological treatments. These tools can detect patterns of change in patient progress early in treatment and allow for the prediction of treatment outcomes and treatment length. Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify different latent classes of early change in patients with panic disorder (N = 326) who underwent a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment. Results Four latent subgroups were identified, showing clusters of change trajectories over the first five sessions. One of the subgroups consisted of patients whose symptoms rapidly decreased and also showed the best outcomes. This information improved treatment prediction by 16.1% over patient intake characteristics. Early change patterns also significantly predicted patients’ early treatment termination. Patient intake characteristics that significantly predicted class membership included functional impairment and separation anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that early treatment changes are uniquely predictive of treatment outcome. PMID:24447004

  20. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

  1. Is "Warm Arctic, Cold Continent" A Fingerprint Pattern of Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M. P.; Sun, L.; Perlwitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cold winters and cold waves have recently occurred in Europe, central Asia and the Midwest to eastern United States, even as global mean temperatures set record highs and Arctic amplification of surface warming continued. Since 1979, Central Asia winter temperatures have in fact declined. Conjecture has it that more cold extremes over the mid-latitude continents should occur due to global warming and the impacts of Arctic sea ice loss. A Northern Hemisphere temperature signal termed the "Warm Arctic, Cold Continent" pattern has thus been surmised. Here we use a multi-model approach to test the hypothesis that such a pattern is indeed symptomatic of climate change. Diagnosis of a large model ensemble of historical climate simulations shows some individual realizations to yield cooling trends over Central Asia, but importantly the vast majority show warming. The observed cooling has thus likely been a low probability state of internal variability, not a fingerprint of forced climate change. We show that daily temperature variations over continents decline in winter due to global warming, and cold waves become less likely. This is partly related to diminution of Arctic cold air reservoirs due to warming-induced sea ice loss. Nonetheless, we find some evidence and present a physical basis that Arctic sea ice loss alone can induce a winter cooling over Central Asia, though with a magnitude that is appreciably smaller than the overall radiative-forced warming signal. Our results support the argument that recent cooling trends over central Asia, and cold extreme events over the winter continents, have principally resulted from atmospheric internal variability and have been neither a forced response to Arctic seas ice loss nor a symptom of global warming. The paradigm of climate change is thus better expressed as "Warm Arctic, Warm Continent" for the NH winter.

  2. Water Presence in an Arid and Semi-arid River: Pattern, causes, mechanisms and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, T.; Soto, C. D.; Ajami, H.; Turner, D.; Richter, H.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-12-01

    The presence or absence of water in a stream is among the most fundamental hydrologic variables, particularly for arid and semi-arid rivers. The perennial or intermittent nature of a specific stream location is strongly tied to the biotic diversity and ecosystem services provided by a specific stream reach. Wet dry mapping has been conducted on several Arizona rivers over the last several years. The mapping has been most extensive in time and space along the San Pedro River where the effort has been led by the Bureau of Land Management and the Nature Conservancy. Analysis of the available 13 years of data reveals a number of critical aspects about how a river's wetness changes with climatic and geomorphic conditions. First, the pattern displays power law scaling across space for all completed surveys. Second, using a logistic regression approach the following variables were found to be important in predicting the wet/dry status of a given stream location: surface topography , depth to bedrock, mean daily streamflow in May, change in depth to bedrock, channel sinuosity, and flood plain width. The model is able to correctly predict 80.1 to 86.7% of the wet/dry locations in the river when 52.8% (31.5% wet and 21.3% dry) of its wet/dry status was constant during calibration. Importantly but unsurprisingly the logistic model indicates that hydrologic state combined with subsurface capacity to transmit flow and fluvial structure are important variables in determining the wet/dry status of specific river locations. Using groundwater models as well as climate scenarios for future conditions we are able to estimate how both the extent and the spatial pattern of stream wetness will change under future climate scenarios.

  3. Global Climate Change and Sedimentation Patterns in the Neogene Baringo Basin, Central Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J. D.; Wilson, K. E.; Hill, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Tugen Hills are part of a ~100 km N-S tilted fault block, just west of Lake Baringo within the Central Kenyan Rift Valley. Sediments exposed in this block span the last 16 Ma and have yielded abundant and diverse fossil assemblages including a number of hominoid and hominid specimens. Much research has also focused on documenting the paleoecology of the succession through analyses of fossil floral, faunal, and biogeochemical proxies. Data from the Tugen Hills have revealed a complex evolutionary history of ecosystems characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity with no clear evidence of any long-term trends. While these studies suggest that the patterns of heterogeneity may be shifting at short time-scales (104-105 ka), limited temporal resolution has until now generally precluded assessments of environmental change at these scales. Recently published investigations in the Baringo Basin have provided evidence of orbitally mediated environmental change over periods which include hominid fossil localities (Deino et al., 2006; Kingston et al., 2007). The Baringo data represent the only empirical evidence for significant local environmental shifts that can directly be correlated with insolation patterns in equatorial Africa. Sedimentation patterns in the Baringo Basin between ca. 2.70 and 2.55 Ma, controlled by climatic factors, provide a detailed paleoenvironmental record including a sequence of diatomites that record rhythmic cycling of major freshwater lake systems consistent with ~23 kyr Milankovitch precessional periodicity modulated by eccentricity. The timing of the paleolakes most closely approximates insolation maximum for the June/July 30○N insolation curve, suggesting that precipitation patterns in the region are controlled by the African monsoon system. More recent fieldwork has identified older sequences that similarly demonstrate rhythmic cycling of freshwater lake systems. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar dating of intercalated tephra reveals that

  4. Distribution, compositional pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of an industrial city, Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Yves, Uwamungu J; Sun, Hang; Hu, Xuefei; Zhan, Huiying; Wu, Yingqin

    2016-04-01

    The level, distribution, compositional pattern and possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou urban soil of Northwest China were investigated in this study. The total level of 22 PAHs ranged from 115 to 12,100 µg kg(-1) and that of 16 priority PAHs from 82.4 to 10,900 µg kg(-1). Seven carcinogenic PAHs generally accounted for 6.18-57.4% of total 22 PAHs. Compared with data from those reported about urban areas, PAH contamination in Lanzhou urban soils was moderate. Among different functional areas, higher level of PAHs was found along roadsides and in the industrial district (p<0.01), while lower levels were detected in the commercial, park and residential districts. The composition of PAHs was characterized by high molecular weight PAHs (≥4 rings), among which fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene and phenanthrene were the most dominant components. Correlation analysis suggested that low molecular weight PAHs and high molecular weight PAHs originated from different sources and further corroborated that TOC was an important factor in the accumulation of PAHs in soil. Isomer ratios and principal component analysis indicated that PAHs in urban soil derived primarily from emissions resulting from the combustion of biomass, coal and petroleum products. Toxic equivalent concentrations (BaP(eq)) of soil PAHs ranged from 6.12 to 1302 µg BaP(eq) kg(-1), with a mean of 138 µg BaP(eq) kg(-1). The results suggested that human exposure to those soils which polluted by high concentrations of PAHs through direct ingestion or inhalation of suspended soil particles probably poses a significant risk to human health from the carcinogenic effects of PAHs.

  5. The effects of ownership and ownership change on nursing home industry costs.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, J S

    1996-01-01

    hospital long-term care units that had changed ownership reported significantly higher per diem plant costs than facilities without a change of ownership, but did not spend more on patient-related costs. Michigan Medicaid plant reimbursement system policy changes instituted in 1985 to promote continued ownership of facilities were not entirely successful. CONCLUSIONS. Non-profit homes look increasingly like their for-profit counterparts with respect to spending on patient care costs. Increased competition for the more lucrative private-pay patients, coupled with declining state Medicaid reimbursement to nursing homes, may have blurred the historical distinctions between the non-profit and for-profit sectors in the nursing home industry. An exception to increasing homogeneity within the nursing home industry is the tendency of proprietary homes to experience more frequent changes of ownership, which results in higher capital costs passed on to state Medicaid programs. Findings from this study indicate that while facility sales increase per diem plant costs, they do not result in increased spending for direct patient care, suggesting that state Medicaid programs may be indirectly subsidizing facility sales with no accompanying increase in expenditures for patient care. To discourage frequent facility sales, state Medicaid programs may need to consider alternative methods of reimbursing nursing home owners for capital costs. PMID:8698588

  6. Changes in blast zone albedo patterns around new martian impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubar, I. J.; Dundas, C. M.; Byrne, S.; Geissler, P.; Bart, G. D.; McEwen, A. S.; Russell, P. S.; Chojnacki, M.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-03-01

    "Blast zones" (BZs) around new martian craters comprise various albedo features caused by the initial impact, including diffuse halos, extended linear and arcuate rays, secondary craters, ejecta patterns, and dust avalanches. We examined these features for changes in repeat images separated by up to four Mars years. Here we present the first comprehensive survey of the qualitative and quantitative changes observed in impact blast zones over time. Such changes are most likely due to airfall of high-albedo dust restoring darkened areas to their original albedo, the albedo of adjacent non-impacted surfaces. Although some sites show drastic changes over short timescales, nearly half of the sites show no obvious changes over several Mars years. Albedo changes are more likely to occur at higher-latitude sites, lower-elevation sites, and at sites with smaller central craters. No correlation was seen between amount of change and Dust Cover Index, relative halo size, or historical regional albedo changes. Quantitative albedo measurements of the diffuse dark halos relative to their surroundings yielded estimates of fading lifetimes for these features. The average lifetime among sites with measurable fading is ∼15 Mars years; the median is ∼8 Mars years for a linear brightening. However, at approximately half of sites with three or more repeat images, a nonlinear function with rapid initial fading followed by a slow increase in albedo provides a better fit to the fading behavior; this would predict even longer lifetimes. The predicted lifetimes of BZs are comparable to those of slope streaks, and considered representative of fading by global atmospheric dust deposition; they last significantly longer than dust devil or rover tracks, albedo features that are erased by different processes. These relatively long lifetimes indicate that the measurement of the current impact rate by Daubar et al. (Daubar, I.J. et al. [2013]. Icarus 225, 506-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j

  7. Private Industry Councils Partner to Meet the Challenge of Change in Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the shift in function of PICs (Private Industry Councils) from overseeing training programs for unemployed workers to developing the skills of the entire work force in local communities. Analyzes the relationship between community colleges and Private Industry Councils. (JDI)

  8. Quality changes of anchovy (Stolephorus heterolobus) under refrigerated storage of different practical industrial methods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan

    2014-02-01

    Quality changes of anchovy (Stolephorus heterolobus) muscle during 7 days of refrigerated storage with ice and without ice were studied using several indicators: changes of ATP degradation products, K-value, TVB-N, TMA-N, Lactic acid, biogenic amines, sensory and microbiological analysis. During 7-day of refrigerated storage with ice and without ice, K-value, TVB-N, TMA-N and D, L-lactic acids contents increased with longer storage time (p ≤ 0.05). Major biogenic amines found in anchovy muscle during refrigerated storage were cadaverine, agmatine and tyramine, followed by putrescine and histamine. Skin and external odour by sensory evaluation, progressive decreases were observed as refrigeration time progressed. Storage of anchovy with ice resulted in a better maintenance of sensory quality, better control microbial activity, and the slowing down of biochemical degradation mechanisms. This result introduces the use of refrigerated storage with ice as a practical preliminary chilling for anchovy during industrial processing. PMID:24493885

  9. Quality changes of anchovy (Stolephorus heterolobus) under refrigerated storage of different practical industrial methods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan

    2014-02-01

    Quality changes of anchovy (Stolephorus heterolobus) muscle during 7 days of refrigerated storage with ice and without ice were studied using several indicators: changes of ATP degradation products, K-value, TVB-N, TMA-N, Lactic acid, biogenic amines, sensory and microbiological analysis. During 7-day of refrigerated storage with ice and without ice, K-value, TVB-N, TMA-N and D, L-lactic acids contents increased with longer storage time (p ≤ 0.05). Major biogenic amines found in anchovy muscle during refrigerated storage were cadaverine, agmatine and tyramine, followed by putrescine and histamine. Skin and external odour by sensory evaluation, progressive decreases were observed as refrigeration time progressed. Storage of anchovy with ice resulted in a better maintenance of sensory quality, better control microbial activity, and the slowing down of biochemical degradation mechanisms. This result introduces the use of refrigerated storage with ice as a practical preliminary chilling for anchovy during industrial processing.

  10. Modeling impacts of climate change on evapotranspiration and soil moisture spatial patterns in an alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Johannes G.; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    A climate change impact study on spatial pattern of evaporation and soil moisture was performed in the Venosta/Vinschgau valley (South Tyrol, Italy). Locating hot spots of future changes for these main components of the water cycle is essential for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in this dry inner alpine valley, which is already affected by water scarcity issues. The GEOtop hydrological model was used for 1-dimensional simulations, resulting in soil water content, evapotranspiration and snow water equivalent for 300 locations within the valley. Simulation locations were chosen by means of a multidimensional sampling (K-means clustering) of the most important aspects of land surface heterogeneities of the complex, mountainous topography, and land use cover, based on 20m grid maps. This approach reduced considerably computational time with respect to a full 3-dimensional simulation. An ensemble of 7 regional climate models (RCM) was downscaled using the Δ-change approach, to drive the hydrological model for the scenario periods 2040-2059 (scen2060) and 2080-2099 (scen2100). A baseline simulation is covering the period 1990-2009. Calibration and validation studies were successfully carried out for three locations along an elevation transect (station B10: 1000m a.s.l., station B15: 1500m a.s.l., station B20: 2000m a.s.l.), where detailed observations of meteorological inputs, evapotranspiration, snow cover and soil moisture were available. The annual cycle of the Δ-change signal for temperature and precipitation reveals explicit differences between the 7 RCMs. Especially precipitation patterns exhibit high uncertainty, but, nevertheless, they show an average increase of 17%(±36%) in autumn and a decrease of 13%(±23%) in summer (scen2100). Temperature pattern are more homogenous, reaching a maximum increase in summer (4.2±0.9°C, scen2100). Decreasing temperatures are not projected. Simulations show a strong impact of increasing temperature

  11. Predicting changes in alluvial channel patterns in North-European Russia under conditions of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Oleg; Vandenberghe, Jef; Lobanov, Vladimir; Kondratiev, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    Global climate change may have a noticeable impact on the northern environment, leading to changes in permafrost, vegetation and fluvial morphology. In this paper we compare the results from three geomorphological models and study the potential effects of changing climatic factors on the river channel types in North-European Russia. Two of the selected models by Romashin [Romashin, V.V., 1968. Variations of the river channel types under governing factors, Annals of the Hydrological Institute, vol. 155. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, pp. 56-63.] and Leopold and Wolman [Leopold, L.B., Wolman, M.G., 1957. River channel pattern: braided, meandering and straight, Physiographic and hydraulic studies of rivers. USA Geological Survey Professional Paper 252, pp. 85-98.] are conventional QS-type models, which predict the existence of either multi-thread or single-tread channel types using data on discharge and channel slope. The more advanced model by Van den Berg [Van den Berg, J.H., 1995. Prediction of alluvial channel pattern of perennial rivers. Geomorphology 12, 259-270.] takes into account the size of the sediment material. We used data from 16 runoff gauges to validate the models and predict the channel types at selected locations under modern and predicted for the future climatic conditions. Two of the three models successfully replicated the currently existing channel types in all but one of the studied sites. Predictive calculations under the hypothetical scenarios of 10%, 15%, 20% and 35% runoff increase gave different results. Van den Berg's model predicted potential transformation of the channel types, from single- to multi-thread, at 4 of 16 selected locations in the next few decades, and at 5 locations by the middle of the 21st century. Each of the QS-type models predicted such transformation at one site only. Results of the study indicate that climatic warming in combination with other environmental changes may lead to transformation of the river channel types

  12. Incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer in England and Wales: Changing patterns and ethnic variations

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Khan, Shahid A; Crossey, Mary ME; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore recent trends, modes of diagnosis, ethnic distribution and the mortality to incidence ratio of primary liver cancer by subtypes in England and Wales. METHODS: We obtained incidence (1979-2008) and mortality (1968-2008) data for primary liver cancer for England and Wales and calculated age-standardised incidence and mortality rates. Trends in age-standardised mortality (ASMR) and incidence (ASIR) rates and basis of diagnosis of primary liver cancer and subcategories: hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct and unspecified liver tumours, were analysed over the study period. Changes in guidelines for the diagnosis of primary liver cancer (PLC) may impact changing trends in the rates that may be obtained. We thus explored changes in the mode of diagnosis as reported to cancer registries. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of these tumours by ethnicity. Most of the statistical manipulations of these data was carried out in Microsoft excel® (Seattle, Washington, United Sttaes). Additional epidemiological statistics were done in Epi Info software (Atlanta, GA, United Sttaes). To define patterns of change over time, we evaluated trends in ASMR and ASIR of PLC and intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (IHBD) using a least squares regression line fitted to the natural logarithm of the mortality and incidence rates. We estimated the patterns of survival over subsequent 5 and 10 years using complement of mortality to incidence ratio (1-MIR). RESULTS: Age-standardised mortality rate of primary liver cancer increased in both sexes: from 2.56 and 1.29/100000 in 1968 to 5.10 and 2.63/100000 in 2008 for men and women respectively. The use of histology for diagnostic confirmation of primary liver cancer increased from 35.7% of registered cases in 1993 to plateau at about 50% during 2005 to 2008. Reliance on cytology as a basis of diagnosis has maintained a downward trend throughout the study period. Although approximately 30% of the PLC registrations had

  13. Predicting Climate Change Using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco; Lunkeit, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O(10^5 ) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting—at any lead time and in an ensemble sense—the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO_2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as in their spatial patterns. The quality of the predictions obtained for the surface temperature fields is rather good, while in the case of precipitation a good skill is observed only for the global average. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  14. Simulating The Change In Agricultural Fruit Patterns In The Context of River Basin Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloecking, B.; Laue, K.; Stroebl, B.

    A new concept has been developed for the integrated analysis of impacts of Global Change and direct human activities on the environment and the society in mesoscale river basins. The main steps of this approach are: (1) Developing a set of regional scenarios of change considering expected changes in climate, economic, demographic and social development, (2) Identification of indicators of sustainability for the impact assessment, (3) Impact analysis of the defined scenarios of development, (4) Evalu- ation of the different scenarios on the basis of the impact analysis to elaborate new stategies in regional development. All steps include consultations with actors and stakeholders. The concept is applied in the western part of Thuringia (7.500 km2), covering the basin of the Unstrut river. This part of the German Elbe river basin is highly suited for food production under the present conditions. Therefore it is a good site for vulnerability studies focused on agriculture. The development of agricultural land-use scenarios for the Unstrut region will be done in form of a bottom-up approach based on adaptation reactions of example farms within the expected boundary condi- tions such as the global food markets and other global economic trends as well as in- ternational agreements. Representing the present conditions in Thuringia, a referential land-use scenario was developed, assuming a complete realisation of the AGENDA 2000 resolutions. Impacts of changed land use in combination with climate change scenarios on plant production and on availability and quality of water are been inves- tigated with the help of a spatial distributed river basin model. A GIS-based approach was developed to locate the spatially not explicit land use scenarios. This approach allows to reproduce the agricultural fruit patterns of a region in a river basin model without taking into account the real field boundaries. First simulation results for the referential climate and land-use scenario

  15. Monitoring, analyzing and simulating of spatial-temporal changes of landscape pattern over mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Ruimei; Wang, Shuangting

    2014-11-01

    According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and Land changes, multi- objective information processing is employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover in mining areas. In this paper, multi-temporal remotely sensed data were selected to monitor the pattern, distri- bution and trend of LUCC and predict its impacts on ecological environment and human settlement in mining area. The monitor, analysis and simulation of LUCC in this coal mining areas are divided into five steps. The are information integration of optical and SAR data, LULC types extraction with SVM classifier, LULC trends simulation with CA Markov model, landscape temporal changes monitoring and analysis with confusion matrixes and landscape indices. The results demonstrate that the improved data fusion algorithm could make full use of information extracted from optical and SAR data; SVM classifier has an efficient and stable ability to obtain land cover maps, which could provide a good basis for both land cover change analysis and trend simulation; CA Markov model is able to predict LULC trends with good performance, and it is an effective way to integrate remotely sensed data with spatial-temporal model for analysis of land use / cover change and corresponding environmental impacts in mining area. Confusion matrixes are combined with landscape indices to evaluation and analysis show that, there was a sustained downward trend in agricultural land and bare land, but a continues growth trend tendency in water body, forest and other lands, and building area showing a wave like change, first increased and then decreased; mining landscape has undergone a from small to large and large to small process of fragmentation, agricultural land is the strongest influenced landscape type in this area, and human activities are the primary cause, so the problem should be pay more attentions by government and other organizations.

  16. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study.

    PubMed

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (<30 years). The present study therefore aimed to examine the influence of age on the neural correlates of covert movements (CMs) in a real-time EEG neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the

  17. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    PubMed

    Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  18. Factors Influencing Changes in Eating Patterns Among Hong Kong Young Adults Transitioning to Tertiary Education.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sin Tung; Capra, Sandra; Leveritt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Transitioning to tertiary education is a significant life course event that has the potential to influence lifelong eating patterns. This study used a theoretic model developed from a life course perspective to examine factors influencing the change of food choices among 31 young adults in Hong Kong after they moved on to tertiary education. Qualitative analysis of transcripts based on the constant comparative method revealed that present life course experiences, especially increased autonomy, and social-environmental factors strongly influenced young adults' present food choices. A model was developed from life course theory and social-ecological theory to reflect the factors that led to change of food choices among participants. The model provides unique insights on food choices of the future adult population. It could also be used as a reference for the development of nutrition education interventions targeting tertiary students as they experience increased autonomy. In conclusion, food choices of young adults on transitioning to tertiary education are strongly influenced by increased autonomy and change of social and environmental factors. PMID:27052300

  19. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, A.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long term cycles. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and memory properties to better understand natural patterns and in particular long term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  20. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    PubMed

    Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  1. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  2. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. The changing pattern of primary glomerulonephritis in Singapore and other countries over the past 3 decades.

    PubMed

    Woo, K-T; Chan, C-M; Mooi, C Y; -L-Choong, H; Tan, H-K; Foo, M; Lee, G S L; Anantharaman, V; Lim, C-H; Tan, C-C; Lee, E J C; Chiang, G S C; Tan, P H; Boon, T H; Fook-Chong, S; Wong, K-S

    2010-11-01

    This review of 2,586 renal biopsies over the past 3 decades in Singapore documents the changing pattern of glomerulonephritis (GN) from that of a third world country to that of a developed nation. In the 1st decade, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was the most common form of primary GN, just as it was in the surrounding Asian countries. In the 2nd decade, the prevalence of mesangial proliferative GN decreased with a rise in membranous, GN which is also seen in China and Thailand. In the 3rd decade, there was a dramatic increase in focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis. This increase reflects aging and obesity in keeping with more developed countries like Australia, India, Thailand and the United States of America. IgA nephritis remains the most common GN. Apart from the geographical influence, other socioeconomic factors play a significant role in the evolution of the renal biopsy pattern. Mesangial proliferative GN remains prevalent in many Asian countries, but in Singapore the prevalence is decreasing just as it is in Japan, Korea and Malaysia. Worldwide, the prevalence of focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis continues to increase in many countries. PMID:20979946

  4. [Changes and compensation in the locomotor pattern of unilateral vestibular neurectomized cats].

    PubMed

    Sun, J R

    1997-02-01

    In the present study the locomotor activity of unilateral vestibular neurectomized cats while crossing over a rotating beam along its longitudinal axis at different speeds was investigated. The kinematics of the body movement was recorded by means of a motion analysis system, with an optical automatic TV-image processor (E. L. I. T. E system) allowing a computer reconstruction of the 3 dimensional motion. Analysis was focused on the locomotion pattern as defined by several parameters including step length, step frequency and velocity, and an estimate of the height of the body gravity center. The results obtained with non-rotating beam showed that unilateral vestibular neurectomy induced significant changes in locomotor activity of the lesioned cats. Animals crossed over the beam with very slow locomotion speed and they typically exhibited a strong reduction in step length associated with a decrease in frequency. In addition, the gravity center of the walking cats was lower than the normal. The analysis performed with the rotating beam revealed different strategies of compensation, with cats moving either faster or slower as compared to their preoperative performance. Such strategies in locomotion speed regulation avoided falling from the rotating beam. Recovery to a nearly normal locomotor pattern was observed thereafter with a time delay comparable to that found in other behavioral studies dealing with the vestibular compensation process in the cat. PMID:9812828

  5. Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably

  6. Phase-change material-based nanoantennas with tunable radiation patterns.

    PubMed

    Alaee, R; Albooyeh, M; Tretyakov, S; Rockstuhl, C

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a novel switchable plasmonic dipole nanoantenna operating at mid-infrared frequencies that exploits phase-change materials. We show that the induced dipole moments of a nanoantenna, where a germanium antimony telluride (Ge3Sb2Te6 or GST for short) nanopatch acts as a spacer between two coupled metallic nanopatches, can be controlled in a disruptive sense. By switching GST between its crystalline and amorphous phases, the nanoantenna can exhibit either an electric or a balanced magneto-electric dipole-like radiation. While the former radiation pattern is omnidirectional, the latter is directive. Based on this property exciting switching devices can be perceived, such as a metasurface whose functionality can be switched between an absorber and a reflector. The switching between stable amorphous and crystalline phases occurs on timescales of nanoseconds and can be achieved by an electrical or optical pulse. PMID:27607982

  7. Pattern recognition of continuity of discrete data points by scale changed plots.

    PubMed

    Chinami, M; Shingu, M

    1992-01-01

    Graphs composed of a large number of data points plotted on an appropriate scale enables us to pattern recognize a specific continuous curve. This principle was used to follow signals from proton nuclear magnetic resonance as a function of pH in a large biomolecule, staphylococcal nuclease. The analysis was automated by auto peak-picking routines and by transferring the results to a graphic program, Graphic Operating System (Roome & Peterson, 1985). Expansion and contraction of the scale made it possible to differentiate specific tyrosine and histidine titration curves. This type of analysis is applicable for assignment of specific curves from a large number of data points which change as a function of perturbations.

  8. Pattern recognition of continuity of discrete data points by scale changed plots.

    PubMed

    Chinami, M; Shingu, M

    1992-01-01

    Graphs composed of a large number of data points plotted on an appropriate scale enables us to pattern recognize a specific continuous curve. This principle was used to follow signals from proton nuclear magnetic resonance as a function of pH in a large biomolecule, staphylococcal nuclease. The analysis was automated by auto peak-picking routines and by transferring the results to a graphic program, Graphic Operating System (Roome & Peterson, 1985). Expansion and contraction of the scale made it possible to differentiate specific tyrosine and histidine titration curves. This type of analysis is applicable for assignment of specific curves from a large number of data points which change as a function of perturbations. PMID:1405433

  9. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    PubMed

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality.

  10. Changing Pattern of Donor Selection Criteria in Deceased Donor Liver Transplant: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Dronacharya; Naidu, Sudeep; Sharma, Sanjay; Ranjan, Priya; Godara, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, with standardization and progress in surgical techniques, immunosuppression and post liver transplantation patient care, the outcome of liver transplantation has been optimized. However, the principal limitation of transplantation remains access to an allograft. The number of patients who could derive benefit from liver transplantation markedly exceeds the number of available deceased donors. The large gap between the growing list of patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled efforts to maximize existing donor pool and identify new avenues. This article reviews the changing pattern of donor for liver transplantation using grafts from extended criteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors with viral hepatitis), donation after cardiac death, use of partial grafts (split liver grafts) and other suboptimal donors (hypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support). PMID:25755521

  11. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H; Hol, W H G

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  12. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H.; Hol, W. H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  13. Changes in the spectral pattern of selenium accumulation in Coleus blumei and the effects of chelation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miaohao H; Yuan, Juhong H

    2015-04-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoremediation has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass production plants. This study investigated changes in the spectral pattern of selenium (Se) accumulation in Coleus blumei Benth. (coleus) plants grown in hydroponics with 1.0 mg/l sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and the effects of (S,S)-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) thereon through X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. When EDDS concentrations were in the range of 0-1.0 mmol/l, Se content increased significantly; however, at EDDS concentrations above this range, the symptoms of Se toxicity were alleviated in coleus leaves. Application of EDDS over 1.0 mmol/l significantly decreased total Se uptake in the leaves and roots of the plants. The powder diffraction patterns of the roots and leaves displayed sharp crystalline peaks, which were characteristic of an organic molecule with crystallinity. Our results revealed the presence of high amounts of C, O, Mg, Al, Si, K and Ca in the roots and leaves under Se-induced stress with different concentrations of EDDS. There were no changes in the chemical compositions of the roots and leaves, but the contents were influenced by Se-induced stress and EDDS treatment. This study demonstrated the importance of applying XRD, EDXS and FTIR methods toward a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of EDDS-induced Se accumulation in plants.

  14. Personality and changes in comorbidity patterns among anxiety and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, Philip; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2012-11-01

    This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom severity at baseline. We followed a cohort of 2566 persons (18-65 years) recruited in primary and specialized mental health care during two years. Personality dimensions at baseline were assessed with the NEO-FFI. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.)-based diagnostic interviews with the CIDI allowed assessment of changes in comorbidity patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders over two years. Data were analyzed with latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA). LCA identified a four-class latent comorbidity class solution (Few Disorders, Fear Disorders, Distress Disorders, and Comorbid Fear and Distress Disorders) and a five-class latent personality class solution (High Resilients, Medium Resilients, Low Overcontrollers, Medium Overcontrollers, and High Overcontrollers). LTA showed that the likelihood of remaining in the same latent class was larger than that of transitioning to a less severe comorbidity class. Also, after correcting for symptom severity, medium and high Overcontrollers as well as participants with lower levels of conscientiousness were less likely to transition to a less severe comorbidity class. In particular, the individual trait of conscientiousness may be less dependent on current levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and be a key pathoplastic or even predisposing variable in anxiety and depression and needs more theoretical and empirical study.

  15. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H; Hol, W H G

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  16. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally).

  17. Landscape pattern dynamic change analysis based on eco-hydrological process in the lower reaches of Tarim River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Cheng, Xiao-qian; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Hong-bin

    2009-01-01

    Landscape pattern and eco-hydrological process had changed greatly after seven times emergency water transportation in the lower reaches of Tarim River, Xinjiang, China. After analyzing the changes of eco-hydrological process, ground water level, soil moisture and vegetation growth etc. of emergency water transportation, remote sensing images in 2000 and 2005 year which present the situation before and after the emergency water transportation were processed and dynamic change characteristics of landscape pattern were analyzed. The changes of landscape pattern were described as follows: The forest land, waters, farmland and construction landscape area increase, and forest land increases the biggest, which increased by 23.03% during last 5 years. Waters landscape change is only inferior to forest land, which increased by 16.04%. The lawn, sand and Gobi saline-alkali land landscape area reduced; lawn and farmland had made the biggest contribution to the increase of forest land by 6.46% and 4.79% in the year 2005. Landscape diversity index, evenness index, fractal dimension and general fragmentation increased, but dominance index reduced. The results indicate that RS plays the vital role in the macroscopic dynamic change analysis of landscape pattern and seven times emergency water transportation has greatly influenced eco-hydrology process and landscape pattern changes in the lower reaches of Tarim River.

  18. The Impact of Pre-Industrial Land Use Change on Atmospheric Composition and Aerosol Radiative Forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. S.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.; Folberth, G.; Kaplan, J. O.; Pringle, K.; Scott, C.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use change (LUC) has had a major impact on the climate by altering the amount of carbon stored in vegetation, changing surface albedo and modifying the levels of both biogenic and pyrogenic emissions. While previous studies of LUC have largely focused on the first two components, there has recently been a recognition that changes to aerosol and related pre-cursor gas emissions from LUC are equally important. Furthermore, it has also recently been recognised that the pre-industrial (PI) to present day (PD) radiative forcing (RF) of climate from aerosol cloud interactions (ACI) due to anthropogenic emissions is highly sensitive to the amount of natural aerosol that was present in the PI. This suggests that anthropogenic RF from ACI may be highly sensitive to land-use in the PI. There are currently two commonly used baseline reference years for the PI; 1750 and 1860. Rapid LUC occurred between 1750 and 1860, with large reductions in natural vegetation cover in Eastern Northern America, Europe, Central Russia, India and Eastern China as well as lower reductions in parts of Brazil and Africa. This LUC will have led to significant changes in biogenic and fire emissions with implications for natural aerosol concentrations and PI-to-PD RF. The focus of this study is therefore to quantify the impact of LUC between 1750 and 1860 on aerosol concentrations and PI-to-PD RF calculations from ACI. We use the UK Met Office HadGEM3-UKCA coupled-chemistry-climate model to calculate the impacts of anthropogenic emissions and anthropogenic LUC on aerosol size distributions in both 1750 and 1860. We prescribe LUC using the KK10 historical dataset of land cover change. Monoterpene emissions are coupled directly to the prescribed LUC through the JULES land surface scheme in HadGEM3. Fire emissions from LUC were calculated offline using the fire module LPJ-LMfire in the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model. To separate out the impacts of LUC from

  19. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change