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Sample records for channel capacity limitations

  1. Determination of optimal lot size and production rate for multi-production channels with limited capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Wang, Ruei-Pei; Ho, Jyh-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Due to the constantly changing business environment, producers often have to deal with customers by adopting different procurement policies. That is, manufacturers confront not only predictable and regular orders, but also unpredictable and irregular orders. In this study, from the perspective of upstream manufacturers, both regular and irregular orders are considered in coping with the situation in which an uncertain demand is faced by the manufacturer, and a capacity confirming mechanism is used to examine such demand. If the demand is less than or equal to the capacity of the ordinary production channel, the general supply channel is utilised to fully account for the manufacturing process, but if the demand is greater than the capacity of the ordinary production channel, the contingency production channel would be activated along with the ordinary channel to satisfy the upcoming high demand. Besides, the reproductive property of the probability distribution is employed to represent the order quantity of the two types of demand. Accordingly, the optimal production rates and lot sizes for both channels are derived to provide managers with insights for further production planning.

  2. Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified. PMID:27306041

  3. Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek

    2016-06-01

    We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified.

  4. Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities.

    PubMed

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.

  5. Quantum Biological Channel Modeling and Capacity Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics has an important role in photosynthesis, magnetoreception, and evolution. There were many attempts in an effort to explain the structure of genetic code and transfer of information from DNA to protein by using the concepts of quantum mechanics. The existing biological quantum channel models are not sufficiently general to incorporate all relevant contributions responsible for imperfect protein synthesis. Moreover, the problem of determination of quantum biological channel capacity is still an open problem. To solve these problems, we construct the operator-sum representation of biological channel based on codon basekets (basis vectors), and determine the quantum channel model suitable for study of the quantum biological channel capacity and beyond. The transcription process, DNA point mutations, insertions, deletions, and translation are interpreted as the quantum noise processes. The various types of quantum errors are classified into several broad categories: (i) storage errors that occur in DNA itself as it represents an imperfect storage of genetic information, (ii) replication errors introduced during DNA replication process, (iii) transcription errors introduced during DNA to mRNA transcription, and (iv) translation errors introduced during the translation process. By using this model, we determine the biological quantum channel capacity and compare it against corresponding classical biological channel capacity. We demonstrate that the quantum biological channel capacity is higher than the classical one, for a coherent quantum channel model, suggesting that quantum effects have an important role in biological systems. The proposed model is of crucial importance towards future study of quantum DNA error correction, developing quantum mechanical model of aging, developing the quantum mechanical models for tumors/cancer, and study of intracellular dynamics in general. PMID:25371271

  6. Information capacities of quantum measurement channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities C and Cea of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance Cea/C > 1 generically for measurement channels with unsharp observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in an arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. In contrast, state preparations are characterized by the property of having no gain of entanglement assistance, Cea/C = 1.

  7. Single- and multi-channel underwater acoustic communication channel capacity: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Thomas J; Yang, T C

    2007-09-01

    Acoustic communication channel capacity determines the maximum data rate that can be supported by an acoustic channel for a given source power and source/receiver configuration. In this paper, broadband acoustic propagation modeling is applied to estimate the channel capacity for a time-invariant shallow-water waveguide for a single source-receiver pair and for vertical source and receiver arrays. Without bandwidth constraints, estimated single-input, single-output (SISO) capacities approach 10 megabitss at 1 km range, but beyond 2 km range they decay at a rate consistent with previous estimates by Peloquin and Leinhos (unpublished, 1997), which were based on a sonar equation calculation. Channel capacities subject to source bandwidth constraints are approximately 30-90% lower than for the unconstrained case, and exhibit a significant wind speed dependence. Channel capacity is investigated for single-input, multi-output (SIMO) and multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems, both for finite arrays and in the limit of a dense array spanning the entire water column. The limiting values of the SIMO and MIMO channel capacities for the modeled environment are found to be about four times higher and up to 200-400 times higher, respectively, than for the SISO case. Implications for underwater acoustic communication systems are discussed.

  8. Capacities of lossy bosonic channel with correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Pilyavets, Oleg V.; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    We evaluate the information capacities of a lossy bosonic channel with correlated noise. The model generalizes the one recently discussed by Pilyavets et al (2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 052324), where memory effects come from the interaction with correlated environments. Environmental correlations are quantified by a multimode squeezing parameter, which vanishes in the memoryless limit. We show that a global encoding/decoding scheme, which involves input-entangled states among different channel uses, is always preferable with respect to a local one in the presence of memory. Moreover, in a certain range of the parameters, we provide an analytical expression for the classical capacity of the channel showing that a global encoding/decoding scheme allows it to be attained. All the results can be applied to a broad class of bosonic Gaussian channels.

  9. Private Capacity of Quantum Channels is Not Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2009-09-01

    Recently there has been considerable activity on the subject of the additivity of various quantum channel capacities. Here, we construct a family of channels with a sharply bounded classical and, hence, private capacity. On the other hand, their quantum capacity when combined with a zero private (and zero quantum) capacity erasure channel becomes larger than the previous classical capacity. As a consequence, we can conclude for the first time that the classical private capacity is nonadditive. In fact, in our construction even the quantum capacity of the tensor product of two channels can be greater than the sum of their individual classical private capacities. We show that this violation occurs quite generically: every channel can be embedded into our construction, and a violation occurs whenever the given channel has a larger entanglement-assisted quantum capacity than (unassisted) classical capacity.

  10. Private capacity of quantum channels is not additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas; Zou, XuBo; Guo, GuangCan

    2009-09-18

    Recently there has been considerable activity on the subject of the additivity of various quantum channel capacities. Here, we construct a family of channels with a sharply bounded classical and, hence, private capacity. On the other hand, their quantum capacity when combined with a zero private (and zero quantum) capacity erasure channel becomes larger than the previous classical capacity. As a consequence, we can conclude for the first time that the classical private capacity is nonadditive. In fact, in our construction even the quantum capacity of the tensor product of two channels can be greater than the sum of their individual classical private capacities. We show that this violation occurs quite generically: every channel can be embedded into our construction, and a violation occurs whenever the given channel has a larger entanglement-assisted quantum capacity than (unassisted) classical capacity.

  11. Quasi-superactivation for the classical capacity of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2014-12-04

    The superactivation effect has its roots in the extreme violation of additivity of the channel capacity and enables to reliably transmit quantum information over zero-capacity quantum channels. In this work we demonstrate a similar effect for the classical capacity of a quantum channel which previously was thought to be impossible.

  12. Quantum-capacity-approaching codes for the detected-jump channel

    SciTech Connect

    Grassl, Markus; Wei Zhaohui; Ji Zhengfeng; Zeng Bei

    2010-12-15

    The quantum-channel capacity gives the ultimate limit for the rate at which quantum data can be reliably transmitted through a noisy quantum channel. Degradable quantum channels are among the few channels whose quantum capacities are known. Given the quantum capacity of a degradable channel, it remains challenging to find a practical coding scheme which approaches capacity. Here we discuss code designs for the detected-jump channel, a degradable channel with practical relevance describing the physics of spontaneous decay of atoms with detected photon emission. We show that this channel can be used to simulate a binary classical channel with both erasures and bit flips. The capacity of the simulated classical channel gives a lower bound on the quantum capacity of the detected-jump channel. When the jump probability is small, it almost equals the quantum capacity. Hence using a classical capacity-approaching code for the simulated classical channel yields a quantum code which approaches the quantum capacity of the detected-jump channel.

  13. Capacity limits of spatially multiplexed free-space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ningbo; Li, Xiaoying; Li, Guifang; Kahn, Joseph M.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the information capacity per unit bandwidth has been a perennial goal of scientists and engineers. Multiplexing of independent degrees of freedom, such as wavelength, polarization and more recently space, has been a preferred method to increase capacity in both radiofrequency and optical communication. Orbital angular momentum, a physical property of electromagnetic waves discovered recently, has been proposed as a new degree of freedom for multiplexing to achieve capacity beyond conventional multiplexing techniques, and has generated widespread and significant interest in the scientific community. However, the capacity of orbital angular momentum multiplexing has not been established or compared to other multiplexing techniques. Here, we show that orbital angular momentum multiplexing is not an optimal technique for realizing the capacity limits of a free-space communication channel and is outperformed by both conventional line-of-sight multi-input multi-output transmission and spatial-mode multiplexing.

  14. The information-carrying capacity of certain quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Ciara

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis we analyse the type of states and ensembles which achieve the capacity for certain quantum channels carrying classical information. We first concentrate on the product-state capacity of a particular quantum channel, that is, the capacity which is achieved by encoding the output states from a source into codewords comprised of states taken from ensembles of non-entangled states and sending them over copies of the quantum channel. Using the "single-letter" formula proved independently by Holevo and by Schumacher and Westmoreland we obtain the product-state capacity of the qubit quantum amplitude-damping channel, which is determined by a transcendental equation in a single real variable and can be solved numerically. We demonstrate that the product-state capacity of this channel can be achieved using a minimal ensemble of non-orthogonal pure states. Next we consider the classical capacity of two quantum channels with memory, namely a periodic channel with quantum depolarising channel branches and a convex combination of quantum channels. We prove that the classical capacity for each of the classical memory channels mentioned above is, in fact, equal to the respective product-state capacities. For those channels this means that the classical capacity is achieved without the use of entangled input-states. Next we introduce the channel coding theorem for memoryless quantum channels, providing a known proof by Winter for the strong converse of the theorem. We then consider the strong converse to the channel coding theorem for a periodic quantum channel.

  15. Quantum entanglement enhances the capacity of bosonic channels with memory

    SciTech Connect

    Cerf, Nicolas J.; Clavareau, Julien; Roland, Jeremie

    2005-10-15

    The bosonic quantum channels have recently attracted a growing interest, motivated by the hope that they open a tractable approach to the generally hard problem of evaluating quantum channel capacities. These studies, however, have always been restricted to memoryless channels. Here, it is shown that the classical capacity of a bosonic Gaussian channel with memory can be significantly enhanced if entangled symbols are used instead of product symbols. For example, the capacity of a photonic channel with 70%-correlated thermal noise of one-third the shot noise is enhanced by about 11% when using 3.8-dB entangled light with a modulation variance equal to the shot noise.

  16. A note on quantum entropy inequalities and channel capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-12-01

    Quantum entropy inequalities are studied. Some quantum entropy inequalities are obtained by several methods. For an entanglement breaking channel, we show that the entanglement-assisted classical capacity is upper bounded by log d. A relationship between entanglement-assisted and one-shot unassisted capacities is obtained. This relationship shows the entanglement-assisted channel capacity is upper bounded by the sum of log d and the one-shot unassisted classical capacity.

  17. Inequalities and Separations Among Assisted Capacities of Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Charles H.; Devetak, Igor; Shor, Peter W.; Smolin, John A.

    2006-04-01

    We exhibit quantum channels whose classical and quantum capacities, when assisted by classical feedback, exceed their unassisted classical Holevo capacity. These channels are designed to be noisy in a way that can be corrected with the help of the output and a reference system entangled with part of the input. A similar construction yields quantum channels whose classical capacity, when assisted by two-way classical communication independent of the source, exceeds their classical capacity assisted by feedback alone. We give a hierarchy of capacity inequalities and open questions.

  18. Inequalities and separations among assisted capacities of quantum channels.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Charles H; Devetak, Igor; Shor, Peter W; Smolin, John A

    2006-04-21

    We exhibit quantum channels whose classical and quantum capacities, when assisted by classical feedback, exceed their unassisted classical Holevo capacity. These channels are designed to be noisy in a way that can be corrected with the help of the output and a reference system entangled with part of the input. A similar construction yields quantum channels whose classical capacity, when assisted by two-way classical communication independent of the source, exceeds their classical capacity assisted by feedback alone. We give a hierarchy of capacity inequalities and open questions.

  19. Channel capacity of an array system for Gaussian channels with applications to combining and noise cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K. M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    1996-01-01

    A closed-form expression for the capacity of an array of correlated Gaussian channels is derived. It is shown that when signal and noise are independent, the array of observables can be replaced with a single observable without diminishing the capacity of the array channel. Examples are provided to illustrate the dependence of channel capacity on noise correlation for two- and three-channel arrays.

  20. Trade-off capacities of the quantum Hadamard channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bradler, Kamil; Hayden, Patrick; Touchette, Dave; Wilde, Mark M.

    2010-06-15

    Coding theorems in quantum Shannon theory express the ultimate rates at which a sender can transmit information over a noisy quantum channel. More often than not, the known formulas expressing these transmission rates are intractable, requiring an optimization over an infinite number of uses of the channel. Researchers have rarely found quantum channels with a tractable classical or quantum capacity, but when such a finding occurs, it demonstrates a complete understanding of that channel's capabilities for transmitting classical or quantum information. Here we show that the three-dimensional capacity region for entanglement-assisted transmission of classical and quantum information is tractable for the Hadamard class of channels. Examples of Hadamard channels include generalized dephasing channels, cloning channels, and the Unruh channel. The generalized dephasing channels and the cloning channels are natural processes that occur in quantum systems through the loss of quantum coherence or stimulated emission, respectively. The Unruh channel is a noisy process that occurs in relativistic quantum information theory as a result of the Unruh effect and bears a strong relationship to the cloning channels. We give exact formulas for the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum communication capacity regions of these channels. The coding strategy for each of these examples is superior to a naieve time-sharing strategy, and we introduce a measure to determine this improvement.

  1. Channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin-star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshed, Nigum; Toor, A. H.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-06-01

    We calculate the entanglement-assisted and -unassisted channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin star system, which models the quantum dephasing channel. The capacities for this non-Markovian model exhibit a strong dependence on the coupling strengths of the bath spins with the system, the bath temperature, and the number of bath spins. For equal couplings and bath frequencies, the channel becomes periodically noiseless.

  2. Channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin-star system

    SciTech Connect

    Arshed, Nigum; Toor, A. H.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-06-15

    We calculate the entanglement-assisted and -unassisted channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin star system, which models the quantum dephasing channel. The capacities for this non-Markovian model exhibit a strong dependence on the coupling strengths of the bath spins with the system, the bath temperature, and the number of bath spins. For equal couplings and bath frequencies, the channel becomes periodically noiseless.

  3. Capacities of Lossy Bosonic Memory Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a general model describing correlated noise effects in quantum optical communication via attenuating media. The memory effects account for the environment finite relaxation times, which are unavoidable in any realistic model. The use of a proper set of collective field variables allows us to unravel the memory, showing that the n-fold concatenation of the memory channel is unitarily equivalent to the direct product of n single-mode lossy bosonic channels. We then compute the ultimate (classical and quantum) transmission rates, showing their enhancement with respect to the memoryless case and proving that coherent state encoding is optimal.

  4. Large Array Channel Capacity in the Presence of Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model for a large array ground receiver system for use in deep-space communications, and analyze the resulting array channel capacity. The model includes effects of array geometry, time-dependent spacecraft orbital trajectory, point and extended interference sources, and elevation-dependent noise and tropospheric channel variations. Channel capacity is expressed as the ratio of determinants of covariance matrices characterizing source, interference, and additive noise, and then reduced to a simpler quadratic form more amenable to analysis and numerical computation. This formulation facilitates inclusion of array and channel characteristics into the model, as well as comparison of optimal, suboptimal, and equivalent single antenna configurations on achievable throughput. Realistic examples of ground array channel capacity calculations are presented, demonstrating the impact of array geometry, planetary interference sources, and array combining algorithm design upon the achievable data throughput.

  5. Capacity of the Generalized Pulse-Position Modulation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, J.; Klimesh, M.; McElience, R.; Moision, B.

    2005-01-01

    We show the capacity of a generalized pulse-position modulation (PPM) channel, where the input vectors may be any set that allows a transitive group of coordinate permutations, is achieved by a uniform input distribution. We derive a simple expression in terms of the Kullback Leibler distance for the binary case, and the asymptote in the PPM order. We prove a sub-additivity result for the PPM channel and use it to show PPM capacity is monotonic in the order.

  6. Channel capacity study of underwater wireless optical communications links based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Qunqun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Channel capacity of ocean water is limited by propagation distance and optical properties. Previous studies on this problem are based on water-tank experiments with different amounts of Maalox antacid. However, propagation distance is limited by the experimental set-up and the optical properties are different from ocean water. Therefore, the experiment result is not accurate for the physical design of underwater wireless communications links. This letter developed a Monte Carlo model to study channel capacity of underwater optical communications. Moreover, this model can flexibly configure various parameters of transmitter, receiver and channel, and is suitable for physical underwater optical communications links design.

  7. Capacity of Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) on Gaussian and Webb Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.; Hamkins, J.; Pollara, F.

    2000-01-01

    This article computes the capacity of various idealized soft-decision channels modeling an optical channel using an avalanche photodiode detector (APD) and pulse-position modulation (PPM). The capacity of this optical channel depends in a complicated way on the physical parameters of the APD and the constraints imposed by the PPM orthogonal signaling set. This article attempts to identify and separate the effects of several fundamental parameters on the capacity of the APD-detected optical PPM channel. First, an overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) parameter is de ned such that the capacity as a function of a bit-normalized version of this SNR drops precipitously toward zero at quasi-brick-wall limits on bit SNR that are numerically the same as the well-understood brick-wall limits for the standard additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. A second parameter is used to quantify the effects on capacity of one unique facet of the optical PPM channel (as compared with the standard AWGN channel) that causes the noise variance to be higher in signal slots than in nonsignal slots. This nonuniform noise variance yields interesting capacity effects even when the channel model is AWGN. A third parameter is used to measure the effects on capacity of the difference between an AWGN model and a non-Gaussian model proposed by Webb (see reference in [2]) for approximating the statistics of the APD-detected optical channel. Finally, a fourth parameter is used to quantify the blending of a Webb model with a pure AWGN model to account for thermal noise. Numerical results show that the capacity of M-ary orthogonal signaling on the Webb channel exhibits the same brick-wall Shannon limit, (M ln 2)=(M 1), as on the AWGN channel ( 1:59 dB for large M). Results also compare the capacity obtained by hard- and soft-output channels and indicate that soft-output channels o er a 3-dB advantage.

  8. On the delay analysis of a TDMA channel with finite buffer capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    The throughput performance of a TDMA channel with finite buffer capacity for transmitting data messages is considered. Each station has limited message buffer capacity and has Poisson message arrivals. Message arrivals will be blocked if the buffers are congested. Using the embedded Markov chain model, the solution procedure for the limiting system-size probabilities is presented in a recursive fashion. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the tradeoffs between the blocking probabilities and the buffer sizing strategy.

  9. Polaractivation for classical zero-error capacity of qudit channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a new phenomenon for zero-error transmission of classical information over quantum channels that initially were not able for zero-error classical communication. The effect is called polaractivation, and the result is similar to the superactivation effect. We use the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism and the Schmidt-theorem to prove the polaractivation of classical zero-error capacity and define the polaractivator channel coding scheme.

  10. Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland channel capacity for a class of qudit unital channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, John

    2004-02-01

    Using the unique nature of the average output state of an optimal signalling ensemble, we prove that for a special class of qudit unital channels, the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland channel capacity is C=log2(d)-minρS(E(ρ)), where d is the dimension of the qudit. The result is extended to products of the same class of unital qudit channels. Thus, the connection between the minimum von Neumann entropy at the channel output and the transmission rate for classical information over quantum channels extends beyond the qubit domain.

  11. Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland channel capacity for a class of qudit unital channels

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, John

    2004-02-01

    Using the unique nature of the average output state of an optimal signalling ensemble, we prove that for a special class of qudit unital channels, the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland channel capacity is C=log{sub 2}(d)-min{sub {rho}}S(E({rho})), where d is the dimension of the qudit. The result is extended to products of the same class of unital qudit channels. Thus, the connection between the minimum von Neumann entropy at the channel output and the transmission rate for classical information over quantum channels extends beyond the qubit domain.

  12. Capacity of voiceband channel with speech signal interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulich, D.; Goldfeld, L.

    1994-08-01

    An estimation of the capacity of a voiceband channel with speech signal interference and background Gaussian white noise has been made. The solution is based on the fact that over a time interval of tens of milliseconds the speech signal can be considered as a stationary Gaussian process. In such a model the total interference is nonwhite but Gaussian, a situation for which the capacity can be found according to the formulas given in classical literature. The results are important where the voice signal acts as an interference, for example the crosstalk problem in telephone lines or data over voice (DOV) systems where the speech is transmitted simultaneously with the digitally modulated signal.

  13. Capacity of a bosonic memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Joachim; Daems, David; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2009-12-15

    We address the classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive noise, subject to an input energy constraint. The memory is modeled by correlated noise emerging from a Gauss-Markov process. Under reasonable assumptions, we show that the optimal modulation results from a 'quantum water-filling' solution above a certain input energy threshold, similar to the optimal modulation for parallel classical Gaussian channels. We also derive analytically the optimal multimode input state above this threshold, which enables us to compute the capacity of this memory channel in the limit of an infinite number of modes. The method can also be applied to a more general noise environment which is constructed by a stationary Gauss process. The extension of our results to the case of broadband bosonic channels with colored Gaussian noise should also be straightforward.

  14. Maximizing Channel Capacity based on Antenna and MIMO Channel Characteristics and its Application to Multimedia Data Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottkotter, Andrew

    Communication transmission between electronic devices is evolving at an ever faster pace. There are now more electronic handheld devices that we communicate with on a daily basis. The allotted bandwidth and speed for these devices are limited by hardware, software, handshaking capabilities between each electronic application. The demand for information at high data rates without the loss of reliability has evolved antenna technology and digital signal processing into more complex systems utilizing multiple processors and multiple antennas. This paper discusses the various techniques used to increase data speed, enhance channel capacity, and reliability of application specific devices with respect to the Multiple-Input-to-Multiple-Output (MIMO) based methods. MIMO based applications can improve the data speed, channel capacity, and reliability of the system with maximum limitations based on hardware, coding schemes, and handshaking abilities between devices.

  15. Structured optical receivers to attain superadditive capacity and the Holevo limit.

    PubMed

    Guha, Saikat

    2011-06-17

    Attaining the ultimate (Holevo) limit to the classical capacity of a quantum channel requires the receiver to make joint measurements over long code-word blocks. For a pure-state channel, we show that the Holevo limit can be attained by a receiver that uses a multisymbol unitary transformation on the quantum code word followed by separable projective measurements. We show a concatenated coding and joint-detection architecture to approach the Holevo limit. We then construct some of the first concrete examples of codes and structured joint-detection receivers for the lossy bosonic channel, which can achieve fundamentally higher (superadditive) capacity than conventional receivers that detect each modulation symbol individually. We thereby pave the way for research into codes and structured receivers for reliable communication data rates approaching the Holevo limit. PMID:21770555

  16. Channel capacity and receiver deployment optimization for multi-input multi-output visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yuan; Dai, Jianxin; Guan, Rui; Jia, Linqiong; Wang, Yongjin; Chen, Ming

    2016-06-13

    Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technique is attractive for visible light communication (VLC), which exploits the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single channel to overcome the capacity limitation due to the small modulation bandwidth of the light emitting diode. This paper establishes a MIMO VLC system under the non-negativity, peak power and dimmable average power constraints. Assume that perfect channel state information at the transmitter is known, the MIMO channel is changed to parallel, non-interfering sub-channels by using the singular value decomposition (SVD). Based on the SVD, the lower bound on the channel capacity for MIMO VLC is derived by employing entropy power inequality and variational method. Moreover, by maximizing the derived lower bound on the capacity under the given constraints, the receiver deployment optimization problem is formulated. The problem is solved by employing the principle of particle swarm optimization. Numerical results verify the derived capacity bound and the proposed deployment optimization scheme. PMID:27410325

  17. Channel capacity and receiver deployment optimization for multi-input multi-output visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yuan; Dai, Jianxin; Guan, Rui; Jia, Linqiong; Wang, Yongjin; Chen, Ming

    2016-06-13

    Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technique is attractive for visible light communication (VLC), which exploits the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single channel to overcome the capacity limitation due to the small modulation bandwidth of the light emitting diode. This paper establishes a MIMO VLC system under the non-negativity, peak power and dimmable average power constraints. Assume that perfect channel state information at the transmitter is known, the MIMO channel is changed to parallel, non-interfering sub-channels by using the singular value decomposition (SVD). Based on the SVD, the lower bound on the channel capacity for MIMO VLC is derived by employing entropy power inequality and variational method. Moreover, by maximizing the derived lower bound on the capacity under the given constraints, the receiver deployment optimization problem is formulated. The problem is solved by employing the principle of particle swarm optimization. Numerical results verify the derived capacity bound and the proposed deployment optimization scheme.

  18. Behavioral evidence for the role of cortical θ oscillations in determining auditory channel capacity for speech

    PubMed Central

    Ghitza, Oded

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the intelligibility of time-compressed speech have shown flawless performance for moderate compression factors, a sharp deterioration for compression factors above three, and an improved performance as a result of “repackaging”—a process of dividing the time-compressed waveform into fragments, called packets, and delivering the packets in a prescribed rate. This intricate pattern of performance reflects the reliability of the auditory system in processing speech streams with different information transfer rates; the knee-point of performance defines the auditory channel capacity. This study is concerned with the cortical computation principle that determines channel capacity. Oscillation-based models of speech perception hypothesize that the speech decoding process is guided by a cascade of oscillations with theta as “master,” capable of tracking the input rhythm, with the theta cycles aligned with the intervocalic speech fragments termed θ-syllables; intelligibility remains high as long as theta is in sync with the input, and it sharply deteriorates once theta is out of sync. In the study described here the hypothesized role of theta was examined by measuring the auditory channel capacity of time-compressed speech undergone repackaging. For all speech speeds tested (with compression factors of up to eight), packaging rate at capacity equals 9 packets/s—aligned with the upper limit of cortical theta, θmax (about 9 Hz)—and the packet duration equals the duration of one uncompressed θ-syllable divided by the compression factor. The alignment of both the packaging rate and the packet duration with properties of cortical theta suggests that the auditory channel capacity is determined by theta. Irrespective of speech speed, the maximum information transfer rate through the auditory channel is the information in one uncompressed θ-syllable long speech fragment per one θmax cycle. Equivalently, the auditory channel capacity is 9

  19. Cooperation in scale-free networks with limited associative capacities.

    PubMed

    Poncela, Julia; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-05-01

    In this work we study the effect of limiting the number of interactions (the associative capacity) that a node can establish per round of a prisoner's dilemma game. We focus on the way this limitation influences the level of cooperation sustained by scale-free networks. We show that when the game includes cooperation costs, limiting the associative capacity of nodes to a fixed quantity renders in some cases larger values of cooperation than in the unrestricted scenario. This allows one to define an optimum capacity for which cooperation is maximally enhanced. Finally, for the case without cooperation costs, we find that even a tight limitation of the associative capacity of nodes yields the same levels of cooperation as in the original network. PMID:21728697

  20. Quantum Enigma Machines and the Locking Capacity of a Quantum Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Saikat; Hayden, Patrick; Krovi, Hari; Lloyd, Seth; Lupo, Cosmo; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Takeoka, Masahiro; Wilde, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The locking effect is a phenomenon that is unique to quantum information theory and represents one of the strongest separations between the classical and quantum theories of information. The Fawzi-Hayden-Sen locking protocol harnesses this effect in a cryptographic context, whereby one party can encode n bits into n qubits while using only a constant-size secret key. The encoded message is then secure against any measurement that an eavesdropper could perform in an attempt to recover the message, but the protocol does not necessarily meet the composability requirements needed in quantum key distribution applications. In any case, the locking effect represents an extreme violation of Shannon's classical theorem, which states that information-theoretic security holds in the classical case if and only if the secret key is the same size as the message. Given this intriguing phenomenon, it is of practical interest to study the effect in the presence of noise, which can occur in the systems of both the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. This paper formally defines the locking capacity of a quantum channel as the maximum amount of locked information that can be reliably transmitted to a legitimate receiver by exploiting many independent uses of a quantum channel and an amount of secret key sublinear in the number of channel uses. We provide general operational bounds on the locking capacity in terms of other well-known capacities from quantum Shannon theory. We also study the important case of bosonic channels, finding limitations on these channels' locking capacity when coherent-state encodings are employed and particular locking protocols for these channels that might be physically implementable.

  1. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    constraints. Under those constraints on the fingerprint embedder and the colluders, fingerprinting capacity is obtained as the solution of a mutual-information game involving probability density functions (pdf's) designed by the embedder and the colluders. We show that the optimal fingerprinting strategy is a Gaussian test channel where the fingerprinted signal is the sum of an attenuated version of the cover signal plus a Gaussian information-bearing noise, and the optimal collusion strategy is to average fingerprinted signals possessed by all the colluders and pass the averaged copy through a Gaussian test channel. The capacity result and the optimal strategies are the same for both the private and public games. In the former scenario, the original covertext is available to the decoder, while in the latter setup, the original covertext is available to the encoder but not to the decoder.

  2. Error Rates and Channel Capacities in Multipulse PPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Moision, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    A method of computing channel capacities and error rates in multipulse pulse-position modulation (multipulse PPM) has been developed. The method makes it possible, when designing an optical PPM communication system, to determine whether and under what conditions a given multipulse PPM scheme would be more or less advantageous, relative to other candidate modulation schemes. In conventional M-ary PPM, each symbol is transmitted in a time frame that is divided into M time slots (where M is an integer >1), defining an M-symbol alphabet. A symbol is represented by transmitting a pulse (representing 1) during one of the time slots and no pulse (representing 0 ) during the other M 1 time slots. Multipulse PPM is a generalization of PPM in which pulses are transmitted during two or more of the M time slots.

  3. Decoding with approximate channel statistics for band-limited nonlinear satellite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, L.; Omura, J. K.; Jain, P. C.

    1981-11-01

    Expressions for the cutoff rate of memoryless channels and certain channels with memory are derived assuming decoding with approximate channel statistics. For channels with memory, two different decoding techniques are examined: conventional decoders in conjunction with ideal interleaving/deinterleaving, and maximum likelihood decoders that take advantage of the channel memory. As a practical case of interest, the cutoff rate for the band-limited nonlinear satellite channel is evaluated where the modulation is assumed to be M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK). The channel nonlinearity is introduced by a limiter in cascade with a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) at the satellite repeater while the channel memory is created by channel filters in the transmission path.

  4. Dynamics of social contagions with limited contact capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shu, Panpan; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Individuals are always limited by some inelastic resources, such as time and energy, which restrict them to dedicate to social interaction and limit their contact capacities. Contact capacity plays an important role in dynamics of social contagions, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. In this paper, we first propose a non-Markovian model to understand the effects of contact capacity on social contagions, in which each adopted individual can only contact and transmit the information to a finite number of neighbors. We then develop a heterogeneous edge-based compartmental theory for this model, and a remarkable agreement with simulations is obtained. Through theory and simulations, we find that enlarging the contact capacity makes the network more fragile to behavior spreading. Interestingly, we find that both the continuous and discontinuous dependence of the final adoption size on the information transmission probability can arise. There is a crossover phenomenon between the two types of dependence. More specifically, the crossover phenomenon can be induced by enlarging the contact capacity only when the degree exponent is above a critical degree exponent, while the final behavior adoption size always grows continuously for any contact capacity when degree exponent is below the critical degree exponent. PMID:26520068

  5. Additivity of the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, Peter W.

    2002-09-01

    We show that for the tensor product of an entanglement-breaking quantum channel with an arbitrary quantum channel, both the minimum entropy of an output of the channel and the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland capacity are additive. In addition, for the tensor product of two arbitrary quantum channels, we give a bound involving entanglement of formation for the amount of subadditivity (for minimum entropy output) or superadditivity (for classical capacity) that can occur.

  6. Evolutionary capacity of upper thermal limits: beyond single trait assessments.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Shaun; van Heerwaarden, Belinda; Kellermann, Vanessa; Sgrò, Carla M

    2014-06-01

    Thermal tolerance is an important factor influencing the distribution of ectotherms, but we still have limited understanding of the ability of species to evolve different thermal limits. Recent studies suggest that species may have limited capacity to evolve higher thermal limits in response to slower, more ecologically relevant rates of warming. However, these conclusions are based on univariate estimates of adaptive capacity. To test these findings within an explicitly multivariate context, we used a paternal half-sibling breeding design to estimate the multivariate evolutionary potential for upper thermal limits in Drosophila melanogaster. We assessed heat tolerance using static (basal and hardened) and ramping assays. Additive genetic variances were significantly different from zero only for the static measures of heat tolerance. Our G: matrix analysis revealed that any response to selection for increased heat tolerance will largely be driven by static basal and hardened heat tolerance, with minimal contribution from ramping heat tolerance. These results suggest that the capacity to evolve upper thermal limits in nature may depend on the type of thermal stress experienced.

  7. Average capacity for optical wireless communication systems over exponentiated Weibull distribution non-Kolmogorov turbulent channels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mingjian; Zhang, Yixin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Fengsheng

    2014-06-20

    We model the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems for cases of weak to strong turbulence channels, using the exponentiation Weibull distribution model. The joint effects of the beam wander and spread, pointing errors, atmospheric attenuation, and the spectral index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on system performance are included. Our results show that the average capacity decreases steeply as the propagation length L changes from 0 to 200 m and decreases slowly down or tends to a stable value as the propagation length L is greater than 200 m. In the weak turbulence region, by increasing the detection aperture, we can improve the average channel capacity and the atmospheric visibility as an important issue affecting the average channel capacity. In the strong turbulence region, the increase of the radius of the detection aperture cannot reduce the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the average channel capacity, and the effect of atmospheric visibility on the channel information capacity can be ignored. The effect of the spectral power exponent on the average channel capacity in the strong turbulence region is higher than weak turbulence region. Irrespective of the details determining the turbulent channel, we can say that pointing errors have a significant effect on the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems in turbulence channels.

  8. An information capacity limitation of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has both an item capacity, of around 4 items, and an information capacity. We characterize the information capacity limits of VSTM using a task in which observers discriminated the orientation of a single probed item in displays consisting of 1, 2, 3, or 4 orthogonally oriented Gabor patch stimuli that were presented in noise for 50 ms, 100 ms, 150 ms, or 200 ms. The observed capacity limitations are well described by a sample-size model, which predicts invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² for displays of different sizes and linearity of (d'(i))² for displays of different durations. Performance was the same for simultaneous and sequentially presented displays, which implicates VSTM as the locus of the observed invariance and rules out explanations that ascribe it to divided attention or stimulus encoding. The invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² is predicted by the competitive interaction theory of Smith and Sewell (2013), which attributes it to the normalization of VSTM traces strengths arising from competition among stimuli entering VSTM.

  9. Private classical capacity with a symmetric side channel and its application to quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme

    2008-08-01

    We study the symmetric-side-channel-assisted private capacity of a quantum channel, for which we provide a single-letter formula. This capacity is additive, convex, and, for degradable channels, equal to the unassisted private capacity. While a channel’s (unassisted) capacity for private classical communication may be strictly larger than its quantum capacity, we will show that these capacities are equal for degradable channels, thus demonstrating the equivalence of privacy and quantum coherence in this context. We use these ideas to find new bounds on the key rate of quantum key distribution protocols with one-way classical post-processing. For the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, our results demonstrate that collective attacks are strictly stronger than individual attacks.

  10. Information capacity of the matched Gaussian channel with jamming. Part 2: Infinite-dimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. R.; Chao, I. F.

    1990-10-01

    The additive infinite-dimensional Gaussian channel subject to jamming is modeled as a two-person zero-sum game with mutual information as the payoff function. The jammer's noise is added to the ambient Gaussian noise. The coder's signal energy is subject to a constraint is necessary in order that the capacity without feedback be finite. It is shown that use of this same RKHS constraint on the jammer's process is too strong; the jammer would then not be able to reduce capacity, regardless of the amount of jamming energy available. The constraint on the jammer is thus on the total jamming energy, without regard to its distribution relative to that of the ambient noise energy. The existence of a saddle value for the problem does not follow from the von Neuman minimax theorem in the original problem formulation. However, a solution is shown to exist. A saddle point, saddle value, and the jammer's minimax strategy are determined. The solution is a function of the problem parameters: the constraint on the coder, the constraint on the jammer, and the covariance of the ambient Gaussian noise.

  11. Ultimate capacity of linear time-invariant bosonic channels with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bardhan, Bhaskar; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic communications are moving to coherent detection in order to increase their spectral efficiency, i.e., their channel capacity per unit bandwidth. At power levels below the threshold for significant nonlinear effects, the channel model for such operation a linear time-invariant filter followed by additive Gaussian noise is one whose channel capacity is well known from Shannon's noisy channel coding theorem. The fiber channel, however, is really a bosonic channel, meaning that its ultimate classical information capacity must be determined from quantum-mechanical analysis, viz. from the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem. Based on recent results establishing the HSW capacity of a linear (lossy or amplifying) channel with additive Gaussian noise, we provide a general continuous-time result, namely the HSW capacity of a linear time-invariant (LTI) bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise arising from a thermal environment. In particular, we treat quasi-monochromatic communication under an average power constraint through a channel comprised of a stable LTI filter that may be attenuating at all frequencies or amplifying at some frequencies and attenuating at others. Phase-insensitive additive Gaussian noise-associated with the continuous-time Langevin noise operator needed to preserve free-field commutator brackets is included at the filter output. We compare the resulting spectral efficiencies with corresponding results for heterodyne and homodyne detection over the same channel to assess the increased spectral efficiency that might be realized with optimum quantum reception.

  12. Counter-current flow limited CHF in thin rectangular channels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical expression for counter-current-flow-limitation (CCFL) was used to predict critical heat flux (CHF) for downward flow in thin vertical rectangular channels which are prototypes of coolant channels in test and research nuclear reactors. Top flooding is the mechanism for counter-current flow limited CHF. The CCFL correlation also was used to determine the circulation and flooding-limited CHF. Good agreements were observed between the period the model predictions and data on the CHF for downflow. The minimum CHF for downflow is lower than the flooding-limited CHF and it is predicted to occur at a liquid flow rate higher than that at the flooding limit. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Capacity-limiting mechanisms in Li/O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Khaleghi Rahimian, Saeed; Monroe, Charles W

    2016-08-17

    A continuum model of an aprotic lithium/oxygen battery is validated against experimental first-discharge data and used to examine how the apparent cell capacity is affected by macroscopic multicomponent mass transfer, interfacial kinetics, and electronic conduction or tunneling through the discharge product. The model accounts for the three-phase nature of the positive electrode in detail, including an explicit discharge-product layer whose properties and volume distribution generally depend on the local discharge depth. Several hypothetical positive-electrode reaction mechanisms involving different product morphologies and electron-transfer sites are explored within the theoretical framework. To match experimental discharge-voltage vs. capacity and capacity vs. discharge-current trends qualitatively, the discharge-product layer must be assumed to have electronic resistivity several orders of magnitude lower than typical insulators, supporting the notion that the presence of lithium peroxide does not wholly prevent electrons from reaching dissolved reactants. The discharge product also appears to allow charge transport over length scales longer than electron tunneling permits. 'Sudden death' of voltage in lithium/oxygen cells is explained by macroscopic oxygen-diffusion limitations in the positive electrode at high rates, and by pore clogging associated with discharge-product formation at low rates. PMID:27459368

  14. Channel-conveyance capacity, channel change, and sediment transport in the lower Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers, western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Chistopher S.; Voss, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    -conveyance capacity was the White River between R Street Bridge and the Lake Tapps return, a reach affected by recent flooding. Conveyance capacity also decreased in sections of the Puyallup River. Conveyance capacity was mostly unchanged along other study reaches. Bedload transport was simulated throughout the entire river network and consistent with other observations and analyses, the hydraulic model showed that the upper Puyallup and White Rivers tended to accumulate sediment. Accuracy of the bedload-transport modeling, however, was limited due to a scarcity of sediment-transport data sets from the Puyallup system, mantling of sand over cobbles in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers, and overall uncertainty in modeling sediment transport in gravel-bedded rivers. Consequently, the output results from the model were treated as more qualitative in value, useful in comparing geomorphic trends within different river reaches, but not accurate in producing precise predictions of mass of sediment moved or deposited. The hydraulic model and the bedload-transport component were useful for analyzing proposed river-management options, if surveyed cross sections adequately represented the river-management site and proposed management options. The hydraulic model showed that setback levees would provide greater flood protection than gravel-bar scalping after the initial project construction and for some time thereafter, although the model was not accurate enough to quantify the length of time of the flood protection. The greatest hydraulic benefit from setback levees would be a substantial increase in the effective channel-conveyance area. By widening the distance between levees, the new floodplain would accommodate larger increases in discharge with relatively small incremental increases in stage. Model simulation results indicate that the hydraulic benefit from a setback levee also would be long-lived and would effectively compensate for increased deposition within the setback reach

  15. Structural limits for evolutive capacities in complex molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Bergareche, A M; Ostolaza, J F

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of evolution for a system with and without a code of translation from nucleic acids into proteins are evaluated. Our interest is mainly centred on the enzymatic RNA case since this molecule has, at the same time, reproductive and functional properties. After scanning the evolutive capacities of the enzymatic RNAs, including the possibility to play the role of "synthetase" which would match nucleic acids with amino acids as a transition step towards a code, we will try to show that due to their own functional limitative factors, the matching system (code) is necessary. This would be the only way to transform the formal complexity--complexity which has not entered into action before the translation process--into functional information to drive the instructive self-reproductive process. Once this stage is reached, the system could evolve without a limit.

  16. Capacity of Cognitive Radio with Partial Channel Distribution Information in Rayleigh Fading Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D.; Li, Q.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of the secondary user (SU) in a cognitive radio (CR) network in Rayleigh fading environments. Different from existing works where perfect channel state information (CSI) or channel distribution information (CDI) of the interference link from the SU to the primary user (PU) is assumed to be available, this paper assumes that only partial CDI is available. Specifically, we assume the distribution parameter is unknown and estimated from a set of channel gain samples. With such partial CDI, closed-form expressions for the ergodic and outage capacities of the SU are obtained under the transmit power and the interference outage constraints. It is shown that the capacity with partial CDI is not degraded compared to that with perfect CDI if the interference outage constraint is loose. It is also shown that the capacity can be significantly improved by increasing the number of channel gain samples.

  17. Faces, flowers and football boots: capacity limits in distractor processing.

    PubMed

    Brebner, Joanne L; Macrae, C Neil

    2008-05-01

    While visual attention can be attracted by task-irrelevant stimuli, questions remain regarding how many irrelevant items can be processed simultaneously and whether capacity limits are equivalent for all types of stimuli. To explore these issues, participants were required to classify verbal stimuli that were flanked by either one or two response-matching or response-mismatching faces (Expts. 1 and 2) or objects (Expt. 2). The results revealed that when stimulus categorization was sufficient to trigger flanker interference, distractor processing was insensitive to the number of irrelevant stimuli. When, however, stimulus identification was needed to drive flanker interference, distractor processing was attenuated when two task-irrelevant items were presented. The theoretical implications of these findings are considered. PMID:17927972

  18. Flow reversal and thermal limit in a heated rectangular channel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.; Yang, B.W.; OuYang, W.Y.; McAssey, E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermal limit in a vertical rectangular channel was determined in a series of experiments whereby the internal coolant underwent a change in flow direction from forced downflow to upward natural circulation. The tests were designed to simulate the flow reversal transient in the High Flux Beam Reactor. A number of parameters were varied in the flow reversal experiments to examine their effects on the thermal limit. Among the parameters varied were the rate of flow coastdown, inlet subcooling, water level in the upper plenum, bypass ratio (ratio of initial flow through the heated section to initial flow through the bypass orifice), and single- verses double-sided heating.

  19. The Limited Capacity of Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Feld, Gordon B; Weis, Patrick P; Born, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation. However, the conceptually important influence of the amount of items encoded in a memory test on this effect has not been investigated. In two experiments, participants (n = 101) learned lists of word-pairs varying in length (40, 160, 320 word-pairs) in the evening before a night of sleep (sleep group) or of sleep deprivation (wake group). After 36 h (including a night allowing recovery sleep) retrieval was tested. Compared with wakefulness, post-learning sleep enhanced retention for the 160 word-pair condition (p < 0.01), importantly, this effect completely vanished for the 320 word-pair condition. This result indicates a limited capacity for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which is consistent with an active system consolidation view on sleep's role for memory, if it is complemented by processes of active forgetting and/or gist abstraction. Whereas the absolute benefit from sleep should have increased with increasing amounts of successfully encoded items, if sleep only passively protected memory from interference. Moreover, the finding that retention performance was significantly diminished for the 320 word-pair condition compared to the 160 word-pair condition in the sleep group, makes it tempting to speculate that with increasing loads of information encoded during wakefulness, sleep might favor processes of forgetting over consolidation. PMID:27679589

  20. The Limited Capacity of Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Gordon B.; Weis, Patrick P.; Born, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation. However, the conceptually important influence of the amount of items encoded in a memory test on this effect has not been investigated. In two experiments, participants (n = 101) learned lists of word-pairs varying in length (40, 160, 320 word-pairs) in the evening before a night of sleep (sleep group) or of sleep deprivation (wake group). After 36 h (including a night allowing recovery sleep) retrieval was tested. Compared with wakefulness, post-learning sleep enhanced retention for the 160 word-pair condition (p < 0.01), importantly, this effect completely vanished for the 320 word-pair condition. This result indicates a limited capacity for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which is consistent with an active system consolidation view on sleep’s role for memory, if it is complemented by processes of active forgetting and/or gist abstraction. Whereas the absolute benefit from sleep should have increased with increasing amounts of successfully encoded items, if sleep only passively protected memory from interference. Moreover, the finding that retention performance was significantly diminished for the 320 word-pair condition compared to the 160 word-pair condition in the sleep group, makes it tempting to speculate that with increasing loads of information encoded during wakefulness, sleep might favor processes of forgetting over consolidation. PMID:27679589

  1. The Limited Capacity of Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Gordon B.; Weis, Patrick P.; Born, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation. However, the conceptually important influence of the amount of items encoded in a memory test on this effect has not been investigated. In two experiments, participants (n = 101) learned lists of word-pairs varying in length (40, 160, 320 word-pairs) in the evening before a night of sleep (sleep group) or of sleep deprivation (wake group). After 36 h (including a night allowing recovery sleep) retrieval was tested. Compared with wakefulness, post-learning sleep enhanced retention for the 160 word-pair condition (p < 0.01), importantly, this effect completely vanished for the 320 word-pair condition. This result indicates a limited capacity for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which is consistent with an active system consolidation view on sleep’s role for memory, if it is complemented by processes of active forgetting and/or gist abstraction. Whereas the absolute benefit from sleep should have increased with increasing amounts of successfully encoded items, if sleep only passively protected memory from interference. Moreover, the finding that retention performance was significantly diminished for the 320 word-pair condition compared to the 160 word-pair condition in the sleep group, makes it tempting to speculate that with increasing loads of information encoded during wakefulness, sleep might favor processes of forgetting over consolidation.

  2. Limitation of Sulfide Capacity Concept for Molten Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira

    2016-04-01

    The sulfide capacity concept has been widely used in pyrometallurgy to define sulfur removal capacities of slags. Typically, the sulfide capacity is considered to be a unique slag property depending only on temperature regardless of partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur. In the present study, it is demonstrated that sulfide capacities of slags in particular those of Na2O-containing slags can vary with partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur due to large solubility of sulfide in Na2O-containing slag systems.

  3. Stability limits of unsteady open capillary channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, Aleksander; Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Klatte, J.?Rg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    This paper is concerned with steady and unsteady flow rate limitations in open capillary channels under low-gravity conditions. Capillary channels are widely used in Space technology for liquid transportation and positioning, e.g. in fuel tanks and life support systems. The channel observed in this work consists of two parallel plates bounded by free liquid surfaces along the open sides. The capillary forces of the free surfaces prevent leaking of the liquid and gas ingestion into the flow.In the case of steady stable flow the capillary pressure balances the differential pressure between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Increasing the flow rate in small steps causes a decrease of the liquid pressure. A maximum steady flow rate is achieved when the flow rate exceeds a certain limit leading to a collapse of the free surfaces due to the choking effect. In the case of unsteady flow additional dynamic effects take place due to flow rate transition and liquid acceleration. The maximum flow rate is smaller than in the case of steady flow. On the other hand, the choking effect does not necessarily cause surface collapse and stable temporarily choked flow is possible under certain circumstances.To determine the limiting volumetric flow rate and stable flow dynamic properties, a new stability theory for both steady and unsteady flow is introduced. Subcritical and supercritical (choked) flow regimes are defined. Stability criteria are formulated for each flow type. The steady (subcritical) criterion corresponds to the speed index defined by the limiting longitudinal small-amplitude wave speed, similar to the Mach number. The unsteady (supercritical) criterion for choked flow is defined by a new characteristic number, the dynamic index. It is based on pressure balances and reaches unity at the stability limit.The unsteady model based on the Bernoulli equation and the mass balance equation is solved numerically for perfectly wetting incompressible

  4. Channel Capacity of Non-Linear Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andrew D.; Zhao, Jian

    Since their introduction in the late 1970s, the capacity of optical communication links has grown exponentially, fuelled by a series of key innovations including movement between the three telecommunication windows of 850 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm, distributed feedback laser, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), dispersion-shifted and dispersion-managed fibre links, external modulation, wavelength division multiplexing, optical switching, forward error correction (FEC), Raman amplification, and most recently, coherent detection, electronic signal processing and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Throughout this evolution, one constant factor has been the use of single-mode optical fibre, whose fundamental principles dated back to the 1800s, when Irish scientist, John Tyndall demonstrated in a lecture to the Royal Society in London that light could be guided through a curved stream of water [1]. Following many developments, including the proposal for waveguides by J.J. Thompson [2], the presentation of detailed calculations for dielectric waveguides by Snitzer [3], the proposal [4] and fabrication [5] of ultra low loss fibres, single-mode fibres were first adopted for non-experimental use in Dorset, UK in 1975, and are still in use today, despite the evolving designs to control chromatic dispersion and non-linearity.

  5. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed. PMID:27788235

  6. Teleportation as a depolarizing quantum channel, relative entropy, and classical capacity.

    PubMed

    Bowen, G; Bose, S

    2001-12-24

    We show that standard teleportation with an arbitrary mixed state resource is equivalent to a generalized depolarizing channel with probabilities given by the maximally entangled components of the resource. This enables the usage of any quantum channel as a generalized depolarizing channel without additional twirling operations. It also provides a nontrivial upper bound on the entanglement of a class of mixed states. Our result allows a consistent and statistically motivated quantification of teleportation success in terms of the relative entropy and this quantification can be related to a classical capacity.

  7. Non-Verbal Information Storage in Humans and Developmental Information Processing Channel Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    This study was designed to ascertain the nature of information storage in humans and to determine the channel capacity of Ss at various stages of development. A 3 x 2 x 2 multivariate complete factorial design was employed: the three levels of the first factor (Age) were 5, 8, and 12 years; the two levels of the second factor were Visual and…

  8. Online Program Capacity: Limited, Static, Elastic, or Infinite?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2008-01-01

    What is the capacity of online programs? Can these types of programs enroll more students than their face-to-face counterparts or not? This article looks at research on achieving cost-efficiencies through online learning, identifies the parts of an online program that can be changed to increase enrollments, and discusses whether a program's…

  9. Dominant geomorphic controls on channel capacity and flood risk in a hydrologically variable fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, James; Croke, Jacky; Thompson, Chris; Cohen, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, particular emphasis has been placed on the hydrological characteristics of rivers to understand the role of channel morphology in flood risk. However, in regions of high hydrological variability, the relationship between channel characteristics and flood conveyance is often highly complex. Consequently in these settings, the applicability of stream discharge or steady-state form-process relationships, may be of less use to understanding flood conveyance. In the subtropical region of southeast Queensland, Australia, rivers are characterized by highly variable flows and entrenched channel morphologies. The latter are such dramatic features, they are termed 'macrochannels'. Following the extreme flood of 2011 in the Lockyer Creek in this region, longitudinal variations in the macrochannel form were found to be a significant factor in flood conveyance. Nine reaches were identified on a basis of flood inundation extent, with significant non-linear changes in channel capacity and discharge, alternating between flood expansion and contraction zones with associated increases and decreases in flood risk. Detailed geomorphic and chronostratigraphic analyses presented here indicate that macrochannel capacity is being strongly influenced by the antecedent bedrock topography, resistant valley-fill and abrupt downstream changes in sediment delivery. A large proportion of the valley fill represents a major Late Pleistocene aggradation phase of fine-grained alluvium that overlies older Pleistocene basal sediments. Subsequent channel incision at 10 ka reoccupied a pre-existing bedrock valley and resistant Pleistocene alluvium imposed substantial controls on the capacity for lateral adjustment. Abrupt changes in sediment supply associated with the location of tributaries provide further evidence for geomorphic controls on macrochannel form and capacity. Identification of the dominant geomorphic factors influencing the overall macrochannel form highlights the relative

  10. Evidence for a fixed capacity limit in attending multiple locations.

    PubMed

    Ester, Edward F; Fukuda, Keisuke; May, Lisa M; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2014-03-01

    A classic question concerns whether humans can attend multiple locations or objects at once. Although it is generally agreed that the answer to this question is "yes," the limits on this ability are subject to extensive debate. According to one view, attentional resources can be flexibly allocated to a variable number of locations, with an inverse relationship between the number of selected locations and the quality of information processing at each location. Alternatively, these resources might be quantized in a "discrete" fashion that enables concurrent access to a small number of locations. Here, we report a series of experiments comparing these alternatives. In each experiment, we cued participants to attend a variable number of spatial locations and asked them to report the orientation of a single, briefly presented target. In all experiments, participants' orientation report errors were well-described by a model that assumes a fixed upper limit in the number of locations that can be attended. Conversely, report errors were poorly described by a flexible-resource model that assumes no fixed limit on the number of locations that can be attended. Critically, we showed that these discrete limits were predicted by cue-evoked neural activity elicited before the onset of the target array, suggesting that performance was limited by selection processes that began prior to subsequent encoding and memory storage. Together, these findings constitute novel evidence supporting the hypothesis that human observers can attend only a small number of discrete locations at an instant.

  11. Observer properties for understanding dynamical displays: Capacities, limitations, and defaults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1991-01-01

    People's ability to extract relevant information while viewing ongoing events is discussed in terms of human capabilities, limitations, and defaults. A taxonomy of event complexity is developed which predicts which dynamical events people can and cannot construe. This taxonomy is related to the distinction drawn in classical mechanics between particle and extended body motions. People's commonsense understandings of simple mechanical systems are impacted little by formal training, but rather reflect heuristical simplifications that focus on a single dimension of perceived dynamical relevance.

  12. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  13. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  14. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  15. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  16. 49 CFR 179.13 - Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. 179... FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.13 Tank car capacity and gross weight limitation. Except as provided in this section, tank cars, built after November 30, 1970, or any existing tank...

  17. Capacity of electromagnetic communication modes in a noise-limited optical system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungjun; Neifeld, Mark A; Ashok, Amit

    2016-02-20

    We present capacity bounds of an optical system that communicates using electromagnetic waves between a transmitter and a receiver. The bounds are investigated in conjunction with a rigorous theory of degrees of freedom (DOF) in the presence of noise. By taking into account the different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels, an optimal number of DOF that provides the maximum capacity is defined. We find that for moderate noise levels, the DOF estimate of the number of active modes is approximately equal to the optimum number of channels obtained by a more rigorous water-filling procedure. On the other hand, for very low- or high-SNR regions, the maximum capacity can be obtained using less or more channels compared to the number of communicating modes given by the DOF theory. In general, the capacity is shown to increase with increasing size of the transmitting and receiving volumes, whereas it decreases with an increase in the separation between volumes. Under the practical channel constraints of noise and finite available power, the capacity upper bound can be estimated by the well-known iterative water-filling solution to determine the optimal power allocation into the subchannels corresponding to the set of singular values when channel state information is known at the transmitter.

  18. Capacity of electromagnetic communication modes in a noise-limited optical system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungjun; Neifeld, Mark A; Ashok, Amit

    2016-02-20

    We present capacity bounds of an optical system that communicates using electromagnetic waves between a transmitter and a receiver. The bounds are investigated in conjunction with a rigorous theory of degrees of freedom (DOF) in the presence of noise. By taking into account the different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels, an optimal number of DOF that provides the maximum capacity is defined. We find that for moderate noise levels, the DOF estimate of the number of active modes is approximately equal to the optimum number of channels obtained by a more rigorous water-filling procedure. On the other hand, for very low- or high-SNR regions, the maximum capacity can be obtained using less or more channels compared to the number of communicating modes given by the DOF theory. In general, the capacity is shown to increase with increasing size of the transmitting and receiving volumes, whereas it decreases with an increase in the separation between volumes. Under the practical channel constraints of noise and finite available power, the capacity upper bound can be estimated by the well-known iterative water-filling solution to determine the optimal power allocation into the subchannels corresponding to the set of singular values when channel state information is known at the transmitter. PMID:26906586

  19. Infinite capacity multi-server queue with second optional service channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jau-Chuan; Wu, Chia-Huang; Pearn, Wen Lea

    2013-02-01

    This paper deals with an infinite-capacity multi-server queueing system with a second optional service (SOS) channel. The inter-arrival times of arriving customers, the service times of the first essential service (FES) and the SOS channel are all exponentially distributed. A customer may leave the system after the FES channel with probability (1-θ), or at the completion of the FES may immediately require a SOS with probability θ (0 <= θ <= 1). The formulae for computing the rate matrix and stationary probabilities are derived by means of a matrix analytical approach. A cost model is developed to determine the optimal values of the number of servers and the two service rates, simultaneously, at the minimal total expected cost per unit time. Quasi-Newton method are employed to deal with the optimization problem. Under optimal operating conditions, numerical results are provided in which several system performance measures are calculated based on assumed numerical values of the system parameters.

  20. On the capacity of MISO FSO systems over gamma-gamma and misalignment fading channels.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen

    2015-08-24

    In this work, the ergodic capacity performance for multiple-input/single-output (MISO) free-space optical (FSO) communications system with equal gain combining (EGC) reception is analyzed over gamma-gamma and misalignment fading channels, which are modeled as statistically independent, but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.). Novel and analytical closed-form ergodic capacity expression is obtained in terms of H-Fox function by using the well-known inequality between arithmetic and geometric mean of positive random variables (RV) in order to obtain an approximate closed-form expression of the distribution of the sum of M gamma-gamma with pointing errors variates. In addition, we present an asymptotic ergodic capacity expression at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the ergodic capacity of MISO FSO systems. It can be concluded that the use of MISO technique can significantly reduce the effect of the atmospheric turbulence as well as pointing errors and, hence, provide significant capacity gain over the direct path link (DL). The impact of pointing errors on the MISO FSO system is also analyzed, which only depends on the number of laser sources and pointing error parameters. Moreover, it can be also concluded that the ergodic capacity performance is dramatically reduced as a consequence of the severity of pointing error effects. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

  1. Attentional Capacity Limits Gap Detection during Concurrent Sound Segregation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ada W S; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Alain, Claude

    2015-11-01

    Detecting a brief silent interval (i.e., a gap) is more difficult when listeners perceive two concurrent sounds rather than one in a sound containing a mistuned harmonic in otherwise in-tune harmonics. This impairment in gap detection may reflect the interaction of low-level encoding or the division of attention between two sound objects, both of which could interfere with signal detection. To distinguish between these two alternatives, we compared ERPs during active and passive listening with complex harmonic tones that could include a gap, a mistuned harmonic, both features, or neither. During active listening, participants indicated whether they heard a gap irrespective of mistuning. During passive listening, participants watched a subtitled muted movie of their choice while the same sounds were presented. Gap detection was impaired when the complex sounds included a mistuned harmonic that popped out as a separate object. The ERP analysis revealed an early gap-related activity that was little affected by mistuning during the active or passive listening condition. However, during active listening, there was a marked decrease in the late positive wave that was thought to index attention and response-related processes. These results suggest that the limitation in detecting the gap is related to attentional processing, possibly divided attention induced by the concurrent sound objects, rather than deficits in preattentional sensory encoding. PMID:26226073

  2. Attentional Capacity Limits Gap Detection during Concurrent Sound Segregation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ada W S; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Alain, Claude

    2015-11-01

    Detecting a brief silent interval (i.e., a gap) is more difficult when listeners perceive two concurrent sounds rather than one in a sound containing a mistuned harmonic in otherwise in-tune harmonics. This impairment in gap detection may reflect the interaction of low-level encoding or the division of attention between two sound objects, both of which could interfere with signal detection. To distinguish between these two alternatives, we compared ERPs during active and passive listening with complex harmonic tones that could include a gap, a mistuned harmonic, both features, or neither. During active listening, participants indicated whether they heard a gap irrespective of mistuning. During passive listening, participants watched a subtitled muted movie of their choice while the same sounds were presented. Gap detection was impaired when the complex sounds included a mistuned harmonic that popped out as a separate object. The ERP analysis revealed an early gap-related activity that was little affected by mistuning during the active or passive listening condition. However, during active listening, there was a marked decrease in the late positive wave that was thought to index attention and response-related processes. These results suggest that the limitation in detecting the gap is related to attentional processing, possibly divided attention induced by the concurrent sound objects, rather than deficits in preattentional sensory encoding.

  3. Temporal buffering and visual capacity: the time course of object formation underlies capacity limits in visual cognition.

    PubMed

    Wutz, Andreas; Melcher, David

    2013-07-01

    Capacity limits are a hallmark of visual cognition. The upper boundary of our ability to individuate and remember objects is well known but-despite its central role in visual information processing-not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of temporal limits in the perceptual processes of forming "object files." Specifically, we examined the two fundamental mechanisms of object file formation-individuation and identification-by selectively interfering with visual processing by using forward and backward masking with variable stimulus onset asynchronies. While target detection was almost unaffected by these two types of masking, they showed distinct effects on the two different stages of object formation. Forward "integration" masking selectively impaired object individuation, whereas backward "interruption" masking only affected identification and the consolidation of information into visual working memory. We therefore conclude that the inherent temporal dynamics of visual information processing are an essential component in creating the capacity limits in object individuation and visual working memory.

  4. The theoretical limits of source and channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S. J.; Pollara, F.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical relationship among signal power, distortion, and bandwidth for several source and channel models is presented. The work is intended as a reference for the evaluation of the performance of specific data compression algorithms.

  5. Flow rate limitation in open capillary channel flows.

    PubMed

    Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Ohlhoff, Antje; Dreyer, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    This paper reports the experimental and theoretical investigations of forced liquid flows through open capillary channels under reduced gravity conditions. An open capillary channel is a structure that establishes a liquid flow path at low Bond numbers, when the capillary pressure caused by the surface tension force dominates in comparison to the hydrostatic pressure induced by gravitational or residual accelerations. In case of steady flow through the channel, the capillary pressure of the free surface balances the pressure difference between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Because of convective and viscous momentum transport, the pressure along the flow path decreases and causes the free surface to bend inward. The maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the geometry of the channel and the properties of the liquid. In this paper we present a comparison of the theoretical and experimental critical flow rates and surface profiles for convective dominated flows. For the prediction of the critical flow rate a one-dimensional theoretical model taking into account the entrance pressure loss and the frictional pressure loss in the channel is developed.

  6. Analysis of Paralleling Limited Capacity Voltage Sources by Projective Geometry Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The droop current-sharing method for voltage sources of a limited capacity is considered. Influence of equalizing resistors and load resistor is investigated on uniform distribution of relative values of currents when the actual loading corresponds to the capacity of a concrete source. Novel concepts for quantitative representation of operating regimes of sources are entered with use of projective geometry method. PMID:24683335

  7. Capacity of multiple-input multiple-output quantum depolarizing channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hailin; Ouyang, Shan

    2012-08-01

    Decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) are to utilize the symmetric properties of the interaction between the system and environment so that they can be tolerant against the effect of decoherence. In this paper, we propose multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme to drive a finite-dimensional quantum system into DFS. For quantum system, the scheme is not only immune to dephasing but also feasible with currently available technology. Motivated by Shannon mutual information, we derive the capacity of MIMO quantum depolarizing channels.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the volume holographic memory information capacity limits caused by different limitation factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Boris S.; Gurevich, Simon B.; Zhumaliev, Kubanychbek M.; Alymkulov, Salmor A.; Sagymbaev, Samat A.; Akkoziev, Imil A.

    2000-10-01

    The possibility to use the third dimension of the medium for data storage and extraction in memory devices is accessible in a wide sense only if a holographic method of data recording and reconstruction is used. However, this possibility has many limitations part of which is inherent just to the holographic devices. Among them one can find significant influence of a limited dynamic range, quadratic dependence of power expenses on the amount of stored information, limitations of the number of selective positions which can be used for the hologram multiplexing as well as some geometric limitations which are significant in 3-D holographic memory. On a level with that, such phenomena exercise influence on holographic memory device information capability as diffraction limits of information input and storage, spatial information losses in a complex system, limitations of rate of information input and output in holographic memory devices etc. The limitations caused by each of the listed factors have been compared and analyzed. It has been found that some of these factors do not influence on information capability limitations provided by the other reasons.

  9. The contribution of Shaker K+ channels to the information capacity of Drosophila photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Jeremy E.; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Kauranen, Mika; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Weckström, Matti

    2003-02-01

    An array of rapidly inactivating voltage-gated K+ channels is distributed throughout the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Although these channels are thought to regulate the excitability of neurons by attenuating voltage signals, their specific functions are often poorly understood. We studied the role of the prototypical inactivating K+ conductance, Shaker, in Drosophila photoreceptors by recording intracellularly from wild-type and Shaker mutant photoreceptors. Here we show that loss of the Shaker K+ conductance produces a marked reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio of photoreceptors, generating a 50% decrease in the information capacity of these cells in fully light-adapted conditions. By combining experiments with modelling, we show that the inactivation of Shaker K+ channels amplifies voltage signals and enables photoreceptors to use their voltage range more effectively. Loss of the Shaker conductance attenuated the voltage signal and induced a compensatory decrease in impedance. Our results demonstrate the importance of the Shaker K+ conductance for neural coding precision and as a mechanism for selectively amplifying graded signals in neurons, and highlight the effect of compensatory mechanisms on neuronal information processing.

  10. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  11. 49 CFR 192.743 - Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Capacity of relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure limiting and regulating stations... (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.743 Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Capacity of relief devices....

  12. Channel-wall limitations in the magnetohydrodynamic induction generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. D.; Pierson, E. S.

    1969-01-01

    Discussion of magnetohydrodynamic induction generator examines the machine in detail and materials problems influencing its design. The higher upper-temperature limit of the MHD system promises to be more efficient than present turbine systems for generating electricity.

  13. Conditional cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Mičuda, Michal; Dušek, Miloslav; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems – qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology. PMID:26568362

  14. Search for feature and for relative position: measurement of capacity limitations.

    PubMed

    Põder, E

    1999-04-01

    Palmer and his associates (Palmer, Ames & Lindsey (1993). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 108-130; Palmer (1994). Vision Research, 34, 1703-1721) have confirmed that searches for simple feature targets are not limited by perceptual processing capacity and the effect of set size on performance can be accounted for by integration stage processes only. In this study I used a similar difference threshold method with target and distractor stimuli defined by the relative position of their elements (line drawings of bisected squares) and found clear capacity limitations. Feature search condition, however, with nearly comparable bisected square stimuli did replicate the results of Palmer and associates. This experiment demonstrates that a search for targets defined by relative position in the set of line drawing type of stimuli is fundamentally different from a search for more simple (feature) stimuli and may conform to a strict capacity limited model. PMID:10343845

  15. Optimizing assisted communication devices for Children with motor impairments using a model of information rate and channel capacity.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Terence D; Henderson, Juliet

    2007-09-01

    For children who depend on devices to communicate, the rate of communication is a primary determinant of success. For children with motor impairments, the rate of communication may be limited by inability to contact buttons or cells rapidly or accurately. It is, therefore, essential to know how to adjust the device interface in order to maximize each child's rate of communication. The optimal rate of communication is determined by the channel capacity, which is the maximum value of the information rate for all possible keyboard button or cell layouts for the communication device. We construct a mathematical model for the information rate based on the relationship between movement time and the number of buttons per screen, the size of the buttons, and the length of a sequence of buttons that must be pressed to communicate each word in the vocabulary. We measure the parameters of the model using a custom-programmed touchscreen interface in 10 children with disorders of arm movement due to cerebral palsy who use a DynaVox communication device. We measure the same parameters in 20 healthy control subjects. We show that the model approximates the measured information rate and that the information rate is lower in children with motor impairments compared with control subjects. The theory predicts that for each child there is a combination of button size and number that maximizes the predicted information rate and thereby achieves communication at the optimal channel capacity. Programming communication devices with each child's predicted optimal parameters improved the communication rate in five of the ten children, compared with programming by professionals. Therefore, measurement of information rate may provide an assessment of the effect of motor disorders on success in assisted communication. Optimization of the information rate may be useful for programming assisted communication devices.

  16. Outage Capacity of Spectrum Sharing Cognitive Radio with Channel Estimation Errors and Feedback Delay in Rayleigh Fading Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D.; Feng, Z.; Zhang, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing cognitive radio (CR) network consisting of one secondary user (SU) and one primary user (PU) in Rayleigh fading environments. The channel state information (CSI) between the secondary transmitter (STx) and the primary receiver (PRx) is assumed to be imperfect. Particularly, this CSI is assumed to be not only having channel estimation errors but also outdated due to feedback delay, which is different from existing work. We derive the closed-form expression for the outage capacity of the SU with this imperfect CSI under the average interference power constraint at the PU. Analytical results confirmed by simulations are presented to show the effect of the imperfect CSI. Particularly, it is shown that the outage capacity of the SU is robust to the channel estimation errors and feedback delay for low outage probability and high channel estimation errors and feedback delay.

  17. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, Georg; George, E. Victor; Krupke, William F.; Sooy, Walter; Sutton, Steven B.

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  18. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  19. Shannon information capacity of time reversal wideband multiple-input multiple-output system based on correlated statistical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Bing-Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Utilizing channel reciprocity, time reversal (TR) technique increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver with very low transmitter complexity in complex multipath environment. Present research works about TR multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication all focus on the system implementation and network building. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of antenna coupling on the capacity of wideband TR MIMO system, which is a realistic question in designing a practical communication system. It turns out that antenna coupling stabilizes the capacity in a small variation range with statistical wideband channel response. Meanwhile, antenna coupling only causes a slight detriment to the channel capacity in a wideband TR MIMO system. Comparatively, uncorrelated stochastic channels without coupling exhibit a wider range of random capacity distribution which greatly depends on the statistical channel. The conclusions drawn from information difference entropy theory provide a guideline for designing better high-performance wideband TR MIMO communication systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331007, 61361166008, and 61401065) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120185130001).

  20. 76 FR 283 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Vessel Capacity Limit in the Purse Seine Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 3, 2010, NMFS published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (75 FR... the Federal Register (70 FR 19004), which, among other things, established a fleet capacity limit of 8... deliver their catch to U.S. (e.g., American Samoa) or foreign (e.g., Ecuador, Mexico, Colombia, Costa...

  1. Compensating for a Limited Working Memory Capacity during Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Christine; Daneman, Meredyth

    2007-01-01

    Although working memory capacity is an important contributor to reading comprehension performance, it is not the only contributor. Studies have shown that epistemic knowledge (or knowledge about knowledge and learning) is related to comprehension success and may enable low-span readers to compensate for their limited resources. By comparing the…

  2. Do Persons with Intellectual Disability and Limited Verbal Capacities Respond to Trauma Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Lievegoed, Reinout; Seubert, Andrew; De Jongh, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is not one case report of successful trauma treatment with the use of an evidence-based treatment method in people with substantially limited verbal capacities. This paper assessed the applicability of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in two clients with moderate ID, serious behavioural problems, and histories…

  3. Kinetic Limited Water Evaporation in Hydrophilic Nanofluidic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Capillary evaporation is one of the most efficient approaches for heat and mass transfer, but the interfacial resistance in capillary evaporation governed by the kinetic theory has remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental studies of the kinetic-limited water capillary evaporation in 2-D hydrophilic nanochannels. A novel hybrid nanochannel design is employed to guarantee sufficient water supply to the liquid/vapor evaporation interface and to enable precise evaporation rate measurements. We study the effects of confinement (16 ~ 105nm), temperature (20 ~ 40 °C), and relative humidity (0% ~ 60%) on the evaporation rate and the evaporation coefficient. A maximum evaporation flux of 21287 micron/s is obtained in 16-nm nanochannels at 40°C and RH =0%, which corresponds to a heat flux of 4804 W/cm°. The evaporation coefficient is found to be independent on geometrical confinement, but shows a clear dependence on temperature, decreasing from 0.55 at 20°C to 0.5 at 40 °C. These findings have implications for understanding heat and mass transport in nanofluidic devices and porous media, and shed light on further development of evaporation-based technologies for thermal management, membrane purification and lab-on-a-chip devices. The work is supported by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (ACS PRF # 54118-DNI7) and the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  4. Maintenance of semantic information in capacity-limited item short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, H; Usher, M

    2001-09-01

    We report a semantic effect in immediate free recall, which is localized at recency and is preserved under articulatory suppression but is highly reduced when recall is delayed after an intervening distractor task. These results are explained by a neurocomputational model based on a limited-capacity short-term memory (STM) store, consisting of activated long-term memory representations. The model makes additional predictions about serial position functions in semantically cued recall, indicating capacity limitations caused by a displacement type mechanism, which are confirmed in a second experiment. This suggests that in addition to the phonological component in verbal STM, there is an activation/item-limited component with semantically sensitive representations.

  5. Vegetative impacts upon bedload transport capacity and channel stability for differing alluvial planforms in the Yellow River source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi Wei; Yu, Guo An; Brierley, Gary; Wang, Zhao Yin

    2016-07-01

    The influence of vegetation upon bedload transport and channel morphodynamics is examined along a channel stability gradient ranging from meandering to anabranching to anabranching-braided to fully braided planform conditions along trunk and tributary reaches of the Upper Yellow River in western China. Although the regional geology and climate are relatively consistent across the study area, there is a distinct gradient in the presence and abundance of riparian vegetation for these reaches atop the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (elevations in the study area range from 2800 to 3400 m a.s.l.). To date, the influence of vegetative impacts upon channel planform and bedload transport capacity of alluvial reaches of the Upper Yellow River remains unclear because of a lack of hydrological and field data. In this region, the types and pattern of riparian vegetation vary with planform type as follows: trees exert the strongest influence in the anabranching reach, the meandering reach flows through meadow vegetation, the anabranching-braided reach has a grass, herb, and sparse shrub cover, and the braided reach has no riparian vegetation. A non-linear relation between vegetative cover on the valley floor and bedload transport capacity is evident, wherein bedload transport capacity is the highest for the anabranching reach, roughly followed by the anabranching-braided, braided, and meandering reaches. The relationship between the bedload transport capacity of a reach and sediment supply from upstream exerts a significant influence upon channel stability. Bedload transport capacity during the flood season (June-September) in the braided reach is much less than the rate of sediment supply, inducing bed aggradation and dynamic channel adjustments. Rates of channel adjustment are less pronounced for the anabranching-braided and anabranching reaches, while the meandering reach is relatively stable (i.e., this is a passive meandering reach).

  6. Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Volker; Ward, Neil; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load—adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts. PMID:27729889

  7. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations.

  8. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations. PMID:26472646

  9. Evaluation of channel capacities of OAM-based FSO link with real-time wavefront correction by adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cvijetic, Milorad; Takashima, Yuzuru; Yu, Zhongyuan

    2014-12-15

    We have evaluated the channel capacity of OAM-based FSO link under a strong atmospheric turbulence regime when adaptive optics (AO) are employed to correct the wavefront phase distortions of OAM modes. The turbulence is emulated by the Monte-Carlo phase screen method, which is validated by comparison with the theoretical phase structure function. Based on that, a closed-loop AO system with the capability of real-time correction is designed and validated. The simulation results show that the phase distortions of OAM modes induced by turbulence can be significantly compensated by the real-time correction of the properly designed AO. Furthermore, the crosstalk across channels is reduced drastically, while a substantial enhancement of channel capacity can be obtained when AO is deployed.

  10. Respiration in postharvest sugarbeet roots is not limited by respiratory capacity or adenylates.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Karen L; Finger, Fernando L; Anderson, Marc D

    2008-09-29

    Control of respiration has largely been studied with growing and/or photosynthetic tissues or organs, but has rarely been examined in harvested and stored plant products. As nongrowing, heterotrophic organs that are reliant on respiration to provide all of their metabolic needs, harvested plant products differ dramatically in their metabolism and respiratory needs from growing and photosynthetically active plant organs, and it cannot be assumed that the same mechanism controls respiration in both actively growing and harvested plant organs. To elucidate mechanisms of respiratory control for a harvested and stored plant product, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root respiration was characterized with respect to respiratory capacity, adenylate levels and cellular energy status in roots whose respiration was altered by wounding or cold treatment (1 degrees C) and in response to potential effectors of respiration. Respiration rate was induced by wounding in roots stored at 10 degrees C and by cold temperature in roots stored at 1 degrees C for 11-13d. Alterations in respiration rate due to wounding or storage temperature were unrelated to changes in total respiratory capacity, the capacities of the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) or alternative oxidase (AOX) pathways, adenylate concentrations or cellular energy status, measured by the ATP:ADP ratio. In root tissue, respiration was induced by exogenous NADH indicating that respiratory capacity was capable of oxidizing additional electrons fed into the electron transport chain via an external NADH dehydrogenase. Respiration was not induced by addition of ADP or a respiratory uncoupler. These results suggest that respiration rate in stored sugarbeet roots is not limited by respiratory capacity, ADP availability or cellular energy status. Since respiration in plants can be regulated by substrate availability, respiratory capacity or energy status, it is likely that a substrate, other than ADP, limits respiration in stored sugarbeet

  11. Analysis of effective capacity for free-space optical communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, You-quan; Chi, Xue-fen; Shi, Jia-lin; Zhao, Lin-lin

    2015-05-01

    To facilitate the efficient support of quality-of-service (QoS) for promising free-space optical (FSO) communication systems, it is essential to model and analyze FSO channels in terms of delay QoS. However, most existing works focus on the average capacity and outage capacity for FSO, which are not enough to characterize the effective transmission data rate when delay-sensitive service is applied. In this paper, the effective capacity of FSO communication systems under statistical QoS provisioning constraints is investigated to meet heterogeneous traffic demands. A novel closed-form expression for effective capacity is derived under the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence conditions, pointing errors, beam widths, detector sizes and QoS exponents. The obtained results reveal the effects of some significant parameters on effective capacity, which can be used for the design of FSO systems carrying a wide range of services with diverse QoS requirements.

  12. APPLIED OPTICS. Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Kuo, B P-P; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-06-26

    Nonlinear optical response of silica imposes a fundamental limit on the information transfer capacity in optical fibers. Communication beyond this limit requires higher signal power and suppression of nonlinear distortions to prevent irreversible information loss. The nonlinear interaction in silica is a deterministic phenomenon that can, in principle, be completely reversed. However, attempts to remove the effects of nonlinear propagation have led to only modest improvements, and the precise physical mechanism preventing nonlinear cancellation remains unknown. We demonstrate that optical carrier stability plays a critical role in canceling Kerr-induced distortions and that nonlinear wave interaction in silica can be substantially reverted if optical carriers possess a sufficient degree of mutual coherence. These measurements indicate that fiber information capacity can be notably increased over previous estimates.

  13. Near-limit propagation of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2016-03-01

    New results on the near-limit behaviors of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels are reported in this paper. Annular channels of widths 3.2 and 5.9 mm were made using circular inserts in a 50.8 mm-diameter external tube. The length of each annular channel was 1.8 m. Detonations were initiated in a steel driver tube where a small volume of a sensitive C2H2+ 2.5O2 mixture was injected to facilitate detonation initiation. A 2 m length of circular tube with a 50.8 mm diameter preceded the annular channel so that a steady Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation was established prior to entering the annular channel. Four detonable mixtures of C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 85 % Ar, C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 70 % Ar, C3H8 {+} 5O2 , and CH4 {+} 2O2 were used in the present study. Photodiodes spaced 10 cm throughout the length of both the annular channel and circular tube were used to measure the detonation velocity. In addition, smoked foils were inserted into the annular channel to monitor the cellular structure of the detonation wave. The results show that, well within the detonability limits, the detonation wave propagates along the channel with a small local velocity fluctuation and an average global velocity can be deduced. The average detonation velocity has a small deficit of 5-15 % far from the limits and the velocity rapidly decreases to 0.7V_{CJ} -0.8V_{CJ} when the detonation propagates near the limit. Subsequently, the fluctuation of local velocity also increases as the decreasing initial pressure approaches the limit. In the two annular channels used in this work, no galloping detonations were observed for both the stable and unstable mixtures tested. The present study also confirms that single-headed spinning detonation occurs at the limit, as in a circular tube, rather than the up and down "zig zag" mode in a two-dimensional, rectangular channel.

  14. Some Fundamental Limits on SAW RFID Tag Information Capacity and Collision Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we apply results from multi-user information theory to study the limits of information capacity and collision resolution for SAW RFID tags. In particular, we derive bounds on the achievable data rate per tag as a function of fundamental parameters such as tag time-bandwidth product, tag signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and number of tags in the environment. We also discuss the implications of these bounds for tag waveform design and tag interrogation efficiency

  15. The neural basis of temporal individuation and its capacity limits in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Naughtin, Claire K; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Dux, Paul E

    2014-02-01

    Individuation refers to individuals' use of spatial and temporal properties to register an object as a distinct perceptual event relative to other stimuli. Although behavioral studies have examined both spatial and temporal individuation, neuroimaging investigations of individuation have been restricted to the spatial domain and at relatively late stages of information processing. In this study we used univariate and multivoxel pattern analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to identify brain regions involved in individuating temporally distinct visual items and the neural consequences that arise when this process reaches its capacity limit (repetition blindness, RB). First, we found that regional patterns of blood oxygen level-dependent activity in a large group of brain regions involved in "lower-level" perceptual and "higher-level" attentional/executive processing discriminated between instances where repeated and nonrepeated stimuli were successfully individuated, conditions that placed differential demands on temporal individuation. These results could not be attributed to repetition suppression, stimulus or response factors, task difficulty, regional activation differences, other capacity-limited processes, or artifacts in the data or analyses. Consistent with the global workplace model of consciousness, this finding suggests that temporal individuation is supported by a distributed set of brain regions, rather than a single neural correlate. Second, conditions that reflect the capacity limit of individuation (instances of RB) modulated the amplitude, rather than spatial pattern, of activity in the left hemisphere premotor cortex. This finding could not be attributed to response conflict/ambiguity and likely reflects a candidate brain region underlying the capacity-limited process that gives rise to RB.

  16. Limits to sustained energy intake. XXIII. Does heat dissipation capacity limit the energy budget of lactating bank voles?

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Edyta T; Król, Elżbieta; Chrzascik, Katarzyna M; Rudolf, Agata M; Speakman, John R; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors limiting sustained metabolic rate (SusMR) is a central issue in ecological physiology. According to the heat dissipation limit (HDL) theory, the SusMR at peak lactation is constrained by the maternal capacity to dissipate body heat. To test that theory, we shaved lactating bank voles (Myodes glareolus) to experimentally elevate their capacity for heat dissipation. The voles were sampled from lines selected for high aerobic exercise metabolism (A; characterized also by increased basal metabolic rate) and unselected control lines (C). Fur removal significantly increased the peak-lactation food intake (mass-adjusted least square means ± s.e.; shaved: 16.3 ± 0.3 g day(-1), unshaved: 14.4 ± 0.2 g day(-1); P<0.0001), average daily metabolic rate (shaved: 109 ± 2 kJ day(-1), unshaved: 97 ± 2 kJ day(-1); P<0.0001) and metabolisable energy intake (shaved: 215 ± 4 kJ day(-1), unshaved: 185 ± 4 kJ day(-1); P<0.0001), as well as the milk energy output (shaved: 104 ± 4 kJ day(-1); unshaved: 93 ± 4 kJ day(-1); P=0.021) and litter growth rate (shaved: 9.4 ± 0.7 g 4 days(-1), unshaved: 7.7 ± 0.7 g 4 days(-1); P=0.028). Thus, fur removal increased both the total energy budget and reproductive output at the most demanding period of lactation, which supports the HDL theory. However, digestive efficiency was lower in shaved voles (76.0 ± 0.3%) than in unshaved ones (78.5 ± 0.2%; P<0.0001), which may indicate that a limit imposed by the capacity of the alimentary system was also approached. Shaving similarly affected the metabolic and reproductive traits in voles from the A and C lines. Thus, the experimental evolution model did not reveal a difference in the limiting mechanism between animals with inherently different metabolic rates. PMID:26747907

  17. Alveolar-Membrane Diffusing Capacity Limits Performance in Boston Marathon Qualifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, Kaleen M.; Straub, Allison M.; Uhranowsky, Kathleen A.; Smoliga, James M.; Zavorsky, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose (1) to examine the relation between pulmonary diffusing capacity and marathon finishing time, and (2), to evaluate the accuracy of pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) in predicting marathon finishing time relative to that of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Methods 28 runners [18 males, age = 37 (SD 9) years, body mass = 70 (13) kg, height = 173 (9) cm, percent body fat = 17 (7) %] completed a test battery consisting of measurement of DLNO and DLCO at rest, and a graded exercise test to determine running economy and aerobic capacity prior to the 2011 Steamtown Marathon (Scranton, PA). One to three weeks later, all runners completed the marathon (range: 2∶22:38 to 4∶48:55). Linear regressions determined the relation between finishing time and a variety of anthropometric characteristics, resting lung function variables, and exercise parameters. Results In runners meeting Boston Marathon qualification standards, 74% of the variance in marathon finishing time was accounted for by differences in DLNO relative to body surface area (BSA) (SEE = 11.8 min, p<0.01); however, the relation between DLNO or DLCO to finishing time was non-significant in the non-qualifiers (p = 0.14 to 0.46). Whereas both DLCO and DLNO were predictive of finishing time for all finishers, DLNO showed a stronger relation (r2 = 0.30, SEE = 33.4 min, p<0.01) compared to DLCO when considering BSA. Conclusion DLNO is a performance-limiting factor in only Boston qualifiers. This suggests that alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is a limitation to performance in faster marathoners. Additionally, DLNO/BSA predicts marathon finishing time and aerobic capacity more accurately than DLCO. PMID:22984520

  18. Multivariate analysis of adaptive capacity for upper thermal limits in Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    van Heerwaarden, B; Sgrò, C M

    2013-04-01

    Thermal tolerance is an important factor influencing the distribution of ectotherms, but our understanding of the ability of species to evolve different thermal limits is limited. Based on univariate measures of adaptive capacity, it has recently been suggested that species may have limited evolutionary potential to extend their upper thermal limits under ramping temperature conditions that better reflect heat stress in nature. To test these findings more broadly, we used a paternal half-sibling breeding design to estimate the multivariate evolutionary potential for upper thermal limits in Drosophila simulans. We assessed heat tolerance using static (basal and hardened) and ramping assays. Our analyses revealed significant evolutionary potential for all three measures of heat tolerance. Additive genetic variances were significantly different from zero for all three traits. Our G matrix analysis revealed that all three traits would contribute to a response to selection for increased heat tolerance. Significant additive genetic covariances and additive genetic correlations between static basal and hardened heat-knockdown time, marginally nonsignificant between static basal and ramping heat-knockdown time, indicate that direct and correlated responses to selection for increased upper thermal limits are possible. Thus, combinations of all three traits will contribute to the evolution of upper thermal limits in response to selection imposed by a warming climate. Reliance on univariate estimates of evolutionary potential may not provide accurate insight into the ability of organisms to evolve upper thermal limits in nature.

  19. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  20. Standard and limit values of mandibular condylar and incisal movement capacity.

    PubMed

    Kordass, B; Bernhardt, O; Ratzmann, A; Hugger, S; Hugger, A

    2014-01-01

    A clinical functional status was obtained and an instrumental analysis of functional movement patterns of the mandible using the ultrasonic Jaw Motion Analyzer (JMA, Zebris; Isny, Germany) was performed on 259 subjects (100 male, 159 female) who were part of an associated project of the representative population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP 0). Standardized bilateral "arbitrary" skin points based on anatomical skin references were assumed as posterior reference points in the joint area. The recorded movement patterns were evaluated for condylar movement capacity right and left upon mouth opening (COR and COL, in mm), the incisal right-lateral and left-lateral excursion capacity (IR and IL, in mm), the incisal opening capacity (IO, in mm), and the maximum opening angle (OA, in degrees). For the determination of the standard and limit, the following means were determined with standard deviations and 5th and 95th percentiles: COR 14.52 +/- 4.188 (7.70, 21.40); (33.40; 56.10); OA 32.16 +/- 5.954 (21.40; 41.80). The values for men vs women for IR and for OW and in the age group below 40 years vs 40 years and above for IR were statistically significantly different. Interestingly, the interval between the 5th and 95th percentile in the group with a Helkimo clinical dysfunction index of 1 and approximately the same mean value was significantly greater than in the group with Helkimo 0. Based on this standard and limit values or ranges, individually measured values of functional mandibular movement can be compared and differentiated with respect to hypomobility/limitation (< 5th percentile) or hypermobility (> 95th percentile). This serves to indicate the therapeutic direction for functional treatment to improve the jaw's movement capacity in terms of biomechanical optimization. Objective kinematic measurements can be used for additional documentation of the treatment progress during the treatment course.

  1. On the quantum-channel capacity for orbital angular momentum-based free-space optical communications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Gao, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by recent demonstrations of orbital angular momentum-(OAM)-based single-photon communications, we propose two quantum-channel models: (i) the multidimensional quantum-key distribution model and (ii) the quantum teleportation model. Both models employ operator-sum representation for Kraus operators derived from OAM eigenkets transition probabilities. These models are highly important for future development of quantum-error correction schemes to extend the transmission distance and improve date rates of OAM quantum communications. By using these models, we calculate corresponding quantum-channel capacities in the presence of atmospheric turbulence.

  2. On the quantum-channel capacity for orbital angular momentum-based free-space optical communications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Gao, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by recent demonstrations of orbital angular momentum-(OAM)-based single-photon communications, we propose two quantum-channel models: (i) the multidimensional quantum-key distribution model and (ii) the quantum teleportation model. Both models employ operator-sum representation for Kraus operators derived from OAM eigenkets transition probabilities. These models are highly important for future development of quantum-error correction schemes to extend the transmission distance and improve date rates of OAM quantum communications. By using these models, we calculate corresponding quantum-channel capacities in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. PMID:22859154

  3. Remembering complex objects in visual working memory: do capacity limits restrict objects or features?

    PubMed

    Hardman, Kyle O; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory stores stimuli from our environment as representations that can be accessed by high-level control processes. This study addresses a longstanding debate in the literature about whether storage limits in visual working memory include a limit to the complexity of discrete items. We examined the issue with a number of change-detection experiments that used complex stimuli that possessed multiple features per stimulus item. We manipulated the number of relevant features of the stimulus objects in order to vary feature load. In all of our experiments, we found that increased feature load led to a reduction in change-detection accuracy. However, we found that feature load alone could not account for the results but that a consideration of the number of relevant objects was also required. This study supports capacity limits for both feature and object storage in visual working memory. PMID:25089739

  4. Capacity limitations and the detection of correlations: comment on Kareev (2000).

    PubMed

    Juslin, Peter; Olsson, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Y. Kareev (2000) argued that the limited capacity of working memory may be an adaptive advantage for the early detection of useful correlations. His analysis indeed suggests that the optimal sample size is close to G. A. Miller's (1956) "magical number 7 +/- 2." The authors point out logical and statistical limitations of Y. Kareev's (2000) analysis, including that it neglects that the adaptive value is not determined by the hit rate but by the posterior probability of hit and that only signal trials are considered. The authors' analysis demonstrates that when these limitations are corrected for, the alleged benefit for small samples does not occur, and larger samples imply considerable improvement in the detection of correlations. PMID:15631597

  5. Egg-laying capacity is limited by carotenoid pigment availability in wild gulls Larus fuscus.

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Jonathan D; Houston, David C; Surai, Peter F; Møller, Anders Pape

    2004-01-01

    In birds, experimentally increased egg production can reduce maternal condition, parenting ability and survival, and the quality of the eggs themselves. Such costs probably reflect resource limitation, but the identity of the resource(s) in question remains unclear. Carotenoids are antioxidants and immunomodulants that birds can only obtain in their diet. Trade-offs in the allocation of limiting carotenoids between somatic maintenance and egg production could therefore be an important factor underlying reproductive costs. We show that in wild lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus, dietary carotenoid availability (i) constrained the capacity to re-lay following clutch removal; and (ii) affected the relationship between yolk mass and egg mass. However, whether carotenoids are limiting for egg production directly, by stimulating the synthesis or antioxidant protection of yolk precursors, or indirectly via effects on maternal health, requires further study. PMID:15101425

  6. Issues of representation and limited capacity in the auditory short-term store.

    PubMed

    Frick, R W

    1988-05-01

    This article makes several related claims about the auditory short-term store (ASTS) tested by immediate ordered recall. The first claim is that the representation in ASTS is uncategorical and unparsed. The second claim is that there is a stage of recovery just prior to recall, in which the information in ASTS is parsed and categorized. Finally, it is proposed that the amount of representational medium in ASTS is fixed and allocated proportionally to each item in the presentation. When too many items are presented, the items are not represented with sufficient fidelity to be recovered, leading to the phenomenon of limited capacity. These claims are contrasted to the predictions of a slot model, in which ASTS is hypothesized to store a fixed number of categorical and parsed items. Novel explanations are given for several phenomena in immediate ordered recall, including the Hebb effect, the correlation between perceptibility and capacity, and serial position curves.

  7. Nonadditivity of quantum and classical capacities for entanglement breaking multiple-access channels and the butterfly network

    SciTech Connect

    Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Pawel

    2010-06-15

    We analyze quantum network primitives which are entanglement breaking. We show superadditivity of quantum and classical capacity regions for quantum multiple-access channels and the quantum butterfly network. Since the effects are especially visible at high noise they suggest that quantum information effects may be particularly helpful in the case of the networks with occasional high noise rates. The present effects provide a qualitative borderline between superadditivities of bipartite and multipartite systems.

  8. [Role of the voltage-gated sodium channels in the metastatic capacity of cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo

    2012-01-01

    The functional expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)) in cancer cells is associated with an increase of metastatic potential. The activity of Na(v) channels modulates different cellular processes related to the development of the malignant phenotype, such as adhesion, galvanotaxis, motility and invasiveness. Among the great diversity of cancerous phenotypes, Na(v) channels expression is common in highly metastatic cells with their distribution following a primary tumor-specific pattern. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, regarding to: the types of Na(v) channels expressed by different types of cancer cells, the cancer cellular processes in which they play important roles, and the molecular mechanisms by which these channels promote metastasis.

  9. The effect of working memory capacity limitations on the intuitive assessment of correlation: amplification, attenuation, or both?

    PubMed

    Cahan, Sorel; Mor, Yaniv

    2007-03-01

    This article challenges Yaakov Kareev's (1995a, 2000) argument regarding the positive bias of intuitive correlation estimates due to working memory capacity limitations and its adaptive value. The authors show that, under narrow window theory's primacy effect assumption, there is a considerable between-individual variability of the effects of capacity limitations on the intuitive assessment of correlation, in terms of both sign and magnitude: Limited capacity acts as an amplifier for some individuals and as a silencer for others. Furthermore, the average amount of attenuation exceeds the average amount of amplification, and the more so, the smaller the capacity. Implications regarding the applicability and contribution of the bias notion in this context and the evaluation of the adaptive value of capacity limitations are discussed.

  10. Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Kevin G.; Trask, Stephen E.; Bauer, Christoph; Woehrle, Thomas; Lux, Simon; Tschech, Matthias; Polzin, Bryant J.; Ha, Seungbum; Long, Brandon R.; Wu, Qingliu; Lu, Wenquan; Dees, Dennis W.; Jansen, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the areal capacity or electrode thickness in lithium ion batteries is one possible means to increase pack level energy density while simultaneously lowering cost. The physics that limit use of high areal capacity as a function of battery power to energy ratio are poorly understood and thus most currently produced automotive lithium ion cells utilize modest loadings to ensure long life over the vehicle battery operation. Here we show electrolyte transport limits the utilization of the positive electrode at critical C-rates during discharge; whereas, a combination of electrolyte transport and polarization lead to lithium plating in the graphite electrode during charge. Experimental measurements are compared with theoretical predictions based on concentrated solution and porous electrode theories. An analytical expression is derived to provide design criteria for long lived operation based on the physical properties of the electrode and electrolyte. Finally, a guideline is proposed that graphite cells should avoid charge current densities near or above 4 mA/cm2 unless additional precautions have been made to avoid deleterious side reaction.

  11. Predicting tool operator capacity to react against torque within acceptable handle deflection limits in automotive assembly.

    PubMed

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish; Fronczak, Frank J; Subedi, Yashpal; Howery, Robert; Yen, Thomas Y; Sesto, Mary E; Irwin, Curtis B

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of tool operators capable of maintaining published psychophysically derived threaded fastener tool handle deflection limits were predicted using a biodynamic tool operator model, interacting with the tool, task and workstation. Tool parameters, including geometry, speed and torque were obtained from the specifications for 35 tools used in an auto assembly plant. Tool mass moments of inertia were measured for these tools using a novel device that engages the tool in a rotating system of known inertia. Task parameters, including fastener target torque and joint properties (soft, medium or hard), were ascertained from the vehicle design specifications. Workstation parameters, including vertical and horizontal distances from the operator were measured using a laser rangefinder for 69 tool installations in the plant. These parameters were entered into the model and tool handle deflection was predicted for each job. While handle deflection for most jobs did not exceed the capacity of 75% females and 99% males, six jobs exceeded the deflection criterion. Those tool installations were examined and modifications in tool speed and operator position improved those jobs within the deflection limits, as predicted by the model. We conclude that biodynamic tool operator models may be useful for identifying stressful tool installations and interventions that bring them within the capacity of most operators.

  12. Three Ca2+ channel inhibitors in combination limit chronic secondary degeneration following neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Savigni, Donna L; O'Hare Doig, Ryan L; Szymanski, Charis R; Bartlett, Carole A; Lozić, Ivan; Smith, Nicole M; Fitzgerald, Melinda

    2013-12-01

    Following neurotrauma, cells beyond the initial trauma site undergo secondary degeneration, with excess Ca2+ a likely trigger for loss of neurons, compact myelin and function. Treatment using inhibitors of specific Ca2+ channels has shown promise in preclinical studies, but clinical trials have been disappointing and combinatorial approaches are needed. We assessed efficacy of multiple combinations of three Ca2+ channel inhibitors at reducing secondary degeneration following partial optic nerve transection in rat. We used lomerizine to inhibit voltage gated Ca2+ channels; oxidised adenosine-triphosphate (oxATP) to inhibit purinergic P2X7 receptors and/or 2-[7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro quinoxalin-1-yl]acetic acid (INQ) to inhibit Ca2+ permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Only the three Ca2+ channel inhibitors delivered in combination significantly preserved visual function, as assessed using the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex, at 3 months after injury. Preservation of retinal ganglion cells was partial and is unlikely to have accounted for differential effects on function. A range of the Ca2+ channel inhibitor combinations prevented swelling of optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration. Each of the treatments involving lomerizine significantly increased the proportion of axons with normal compact myelin. Nevertheless, limiting decompaction of myelin was not sufficient for preservation of function in our model. Multiple combinations of Ca2+ channel inhibitors reduced formation of atypical node/paranode complexes; outcomes were not associated with preservation of visual function. However, prevention of lengthening of the paranodal gap that was only achieved by treatment with the three Ca2+ channel inhibitors in combination was an important additional effect that likely contributed to the associated preservation of the optokinetic reflex using this combinatorial treatment strategy

  13. Tidal expiratory flow limitation, dyspnoea and exercise capacity in patients with bilateral bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Koulouris, N G; Retsou, S; Kosmas, E; Dimakou, K; Malagari, K; Mantzikopoulos, G; Koutsoukou, A; Milic-Emili, J; Jordanoglou, J

    2003-05-01

    In this study the authors investigated whether expiratory flow limitation (FL) is present during tidal breathing in patients with bilateral bronchiectasis (BB) and whether it is related to the severity of chronic dyspnoea (Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale), exercise capacity (maximal mechanical power output (WRmax)) and severity of the disease, as assessed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring. Lung function, MRC dyspnoea, HRCT score, WRmax and FL were assessed in 23 stable caucasian patients (six males) aged 56 +/- 17 yrs. FL was assessed at rest both in seated and supine positions. To detect FL, the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique was used. The degree of FL was rated using a five-point FL score. WRmax was measured using a cyclo-ergometer. According to the NEP technique, five patients were FL during resting breathing when supine but not seated, four were FL both seated and supine, and 14 were NFL both seated and supine. Furthermore, it was shown that: 1) in stable BB patients FL during resting breathing is common, especially in the supine position; 2) the degree of MRC dyspnoea is closely related to the five-point FL score; 3) WRmax (% pred) is more closely correlated with the MRC dyspnoea score than with the five-point FL score; and 4) HRCT score is closely related to forced expiratory volume in one second % pred but not five-point FL score. In conclusion, flow limitation is common at rest in sitting and supine positions in patients with bilateral bronchiectasis. Flow limitation and reduced exercise capacity are both associated with more severe dyspnoea. Finally, high-resolution computed tomography scoring correlates best with forced expiratory volume in one second.

  14. An investigation of factors limiting aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Carter, R; Riantawan, P; Banham, S W; Sturrock, R D

    1999-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been shown to produce exercise limitation and breathlessness. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors which may be responsible for limiting aerobic capacity in patients with AS. Twenty patients with no other cardio-respiratory disease performed integrative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The results were compared to 20 age and gender matched healthy controls. Variables that might influence exercise tolerance, including pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography), respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP) and endurance (Tlim), AS severity assessment including chest expansion (CE), thoracolumber movement (TL), wall tragus distance and peripheral muscle strength assessed by maximum voluntary contraction of the knee extensors (Qds), hand grip strength and lean body mass (LBM), were measured in the patients with AS and used as explanatory variables against the peak VO2 achieved during CPET. As subjects achieved a lower peak VO2 than controls (25.2 +/- 1.4 vs. 33.1 +/- 1.6 ml kg-1min-1, mean +/- SEM, P = 0.001). When compared with controls, ventilatory response (VE/VCO2) in AS was elevated (P = 0.01); however gas exchange indices, transcutaneous blood gases and breathing reserve were similar to controls. AS subjects developed a higher HR/VO2 response (P < 0.01) on exertion but without associated abnormalities in ECG, blood pressure response or anaerobic threshold. The AS group experienced a greater degree of leg fatigue (P < 0.01) than controls at peak exercise. Although the breathlessness scores (BS) were comparable to controls at peak exercise, the slopes of the relationship between BS and work rate (WR) [AS 0.054 (0.1), Controls 0.043 (0.06); P < 0.05] and BS and % predicted oxygen uptake [AS 0.084 (0.18), Controls 0.045 (0.06); P < 0.01] were steeper in the AS subjects. There was weak association between peak VO2 and vital capacity (r2% 12.0), MIP (11.8) but no association between Tlim, CE, Wall tragus distance

  15. Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit

    SciTech Connect

    Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Liu, Yu-xi; Miranowicz, Adam

    2007-10-15

    We investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states to be teleported depend on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. Using the fully entangled fraction, we derive two bounds on the damping rates of the channels: one is to beat the classical limit and the second is to guarantee the nonexistence of any other copy with better fidelity. The effect of the initially distributed maximally entangled state on the process is presented; the concurrence and the fully entangled fraction of the shared states are discussed. We intend to show that prior information on the dissipative channel and the range of qubit states to be teleported is helpful for the evaluation of the success of teleportation, where success is defined as surpassing the fidelity limit imposed by the fidelity of the 1-to-2 optimal cloning machine for the specific range of qubits.

  16. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 660 - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 2 Table 2 to Part 660 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 660—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West...

  17. Tracking performance of Costas loops with hard-limited in-phase channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the tracking performance of the Costas loop used in a suppressed carrier receiver with a hard limiter of the in-phase channel arm filter output. Attention is given to assessing the penalty, if indeed it is a penalty rather than an improvement, in this performance relative to a conventional Costas loop without the hard limiter and with an analog third multiplier. In particular, for the case of single-pole Butterworth (RC) arm filters and NRZ data, the squaring loss (tracking jitter penalty relative to a linear loop) is evaluated and illustrated as a function of the ratio of arm filter bandwidth to data rate and data SNR. Also considered is the tracking performance of a hard-limited modified Costas loop wherein the quadrature arm is removed. Corresponding results for the modified Costas loop without the hard limiter are given.

  18. Determination of channel capacity of the Merced River downstream from Merced Falls Dam, Merced County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1968-01-01

    Peak flows in Dry Creek, as measured 18.7 miles upstream from the mouth of Dry Creek, will be attenuated due to channel storage and will increase the discharge of the Merced River at Cressey by only about 50 per cent of t he Dry Creek peak discharge. Furthermore, Dry Creek seldom carries floodflows during periods of high water on the Merced River.

  19. A proof of the log-concavity conjecture related to the computation of the ergodic capacity of MIMO channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvitis, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    An upper bound on the ergodic capacity of MIMO channels was introduced recently in [1]. This upper bound amounts to the maximization on the simplex of some multilinear polynomial p({lambda}{sub 1}, ..., {lambda}{sub n}) with non-negative coefficients. In general, such maximizations problems are NP-HARD. But if say, the functional log(p) is concave on the simplex and can be efficiently evaluated, then the maximization can also be done efficiently. Such log-concavity was conjectured in [1]. We give in this paper self-contained proof of the conjecture, based on the theory of H-Stable polynomials.

  20. Average capacity of FSO links with transmit laser selection using non-uniform OOK signaling over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen

    2010-09-13

    A new upper bound on the capacity of power- and bandwidth-constrained optical wireless links using selection transmit diversity over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels with intensity modulation and direct detection is derived when non-uniform on-off keying (OOK) formats are used. In this strong turbulence free-space optical (FSO) scenario, average capacity is investigated subject to an average optical power constraint and not only to an average electrical power constraint when the transmit diversity technique assumed is based on the selection of the optical path with a greater value of irradiance. Simulation results for the mutual information are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results for different diversity orders.

  1. Capacity limitation in short-term visual memory for contour curvature.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Koji

    2005-01-01

    I measured the difference threshold for contour curvature in short-term visual memory (STVM) using a two-interval forced-choice partial discrimination task. In experiments 1 and 2, the study stimulus consisting of 1 to 4 curved contours was briefly presented. It was followed by a single contour stimulus after a retention interval. The subjects judged if the test stimulus had a higher or lower curvature than the corresponding study contour. The results of experiment 1 showed that the Weber fraction increased monotonically with increasing set size. The results of experiment 2 clarified that the set-size effect was not due to a temporal limitation in encoding resulting from the short exposure time. In experiment 3, the study stimuli always consisted of 4 items, but the numbers of memorised items were different in each condition. Nevertheless, the results showed the set-size effect, which indicated that its occurrence depended largely on the capacity limitation in short-term visual memory (STVM) storage. Otherwise, the Weber fraction was not hugely higher for set size 4 compared with set size 1. It was concluded that only 1 object could be retained in STVM with high fidelity, but that at least 4 objects could be retained in STVM with some degree of fidelity.

  2. Storing health data in JPEG: looking at exif area capacity limits.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Tatsuo; Nohara, Yasunobu; Nakashima, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Formats for data storage in personal computers vary according to manufacturer and models for personal health-monitoring devices such as blood-pressure and body-composition meters. In contrast, the data format of images from digital cameras is unified into a JPEG format with an Exif area and is already familiar to many users. We have devised a method that can contain health data as a JPEG file. Health data is stored in the Exif area in JPEG in a HL7 format. There is, however, a capacity limit of 64 KB for the Exif area. The aim of this study is to examine how much health data can actually be stored in the Exif area. We found that even with combined data from multiple devices, it was possible to store over a month of health data in a JPEG file, and using multiple JPEG files simply overcomes this limit. We believe that this method will help people to more easily handle health data regardless of the various device modelsthey use. PMID:23920775

  3. Cardiorespiratory responses in an Antarctic fish suggest limited capacity for thermal acclimation.

    PubMed

    Egginton, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish A

    2016-05-01

    Polar fishes are at high risk from increasing seawater temperatures. Characterising the physiological responses to such changes may both clarify mechanisms that permit life under extreme conditions and identify limitations in the response to continued global warming. We hypothesised that Notothenia coriiceps would show physiological compensation after an acute exposure to 5°C, and following 6 weeks warm acclimation, compared with ambient temperature (0°C). However, initial tachycardia (22.4±2.8 versus 12.8±1.1 min(-1); P<0.01) was not reversed by acclimation (21.0±1.9 min(-1)). Hyperventilation (45.5±3.1 versus 21.4±2.4 breaths min(-1); P<0.001) showed a modest reduction following acclimation (38.0±2.9 min(-1); P<0.05), while resting oxygen consumption (0.52±0.08 mmol kg(-1) h(-1)) was acutely increased at 5°C (1.07±0.10 mmol kg(-1) h(-1); P<0.001) but unchanged with acclimation. Autonomic blockade showed initial responses were mainly of vagal origin, with little subsequent withdrawal or recovery in long-term heart rate variability after 6 weeks. Given the limited cardiorespiratory capacity to withstand sustained warming, effective physiological compensation probably requires a more prolonged acclimation period.

  4. Oxidative damage to RPA limits the nucleotide excision repair capacity of human cells

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Melisa; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Peacock, Matthew; Karran, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protects against sunlight-induced skin cancer. Defective NER is associated with photosensitivity and a high skin cancer incidence. Some clinical treatments that cause photosensitivity can also increase skin cancer risk. Among these, the immunosuppressant azathioprine and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, interact with UVA radiation to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that diminish NER capacity by causing protein damage. The RPA DNA binding protein plays a pivotal role in DNA metabolism and is an essential component of NER. The relationship between protein oxidation and NER inhibition was investigated in cultured human cells expressing different levels of RPA. We show here that RPA is limiting for NER and that oxidative damage to RPA compromises NER capability. Our findings reveal that cellular RPA is surprisingly vulnerable to oxidation and we identify oxidized forms of RPA that are associated with impaired NER. The vulnerability of NER to inhibition by oxidation provides a connection between cutaneous photosensitivity, protein damage and increased skin cancer risk. Our findings emphasize that damage to DNA repair proteins, as well as to DNA itself is likely to be an important contributor to skin cancer risk. PMID:26134950

  5. Thermally tolerant corals have limited capacity to acclimatize to future warming.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Rottier, Cécile; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso; Baker, Andrew C; Fine, Maoz; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Thermal stress affects organism performance differently depending on the ambient temperature to which they are acclimatized, which varies along latitudinal gradients. This study investigated whether differences in physiological responses to temperature are consistent with regional differences in temperature regimes for the stony coral Oculina patagonica. To resolve this question, we experimentally assessed how colonies originating from four different locations characterized by >3 °C variation in mean maximum annual temperature responded to warming from 20 to 32 °C. We assessed plasticity in symbiont identity, density, and photosynthetic properties, together with changes in host tissue biomass. Results show that, without changes in the type of symbiont hosted by coral colonies, O. patagonica has limited capacity to acclimatize to future warming. We found little evidence of variation in overall thermal tolerance, or in thermal optima, in response to spatial variation in ambient temperature. Given that the invader O. patagonica is a relatively new member of the Mediterranean coral fauna, our results also suggest that coral populations may need to remain isolated for a long period of time for thermal adaptation to potentially take place. Our study indicates that for O. patagonica, mortality associated with thermal stress manifests primarily through tissue breakdown under moderate but prolonged warming (which does not impair symbiont photosynthesis and, therefore, does not lead to bleaching). Consequently, projected global warming is likely to cause repeat incidents of partial and whole colony mortality and might drive a gradual range contraction of Mediterranean corals.

  6. Depth limit for reef building corals in the Au'au Channel, S.E. Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, Richard W.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the relationship between reef building (accretion) and depth in an optimal inter-island channel environment in Hawaii is analyzed. For accretion, the growth rate of Porites lobata is used as a proxy for the reef community, because it is the most abundant and dominant species of reef building coral in Hawaii. Optimal growth of P. lobata occurs at a depth of 6 m, below which both growth rate and abundance decrease with increasing depth. A lower depth limit for this species is found at about 80-100 m, yet reef accretion ceases at ~50 m depth. Below 50 m, rates of bio-erosion of colony holdfasts equal or exceed the growth of basal attachments, causing colonies to detach from the bottom. Continued bio-erosion further erodes and dislodges colonies leading to their breakdown and ultimately to the formation of coralline rubble and sand. Thus, within this channel environment in Hawaii, a threshold for reef building exists at ~ 50 m depth, where coral accretion is interrupted by bio-erosion. Conceptually viewed, this depth horizon is analogous to a vertical Darwin Point, although quite narrow in space and time. More importantly, it explains the history of reef morphology in the Au’au Channel where a chronological hiatus exists at a depth near 50 m. This hiatus separates shallower modern growth (about 100 years or less) from the deeper reef which is all due to accretion during the early Holocene or Pleistocene epochs.

  7. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    mass transfer in the phloem but had no influence on fruit growth. These observations demonstrate that the transport capacity in the phloem of the pedicel does not limit fruit growth and, within the limits of our experiments, an increase in demand by the fruit appeared to be matched by an increase in SMT. The dependence of late xylem formation (after the period of fruitlet abscission) on fruitlet growth was demonstrated in Salustiana orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by means of controlling fruit growth through the manipulation of leaf area. Fruit growth at this time was more closely related to leaf area than to carbohydrate levels, suggesting that it may be limited by current photosynthesis. PMID:12451031

  8. The Sediment Yield of High Mountain Environment Watersheds: Strong Evidence of Transport Capacity Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, N.; Lane, S. N.; Lambiel, C.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine landscapes are likely to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of: (1) the vulnerability of permafrost and glacial and nival processes to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation; (2) their history, which may have led to high rates of sediment production, and hence high rates of sediment supply; and (3) the steep slopes that may sustain sediment transport. Assessing the effects of climate change upon these processes over the timescale of recent rapid warming (i.e. decades) is difficult because of the lack of available data. Here, we use two unique data sources to assess the relative importance of these three processes for two high mountain basins (altitude range 2'000 to 3'500 m asl): (1) histories of surface change from the late 1950s, based upon construction of digital elevation models from archival imagery; and (2) a long term record, beginning in the early 1960s, of sediment export based upon the flushing of sediment from hydropower intakes. The two basins contain glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost and the legacy of past glacial activity. These data show that the level of geomorphic activity within both basins is orders of magnitude higher than the volume of sediment exported from the basins. Decadal scale changes in elevation and surface displacement velocities suggest an acceleration of landscape dynamics from the 1980s. Changes in atmospheric temperature remain a key control of this process, but precipitation and snow cover prove critical in controlling rock glacier behaviour and can induce acceleration of surface displacements even under cold atmospheric conditions. However, the analysis of the sediment export data show that despite generally greater within basin dynamics, the rate of export of sediment remains orders of magnitude lower than rates of sediment production. Calculations of sediment transport capacity suggest that this is because the fundamental limit upon sediment yield is the capacity of the stream to

  9. Modem Characterization Through a Wideband, Hard-Limited Ka-Band Satellite Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Ivancic, William; Tanger, Tom; Cronon, Chris; Lee, Donald; Kifer, David R.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is using a commercial customized TDMA/FDMA bandwidth on demand modem for use with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to highlight the numerous services and experiments that can be performed using small Ka-Band terminals. Characterizing the modems proved challenging due to the characteristics of the satellite transponder. The ACTS channel is hard-limited and up to 900 MHz wide. The channel has some unusual dynamic properties due to the satellite and antenna system, which make modem testing through the satellite challenging and the test requirements stringent. The satellite Multi-Beam Antenna (MBA) has a 1 hertz oscillation induced by the momentum wheel, which causes the transmit antenna pattern to move slightly. This results in a 1 hertz oscillation in the ground station receive power, with amplitude changes up to 1 dB depending on terminal location within a spot beam and associated gain slope. In addition, ACTS experiences a solar induced "thermal event" each day. This "thermal event" occurs when the sun heats the antenna support structure causing the transmit and receive reflectors to mispoint. This results in a slowly decreasing or increasing power density at the ground station receiver as the antenna pattern moves off bore-site. This paper describes the method used to fully characterize the TDMA/FDMA modem through the ACTS wideband, hard-limited transponder. In particular, techniques are discussed for conducting RF measurements on such a channel, the affect that the thermal characteristics and 1 hertz variations have on the accuracy of the results, and suggested means to minimize the error and provide useful and valuable data.

  10. The false lock performance of Costas loops with hard-limited in-phase channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The ability of a Costas loop to false lock on a data sideband is a problem which must be dealt with in the design of suppressed-carrier receivers which employ such loops for carrier reconstruction. For conventional Costas loops wherein the error signal is formed from the product of two analog signals, the false lock problem has recently been investigated by the author and others and is now well understood. For implementation reasons associated with the reduction of dc offsets, it is often desirable to hard-limit the output of the in-phase channel and replace the analog multiplier which forms the above product with a chopper-type device. The false lock behavior of such a Costas loop with hard-limited in-phase channel is quite different from that of the conventional Costas loop and is the subject of investigation in this paper. Results are also presented for a modified version of the Costas loop wherein the quadrature arm filter is removed.

  11. Traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks with limited delivering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Wang, Zhenyong

    2016-08-01

    The traffic dynamics of multi-layer networks has attracted a great deal of interest since many real networks are comprised of two or more layers of subnetworks. Due to its low traffic capacity, the average delivery capacity allocation strategy is susceptible to congestion with the wildly used shortest path routing protocol on two-layer complex networks. In this paper, we introduce a delivery capacity allocation strategy into the traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks and focus on its effect on the traffic capacity measured by the critical point Rc of phase transition from free flow to congestion. When the total nodes delivering capacity is fixed, the delivering capacity of each node in physical layer is assigned to the degree distributions of both the physical and logical layers. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can bring much better traffic capacity than that with the average delivery capacity allocation strategy. Because of the significantly improved traffic performance, this work may be useful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.

  12. Attentional gain and processing capacity limits predict the propensity to neglect unexpected visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Papera, Massimiliano; Richards, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous allocation of attentional resources allows the visual system to encode and maintain representations of stimuli in visual working memory (VWM). However, limits in the processing capacity to allocate resources can prevent unexpected visual stimuli from gaining access to VWM and thereby to consciousness. Using a novel approach to create unbiased stimuli of increasing saliency, we investigated visual processing during a visual search task in individuals who show a high or low propensity to neglect unexpected stimuli. When propensity to inattention is high, ERP recordings show a diminished amplification concomitantly with a decrease in theta band power during the N1 latency, followed by a poor target enhancement during the N2 latency. Furthermore, a later modulation in the P3 latency was also found in individuals showing propensity to visual neglect, suggesting that more effort is required for conscious maintenance of visual information in VWM. Effects during early stages of processing (N80 and P1) were also observed suggesting that sensitivity to contrasts and medium-to-high spatial frequencies may be modulated by low-level saliency (albeit no statistical group differences were found). In accordance with the Global Workplace Model, our data indicate that a lack of resources in low-level processors and visual attention may be responsible for the failure to "ignite" a state of high-level activity spread across several brain areas that is necessary for stimuli to access awareness. These findings may aid in the development of diagnostic tests and intervention to detect/reduce inattention propensity to visual neglect of unexpected stimuli. PMID:26849023

  13. Attentional gain and processing capacity limits predict the propensity to neglect unexpected visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Papera, Massimiliano; Richards, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous allocation of attentional resources allows the visual system to encode and maintain representations of stimuli in visual working memory (VWM). However, limits in the processing capacity to allocate resources can prevent unexpected visual stimuli from gaining access to VWM and thereby to consciousness. Using a novel approach to create unbiased stimuli of increasing saliency, we investigated visual processing during a visual search task in individuals who show a high or low propensity to neglect unexpected stimuli. When propensity to inattention is high, ERP recordings show a diminished amplification concomitantly with a decrease in theta band power during the N1 latency, followed by a poor target enhancement during the N2 latency. Furthermore, a later modulation in the P3 latency was also found in individuals showing propensity to visual neglect, suggesting that more effort is required for conscious maintenance of visual information in VWM. Effects during early stages of processing (N80 and P1) were also observed suggesting that sensitivity to contrasts and medium-to-high spatial frequencies may be modulated by low-level saliency (albeit no statistical group differences were found). In accordance with the Global Workplace Model, our data indicate that a lack of resources in low-level processors and visual attention may be responsible for the failure to "ignite" a state of high-level activity spread across several brain areas that is necessary for stimuli to access awareness. These findings may aid in the development of diagnostic tests and intervention to detect/reduce inattention propensity to visual neglect of unexpected stimuli.

  14. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  15. Photosynthesis-dependent/independent control of stomatal responses to CO2 in mutant barley with surplus electron transport capacity and reduced SLAH3 anion channel transcript.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Javier; Molina-Cano, José-Luis; Pérez, Pilar; Morcuende, Rosa; Moralejo, Marian; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms of stomatal sensitivity to CO2 are yet to be fully understood. The role of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic factors in stomatal responses to CO2 was investigated in wild-type barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Graphic) and in a mutant (G132) with decreased photochemical and Rubisco capacities. The CO2 and DCMU responses of stomatal conductance (gs), gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and levels of ATP, with a putative transcript for stomatal opening were analysed. G132 had greater gs than the wild-type, despite lower photosynthesis rates and higher intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci). The mutant had Rubisco-limited photosynthesis at very high CO2 levels, and higher ATP contents than the wild-type. Stomatal sensitivity to CO2 under red light was lower in G132 than in the wild-type, both in photosynthesizing and DCMU-inhibited leaves. Under constant Ci and red light, stomatal sensitivity to DCMU inhibition was higher in G132. The levels of a SLAH3-like slow anion channel transcript, involved in stomatal closure, decreased sharply in G132. The results suggest that stomatal responses to CO2 depend partly on the balance of photosynthetic electron transport to carbon assimilation capacities, but are partially regulated by the CO2 signalling network. High gs can improve the adaptation to climate change in well-watered conditions.

  16. Photosynthesis-dependent/independent control of stomatal responses to CO2 in mutant barley with surplus electron transport capacity and reduced SLAH3 anion channel transcript.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Javier; Molina-Cano, José-Luis; Pérez, Pilar; Morcuende, Rosa; Moralejo, Marian; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms of stomatal sensitivity to CO2 are yet to be fully understood. The role of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic factors in stomatal responses to CO2 was investigated in wild-type barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Graphic) and in a mutant (G132) with decreased photochemical and Rubisco capacities. The CO2 and DCMU responses of stomatal conductance (gs), gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and levels of ATP, with a putative transcript for stomatal opening were analysed. G132 had greater gs than the wild-type, despite lower photosynthesis rates and higher intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci). The mutant had Rubisco-limited photosynthesis at very high CO2 levels, and higher ATP contents than the wild-type. Stomatal sensitivity to CO2 under red light was lower in G132 than in the wild-type, both in photosynthesizing and DCMU-inhibited leaves. Under constant Ci and red light, stomatal sensitivity to DCMU inhibition was higher in G132. The levels of a SLAH3-like slow anion channel transcript, involved in stomatal closure, decreased sharply in G132. The results suggest that stomatal responses to CO2 depend partly on the balance of photosynthetic electron transport to carbon assimilation capacities, but are partially regulated by the CO2 signalling network. High gs can improve the adaptation to climate change in well-watered conditions. PMID:26398787

  17. Core verbal working-memory capacity: the limit in words retained without covert articulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2009-07-01

    Verbal working memory may combine phonological and conceptual units. We disentangle their contributions by extending a prior procedure (Chen & Cowan, 2005) in which items recalled from lists of previously seen word singletons and of previously learned word pairs depended on the list length in chunks. Here we show that a constant capacity of about 3 chunks holds across list lengths and list types, provided that covert phonological rehearsal is prevented. What remains is a core verbal working-memory capacity.

  18. Emerging ferroelectric transistors with nanoscale channel materials: the possibilities, the limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Combining the nonvolatile, locally switchable polarization field of a ferroelectric thin film with a nanoscale electronic material in a field effect transistor structure offers the opportunity to examine and control a rich variety of mesoscopic phenomena and interface coupling. It is also possible to introduce new phases and functionalities into these hybrid systems through rational design. This paper reviews two rapidly progressing branches in the field of ferroelectric transistors, which employ two distinct classes of nanoscale electronic materials as the conducting channel, the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas graphene and the strongly correlated transition metal oxide thin films. The topics covered include the basic device physics, novel phenomena emerging in the hybrid systems, critical mechanisms that control the magnitude and stability of the field effect modulation and the mobility of the channel material, potential device applications, and the performance limitations of these devices due to the complex interface interactions and challenges in achieving controlled materials properties. Possible future directions for this field are also outlined, including local ferroelectric gate control via nanoscale domain patterning and incorporating other emergent materials in this device concept, such as the simple binary ferroelectrics, layered 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and the 4d and 5d heavy metal compounds with strong spin-orbit coupling.

  19. Impact of a narrow limiter SOL heat flux channel on the ITER first wall panel shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocan, M.; Pitts, R. A.; Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; de Vries, P. C.; Dejarnac, R.; Furno, I.; Goldston, R. J.; Gribov, Y.; Horacek, J.; Komm, M.; Labit, B.; LaBombard, B.; Lasnier, C. J.; Mitteau, R.; Nespoli, F.; Pace, D.; Panek, R.; Stangeby, P. C.; Terry, J. L.; Tsui, C.; Vondracek, P.

    2015-03-01

    The inboard limiters for ITER were initially designed on the assumption that the parallel heat flux density in the scrape-off layer (SOL) could be approximated by a single exponential with decay length λq. This assumption was found not to be adequate in 2012, when infra-red (IR) thermography measurements on the inner column during JET limiter discharges clearly revealed the presence of a narrow heat flux channel adjacent to the last closed flux surface. This near-SOL decay occurs with λq ∼ few mm, much shorter than the main SOL λq, and can raise the heat flux at the limiter apex a factor up to ∼4 above the value expected from a single, broader exponential. The original logarithmically shaped ITER inner wall first wall panels (FWPs) would be unsuited to handling the power loads produced by such a narrow feature. A multi-machine study involving the C-Mod, COMPASS, DIII-D and TCV tokamaks, employing inner wall IR measurements and/or inner wall reciprocating probes, was initiated to investigate the narrow limiter SOL heat flux channel. This paper describes the new results which have provided an experimental database for the narrow feature and presents an ITER inner wall FWP toroidal shape optimized for a double-exponential profile with λq = 4 (narrow feature) and 50 mm (main-SOL), the latter also derived from a separate multi-machine database constituted recently within the International Tokamak Physics Activity. It is shown that the new shape allows the power handling capability of the original shape design to be completely recovered for a wide variety of limiter start-up equilibria in the presence of a narrow feature, even taking assembly tolerances into account. It is, moreover, further shown that the new shape has the interesting property of both mitigating the impact of the narrow feature and resulting in only a very modest increase in heat load, compared to the current design, if the narrow feature is not eventually found on ITER.

  20. The Effect of Working Memory Capacity Limitations on the Intuitive Assessment of Correlation: Amplification, Attenuation, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Mor, Yaniv

    2007-01-01

    This article challenges Yaakov Kareev's (1995a, 2000) argument regarding the positive bias of intuitive correlation estimates due to working memory capacity limitations and its adaptive value. The authors show that, under narrow window theory's primacy effect assumption, there is a considerable between-individual variability of the effects of…

  1. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  2. What Limits Working Memory Capacity? Evidence for Modality-Specific Sources to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of…

  3. Investigating ion channel distribution using a combination of spatially limited photolysis, Ca(2+) imaging, and patch clamp recording.

    PubMed

    Almassy, Janos; Yule, David I

    2013-01-01

    The production of saliva by parotid acinar cells is stimulated by Ca(2+) activation of Cl(-) and K(+) channels located in the apical plasma membrane of these polarized cells. Here, we utilize a combination of spatially limited flash photolysis, Ca(2+) imaging, and electrophysiological recording to investigate the distinct distribution of Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels in the plasma membrane (PM) of enzymatically isolated murine parotid acinar cells. In these experiments, the aim of photolysis is to selectively target and modify the activity of ion channels, thereby revealing membrane-domain-specific differences in distribution. Specifically, the relative distribution of channels to either apical or basal PM can be investigated. Since there is substantial evidence that Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels are exclusively localized to the apical membrane of acinar cells, this provides an important electrophysiological verification that a particular membrane has been specifically targeted.

  4. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  5. Use of weak acids to determine the bulk diffusion limitation of H+ ion conductance through the gramicidin channel.

    PubMed Central

    Decker, E R; Levitt, D G

    1988-01-01

    The addition of 2 M formic acid at pH 3.75 increased the single channel H+ ion conductance of gramicidin channels 12-fold at 200 mV. Other weak acids (acetic, lactic, oxalic) produce a similar, but smaller increase. Formic acid (and other weak acids) also blocks the K+ conductance at pH 3.75, but not at pH 6.0 when the anion form predominates. This increased H+ conductance and K+ block can be explained by formic acid (HF) binding to the mouth of the gramicidin channel (Km = 1 M) and providing a source of H+ ions. A kinetic model is derived, based on the equilibrium binding of formic acid to the channel mouth, that quantitatively predicts the conductance for different mixtures of H+, K+, and formic acid. The binding of the neutral formic acid to the mouth of the gramicidin channel is directly supported by the observation that a neutral molecule with a similar structure, formamide (and malonamide and acrylamide), blocks the K+ conductance at pH 6.0. The H+ conductance in the presence of formic acid provides a lower bound for the intrinsic conductance of the gramicidin channel when there is no diffusion limitation at the channel mouth. The 12-fold increase in conductance produced by formic acid suggests that greater than 90% of the total resistance to H+ results from diffusion limitation in the bulk solution. PMID:2449253

  6. Life at the Limits: Capacities of Isolated and Cultured Lichen Symbionts to Resist Extreme Environmental Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    2008-10-01

    Lichens are described as a symbiosis formed by a myco- and photobiont, capable of colonizing habitats where their separate symbionts would not be able to survive. Space simulation studies on the separated symbionts of the lichen Xanthoria elegans have been performed to test their capacity to resist the most extreme conditions. The isolated cultured symbiont cells were exposed to different doses of the UV spectrum, and to vacuum. Cultures of both symbionts were analysed by specific vitality tests (LIVE/DEAD-staining detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy). Growth capacity of symbiont cultures on different media was analysed after exposure to extreme environmental stresses. The data obtained support the hypothesis that the symbiotic state considerably enhances the ability of the respective symbionts to survive exposure to extreme conditions, including the conditions of space simulation. Species such as X. elegans may, therefore, be suitable for use as model organisms in exobiological studies.

  7. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Life at the limits: capacities of isolated and cultured lichen symbionts to resist extreme environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    de Vera, J-P; Rettberg, P; Ott, S

    2008-10-01

    Lichens are described as a symbiosis formed by a myco- and photobiont, capable of colonizing habitats where their separate symbionts would not be able to survive. Space simulation studies on the separated symbionts of the lichen Xanthoria elegans have been performed to test their capacity to resist the most extreme conditions. The isolated cultured symbiont cells were exposed to different doses of the UV spectrum, and to vacuum. Cultures of both symbionts were analysed by specific vitality tests (LIVE/DEAD-staining detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy). Growth capacity of symbiont cultures on different media was analysed after exposure to extreme environmental stresses. The data obtained support the hypothesis that the symbiotic state considerably enhances the ability of the respective symbionts to survive exposure to extreme conditions, including the conditions of space simulation. Species such as X. elegans may, therefore, be suitable for use as model organisms in exobiological studies.

  9. Cdc6 is a rate-limiting factor for proliferative capacity during HL60 cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, Laura R.; Hong, Hye Kyung; Kingsbury, Sarah R.; James, Michelle; Stoeber, Kai Williams, Gareth H.

    2007-10-15

    The DNA replication (or origin) licensing pathway represents a critical step in cell proliferation control downstream of growth signalling pathways. Repression of origin licensing through down-regulation of the MCM licensing factors (Mcm2-7) is emerging as a ubiquitous route for lowering proliferative capacity as metazoan cells exit the cell division cycle into quiescent, terminally differentiated and senescent 'out-of-cycle' states. Using the HL60 monocyte/macrophage differentiation model system and a cell-free DNA replication assay, we have undertaken direct biochemical investigations of the coupling of origin licensing to the differentiation process. Our data show that down-regulation of the MCM loading factor Cdc6 acts as a molecular switch that triggers loss of proliferative capacity during early engagement of the somatic differentiation programme. Consequently, addition of recombinant Cdc6 protein to in vitro replication reactions restores DNA replication competence in nuclei prepared from differentiating cells. Differentiating HL60 cells over-expressing either wild-type Cdc6 or a CDK phosphorylation-resistant Cdc6 mutant protein (Cdc6A4) exhibit an extended period of cell proliferation compared to mock-infected cells. Notably, differentiating HL60 cells over-expressing the Cdc6A4 mutant fail to down-regulate Cdc6 protein levels, suggesting that CDK phosphorylation of Cdc6 is linked to its down-regulation during differentiation and the concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. In this experimental model, Cdc6 therefore plays a key role in the sequential molecular events leading to repression of origin licensing and loss of proliferative capacity during execution of the differentiation programme.

  10. Limited proteolysis of myoglobin opens channel in ferrochelatase-globin complex for iron to zinc transmetallation.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Marcella O; Grossi, Alberto B; Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Borges, Julio C; Cardoso, Daniel R; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant ferrochelatase (BsFECH) from Bacillus subtilis expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was found by UV-visible spectroscopy to bind the model substrate tetraphenylporphyrin-sulfonate, TPPS, with Ka=3.8 10(5)mol/L in aqueous phosphate buffer pH 5.7 at 30°C, and to interact with metmyoglobin with Ka=1.07±0.13 10(5)mol/L at 30°C. The iron/zinc exchange in myoglobin occurring during maturation of Parma hams seems to depend on such substrate binding to BsFECH and was facilitated by limited pepsin proteolysis of myoglobin to open a reaction channel for metal exchange still with BsFECH associated to globin. BsFECH increased rate of zinc insertion in TPPS significantly and showed saturation kinetics with an apparent binding constant of Zn(II) to the [enzyme-TPPS] complex of 1.3 10(4)mol/L and a first-order rate constant of 6.6 10(-1)s(-1) for dissociation of the tertiary complex, a similar pattern was found for zinc/iron transmetallation in myoglobin. PMID:27211675

  11. Limited capacity for memory tasks with multiple features within a single object.

    PubMed

    Palmer, John; Boston, Britt; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Memory for multiple features might be limited by the number of features, the number of objects, or both. To focus on the role of features, we tested memory for a variable number of features within a single object. Subjects studied a single ellipse that varied in four features: size, orientation, contrast, and position. We conducted two experiments that differed in how memory was tested. If performance is limited only by the number of objects to be remembered, there should be no effect of the number of relevant features within a single object. Instead, for both experiments, the proportion correct was lower when four features had to be remembered rather than one. The magnitude of these effects varied with the details of the two experiments. Although similar results have been reported for experiments using multiple objects, the present experiments are some of the first to have demonstrated such an effect for a single object. This result is inconsistent with theories in which visual memory has a discrete limit on the number of stored objects, and no limit on the stored features within an object. Instead, it seems likely that objects and features both play roles in limiting performance in memory tasks. PMID:25939700

  12. The limited capacity of malignant glioma-derived exosomes to suppress peripheral immune effectors.

    PubMed

    Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Ivan, Michael E; Safaee, Michael; Parsa, Andrew T

    2016-01-15

    Tumor-derived microvesicular exosomes permit intercellular communication both locally and systemically by delivering a snapshot of the tumor cell's constituents. We thus investigated whether exosomes mediate malignant glioma's facility for inducing peripheral immunosuppression. In Western blot and RT-PCR analyses, glioma-derived exosomes displayed exosome-specific markers, but failed to recapitulate the antigen-presentation machinery, surface co-modulatory signals, or immunosuppressive mediator status of their parent tumor cells. Treatment with glioma-derived exosomes promoted immunosuppressive HLA-DR(low) monocytic phenotypes, but failed to induce monocytic PD-L1 expression or alter the activation of cytotoxic T-cells from patients' peripheral blood by FACS and RT-PCR analyses. Our results suggest that malignant glioma-derived exosomes are restricted in their capacity to directly prime peripheral immunosuppression.

  13. Internet-delivered lifestyle physical activity intervention: limited inflammation and antioxidant capacity efficacy in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Carr, Lucas J; Dorozynski, Chris; Gomashe, Chirag

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and physical inactivity are associated with elevated reactive oxygen species and chronic low-grade inflammation. Exercise training studies have measured changes in systemic inflammatory and oxidative/antioxidative biomarkers but predominantly at moderate-high intensities. Few low-intensity, lifestyle-based physical activity (PA) studies have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improvements in lifestyle-oriented PA resulting from a 16-wk Internet-delivered PA program [Active Living Every Day-Internet (ALED-I)] elicit cardioprotective improvements in measures of inflammation, oxidation, or antioxidant enzyme capacity. Forty-one men and women (age 23-62 yr) were randomized to either the ALED-I intervention [n = 19; age = 40.4 +/- 1.9 yr; body mass index (BMI) = 31.4 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)] or a delayed intent-to-treat control condition (n = 22; age = 46.6 +/- 1.3 yr; BMI = 31.0 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, total antioxidative capacity, change in PA, and other cardiometabolic disease risk factors were measured at baseline and postintervention. The ALED-I group increased PA and decreased central adiposity without changes in the control group. There was no change in the control group for any inflammation, oxidation, or antioxidant biomarkers. TNF-alpha decreased (P = 0.01) in the intervention group but was not statistically different from the control group. In conclusion, modest improvements in daily low-intensity ambulatory PA as a result of an Internet-delivered lifestyle PA intervention may be cardioprotective in sedentary and overweight adults through reductions in central adiposity and inflammation. However, the absence of favorable changes in other inflammation, oxidation, and antioxidant biomarkers highlights the need for further attention to the dose response of lifestyle-structured PA promotion strategies for health maintenance/improvement.

  14. Mitochondrial Acclimation Capacities to Ocean Warming and Acidification Are Limited in the Antarctic Nototheniid Fish, Notothenia rossii and Lepidonotothen squamifrons

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Anneli; Graeve, Martin; Poertner, Hans O.; Mark, Felix C.

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic notothenioid fish are characterized by their evolutionary adaptation to the cold, thermostable Southern Ocean, which is associated with unique physiological adaptations to withstand the cold and reduce energetic requirements but also entails limited compensation capacities to environmental change. This study compares the capacities of mitochondrial acclimation to ocean warming and acidification between the Antarctic nototheniid Notothenia rossii and the sub-Antarctic Lepidonotothen squamifrons, which share a similar ecology, but different habitat temperatures. After acclimation of L. squamifrons to 9°C and N. rossii to 7°C (normocapnic/hypercapnic, 0.2 kPa CO2/2000 ppm CO2) for 4–6 weeks, we compared the capacities of their mitochondrial respiratory complexes I (CI) and II (CII), their P/O ratios (phosphorylation efficiency), proton leak capacities and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid compositions. Our results reveal reduced CII respiration rates in warm-acclimated L. squamifrons and cold hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Generally, L. squamifrons displayed a greater ability to increase CI contribution during acute warming and after warm-acclimation than N. rossii. Membrane unsaturation was not altered by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation in both species, but membrane fatty acids of warm-acclimated L. squamifrons were less saturated than in warm normocapnia−/hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Proton leak capacities were not affected by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation of N. rossii. We conclude that an acclimatory response of mitochondrial capacities may include higher thermal plasticity of CI supported by enhanced utilization of anaplerotic substrates (via oxidative decarboxylation reactions) feeding into the citrate cycle. L. squamifrons possesses higher relative CI plasticities than N. rossii, which may facilitate the usage of energy efficient NADH-related substrates under conditions of elevated energy demand, possibly induced by ocean warming and

  15. Mitochondrial acclimation capacities to ocean warming and acidification are limited in the antarctic Nototheniid Fish, Notothenia rossii and Lepidonotothen squamifrons.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Graeve, Martin; Poertner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic notothenioid fish are characterized by their evolutionary adaptation to the cold, thermostable Southern Ocean, which is associated with unique physiological adaptations to withstand the cold and reduce energetic requirements but also entails limited compensation capacities to environmental change. This study compares the capacities of mitochondrial acclimation to ocean warming and acidification between the Antarctic nototheniid Notothenia rossii and the sub-Antarctic Lepidonotothen squamifrons, which share a similar ecology, but different habitat temperatures. After acclimation of L. squamifrons to 9°C and N. rossii to 7°C (normocapnic/hypercapnic, 0.2 kPa CO2/2000 ppm CO2) for 4-6 weeks, we compared the capacities of their mitochondrial respiratory complexes I (CI) and II (CII), their P/O ratios (phosphorylation efficiency), proton leak capacities and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid compositions. Our results reveal reduced CII respiration rates in warm-acclimated L. squamifrons and cold hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Generally, L. squamifrons displayed a greater ability to increase CI contribution during acute warming and after warm-acclimation than N. rossii. Membrane unsaturation was not altered by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation in both species, but membrane fatty acids of warm-acclimated L. squamifrons were less saturated than in warm normocapnia-/hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Proton leak capacities were not affected by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation of N. rossii. We conclude that an acclimatory response of mitochondrial capacities may include higher thermal plasticity of CI supported by enhanced utilization of anaplerotic substrates (via oxidative decarboxylation reactions) feeding into the citrate cycle. L. squamifrons possesses higher relative CI plasticities than N. rossii, which may facilitate the usage of energy efficient NADH-related substrates under conditions of elevated energy demand, possibly induced by ocean warming and

  16. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Oxidative stress in skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial respiration and limits exercise capacity in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Matsushima, Shouji; Inoue, Naoki; Ohta, Yukihiro; Hamaguchi, Sanae; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Suga, Tadashi; Kuroda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Fumio; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    Insulin resistance or diabetes is associated with limited exercise capacity, which can be caused by the abnormal energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Oxidative stress is involved in mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress could cause mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle and make contribution to exercise intolerance in diabetes. C57/BL6J mice were fed on normal diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk to induce obesity with insulin resistance and diabetes. Treadmill tests with expired gas analysis were performed to determine the exercise capacity and whole body oxygen uptake (Vo(2)). The work (vertical distance x body weight) to exhaustion was reduced in the HFD mice by 36%, accompanied by a 16% decrease of peak Vo(2). Mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration, electron transport chain complex I and III activities, and mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle were decreased in the HFD mice. Furthermore, superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in skeletal muscle were significantly increased in the HFD mice. Intriguingly, the treatment of HFD-fed mice with apocynin [10 mmol/l; an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase activation] improved exercise intolerance and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle without affecting glucose metabolism itself. The exercise capacity and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle were impaired in type 2 diabetes, which might be due to enhanced oxidative stress. Therapies designed to regulate oxidative stress and maintain mitochondrial function could be beneficial to improve the exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Innate immunity defines the capacity of antiviral T cells to limit persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Daniel M.; Estcourt, Marie J.; Andoniou, Christopher E.; Wikstrom, Matthew E.; Khong, Andrea; Voigt, Valentina; Fleming, Peter; Tabarias, Hyacinth; Hill, Geoffrey R.; van der Most, Robbert G.; Scalzo, Anthony A.; Smyth, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Effective immunity requires the coordinated activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural killer (NK) cells are central innate immune effectors, but can also affect the generation of acquired immune responses to viruses and malignancies. How NK cells influence the efficacy of adaptive immunity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that NK cells negatively regulate the duration and effectiveness of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses by limiting exposure of T cells to infected antigen-presenting cells. This impacts the quality of T cell responses and the ability to limit viral persistence. Our studies provide unexpected insights into novel interplays between innate and adaptive immune effectors, and define the critical requirements for efficient control of viral persistence. PMID:20513749

  19. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  20. Resistance of lichens to simulated galactic cosmic radiation: limits of survival capacity and biosignature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Miller, Ana Z.; Cubero, Beatriz; Raguse, Marina; Meessen, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Space constitutes an extremely harmful environment for survival of terrestrial organisms. Amongst extremophiles on Earth, lichens are one of the most resistant organisms to harsh terrestrial environments, as well as some species of microorganisms, such as bacteria (Moeller et al., 2010), criptoendolithic cyanobacteria and lithic fungi (de los Ríos et al. 2004). To study the survival capacity of lichens to the harmful radiation environment of space, we have selected the lichen Circinaria gyrosa, an astrobiological model defined by its high capacity of resistance to space conditions (De la Torre et al. 2010) and to a simulated Mars environment (Sanchez et al., 2012). Samples were irradiated with four types of space-relevant ionizing radiation in the STARLIFE campaign: helium and iron ion doses (up to 2,000 Gy), X-ray doses (up to 5,000 Gy) and ultra-high γ-ray doses (from 6 to 113 kGy). Results on resistance of C. gyrosa to space-relevant ionizing radiation and its post-irradiation viability were obtained by: (i) chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PS II); (ii) epifluorescence microscopy; (iii) confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM), and (iv) field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results of photosynthetic activity and epifluorescence showed no significant changes on the viability of C. gyrosa with increasing doses of helium and iron ions as well as X-rays. In contrast, γ-irradiation elicited significant dose-correlated effects as revealed by all applied techniques. Relevant is the presence of whewellite-like crystals, detected by FESEM on C. gyrosa thalli after high irradiation doses, which has been also identified in previous Mars simulation studies (Böttcher et al., 2014). These studies contribute to the better understanding of the adaptability of extremophile organisms to harsh environments, as well as to estimate the habitability of a planet's surface, like Mars; they will be important for planning experiments on the search of life

  1. [Work capacity and the factors limiting it in patients with III- to IV-degree obesity].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, M V; Savich, A B; Sedletskiĭ, Iu I; Mirchuk, K K

    1995-01-01

    There is a marked decrement in physical performance of those patients with III to IV grade obesity as compared to apparently healthy volunteers going into training. Deficient reserve capabilities of the system for utilization of oxygen and oxygen transport appear to be those factors determining and limiting physical fitness of obese individuals. Exercise testing involving recording of indices for gas exchange in real time appears to be a valuable method of diagnosis of particular features of oxygen supply in patients with III to IV grade obesity, providing a very helpful information.

  2. Channel-capacity gain in entanglement-assisted communication protocols based exclusively on linear optics, single-photon inputs, and coincidence photon counting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lougovski, P.; Uskov, D. B.

    2015-08-04

    Entanglement can effectively increase communication channel capacity as evidenced by dense coding that predicts a capacity gain of 1 bit when compared to entanglement-free protocols. However, dense coding relies on Bell states and when implemented using photons the capacity gain is bounded by 0.585 bits due to one's inability to discriminate between the four optically encoded Bell states. In this research we study the following question: Are there alternative entanglement-assisted protocols that rely only on linear optics, coincidence photon counting, and separable single-photon input states and at the same time provide a greater capacity gain than 0.585 bits? In thismore » study, we show that besides the Bell states there is a class of bipartite four-mode two-photon entangled states that facilitate an increase in channel capacity. We also discuss how the proposed scheme can be generalized to the case of two-photon N-mode entangled states for N=6,8.« less

  3. Channel-capacity gain in entanglement-assisted communication protocols based exclusively on linear optics, single-photon inputs, and coincidence photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Lougovski, P.; Uskov, D. B.

    2015-08-04

    Entanglement can effectively increase communication channel capacity as evidenced by dense coding that predicts a capacity gain of 1 bit when compared to entanglement-free protocols. However, dense coding relies on Bell states and when implemented using photons the capacity gain is bounded by 0.585 bits due to one's inability to discriminate between the four optically encoded Bell states. In this research we study the following question: Are there alternative entanglement-assisted protocols that rely only on linear optics, coincidence photon counting, and separable single-photon input states and at the same time provide a greater capacity gain than 0.585 bits? In this study, we show that besides the Bell states there is a class of bipartite four-mode two-photon entangled states that facilitate an increase in channel capacity. We also discuss how the proposed scheme can be generalized to the case of two-photon N-mode entangled states for N=6,8.

  4. Modelling the flooding capacity of a Polish Carpathian river: A comparison of constrained and free channel conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, Wiktoria; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Hajdukiewicz, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    The gravel-bed Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was heavily affected by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. Not only were these impacts detrimental to the ecological state of the river, but they also adversely modified the conditions of floodwater retention and flood wave passage. Therefore, a few years ago an erodible corridor was delimited in two sections of the Biała to enable restoration of the river. In these sections, short, channelized reaches located in the vicinity of bridges alternate with longer, unmanaged channel reaches, which either avoided channelization or in which the channel has widened after the channelization scheme ceased to be maintained. Effects of these alternating channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows were investigated in a study of 10 pairs of neighbouring river cross sections with constrained and freely developed morphology. Discharges of particular recurrence intervals were determined for each cross section using an empirical formula. The morphology of the cross sections together with data about channel slope and roughness of particular parts of the cross sections were used as input data to the hydraulic modelling performed with the one-dimensional steady-flow HEC-RAS software. The results indicated that freely developed cross sections, usually with multithread morphology, are typified by significantly lower water depth but larger width and cross-sectional flow area at particular discharges than single-thread, channelized cross sections. They also exhibit significantly lower average flow velocity, unit stream power, and bed shear stress. The pattern of differences in the hydraulic parameters of flood flows apparent between the two types of river cross sections varies with the discharges of different frequency, and the contrasts in hydraulic parameters between unmanaged and channelized cross sections are most pronounced at low-frequency, high-magnitude floods. However, because of the deep

  5. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    PubMed Central

    Schöttl, Theresa; Kappler, Lisa; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several human and rodent obesity studies speculate on a causal link between altered white adipocyte mitochondria in the obese state and changes in glucose homeostasis. We here aimed to dissect whether alterations in white adipocyte mitochondrial respiratory function are a specific phenomenon of obesity or impaired glucose tolerance or both. Methods Mature white adipocytes were purified from posterior subcutaneous and intraabdominal epididymal fat of four murine obesity models characterized by either impaired or normal oral glucose tolerance. Bioenergetic profiles, including basal, leak, and maximal respiration, were generated using high-resolution respirometry. Cell respiratory control ratios were calculated to evaluate mitochondrial respiratory function. Results Maximal respiration capacity and cell respiratory control ratios were diminished in white adipocytes of each of the four murine obesity models, both in the absence and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance. Limitation was more pronounced in adipocytes of intraabdominal versus subcutaneous fat. Conclusion Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance. PMID:26413469

  6. Exposure limit values for nanomaterials--capacity and willingness of users to apply a precautionary approach.

    PubMed

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; Dorbeck-Jung, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, the legal obligation for employers to provide a safe workplace for processing manufactured nanomaterials is a challenge when there is a lack of hazard information. The attitude of key stakeholders in industry, trade unions, branch and employers' organizations, and government policy advisors toward nano reference values (NRVs) has been investigated in a pilot study that was initiated by a coalition of Dutch employers' organizations and Dutch trade unions. NRVs are developed as provisional substitutes for health-based occupational exposure limits or derived no-effect levels and are based on a precautionary approach. NRVs have been introduced as a voluntary risk management instrument for airborne nanomaterials at the workplace. A measurement strategy to deal with simultaneously emitting process-generated nanoparticles was developed, allowing employers to use the NRVs for risk assessment. The motivational posture of most companies involved in the pilot study appears to be pro-active regarding worker protection and acquiescent to NRVs. An important driver to use NRVs seems to be a temporary certainty employers experience with regard to their legal obligation to take preventive action. Many interviewees welcome the voluntary character of NRVs, though trade unions and a few companies advocate a more binding status.

  7. Pathophysiological factors which limit the exercise capacity of the sick child.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, O

    1986-06-01

    While deficient exercise performance of sick children results from hypoactivity and detraining, it can also be caused by specific pathophysiological factors. These can affect one or more components of physical fitness. A low maximal aerobic power will result from a low maximal stroke volume, as in aortic stenosis or cardiomyopathy; a low maximal heart rate, as in congenital complete heart block or intake of beta-blockers; a low O2 content of the arterial blood, as in anemia or advanced cystic fibrosis; and a high O2 content of mixed-venous blood, as in muscle atrophy or severe malnutrition. A high O2 cost of locomotion, as in advanced obesity or cerebral palsy, will cause the patient to exert at a high percentage of his maximal aerobic power and thus fatigue easily. A subnormal muscle strength, as in progressive muscular dystrophy or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is sometimes the primary factor that limits the walking ability or other daily functions. Recent data suggest that local muscle endurance, as assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test, is particularly deficient in some neuromuscular diseases. Examples are muscular dystrophies and spastic cerebral palsy. The ratio of peak anaerobic power to peak aerobic power seems lower in such patients than in able-bodied controls.

  8. Fragmentation of myofibrils, limited proteolysis and water holding capacity of meat.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejska, I; Sikorski, Z E; Lewandowska, T; Niecikowska, C

    1986-01-01

    Protein changes in ageing meat result in increased vulnerability of the myofibrils to fragmentation, caused possibly by limited proteolysis. It was investigated which groups of muscle proteases, if any, were involved and what was the relation between fragmentation and hydration of beef meat. In samples ranging in natural pH from 5.4 to 7.0 the least fragmentation after 3 days at 2 degrees C was at pH 6. This could suggest the role of both the cathepsins and neutral proteases. In samples aged in the presence of EDTA fragmentation was significantly lower than in the controls. This could indicate the role of Ca2+ activated neutral proteases, or support the hypothesis on the nonenzymatic mechanism involving Ca2+. The results of PAG electrophoresis could not have been due to the neutral proteases, as the 30,000 g X mol-1 component, resulting from the hydrolysis of troponin T, did not accumulate at pH 7 until the 9th day of ageing, but at pH 5.4 the intensity of this band increased markedly already after 3 days. There was no correlation between the fragmentation and the hydration of the aged meat after cooking. The addition of 0.001% of trypsin or 0.0005% of papain to minced meat did not cause after 9 days any increase in the contents of free amino acids and peptides or significant changes in the PAGE pattern as compared to those in the controls. However, the fragmentation and hydration of the raw meat was larger in the samples containing added enzymes. After cooking the hydration of the samples did not differ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3092054

  9. Diffusional limitations explain the lower photosynthetic capacity of ferns as compared with angiosperms in a common garden study.

    PubMed

    Carriquí, M; Cabrera, H M; Conesa, M À; Coopman, R E; Douthe, C; Gago, J; Gallé, A; Galmés, J; Ribas-Carbo, M; Tomás, M; Flexas, J

    2015-03-01

    Ferns are thought to have lower photosynthetic rates than angiosperms and they lack fine stomatal regulation. However, no study has directly compared photosynthesis in plants of both groups grown under optimal conditions in a common environment. We present a common garden comparison of seven angiosperms and seven ferns paired by habitat preference, with the aims of (1) confirming that ferns do have lower photosynthesis capacity than angiosperms and quantifying these differences; (2) determining the importance of diffusional versus biochemical limitations; and (3) analysing the potential implication of leaf anatomical traits in setting the photosynthesis capacity in both groups. On average, the photosynthetic rate of ferns was about half that of angiosperms, and they exhibited lower stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), maximum velocity of carboxylation and electron transport rate. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that stomatal and mesophyll conductances were co-responsible for the lower photosynthesis of ferns as compared with angiosperms. However, gm alone was the most constraining factor for photosynthesis in ferns. Consistently, leaf anatomy showed important differences between angiosperms and ferns, especially in cell wall thickness and the surface of chloroplasts exposed to intercellular air spaces.

  10. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    PubMed

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  11. Pleistocene isolation and recent gene flow in Haliotis asinina, an Indo-Pacific vetigastropod with limited dispersal capacity.

    PubMed

    Imron; Jeffrey, Benardine; Hale, Peter; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M

    2007-01-01

    Haliotis asinina is a broadcast-spawning mollusc that inhabits Indo-Pacific coral reefs. This tropical abalone develops through a nonfeeding larval stage that is competent to settle on specific species of coralline algae after 3-4 days in the plankton. Failure to contact an inductive algae within 10 days of hatching usually results in death. These life cycle characteristics suggest a limited capacity for dispersal and thus gene flow. This makes H. asinina particularly suitable for elucidating phylogeographical structure throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelagoes, and eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, all regions of biogeographical complexity and high conservation value. We assayed 482 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in 206 abalone collected from 16 geographically discrete sites across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Indo-Malay Archipelagoes. DNA sequence variation was analysed via population genetics and phylogenetics, and by nested clade analyses (NCA). Our data resolved clear phylogeographical breaks among major biogeographical regions, with sequence divergences ranging from a high of 3.7% and 3.0% between Indian and Pacific sites and Pacific and Indo-Malay sites, respectively, to a low of 1.1% between Indian and Indo-Malay sites. Despite the apparent limited dispersal capacity of H. asinina, no finer scale phylogeographical structure was resolved within the respective biogeographical regions. However, amova and NCA identified several significant associations between haplotypes and geographical distribution, most notably higher gene flow among geographical populations associated with major ocean currents. Our study provides further evidence that larval dispersal capacity alone is not a good predictor of population genetic structure in marine invertebrates. We infer instead that a combination of historical events (long-term barriers followed by range expansion associated with Pleistocene sea level changes) and contemporary processes

  12. Oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance: a matrix for integrating climate-related stressor effects in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, H-O

    2010-03-15

    The concept of oxygen- and capacity-dependent thermal tolerance in aquatic ectotherms has successfully explained climate-induced effects of rising temperatures on species abundance in the field. Oxygen supply to tissues and the resulting aerobic performance characters thus form a primary link between organismal fitness and its role and functioning at the ecosystem level. The thermal window of performance in water breathers matches their window of aerobic scope. Loss of performance reflects the earliest level of thermal stress, caused by hypoxaemia and the progressive mismatch of oxygen supply and demand at the borders of the thermal envelope. Oxygen deficiency elicits the transition to passive tolerance and associated systemic and cellular stress signals like hormonal responses or oxidative stress as well as the use of protection mechanisms like heat shock proteins at thermal extremes. Thermal acclimatization between seasons or adaptation to a climate regime involves shifting thermal windows and adjusting window widths. The need to specialize on a limited temperature range results from temperature-dependent trade-offs at several hierarchical levels, from molecular structure to whole-organism functioning, and may also support maximized energy efficiency. Various environmental factors like CO(2) (ocean acidification) and hypoxia interact with these principal relationships. Existing knowledge suggests that these factors elicit metabolic depression supporting passive tolerance to thermal extremes. However, they also exacerbate hypoxaemia, causing a narrowing of thermal performance windows and prematurely leading the organism to the limits of its thermal acclimation capacity. The conceptual analysis suggests that the relationships between energy turnover, the capacities of activity and other functions and the width of thermal windows may lead to an integrative understanding of specialization on climate and, as a thermal matrix, of sensitivity to climate change and the

  13. Combination of CDF and D0 limits on a gauge mediated SUSY model using diphoton and missing transverse energy channel

    SciTech Connect

    Buescher, V.; Culbertson, R.; Conway, J.; Gershtein, Y.; Grivaz, J-F.; Heinemann, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, M.S.; Lammel, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lee, S.W.; Mrenna, S.; Toback, David A.; Wang, S.M.

    2005-04-01

    We combine the results of the CDF and D0 searches for chargino and neutralino production in Gauge-Mediated SUSY using the two-photon and missing E{sub T} channel. The data are p{bar p} collisions produced at the Tevatron with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, with 202 pb{sup -1} collected at CDF and 263 pb{sup -1} collected at D0. The combined limit excludes a chargino mass less than 209 GeV/c{sup 2}. This result significantly extends the individual experimental limits.

  14. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans: insight from right atrial pacing during maximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P

    2014-01-01

    In humans, maximal aerobic power () is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P < 0.05) despite an increase in right atrial pressure (RAP) and a tendency (P = 0.056) for a reduction in left ventricular transmural filling pressure (LVFP). Atrial pacing increased HRmax from 184 ± 2 to 206 ± 3 beats min−1 (P < 0.05), but remained similar to the control condition at all intensities because of a lower SV and LVFP (P < 0.05). No differences in arterial pressure, peripheral haemodynamics, catecholamines or were observed, but pacing increased the rate pressure product and RAP (P < 0.05). Atrial pacing had a similar effect on haemodynamics during KEE, except that pacing decreased RAP. In conclusion, the human heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict close to . Key points During high intensity whole-body exercise, systemic and contracting skeletal muscle O2 delivery and uptake (>) are compromised, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We evaluated the effect of a ∼20 beats min−1 increase in heart rate (HR) by right atrial pacing during incremental cycling and knee

  15. The use of Minilabs to improve the testing capacity of regulatory authorities in resource limited settings: Tanzanian experience.

    PubMed

    Risha, Peter Gasper; Msuya, Zera; Clark, Malcolm; Johnson, Keith; Ndomondo-Sigonda, Margareth; Layloff, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    The Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority piloted the use of Minilab kits, a thin-layer-chromatographic based drug quality testing technique, in a two-tier quality assurance program. The program is intended to improve testing capacity with timely screening of the quality of medicines as they enter the market. After 1 week training of inspectors on Minilab screening techniques, they were stationed at key Ports-of-Entry (POE) to screen the quality of imported medicines. In addition, three non-Ports-of-Entry centres were established to screen samples collected during Post-Marketing-Surveillance. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were developed to structure and standardize the implementation process. Over 1200 samples were tested using the Minilab outside the central quality control laboratory (QCL), almost doubling the previous testing capacity. The program contributed to increased regulatory reach and visibility of the Authority throughout the country, serving as a deterrent against entry of substandard medicines into market. The use of Minilab for quality screening was inexpensive and provided a high sample throughput. However, it suffers from the limitation that it can reliably detect only grossly substandard or wrong drug samples and therefore, it should not be used as an independent testing resource but in conjunction with a full-service quality control laboratory capable of auditing reported substandard results. PMID:18282632

  16. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  17. Improving charge injection in high-mobility rubrene crystals: From contact-limited to channel-dominated transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerling, Tino; Batlogg, Bertram

    2014-04-01

    With progressively improving charge carrier mobility in organic semiconductors and miniaturization of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), low contact resistances become ever more important. To study the capabilities of metal electrodes in OFETs and to explore the transition from contact-limited to channel-dominated transistor operation, we used flip-crystal FETs with gold electrodes having different contact resistances Rc to high-quality rubrene crystals. 4-terminal transfer and output measurements reveal that Rc decreases from 105-106 Ω cm for 15 min air exposure to 3 × 103 Ωcm for at least 5 h air exposure of the gold electrodes before the flip-crystal FET is assembled. We conclude the reduction of Rc to be caused by a growing contamination layer on the gold electrodes that weakens the electrostatic coupling between rubrene crystal and gold electrode, and lowers the Schottky contact diode parameter V0. In channel-dominated (low Rc) FETs, the mobility is in the range of 10-17 cm2/(Vs); in contrast, in contact-limited (high Rc) FETs, the apparent mobility decreases significantly with increasing contact resistance. The apparent μ - Rc dependence is not intrinsic, but rather the result of incorrect assumptions of the potential and the charge carrier density in the channel region. Thus, the development of high-mobility organic semiconductors requires further efforts to improve contacts beyond traditional metal electrodes.

  18. Effect of ceramic membrane channel geometry and uniform transmembrane pressure on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane's retentate flow channel geometry (round or diamond-shaped) and uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) on limiting flux (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal during skim milk MF at a temperature of 50°C, a retentate protein concentration of 8.5%, and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m·s(-1). Performance of membranes with round and diamond flow channels was compared in UTP mode. Performance of the membrane with round flow channels was compared with and without UTP. Using UTP with round flow channel MF membranes increased the LF by 5% when compared with not using UTP, but SP removal was not affected by the use of UTP. Using membranes with round channels instead of diamond-shaped channels in UTP mode increased the LF by 24%. This increase was associated with a 25% increase in Reynolds number and can be explained by lower shear at the vertices of the diamond-shaped channel's surface. The SP removal factor of the diamond channel system was higher than the SP removal factor of the round channel system below the LF. However, the diamond channel system passed more casein into the MF permeate than the round channel system. Because only one batch of each membrane was tested in our study, it was not possible to determine if the differences in protein rejection between channel geometries were due to the membrane design or random manufacturing variation. Despite the lower LF of the diamond channel system, the 47% increase in membrane module surface area of the diamond channel system produced a modular permeate removal rate that was at least 19% higher than the round channel system. Consequently, using diamond channel membranes instead of round channel membranes could reduce some of the costs associated with ceramic MF of skim milk if fewer membrane modules could be used to attain the required membrane area. PMID:26298765

  19. Quantum reading capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  20. Polyamine-Cladded 18-Ring-Channel Gallium Phosphites with High-Capacity Hydrogen Adsorption and Carbon Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Sie, Ming-Jhe; Lin, Chia-Her; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we synthesized a unique inorganic framework bearing the largest 18-membered-ring channels in gallium phosphites, denoted as NTHU-15, which displayed genuine porosity even though large organic templates were present. The idea of using the "template-cladded" strategy succeeded in releasing channel space of up to ∼24% of the unit-cell volume as highly positive-charged organic templates were manipulated to cling to the anionic inorganic walls. NTHU-15 showed both high H2 uptake of 3.8 mmol/g at 77 K and effective CO2 adsorption of ∼2.4 mmol/g at 298 K, which surpassed those of all other known extra-large-channel inorganic framework structures. NTHU-15 has been successful at overcoming the long-standing problem of organic-templated extra-large-channel structures as opposed to a "true open" framework. Moreover, it realized practical gas sorption functionality in innovated metal phosphites. In view of its high stability in hot water and high selectivity for CO2 adsorption, NTHU-15 may be the first novel inorganic framework material to be applied to the field of flue gas cleaning. PMID:27181272

  1. Sankofa pediatric HIV disclosure intervention cyber data management: building capacity in a resource-limited setting and ensuring data quality

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, Ann Christine; Fernando, Sumudinie; Gamage, Ruwan; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Tettey, Jonas Kusah; Amisah, Kofi Aikins; Kyriakides, Tassos; Cong, Xiangyu; Reynolds, Nancy R.; Paintsil, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure is low in resource-limited settings. Innovative, culturally sensitive, and patient-centered disclosure approaches are needed. Conducting such studies in resource-limited settings is not trivial considering the challenges of capturing, cleaning, and storing clinical research data. To overcome some of these challenges, the Sankofa pediatric disclosure intervention adopted an interactive cyber infrastructure for data capture and analysis. The Sankofa Project database system is built on the HUBzero cyber infrastructure (https://hubzero.org), an open source software platform. The hub database components support: (1) data management – the “databases” component creates, configures, and manages database access, backup, repositories, applications, and access control; (2) data collection – the “forms” component is used to build customized web case report forms that incorporate common data elements and include tailored form submit processing to handle error checking, data validation, and data linkage as the data are stored to the database; and (3) data exploration – the “dataviewer” component provides powerful methods for users to view, search, sort, navigate, explore, map, graph, visualize, aggregate, drill-down, compute, and export data from the database. The Sankofa cyber data management tool supports a user-friendly, secure, and systematic collection of all data. We have screened more than 400 child–caregiver dyads and enrolled nearly 300 dyads, with tens of thousands of data elements. The dataviews have successfully supported all data exploration and analysis needs of the Sankofa Project. Moreover, the ability of the sites to query and view data summaries has proven to be an incentive for collecting complete and accurate data. The data system has all the desirable attributes of an electronic data capture tool. It also provides an added advantage of building data management capacity in resource-limited settings

  2. Sankofa pediatric HIV disclosure intervention cyber data management: building capacity in a resource-limited setting and ensuring data quality.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Ann Christine; Fernando, Sumudinie; Gamage, Ruwan; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Tettey, Jonas Kusah; Amisah, Kofi Aikins; Kyriakides, Tassos; Cong, Xiangyu; Reynolds, Nancy R; Paintsil, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure is low in resource-limited settings. Innovative, culturally sensitive, and patient-centered disclosure approaches are needed. Conducting such studies in resource-limited settings is not trivial considering the challenges of capturing, cleaning, and storing clinical research data. To overcome some of these challenges, the Sankofa pediatric disclosure intervention adopted an interactive cyber infrastructure for data capture and analysis. The Sankofa Project database system is built on the HUBzero cyber infrastructure ( https://hubzero.org ), an open source software platform. The hub database components support: (1) data management - the "databases" component creates, configures, and manages database access, backup, repositories, applications, and access control; (2) data collection - the "forms" component is used to build customized web case report forms that incorporate common data elements and include tailored form submit processing to handle error checking, data validation, and data linkage as the data are stored to the database; and (3) data exploration - the "dataviewer" component provides powerful methods for users to view, search, sort, navigate, explore, map, graph, visualize, aggregate, drill-down, compute, and export data from the database. The Sankofa cyber data management tool supports a user-friendly, secure, and systematic collection of all data. We have screened more than 400 child-caregiver dyads and enrolled nearly 300 dyads, with tens of thousands of data elements. The dataviews have successfully supported all data exploration and analysis needs of the Sankofa Project. Moreover, the ability of the sites to query and view data summaries has proven to be an incentive for collecting complete and accurate data. The data system has all the desirable attributes of an electronic data capture tool. It also provides an added advantage of building data management capacity in resource-limited settings due to its

  3. Emergency and urgent care capacity in a resource-limited setting: an assessment of health facilities in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas F; Hines, Rosemary; Ahn, Roy; Walters, Michelle; Young, David; Anderson, Rachel Eleanor; Tom, Sabrina M; Clark, Rachel; Obita, Walter; Nelson, Brett D

    2014-01-01

    Objective Injuries, trauma and non-communicable diseases are responsible for a rising proportion of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries. Delivering effective emergency and urgent healthcare for these and other conditions in resource-limited settings is challenging. In this study, we sought to examine and characterise emergency and urgent care capacity in a resource-limited setting. Methods We conducted an assessment within all 30 primary and secondary hospitals and within a stratified random sampling of 30 dispensaries and health centres in western Kenya. The key informants were the most senior facility healthcare provider and manager available. Emergency physician researchers utilised a semistructured assessment tool, and data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic coding. Results No lower level facilities and 30% of higher level facilities reported having a defined, organised approach to trauma. 43% of higher level facilities had access to an anaesthetist. The majority of lower level facilities had suture and wound care supplies and gloves but typically lacked other basic trauma supplies. For cardiac care, 50% of higher level facilities had morphine, but a minority had functioning ECG, sublingual nitroglycerine or a defibrillator. Only 20% of lower level facilities had glucometers, and only 33% of higher level facilities could care for diabetic emergencies. No facilities had sepsis clinical guidelines. Conclusions Large gaps in essential emergency care capabilities were identified at all facility levels in western Kenya. There are great opportunities for a universally deployed basic emergency care package, an advanced emergency care package and facility designation scheme, and a reliable prehospital care transportation and communications system in resource-limited settings. PMID:25260371

  4. Creativity and working memory capacity in sports: working memory capacity is not a limiting factor in creative decision making amongst skilled performers

    PubMed Central

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between domain-general working memory capacity and domain-specific creativity amongst experienced soccer players. We administered the automated operation span task in combination with a domain-specific soccer creativity task to a group of 61 experienced soccer players to address the question whether an athlete’s domain-specific creativity is restricted by their domain-general cognitive abilities (i.e., working memory capacity). Given that previous studies have either found a positive correlation, a negative correlation, or no correlation between working memory capacity and creativity, we analyzed the data in an exploratory manner by following recent recommendations to report effect-size estimations and their precision in form of 95% confidence intervals. The pattern of results provided evidence that domain-general working memory capacity is not associated with creativity in a soccer-specific creativity task. This pattern of results suggests that future research and theorizing on the role of working memory in everyday creative performance needs to distinguish between different types of creative performance while also taking the role of domain-specific experience into account. PMID:25713552

  5. An ultra-low detection-limit optofluidic biosensor with integrated dual-channel Fabry-Pérot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengbo; Huang, Hui; Cao, Tun; Liu, Xueyu; Qi, Zhenbin; Tang, Zhenan; Zhang, Jinnan

    2013-04-01

    A silicon-on-insulator based optofluidic biosensor with integrated dual-channel Fabry-Pérot cavity is proposed for optical differential detection. A detection limit of 5.5 × 10-8 refractive index unit is experimentally demonstrated, owing to the high quality factor of the cavity and the differential detection, which can extract the small signal for efficient amplification and greatly reduce the system noise. Moreover, the measurement system features low cost compared with that of surface-plasmon-resonance sensor and ring-resonator sensor.

  6. A method for simultaneously delineating multiple targets in 3D-FISH using limited channels, lasers, and fluorochromes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F Y; Yang, X; Chen, D Y; Ma, W Y; Zheng, J G; Zhang, X M

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested a link between the spatial organization of genomes and fundamental biological processes such as genome reprogramming, gene expression, and differentiation. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization on three-dimensionally preserved nuclei (3D-FISH), in combination with confocal microscopy, has become an effective technique for analyzing 3D genome structure and spatial patterns of defined nucleus targets including entire chromosome territories and single gene loci. This technique usually requires the simultaneous visualization of numerous targets labeled with different colored fluorochromes. Thus, the number of channels and lasers must be sufficient for the commonly used labeling scheme of 3D-FISH, "one probe-one target". However, these channels and lasers are usually restricted by a given microscope system. This paper presents a method for simultaneously delineating multiple targets in 3D-FISH using limited channels, lasers, and fluorochromes. In contrast to other labeling schemes, this method is convenient and simple for multicolor 3D-FISH studies, which may result in widespread adoption of the technique. Lastly, as an application of the method, the nucleus locations of chromosome territory 18/21 and centromere 18/21/13 in normal human lymphocytes were analyzed, which might present evidence of a radial higher order chromatin arrangement.

  7. Robust Lentiviral Gene Delivery But Limited Transduction Capacity of Commonly Used Adeno-Associated Viral Serotypes in Xenotransplanted Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Maria; Askou, Anne Louise; Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jensen, Thomas G; Corydon, Thomas J; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Aagaard, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Skin is an easily accessible organ, and therapeutic gene transfer to skin remains an attractive alternative for the treatment of skin diseases. Although we have previously documented potent lentiviral gene delivery to human skin, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) rank among the most promising gene delivery tools for in vivo purposes. Thus, we compared the potential usefulness of various serotypes of recombinant AAV vectors and lentiviral vectors for gene transfer to human skin in a xenotransplanted mouse model. Vector constructs encoding firefly luciferase were packaged in AAV capsids of serotype 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 and separately administered by intradermal injection in human skin transplants. For all serotypes, live bioimaging demonstrated low levels of transgene expression in the human skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue outside of the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin graft only. The study demonstrates the limited capacity of single-stranded AAV vectors of six commonly used serotypes for gene delivery to human skin in vivo. PMID:26204415

  8. Narrow heat flux channels in the COMPASS limiter scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, J.; Vondracek, P.; Panek, R.; Dejarnac, R.; Komm, M.; Pitts, R. A.; Kocan, M.; Goldston, R. J.; Stangeby, P. C.; Gauthier, E.; Hacek, P.; Havlicek, J.; Hron, M.; Imrisek, M.; Janky, F.; Seidl, J.

    2015-08-01

    The ITER first wall is designed for start-up and ramp-down in limiter configuration. The wall panels are toroidally shaped in order to spread the incident parallel power flux q|| uniformly, assuming a single decay length λq whose value is not known from first principles. In order to study the scaling of q|| with plasma parameters, infra-red viewing of specially-designed limiters has been used on the COMPASS tokamak in ∼100 discharges with scans in Ip, ne and for all combinations of magnetic field and Ip directions. The IR measurement clearly shows that in addition to the main SOL heat flux profile with λq > 40 mm, a steep gradient (λqnear = 4 ± 2 mm) dominates q|| near separatrix. This appears independently of limiter shaping, insertion with respect to neighbors and incident field-line angles. Good agreement is found between the measured λqnear and the prediction of a heuristic drift-based model.

  9. Growing White Dwarfs to the Chandrasekhar Limit: The Parameter Space of the Single Degenerate SNIa Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Y.; Prialnik, D.; Kovetz, A.; Shara, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Can a white dwarf (WD), accreting hydrogen-rich matter from a non-degenerate companion star, ever exceed the Chandrasekhar mass and explode as a SN Ia? We explore the range of accretion rates that allow a WD to secularly grow in mass, and derive limits on the accretion rate and on the initial mass that will allow it to reach 1.4M⊙—the Chandrasekhar mass. We follow the evolution through a long series of hydrogen flashes, during which a thick helium shell accumulates. This determines the effective helium mass accretion rate for long-term, self-consistent evolutionary runs with helium flashes. We find that net mass accumulation always occurs despite helium flashes. Although the amount of mass lost during the first few helium shell flashes is a significant fraction of that accumulated prior to the flash, that fraction decreases with repeated helium shell flashes. Eventually no mass is ejected at all during subsequent flashes. This unexpected result occurs because of continual heating of the WD interior by the helium shell flashes near its surface. The effect of heating is to lower the electron degeneracy throughout the WD, especially in the outer layers. This key result yields helium burning that is quasi-steady state, instead of explosive. We thus find a remarkably large parameter space within which long-term, self-consistent simulations show that a WD can grow in mass and reach the Chandrasekhar limit, despite its helium flashes.

  10. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  11. Overexpression of NaV 1.6 channels is associated with the invasion capacity of human cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Plata, Everardo; Ortiz, Cindy S; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Medina-Martinez, Ingrid; Alfaro, Ana; Berumen, Jaime; Rivera, Manuel; Gomora, Juan C

    2012-05-01

    Functional activity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) has been associated to the invasion and metastasis behaviors of prostate, breast and some other types of cancer. We previously reported the functional expression of VGSC in primary cultures and biopsies derived from cervical cancer (CaC). Here, we investigate the relative expression levels of VGSC subunits and its possible role in CaC. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Na(V) 1.6 α-subunit in CaC samples were ∼40-fold higher than in noncancerous cervical (NCC) biopsies. A Na(V) 1.7 α-subunit variant also showed increased mRNA levels in CaC (∼20-fold). All four Na(V) β subunits were also detected in CaC samples, being Na(V) β1 the most abundant. Proteins of Na(V) 1.6 and Na(V) 1.7 α-subunits were immunolocalized in both NCC and CaC biopsies and in CaC primary cultures as well; however, although in NCC sections proteins were mainly relegated to the plasma membrane, in CaC biopsies and primary cultures the respective signal was stronger and widely distributed in both cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Functional activity of Na(V) 1.6 channels in the plasma membrane of CaC cells was confirmed by whole-cell patch-clamp experiments using Cn2, a Na(V) 1.6-specific toxin, which blocked ∼30% of the total sodium current. Blocking of sodium channels VGSC with tetrodotoxin and Cn2 did not affect proliferation neither migration, but reduced by ∼20% the invasiveness of CaC primary culture cells in vitro assays. We conclude that Na(V) 1.6 is upregulated in CaC and could serve as a novel molecular marker for the metastatic behavior of this carcinoma.

  12. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity.

  13. Maximizing the optical network capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A.; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  14. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  15. On Fully Developed Channel Flows: Some Solutions and Limitations, and Effects of Compressibility, Variable Properties, and Body Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslen, Stephen H.

    1959-01-01

    An examination of the effects of compressibility, variable properties, and body forces on fully developed laminar flow has indicated several limitations on such streams. In the absence of a pressure gradient, but presence of a body force (e.g., gravity), an exact fully developed gas flow results. For a liquid this follows also for the case of a constant streamwise pressure gradient. These motions are exact in the sense of a Couette flow. In the liquid case two solutions (not a new result) can occur for the same boundary conditions. An approximate analytic solution was found which agrees closely with machine calculations.In the case of approximately exact flows, it turns out that for large temperature variations across the channel the effects of convection (due to, say, a wall temperature gradient) and frictional heating must be negligible. In such a case the energy and momentum equations are separated, and the solutions are readily obtained. If the temperature variations are small, then both convection effects and frictional heating can consistently be considered. This case becomes the constant-property incompressible case (or quasi-incompressible case for free-convection flows) considered by many authors. Finally there is a brief discussion of cases wherein streamwise variations of all quantities are allowed but only a such form that independent variables are separable. For the case where the streamwise velocity varies inversely as the square root distance along the channel a solution is given.

  16. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  17. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite-memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, achieving the upper bound implies that the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  18. Denitrification capacity and greenhouse gas emissions of soils in channelized and restored reaches along an Alpine river corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Samaritani, Emanuela; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water and air quality, the biogeochemical functions of channelized and restored river reaches have to be quantified. The objective of this study was to compare denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions of functional processing zones (FPZ) in a channelized and a recently restored reach of the alpine river Thur in north-eastern Switzerland. The study was part of the project cluster RECORD of the ETH domain, Switzerland, which was initiated to increase the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The denitrification potential represents an important aspect of the soil filter function related to water quality. Besides, it also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Extensively used pasture growing on a sandy loam is the characteristic FPZ of the channelized section. The restored section encompasses five FPZ: (i) bare gravel bars sparsely colonized by plants, (ii) gravel bars densely colonized by grass (mainly canary reed grass with up to 80 cm sandy deposits), (iii) mixed forest dominated by ash and maple, (iv) riparian forest dominated by willow (Salix alba), (v) older overbank sediments stabilized during restoration with young willows separating the forests from the river-gravel bar system (willow bush). The FPZ were sampled in January, April, August and October 2009. In addition, in June and July 2009 two flood events were monitored in the restored section with more frequent samplings. At each date, topsoil samples were collected in each FPZ (four replicates per samples) and analyzed for denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA). In addition, gas samples were taken in-situ using the closed chamber technique to measure soil respiration as well as N2O and CH4 fluxes. In all FPZ, the denitrification potential was mainly governed by soil moisture. It was highest in the willow forest exhibiting low spatial variability. The DEA in pasture, grass zone

  19. Determination of channel capacity of the Mokelumne River downstream from Camanche Dam, San Joaquin and Sacramento Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.G.

    1972-01-01

    This study evaluates the adequacy of a 39-mile reach of the Mokelumne River in San Joaquin and Sacramento Counties, California, to carry planned flood releases between Camanche Reservoir and the Bensons Ferry Bridge near Thornton. The flood releases from Camanche Reservoir are to be restricted, insofar as possible, so that the flows in the Mokelumne River will not exceed 5,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) as measured at the gaging station below Camanche Dam. Areas of inundation and computed floodwater profiles are based on channel conditions in late 1970 and on observed water-surface profiles during flood releases of about 5,000 cfs in January 1969 and January 1970. The inundated area shown on the maps (appendix A) and the water-surface elevations indicated on the cross sections (appendix G) are for the flood releases of those dates. The following conclusions are contingent on there being no levee failures during periods of high flow and no significant channel changes since the flood release of January 1970. 1. High tides in San Francisco Bay and, to a greater degree, flood stages on the Cosumnes River, cause backwater in the study reach. Severe backwater conditions occurring simultaneously with a flow of 5,000 cfs in the Mokelumne River can increase the flood stage 4 to 6 feet at Bensons Ferry Bridge (cross section 1). Backwater effects decrease in an upstream direction and are less than 0.5 foot at cross section 35, a river distance of 8.6 miles upstream from cross section 1, and 1.5 miles downstream from the Peltier Road bridge. 2. In the reach between cross sections 1 and 35, a 5,000 cfs release from Camanche Reservoir with maximum backwater effect (measured at cross section 1 at the mouth of the Cosumnes River) is confined within the natural or leveed banks except on the right bank flood plain between cross sections 12 and 19. 3. Upstream from cross section 35, there is overbank flooding at a flow of 5,000 cfs between cross sections 48 and 51, and 62 and 67

  20. Working memory capacity and retrieval limitations from long-term memory: an examination of differences in accessibility.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, the locus of individual differences in working memory capacity and long-term memory recall was examined. Participants performed categorical cued and free recall tasks, and individual differences in the dynamics of recall were interpreted in terms of a hierarchical-search framework. The results from this study are in accordance with recent theorizing suggesting a strong relation between working memory capacity and retrieval from long-term memory. Furthermore, the results also indicate that individual differences in categorical recall are partially due to differences in accessibility. In terms of accessibility of target information, two important factors drive the difference between high- and low-working-memory-capacity participants. Low-working-memory-capacity participants fail to utilize appropriate retrieval strategies to access cues, and they also have difficulty resolving cue overload. Thus, when low-working-memory-capacity participants were given specific cues that activated a smaller set of potential targets, their recall performance was the same as that of high-working-memory-capacity participants. PMID:22800472

  1. Impact of limited cognitive capacity and feelings of guilt and excuse on the endowment effects for hedonic and utilitarian types of foods.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Gerrit; Cramer, Leonie

    2013-09-01

    Consumer food choices may partly be explained by the endowment effect. Here, we focus on the influence of limited cognitive capacity on loss aversion related to food choices. We also investigate the effects of anticipated feelings on food choices. Experiments with 1614 pupils of secondary schools show that both cognitive constraint and anticipated feelings increases the overall endowment effect and that the impact of limited cognition is stronger for hedonic than for utilitarian food products. PMID:23628347

  2. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  3. Exploring highly-efficient routing strategy on scale-free networks with limited and diverse node capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; He, Xuan; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Since the delivery capacity of each node is neither uniform nor strictly proportional to the degree in many real networked systems such as the Internet, we consider the node capacity is composed of a small uniform fraction and a large degree dependent proportion. By comparing the optimal routing strategy [B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 046106; B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Chaos 17 (2007) 026102] with the shortest path routing (SPR), the results show that the OR appears to be not efficient enough to enhance network traffic capacity. Then the efficient betweenness defined as the average betweenness for per delivery capacity is employed, and a so-called highly-efficient routing (HER) strategy is proposed. By iteratively minimizing the maximum efficient betweenness of any node in the network, the highest traffic capacity is achieved at the cost of a little average path lengthening. This work is very useful for network service providers to optimize the weight of each link incrementally to improve whole network transport ability.

  4. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  5. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the

  6. Beyond Capacity Limitations: Determinants of Word Recall Performance on Verbal Working Memory Span Tasks in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Reduced verbal working memory capacity has been proposed as a possible account of language impairments in specific language impairment (SLI). Studies have shown, however, that differences in strength of linguistic representations in the form of word frequency affect list recall and performance on verbal working memory tasks. This suggests that…

  7. Solvent-dependent rate-limiting steps in the conformational change of sodium channel gating in squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Kukita, F

    1997-01-01

    of the solution osmolarity. A predicted solute-inaccessible volume Va ranged (in nm3 per molecule) between 0.09 and 1.45. The value of Va increased as a logarithmic function of the molecular weight of the non-electrolyte. 8. This solute-inaccessible volume should be distributed in all hydrophilic parts of the sodium channel protein, but is not located in the channel conducting pore itself. The slowing of gating could be explained by a model in which a rate-limiting step is a hydration process that occurs after local small structural changes have exposed new, unhydrated faces (transient hydrated-states model). 9. Considering the opposite dependencies of parameters alpha (or gamma) and beta on the molecular weight, sodium channel gating is likely to reflect a combination of these two models, which are coupled in microscopic segment movements. We emphasize with this combination of models that fluctuating hydrophilic structures play an important role in determining time constants in the gating process. PMID:9023772

  8. Solvent-dependent rate-limiting steps in the conformational change of sodium channel gating in squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Kukita, F

    1997-01-01

    of the solution osmolarity. A predicted solute-inaccessible volume Va ranged (in nm3 per molecule) between 0.09 and 1.45. The value of Va increased as a logarithmic function of the molecular weight of the non-electrolyte. 8. This solute-inaccessible volume should be distributed in all hydrophilic parts of the sodium channel protein, but is not located in the channel conducting pore itself. The slowing of gating could be explained by a model in which a rate-limiting step is a hydration process that occurs after local small structural changes have exposed new, unhydrated faces (transient hydrated-states model). 9. Considering the opposite dependencies of parameters alpha (or gamma) and beta on the molecular weight, sodium channel gating is likely to reflect a combination of these two models, which are coupled in microscopic segment movements. We emphasize with this combination of models that fluctuating hydrophilic structures play an important role in determining time constants in the gating process.

  9. A capacity-based approach for addressing ancillary care needs: implications for research in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Bright, Patricia L; Nelson, Robert M

    2012-11-01

    A paediatric clinical trial conducted in a developing country is likely to encounter conditions or illnesses in participants unrelated to the study. Since local healthcare resources may be inadequate to meet these needs, research clinicians may face the dilemma of deciding when to provide ancillary care and to what extent. The authors propose a model for identifying ancillary care obligations that draws on assessments of urgency, the capacity of the local healthcare infrastructure and the capacity of the research infrastructure. The model lends itself to a decision tree that can be adapted to the local context and resources so as to provide procedural guidance. This approach can help in planning and establishing organisational policies that govern the provision of ancillary care.

  10. Intrinsic limits of channel transport hysteresis in graphene-SiO2 interface and its dependence on graphene defect density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Bharadwaj, B.; Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Nath, Digbijoy; Pratap, Rudra; Raghavan, Srinivasan

    2016-07-01

    Hysteresis in channel conductance is commonly observed on graphene field effect transistors. Although consistent and repeatable hysteresis could possibly be attractive for memory based applications, it is detrimental to the deployment of graphene in high speed electronic switches. While the origin of such hysteresis has been variously attributed to graphene-insulator interface traps, adsorbed molecules and bulk charges in the dielectric, its dependence on the quality of the graphene has been largely unexplored. Since, CVD is the most promising synthesis route for large area graphene and defects in such a growth process are inevitable, it is important to understand the influence of the quality of graphene on hysteresis. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of graphene growth defect density on device hysteresis. By intentionally tailoring the defect densities in the growth phase, we demonstrate a linear correlation between the film defect density and conductance hysteresis. The trap charge density calculated from the observed hysteresis in the electrical transfer characteristics was found to both follow the same qualitative trend, and give reasonable quantitative agreement with the defect density as extracted from Raman spectroscopy. Most importantly, by extrapolation from the observed behavior, we identify the intrinsic limits of hysteresis in graphene-SiO2 system, demonstrating that the defects in graphene contribute to traps over and above the baseline set by the SiO2 surface trap charge density.

  11. Beyond capacity limitations: determinants of word recall performance on verbal working memory span tasks in children with SLI.

    PubMed

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L

    2005-08-01

    Reduced verbal working memory capacity has been proposed as a possible account of language impairments in specific language impairment (SLI). Studies have shown, however, that differences in strength of linguistic representations in the form of word frequency affect list recall and performance on verbal working memory tasks. This suggests that verbal memory capacity and long-term linguistic knowledge may not be distinct constructs. It has been suggested that linguistic representations in SLI are weak in ways that result in a breakdown in language processing on tasks that require manipulation of unfamiliar material. In this study, the effects of word frequency, long-term linguistic knowledge, and serial order position on recall performance in the competing language processing task (CLPT) were investigated in 10 children with SLI and 10 age-matched peers (age 8 years 6 months to 12 years 4 months). The children with SLI recalled significantly fewer target words on the CLPT as compared with their age-matched controls. The SLI group did not differ, however, in their ability to recall target words having high word frequency but were significantly poorer in their ability to recall words on the CLPT having low word frequency. Differences in receptive and expressive language abilities also appeared closely related to performance on the CLPT, suggesting that working memory capacity is not distinct from language knowledge and that degraded linguistic representations may have an effect on performance on verbal working memory span tasks in children with SLI.

  12. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  13. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Miller, Thomas R.; Blakely, Randy D.; Sarter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/− mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/− mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/− mice. Additionally, CHT+/− mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/− mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/− cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT +/− model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders. PMID:23958450

  14. Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Bylicka, B; Chruściński, D; Maniscalco, S

    2014-07-21

    Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication.

  15. Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bylicka, B.; Chruściński, D.; Maniscalco, S.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication. PMID:25043763

  16. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  17. Strain Anisotropies and Self-limiting Capacities in Single-crystalline 3D Silicon Microstructures: Models for High Energy Denisty Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Jason L.; Long, Brandon R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the crystallographic anisotropy of strain evolution in model, single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures on electrochemical intercalation of lithium atoms. The 3D hierarchically patterned single- crystalline silicon microstructures used as model anodes were prepared using combined methods of photolithography and anisotropic dry and wet chemical etching. Silicon anodes, which possesses theoretically ten times the energy density by weight compared to conventional carbon anodes, reveal highly anisotropic but more importantly, variably recoverable crystallographic strains during cycling. Model strain-limiting silicon anode architectures that mitigate these impacts are highlighted. By selecting a specific design for the silicon anode microstructure, and exploiting the crystallographic anisotropy of strain evolution upon lithium intercalation to control the direction of volumetric expansion, the volume available for expansion and thus the charging capacity of these structures can be broadly varied. We highlight exemplary design rules for this self-strain-limited charging in which an anode can be variably optimized between capacity and stability. Strain-limited capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1 were achieved by constraining the area available for volumetric expansion via the design rules of the microstructures.

  18. CD4+ Recent Thymic Emigrants Are Recruited into Granulomas during Leishmania donovani Infection but Have Limited Capacity for Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John W. J.; Beattie, Lynette; Osman, Mohamed; Owens, Benjamin M. J.; Brown, Najmeeyah; Dalton, Jane E.; Maroof, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) represent a source of antigen-naïve T cells that enter the periphery throughout life. However, whether RTEs contribute to the control of chronic parasitic infection and how their potential might be harnessed by therapeutic intervention is currently unclear. Here, we show that CD4+ recent thymic emigrants emerging into the periphery of mice with ongoing Leishmania donovani infection undergo partial activation and are recruited to sites of granulomatous inflammation. However, CD4+ RTEs displayed severely restricted differentiation either into IFNγ+ or IFNγ+TNFα+ effectors, or into IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. Effector cell differentiation in the chronically infected host was not promoted by adoptive transfer of activated dendritic cells or by allowing extended periods of post-thymic differentiation in the periphery. Nevertheless, CD4+ RTEs from infected mice retained the capacity to transfer protection into lymphopenic RAG2-/- mice. Taken together, our data indicate that RTEs emerging into a chronically inflamed environment are not recruited into the effector pool, but retain the capacity for subsequent differentiation into host protective T cells when placed in a disease-free environment. PMID:27658046

  19. Quantum capacity of quantum black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil

    2014-03-01

    The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.

  20. Capacity of avalanche-photodiode-detected pulse position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, GuiFen; Yin, FuChang

    2002-08-01

    The capacity of channel is tha highest data rate it can reliably support.Whenever the data rate is less than the capacity of the channel, there exists an error-correcting code for the channel that has an output probability of error as small as desired, and coversely, whenever the data rate is more than the capacity the probability oferror is bounded away from zero. The capacity is determined an optical channel employing Pulse Position modulation (PPM) and an Avalanche Photodiode (APD) detector. The channel is different from the usual optical channel in that the detector output is characterized by a webb-plus-gaussian distribution, not a poisson distribution. The capacity is expressed as a funtion of the PPM order, solt width ,laser dead time , average number of incident singal and background photons received, and APD parameters. Based on a system using a laser and detector proposed for x2000 second delivery, numerical results provide upper bounds on the data rate and level of background noise that the channel can support while operating at a given BER For the particular case studied, the capacity-maximizing PPM order is near 2048 for nighttime reception and 16 for daytime reception. Reed-Solomon codes can hanndle backgroun levels 2.3 to 7.6 dB below the ultimate level that can be handled by codes operating at the Shannon limit.

  1. The contribution of TWIK-1 channels to astrocyte K+ current is limited by retention in intracellular compartments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Putra, Adhytia; Schools, Gary P.; Ma, Baofeng; Chen, Haijun; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Barhanin, Jacques; Lesage, Florian; Zhou, Min

    2013-01-01

    TWIK-1 two-pore domain K+ channels are expressed abundantly in astrocytes. In the present study, we examined the extent to which TWIK-1 contributes to the linear current-voltage (I–V) relationship (passive) K+ membrane conductance, a dominant electrophysiological feature of mature hippocampal astrocytes. Astrocytes from TWIK-1 knockout mice have a more negative resting potential than those from wild type animals and a reduction in both inward rectification and Cs+ permeability. Nevertheless, the overall whole-cell passive conductance is not altered significantly in TWIK-1 knockout astrocytes. The expression of Kir4.1 and TREK-1, two other major astrocytic K+ channels, or of other two-pore K+ channels is not altered in TWIK-1 knockout mice, suggesting that the mild effect of TWIK-1 knockout does not result from compensation by these channels. Fractionation experiments showed that TWIK-1 is primarily localized in intracellular cytoplasmic fractions (55%) and mildly hydrophobic internal compartment fractions (41%), with only 5% in fractions containing plasma membranes. Our study revealed that TWIK-1 proteins are mainly located in the intracellular compartments of hippocampal astrocyte under physiological condition, therefore a minimal contribution of TWIK-1 channels to whole-cell currents is likely attributable to a relatively low level presence of channels in the plasma membrane. PMID:24368895

  2. Use of the mannitol pathway in fructose fermentation of Oenococcus oeni due to limiting redox regeneration capacity of the ethanol pathway.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hanno; Hamann, Inka; Unden, Gottfried

    2003-04-01

    The heterolactic bacterium Oenococcus oeni ferments fructose by a mixed heterolactic/mannitol fermentation. For heterolactic fermentation of fructose, the phosphoketolase pathway is used. The excess NAD(P)H from the phosphoketolase pathway is reoxidized by fructose (yielding mannitol). It is shown here that, under conditions of C-limitation or decreased growth rates, fructose can be fermented by heterolactic fermentation yielding nearly stoichiometric amounts of lactate, ethanol and CO(2). Quantitative evaluation of NAD(P)H-producing (phosphoketolase pathway) and -reoxidizing (ethanol, mannitol and erythritol pathways) reactions demonstrated that at high growth rates or in batch cultures the ethanol pathway does not have sufficient capacity for NAD(P)H reoxidation, requiring additional use of the mannitol pathway to maintain the growth rate. In addition, insufficient capacities to reoxidize NAD(P)H causes inhibition of growth, whereas increased NAD(P)H reoxidation by electron acceptors such as pyruvate increases the growth rate.

  3. In Vivo Killing Capacity of Cytotoxic T Cells Is Limited and Involves Dynamic Interactions and T Cell Cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Halle, Stephan; Keyser, Kirsten Anja; Stahl, Felix Rolf; Busche, Andreas; Marquardt, Anja; Zheng, Xiang; Galla, Melanie; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heller, Katrin; Boelter, Jasmin; Wagner, Karen; Bischoff, Yvonne; Martens, Rieke; Braun, Asolina; Werth, Kathrin; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Kempf, Harald; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Arens, Ramon; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Messerle, Martin; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-02-16

    According to in vitro assays, T cells are thought to kill rapidly and efficiently, but the efficacy and dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in vivo remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to quantify CTL-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. On average, one CTL killed 2-16 virus-infected cells per day as determined by real-time imaging and by mathematical modeling. In contrast, upon virus-induced MHC class I downmodulation, CTLs failed to destroy their targets. During killing, CTLs remained migratory and formed motile kinapses rather than static synapses with targets. Viruses encoding the calcium sensor GCaMP6s revealed strong heterogeneity in individual CTL functional capacity. Furthermore, the probability of death of infected cells increased for those contacted by more than two CTLs, indicative of CTL cooperation. Thus, direct visualization of CTLs during killing of virus-infected cells reveals crucial parameters of CD8(+) T cell immunity. PMID:26872694

  4. In Vivo Killing Capacity of Cytotoxic T Cells Is Limited and Involves Dynamic Interactions and T Cell Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Stephan; Keyser, Kirsten Anja; Stahl, Felix Rolf; Busche, Andreas; Marquardt, Anja; Zheng, Xiang; Galla, Melanie; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heller, Katrin; Boelter, Jasmin; Wagner, Karen; Bischoff, Yvonne; Martens, Rieke; Braun, Asolina; Werth, Kathrin; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Kempf, Harald; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Arens, Ramon; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Messerle, Martin; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary According to in vitro assays, T cells are thought to kill rapidly and efficiently, but the efficacy and dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in vivo remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to quantify CTL-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. On average, one CTL killed 2–16 virus-infected cells per day as determined by real-time imaging and by mathematical modeling. In contrast, upon virus-induced MHC class I downmodulation, CTLs failed to destroy their targets. During killing, CTLs remained migratory and formed motile kinapses rather than static synapses with targets. Viruses encoding the calcium sensor GCaMP6s revealed strong heterogeneity in individual CTL functional capacity. Furthermore, the probability of death of infected cells increased for those contacted by more than two CTLs, indicative of CTL cooperation. Thus, direct visualization of CTLs during killing of virus-infected cells reveals crucial parameters of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:26872694

  5. Performance evaluation of multilevel modulation formats using partial response for capacity upgrade in access network with limited electronic bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Peter; Frejstrup Suhr, Lau; Sebastian Rodriguez, Juan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-09-01

    We present a successful experimental evaluation of 4 level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (4-PAM) and Duobinary modulation. An experimental performance evaluation is presented for Duobinary 4 PAM and other modulation formats. All modulation formants used, may be considered to be implemented in future Passive Optical Network (PON) class access networks with limited electrical bandwidth. We compared NRZ, Duobinary, 4-PAM and Duobinary 4-PAM operating at 9 Gbaud over 20 km single mode fiber. The results provides an insight and guidelines on the utilization of these advanced modulation formats.

  6. Six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Romashko, R V; Bezruk, M N; Kamshilin, A A; Kulchin, Yurii N

    2012-06-30

    We have proposed and analysed a scheme for the multiplexing of orthogonal dynamic holograms in photorefractive crystals which ensures almost zero cross talk between the holographic channels upon phase demodulation. A six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer was built, and the detection limit for small phase fluctuations in the channels of the interferometer was determined to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} rad W{sup 1/2} Hz{sup -1/2}. The channel multiplexing capacity of the interferometer was estimated. The formation of 70 channels such that their optical fields completely overlap in the crystal reduces the relative detection limit in the working channel by just 10 %. We found conditions under which the maximum cross talk between the channels was within the intrinsic noise level in the channels (-47 dB).

  7. Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate during Ischemia Limits Infarct Size Via Mitochondrial KATP Channel Activation in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dae-Kyu; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook-Jin; Lee, Deokhee; Xu, Zhelong

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin of green tea, appears to attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in EGCG-induced cardioprotection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia and 2 hr of reperfusion. EGCG was perfused for 40 min, from 10 min before to the end of index ischemia. A nonselective KATP channel blocker glibenclamide (GLI) and a selective mitochondrial KATP (mKATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (HD) were perfused in EGCG-treated hearts. There were no differences in coronary flow and cardiodynamics including heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure, rate-pressure product, +dP/dtmax, and -dP/dtmin throughout the experiments among groups. EGCG-treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction (14.5±2.5% in EGCG 1 µM and 4.0±1.7% in EGCG 10 µM, P<0.001 vs. control 27.2±1.4%). This anti-infarct effect was totally abrogated by 10 µM GLI (24.6±1.5%, P<0.001 vs. EGCG). Similarly, 100 µM HD also aborted the anti-infarct effect of EGCG (24.1±1.2%, P<0.001 vs. EGCG ). These data support a role for the KATP channels in EGCG-induced cardioprotection. The mKATP channels play a crucial role in the cardioprotection by EGCG. PMID:20191036

  8. The metabolic, locomotor and sex-dependent effects of elevated temperature on Trinidadian guppies: limited capacity for acclimation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nicolas J; Breckels, Ross D; Neff, Bryan D

    2012-10-01

    Global warming poses a threat to many ectothermic organisms because of the harmful effects that elevated temperatures can have on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body size. This study evaluated the thermal sensitivity of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) by describing the effects of developmental temperature on mass, burst speed and RMR, and investigated whether these tropical fish can developmentally acclimate to their thermal conditions. These traits were measured following exposure to one of three treatments: 70 days at 23, 25, 28 or 30°C (acclimated groups); 6 h at 23, 28 or 30°C following 70 days at 25°C (unacclimated groups); or 6 h at 25°C following 70 days in another 25°C tank (control group). Body mass was lower in warmer temperatures, particularly amongst females and individuals reared at 30°C. The burst speed of fish acclimated to each temperature did not differ and was marginally higher than that of unacclimated fish, indicative of complete compensation. Conversely, acclimated and unacclimated fish did not differ in their RMR at each temperature. Amongst the acclimated groups, RMR was significantly higher at 30°C, indicating that guppies may become thermally limited at this temperature as a result of less energy being available for growth, reproduction and locomotion. Like other tropical ectotherms, guppies appear to be unable to adjust their RMR through physiological acclimation and may consequently be susceptible to rising temperatures. Also, because larger females have higher fecundity, our data suggest that fecundity will be reduced in a warmer climate, potentially decreasing the viability of guppy populations.

  9. Eleven-year prognostic value of dobutamine stress (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with limited exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Boiten, Hendrik J; van Domburg, Ron T; Valkema, Roelf; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2015-04-01

    Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography is a routine technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, information on the very long term prognostic value of dobutamine stress single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with limited exercise capacity is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term prognostic value of dobutamine stress technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestamibi MPI in these patients. The study population consisted of a high-risk cohort of 531 consecutive patients with limited exercise capacity who underwent dobutamine stress (99m)Tc-sestamibi MPI for the assessment of known or suspected coronary artery disease. Follow-up was successful in 528 patients. Because of early revascularization, 55 patients were excluded. The present data are based on 473 patients. The end points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and late (>60 days) coronary revascularization. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of very long term outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years, and 58% were men. Abnormal results (defined as the presence of reversible or fixed defects) were observed in 312 patients (66%). During a mean follow-up period of 11.3 ± 6.7 years, 287 patients (61%) died (all-cause mortality), of whom 125 (26%) died due to cardiac causes. Nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 59 patients (12%). Late coronary revascularization was performed in 61 patients (13%). Univariate predictors of major cardiac events included age, male gender, previous infarction, diabetes mellitus, history of angina, heart failure, ST-segment changes, abnormal results on (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan, reversible defect, fixed defect, summed rest score, and summed stress score. Multivariate analysis identified abnormal results on MPI as a strong independent predictor of

  10. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  11. Laser-driven collimated tens-GeV monoenergetic protons from mass-limited target plus preformed channel

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, F. L.; Wu, H. C.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Cai, H. B.; He, X. T.; Yu, M. Y.; Tajima, T.; Yan, X. Q.

    2013-01-15

    Proton acceleration by ultra-intense laser pulse irradiating a target with cross-section smaller than the laser spot size and connected to a parabolic density channel is investigated. The target splits the laser into two parallel propagating parts, which snowplow the back-side plasma electrons along their paths, creating two adjacent parallel wakes and an intense return current in the gap between them. The radiation-pressure pre-accelerated target protons trapped in the wake fields now undergo acceleration as well as collimation by the quasistatic wake electrostatic and magnetic fields. Particle-in-cell simulations show that stable long-distance acceleration can be realized, and a 30 fs monoenergetic ion beam of >10 GeV peak energy and <2 Degree-Sign divergence can be produced by a circularly polarized laser pulse at an intensity of about 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Limitations in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living capacity in a representative sample: disentangling dementia- and mobility-related effects.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Hans-Ulrich; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2007-01-01

    A representative sample of the Leipzig population aged 75 years and older showed 61.8% of the participants with relevant deficits in their capacity for independent living, according to a combined activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL) scale. The quantity and quality of care needed almost exponentially increases above 85 years of age. Looking at potential reasons for ADL/IADL limitations, 44% of variance in single ADL/IADL activities and 75% of the combined ADL/IADL sum score could come from a minimal set of predictor variables. Most important are dementia- or mobility-related declines, but living conditions also explain small but significant amounts of variance. These seem initially impressive, yet analyses showed about half the explained variances shared among the mobility and dementia indicators, limiting the use not only of ADL/IADL sum scores but of many single ADL/IADL items as well. Before deriving specific conclusions from variations in ADL/IADL instruments, one must note that the data suggest that interpretations of covariations--whether for health/mobility or dementia--are useful and substantial only if both indicators/predictors are verified. The information given captures the mobility- and dementia-related variance if ADL/IADL items, facilitating more specific scale developments.

  13. Design and characterisations of double-channel GaAs pHEMT Schottky diodes based on vertically stacked MMICs for a receiver protection limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, Norshakila; Kyabaggu, Peter B. K.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.

    2016-07-01

    A microwave receiver protection limiter circuit has been designed, fabricated and tested using vertically stacked GaAs MMIC technology. The limiter circuit with a dimension of 2.5 × 1.3 mm2 is formed by using double-channel AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT (pHEMT) Schottky diodes integrated with a low-loss V-shaped coplanar waveguide multilayer structure. The electrical parameter characteristics of the pHEMT Schottky diodes are presented including the C–V profile showing the presence of a double channel in the device layer structure. This unique feature can also be seen from the double-peak responses of the electron density as a function of the device layer width, which represent the high electron concentration at two different 2-DEG layers of the structure. An equivalent circuit model of pHEMT Schottky diodes is demonstrated showing good agreement with the measurement results. At zero-bias condition, the devices show high performance in diode detector applications with voltage sensitivities of more than 89 mV μW‑1 at 10 GHz and at least 5.4 mV μW‑1 at 35 GHz. The measurement results of the limiter circuit demonstrated the blocking of input power signals greater than 20 dBm input power at 3 GHz. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the use of pHEMT Schottky diodes in microwave power limiter applications.

  14. Biodegradation of the herbicide Diuron in a packed bed channel and a double biobarrier with distribution of oxygenated liquid by airlift devices: influence of oxygen limitation.

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, J Humberto; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Rocha-Martínez, Lizeth; Peña-Partida, José Carlos; Marrón-Montiel, Erick; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata

    2016-01-25

    From agricultural soils, where the herbicide Diuron has been frequently applied, a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline was obtained. The volumetric rates and degradation efficiencies of Diuron and 3,4-DCA were evaluated in two distinct biofilm reactors, which differ in their operating conditions. One is a horizontal fixed bed reactor; plug-flow operated (PF-PBC) with severe limitation of oxygen. In this reactor, the air was supplied to an equalizer reservoir at the start of the PF-PBC reactor. The other is a compartmentalized aerobic biobarrier with internal recirculation of liquid aerated through airlift devices (ALB), continuously or intermittently operated. Both reactors were inoculated with a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron, isolated from a sugarcane field. In the oxygen-limited PF-PBC reactor, 3,4-DCA accumulation was detected, mainly in the middle zone of the packed channel. On the contrary, in the fully aerobic ALB reactor, minimal accumulation of catabolic byproducts was detected, and high Diuron removal efficiencies and removal rates were obtained when it was continuously operated in steady-state conditions. Additionally, the influence of oxygen limitation on the kinetic behavior of the PF-PBC reactor was determined, and a method to estimate the local removal rates of Diuron RV,CD along the plug-flow channel is described. It was observed that the local values of the instantaneous removal rate of Diuron dCD/dt are high in the aerobic region of the PF-PBC reactor; but, suddenly decay in the reactor zones limited by dissolved oxygen. PMID:26241887

  15. Design and characterisations of double-channel GaAs pHEMT Schottky diodes based on vertically stacked MMICs for a receiver protection limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, Norshakila; Kyabaggu, Peter B. K.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.

    2016-07-01

    A microwave receiver protection limiter circuit has been designed, fabricated and tested using vertically stacked GaAs MMIC technology. The limiter circuit with a dimension of 2.5 × 1.3 mm2 is formed by using double-channel AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT (pHEMT) Schottky diodes integrated with a low-loss V-shaped coplanar waveguide multilayer structure. The electrical parameter characteristics of the pHEMT Schottky diodes are presented including the C-V profile showing the presence of a double channel in the device layer structure. This unique feature can also be seen from the double-peak responses of the electron density as a function of the device layer width, which represent the high electron concentration at two different 2-DEG layers of the structure. An equivalent circuit model of pHEMT Schottky diodes is demonstrated showing good agreement with the measurement results. At zero-bias condition, the devices show high performance in diode detector applications with voltage sensitivities of more than 89 mV μW-1 at 10 GHz and at least 5.4 mV μW-1 at 35 GHz. The measurement results of the limiter circuit demonstrated the blocking of input power signals greater than 20 dBm input power at 3 GHz. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the use of pHEMT Schottky diodes in microwave power limiter applications.

  16. Biodegradation of the herbicide Diuron in a packed bed channel and a double biobarrier with distribution of oxygenated liquid by airlift devices: influence of oxygen limitation.

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, J Humberto; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Rocha-Martínez, Lizeth; Peña-Partida, José Carlos; Marrón-Montiel, Erick; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata

    2016-01-25

    From agricultural soils, where the herbicide Diuron has been frequently applied, a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline was obtained. The volumetric rates and degradation efficiencies of Diuron and 3,4-DCA were evaluated in two distinct biofilm reactors, which differ in their operating conditions. One is a horizontal fixed bed reactor; plug-flow operated (PF-PBC) with severe limitation of oxygen. In this reactor, the air was supplied to an equalizer reservoir at the start of the PF-PBC reactor. The other is a compartmentalized aerobic biobarrier with internal recirculation of liquid aerated through airlift devices (ALB), continuously or intermittently operated. Both reactors were inoculated with a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron, isolated from a sugarcane field. In the oxygen-limited PF-PBC reactor, 3,4-DCA accumulation was detected, mainly in the middle zone of the packed channel. On the contrary, in the fully aerobic ALB reactor, minimal accumulation of catabolic byproducts was detected, and high Diuron removal efficiencies and removal rates were obtained when it was continuously operated in steady-state conditions. Additionally, the influence of oxygen limitation on the kinetic behavior of the PF-PBC reactor was determined, and a method to estimate the local removal rates of Diuron RV,CD along the plug-flow channel is described. It was observed that the local values of the instantaneous removal rate of Diuron dCD/dt are high in the aerobic region of the PF-PBC reactor; but, suddenly decay in the reactor zones limited by dissolved oxygen.

  17. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

  18. Numerical predictions and experimental verification of Li-O2 battery capacity limits for cathodes with spherical conductors and solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heung Chan; Roev, Victor; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Min Sik; Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2016-11-01

    The capacity limits, local formation of Li2O2, passivation of active surfaces, and depletion of oxygen by mass transport characteristics in a composite cathode are modeled, numerically simulated, and experimentally evaluated for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries employing composites of a solid polymer electrolyte and carbon particles as the cathode, Li metal as the anode, and an ion conductive oxide membrane as the separator. Although the theoretical maximum specific energy of the Li-O2 battery is known to be 3458 Wh kg-1cathode, our simulation predicts a maximum specific energy of 1840 Wh kg-1cathode with an optimized weight ratio of all essential components as well as cathode thickness. A specific energy of 1713 Wh kg-1cathode is experimentally demonstrated in a cell with a composite cathode of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte and Printex carbon nanoparticles with 48% carbon volume and 30 μm thickness. The model also predicts that the incorporation of voids in the cathode can significantly improve the specific energy.

  19. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents.

  20. Information capacity of electronic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubkin, Igor I.; Trishenkov, Mikhail A.

    1996-10-01

    The comparison of various electronic-optical vision systems has been conducted based on the criterion ultimate information capacity, C, limited by fluctuations of the flux of quanta. The information capacity of daylight, night, and thermal vision systems is determined first of all by the number of picture elements, M, in the optical system. Each element, under a sufficient level of irradiation, can transfer about one byte of information for the standard frame time and so C ≈ M bytes per frame. The value of the proportionality factor, one byte per picture element, is referred to systems of daylight and thermal vision, in which a photocharge in a unit cell of the imager is limited by storage capacity, and in general it varies within a small interval of 0.5 byte per frame for night vision systems to 2 bytes per frame for ideal thermal imagers. The ultimate specific information capacity, C ∗, of electronic vision systems under low irradiation levels rises with increasing density of optical channels until the number of the irradiance gradations that can be distinguished becomes less than two in each channel. In this case, the maximum value of C ∗ turns out to be proportional to the flux of quanta coming from an object under observation. Under a high level of irradiation, C ∗ is limited by difraction effects and amounts oto 1/ λ2 bytes/cm 2 frame.

  1. Stress wave communication in concrete: I. Characterization of a smart aggregate based concrete channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Sam; Ji, Qing; Wu, Wenhao; Song, Gangbing; Ding, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we explore the characteristics of a concrete block as a communication medium with piezoelectric transducers. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a piezoceramic material used in smart materials intended for structural health monitoring (SHM). Additionally, a PZT based smart aggregate (SA) is capable of implementing stress wave communications which is utilized for investigating the properties of an SA based concrete channel. Our experiments characterize single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) concrete channels in order to determine the potential capacity limits of SAs for stress wave communication. We first provide estimates and validate the concrete channel response. Followed by a theoretical upper bound for data rate capacity of our two channels, demonstrating a near-twofold increase in channel capacity by utilizing multiple transceivers to form an MIMO system. Our channel modeling techniques and results are also helpful to researchers using SAs with regards to SHM, energy harvesting and stress wave communications.

  2. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Jensen, Lasse F.; Steffensen, John F.; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  3. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M; Jensen, Lasse F; Steffensen, John F; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  4. Bounds on the Information Carrying Capacity of Pn Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2008-12-01

    Upper and lower bounds on the capacity of the Pn wave to transmit information about source identity are developed using models and measurements of Pn spatial signal structure across the ARCES array. The results show a very significant increase in information carrying capacity when contrasting observed propagation conditions with idealized free-space propagation. In essence, scattering greatly increases Pn channel capacity. As shown in a previous contribution, this increase in information can be captured with matched field calibrations and exploited to resolve sources more closely spaced than the Rayleigh resolution limit. These results mirror practices in cellular telephones that use arrays at the transmitter and receiver to exploit scattering for increased channel capacity.

  5. Electromagnetic limits to radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R E; Sebastian, T

    2013-12-18

    The viability of a radiofrequency (RF) telemetry channel for reporting individual neuron activity wirelessly from an embedded antenna to an external receiver is determined. Comparing the power at the transmitting antenna required for the desired Channel Capacity, to the maximum power that this antenna can dissipate in the body without altering or damaging surrounding tissue reveals the severe penalty incurred by miniaturization of the antenna. Using both Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and thermal damage limits as constraints, and 300 Kbps as the required capacity for telemetry streams 100 ms in duration, the model shows that conventional antennas smaller than 0.1 mm could not support human neuronal telemetry to a remote receiver (1 m away.) Reducing the antenna to 10 microns in size to enable the monitoring of single human neuron signals to a receiver at the surface of the head would require operating with a channel capacity of only 0.3 bps.

  6. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    PubMed

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine. PMID:23288614

  7. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    PubMed

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  8. Limites de bruit quantique et de non-linéarité du canal de communication optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desurvire, Emmanuel

    2003-02-01

    We analyze the information-capacity limitations of the optical communication channel, as determined by noise accumulation from optical amplification and nonlinear wave-mixing. We review the concepts of signal-to-noise ratio and entropy for binary-coded and continuous communications, leading to a definition of ultimate capacity for the optically-amplified channel. A unified quantum model, describing both amplification and nonlinearity limitations, makes possible to determine the power transmission window within which the channel capacity can be maximized. To cite this article: E. Desurvire, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  9. Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley and Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Li, Mingyuan; Oh, Saehong; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of potassium (K+) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants by use of 42K radiotracing, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and mutant analysis. Comparisons were made between results from barley and five genotypes of Arabidopsis, including single and double knockout mutants for the high-affinity transporter, AtHAK5, and the Shaker-type channel, AtAKT1. In Arabidopsis, steady-state K+ influx at low external K+ concentration ([K+]ext = 22.5 µm) was predominantly mediated by AtAKT1 when high-affinity transport was inhibited by ammonium, whereas in barley, by contrast, K+ channels could not operate below 100 µm. Withdrawal of ammonium resulted in an immediate and dramatic stimulation of K+ influx in barley, indicating a shift from active to passive K+ uptake at low [K+]ext and yielding fluxes as high as 36 µmol g (root fresh weight)−1 h−1 at 5 mm [K+]ext, among the highest transporter-mediated K+ fluxes hitherto reported. This ammonium-withdrawal effect was also established in all Arabidopsis lines (the wild types, atakt1, athak5, and athak5 atakt1) at low [K+]ext, revealing the concerted involvement of several transport systems. The ammonium-withdrawal effect coincided with a suppression of K+ efflux and a significant hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane in all genotypes except athak5 atakt1, could be sustained over 24 h, and resulted in increased tissue K+ accumulation. We discuss key differences and similarities in K+ acquisition between two important model systems and reveal novel aspects of K+ transport in planta. PMID:23553635

  10. Infinitely many kinds of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    We define the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another by means of suitable encoding and decoding operations. While classical channels have only two equivalence classes under simulation (channels with non-vanishing capacity and those with vanishing capacity), we show that there are an uncountable infinity of different equivalence classes of quantum channels using the example of the quantum erasure channel. Our results also imply a kind of 'Matthew principle' for error correction on certain channels.

  11. Parallel channels and rate-limiting steps in complex protein folding reactions: prolyl isomerization and the alpha subunit of Trp synthase, a TIM barrel protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Matthews, C Robert

    2002-10-18

    A kinetic folding mechanism for the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase (alphaTS) from Escherichia coli, involving four parallel channels with multiple native, intermediate and unfolded forms, has recently been proposed. The hypothesis that cis/trans isomerization of several Xaa-Pro peptide bonds is the source of the multiple folding channels was tested by measuring the sensitivity of the three rate-limiting phases (tau(1), tau(2), tau(3)) to catalysis by cyclophilin, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase. Although the absence of catalysis for the tau(1) (fast) phase leaves its assignment ambiguous, our previous mutational analysis demonstrated its connection to the unique cis peptide bond preceding proline 28. The acceleration of the tau(2) (medium) and tau(3) (slow) refolding phases by cyclophilin demonstrated that cis/trans prolyl isomerization is also the source of these phases. A collection of proline mutants, which covered all of the remaining 18 trans proline residues of alphaTS, was constructed to obtain specific assignments for these phases. Almost all of the mutant proteins retained the complex equilibrium and kinetic folding properties of wild-type alphaTS; only the P217A, P217G and P261A mutations caused significant changes in the equilibrium free energy surface. Both the P78A and P96A mutations selectively eliminated the tau(1) folding phase, while the P217M and P261A mutations eliminated the tau(2) and tau(3) folding phases, respectively. The redundant assignment of the tau(1) phase to Pro28, Pro78 and Pro96 may reflect their mutual interactions in non-random structure in the unfolded state. The non-native cis isomers for Pro217 and Pro261 may destabilize an autonomous C-terminal folding unit, thereby giving rise to kinetically distinct unfolded forms. The nature of the preceding amino acid, the solvent exposure, or the participation in specific elements of secondary structure in the native state, in general, are not determinative of the proline residues whose

  12. BED Material Transport and the Morphology of Alluvial River Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The morphology of an alluvial river channel is the consequence of sediment transport and sedimentation in the river. Morphological style is determined chiefly by the caliber and quantity of sediment delivered to the channel, although modulated by channel scale. Yet the relations between sediment transport and river morphology have received only limited, qualitative attention. In this review, the problem is studied by defining sediment transport regimes on the basis of the Shields number, a nondimensional measure of the capacity of the channel to move sediment of a given caliber. The problem is also approached from an inverse perspective by which the quantity and character of sediment deposits are used to infer details about the variation of sediment transport and sedimentation along a channel. Coupling the two approaches establishes a basis to gain new insights into the origins of alluvial channel morphology.

  13. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  14. No Evidence for a Fixed Object Limit in Working Memory: Spatial Ensemble Representations Inflate Estimates of Working Memory Capacity for Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A central question for models of visual working memory is whether the number of objects people can remember depends on object complexity. Some influential "slot" models of working memory capacity suggest that people always represent 3-4 objects and that only the fidelity with which these objects are represented is affected by object…

  15. The Leishmaniasis East Africa Platform (LEAP): strengthening clinical trial capacity in resource-limited countries to deliver new treatments for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Wasunna, Monique; Musa, Ahmed; Hailu, Asrat; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Olobo, Joseph; Juma, Rashid; Wells, Susan; Alvar, Jorge; Balasegaram, Manica

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease endemic in East Africa where improved patient-adapted treatments are needed. The Leishmaniasis East Africa Platform (LEAP) was created in 2003 to strengthen clinical research capacity, serve as a base for training, and evaluate and facilitate implementation of new treatments. Major infrastructure upgrades and personnel training have been carried out. A short course of Sodium Stibogluconate and Paramomycin (SSG&PM) was evaluated and is now first-line treatment in the region; alternative treatments have also been assessed. LEAP can serve as a successful model of collaboration between different partners and countries when conducting clinical research in endemic countries to international standards. PMID:27268714

  16. The Leishmaniasis East Africa Platform (LEAP): strengthening clinical trial capacity in resource-limited countries to deliver new treatments for visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Wasunna, Monique; Musa, Ahmed; Hailu, Asrat; Khalil, Eltahir A. G.; Olobo, Joseph; Juma, Rashid; Wells, Susan; Alvar, Jorge; Balasegaram, Manica

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease endemic in East Africa where improved patient-adapted treatments are needed. The Leishmaniasis East Africa Platform (LEAP) was created in 2003 to strengthen clinical research capacity, serve as a base for training, and evaluate and facilitate implementation of new treatments. Major infrastructure upgrades and personnel training have been carried out. A short course of Sodium Stibogluconate and Paramomycin (SSG&PM) was evaluated and is now first-line treatment in the region; alternative treatments have also been assessed. LEAP can serve as a successful model of collaboration between different partners and countries when conducting clinical research in endemic countries to international standards. PMID:27268714

  17. Making Knowledge Accessible across Borders: The Case for Mandatory Minimum International Copyright Exceptions and Limitations for Education, Capacity Building and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinze, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    On March 10-12, 2008, the World Intellectual Property Organization's Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights met in Geneva to begin talking about exceptions to, and limitations on, rights granted to copyright holders by international instruments, a topic which is of vital importance to developing countries. World Intellectual Property…

  18. Beyond capacity limitations II: Effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2–12;3), 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task where target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined, the number of non-target competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Results Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high than low frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and CA groups combined. Conclusions Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations. PMID:20705747

  19. A Limited 4 Å Radial Displacement of the S4-S5 Linker Is Sufficient for Internal Gate Closing in Kv Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Élise; Starek, Greg; McGuire, Hugo; Bernèche, Simon; Blunck, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are responsible for the generation of action potentials in our nervous system. Conformational rearrangements in their voltage sensor domains in response to changes of the membrane potential control pore opening and thus ion conduction. Crystal structures of the open channel in combination with a wealth of biophysical data and molecular dynamics simulations led to a consensus on the voltage sensor movement. However, the coupling between voltage sensor movement and pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, occurs at the cytosolic face of the channel, from where no structural information is available yet. In particular, the question how far the cytosolic pore gate has to close to prevent ion conduction remains controversial. In cells, spectroscopic methods are hindered because labeling of internal sites remains difficult, whereas liposomes or detergent solutions containing purified ion channels lack voltage control. Here, to overcome these problems, we controlled the state of the channel by varying the lipid environment. This way, we directly measured the position of the S4-S5 linker in both the open and the closed state of a prokaryotic Kv channel (KvAP) in a lipid environment using Lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer. We were able to reconstruct the movement of the covalent link between the voltage sensor and the pore domain and used this information as restraints for molecular dynamics simulations of the closed state structure. We found that a small decrease of the pore radius of about 3–4 Å is sufficient to prevent ion permeation through the pore. PMID:23019337

  20. Cross-channel patterns of bed material transport in a poorly sorted sand-bed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding of sediment transport comes largely from studies conducted on well-sorted sand-bed and poorly sorted gravel-bed channels. The aim of this study is to evaluate cross-channel patterns of transport rate and grain size in a poorly sorted sand-bed channel. Transport observations were collected from the San Antonio River using a Helley-Smith sampler during flows from 0.02 to 1.1 times bankfull capacity. Resulting transport rates and grain size distributions were pooled to describe eight sections across a channel transect that includes the lower bank and compared to local boundary material. Maximum transport rates are concentrated in the central zone of the streambed regardless of flow level, but gravels and coarse sands are conveyed preferentially on one side of the bed. Grain size distributions change relatively little with flow and approximate the local bed material supply. The size distributions associated with smaller transport rates near the channel margin become finer and more closely approximate the size characteristics of bank material at higher flows. Results extend patterns of differential routing of grain sizes to channel banks and establish the relative fluxes between the bed and bank environments. The small gravel content in poorly sorted sand beds requires further attention because it can contribute to cross-channel variation in sediment fluxes, limit the development of sandy bedforms, and influence the quality of streambed habitat.

  1. Type I interferon limits the capacity of bluetongue virus to infect hematopoietic precursors and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calvo, Teresa; Rojas, José-Manuel; Martín, Verónica; Sevilla, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to progenitors with potential to produce multiple cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the principal antigen-presenting cells and represent the crucial link between innate and adaptive immune responses. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in other species of ruminants. BTV is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and is a potent alpha interferon (IFN-α) inducer. In the present report, we show that BTV infects cells of hematopoietic origin but not HSCs in immunocompetent sheep. However, BTV infects HSCs in the absence of type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. Infection of HSCs in vitro results in cellular death by apoptosis. Furthermore, BTV infects bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs), interfering with their development to mature DCs in the absence of type I IFN signaling. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and costimulatory molecules CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) are affected by BTV infection, suggesting that BTV interferes with DC antigen-presenting capacity. In vivo, different DC populations are also affected during the course of infection, probably as a result of a direct effect of BTV replication in DCs and the production of infectious virus. These new findings suggest that BTV infection of HSCs and DCs can impair the immune response, leading to persistence or animal death, and that this relies on IFN-I.

  2. Capacity of avalanche-photodiode-detected pulse position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Ceniceros, Juan M.

    2000-05-01

    The capacity is determined for an optical channel employing Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and an Avalanche PhotoDiode (APD) detector. This channel is different from the usual optical channel in that the detector output is characterized by a Webb-plus-Gaussian distribution, not a Poison distribution. The capacity is expressed as a function of the PPM order, slot width, laser dead time, average number of incident signal and background photons received, and APD parameters. Based on a system using a laser and detector proposed for X2000 second delivery, numerical results provide upper bounds on the data rate and level of background noise that the channel can support while operating at a given BER. For the particular case studied, the capacity-maximizing PPM order is near 2048 for nighttime reception and 16 for daytime reception. Reed-Solomon codes can handle background levels 2.3 to 7.6 dB below the ultimate level that can be handled by codes operating at the Shannon limit.

  3. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  4. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water uptake and retention by trees affects their ability to cope with drought, as well as influences ground water recharge and stream flow. Historically, water has not often been limiting in Eastern U.S. forests. As a result, very little work has been done to understand the basics of timing of water use by vegetation in these systems. As droughts are projected to increase in length and severity in future decades, this focus is increasingly important, particularly for informing hydrologic models. We used deuterium tracer and sap flux techniques to study tree water transport on a forested ridge top with shallow soil in central Pennsylvania. Three trees of each of the species, Acer saccharum, Carya tomentosa, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubrum were accessed by tree climbing and scaffolding towers. We hypothesized that contrasting vessel size of the tree species would affect the efficiency of water transport (tracer velocity) and contrasting tree size would affect tracer storage as estimated by tracer residence times. Trees were injected with deuterated water in July 2012. Leaves were sampled 15 times over 35 days, initially daily for the first week, then at regular intervals afterwards. The tracer arrived in the canopy of the study trees between 1 and 7 days after injection, traveling at a velocity of 2 to 19 m d-1. The tracer residence time was between 7 and 33 days. Although there was variation in tracer velocity and residence time in individual trees, there were no significant differences among wood types or species (P>0.05). The general patterns in timing of water use were similar to other studies on angiosperm trees in tropical and arid ecosystems. There was no evidence of longer residence times in the larger trees. Sap flux-based estimates of sap velocity were much lower than tracer estimates, which was consistent with other studies. Levels of sap flux and midday water potential measurements suggested that the trees were water-stressed. We observed relatively

  5. The temperature response of CO2 assimilation, photochemical activities and Rubisco activation in Camelina sativa, a potential bioenergy crop with limited capacity for acclimation to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Salvucci, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The temperature optimum of photosynthesis coincides with the average daytime temperature in a species' native environment. Moderate heat stress occurs when temperatures exceed the optimum, inhibiting photosynthesis and decreasing productivity. In the present study, the temperature response of photosynthesis and the potential for heat acclimation was evaluated for Camelina sativa, a bioenergy crop. The temperature optimum of net CO(2) assimilation rate (A) under atmospheric conditions was 30-32 °C and was only slightly higher under non-photorespiratory conditions. The activation state of Rubisco was closely correlated with A at supra-optimal temperatures, exhibiting a parallel decrease with increasing leaf temperature. At both control and elevated temperatures, the modeled response of A to intercellular CO(2) concentration was consistent with Rubisco limiting A at ambient CO(2). Rubisco activation and photochemical activities were affected by moderate heat stress at lower temperatures in camelina than in the warm-adapted species cotton and tobacco. Growth under conditions that imposed a daily interval of moderate heat stress caused a 63 % reduction in camelina seed yield. Levels of cpn60 protein were elevated under the higher growth temperature, but acclimation of photosynthesis was minimal. Inactivation of Rubisco in camelina at temperatures above 35 °C was consistent with the temperature response of Rubisco activase activity and indicated that Rubisco activase was a prime target of inhibition by moderate heat stress in camelina. That photosynthesis exhibited no acclimation to moderate heat stress will likely impact the development of camelina and other cool season Brassicaceae as sources of bioenergy in a warmer world.

  6. Acoustic MIMO communications in a very shallow water channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuehai; Cao, Xiuling; Tong, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Underwater acoustic channels pose significant difficulty for the development of high speed communication due to highly limited band-width as well as hostile multipath interference. Enlightened by rapid progress of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technologies in wireless communication scenarios, MIMO systems offer a potential solution by enabling multiple spatially parallel communication channels to improve communication performance as well as capacity. For MIMO acoustic communications, deep sea channels offer substantial spatial diversity among multiple channels that can be exploited to address simultaneous multipath and co-channel interference. At the same time, there are increasing requirements for high speed underwater communication in very shallow water area (for example, a depth less than 10 m). In this paper, a space-time multichannel adaptive receiver consisting of multiple decision feedback equalizers (DFE) is adopted as the receiver for a very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication system. The performance of multichannel DFE receivers with relatively small number of receiving elements are analyzed and compared with that of the multichannel time reversal receiver to evaluate the impact of limited spatial diversity on multi-channel equalization and time reversal processing. The results of sea trials in a very shallow water channel are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication.

  7. The Capacity of Avalanche Photodiode-Detected Pulse-Position Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.

    1999-04-01

    The capacity is determined for an optical channel employing pulse-position modulation (PPM) and an avalanche photodiode (APD) detector. This channel is different from the usual optical channel in that the detector output is characterized by a Webb-plus-Gaussian distribution, not a Poisson distribution. The capacity is expressed as a function of the PPM order, slot width, laser dead time, average number of incident signal and background photons received, and APD parameters. The capacity also is examined for the ideal photon-counting (Poisson) channel. Based on a system using a laser and detector proposed for X2000 second delivery, numerical results provide upper bounds on the data rate, level of background noise, and code rate that the channel can support while operating at a given bit-error rate. For the particular case studied, the capacity-maximizing PPM order is near 2048 for nighttime reception and 16 for daytime reception. Reed-Solomon codes can handle background levels 2.3 to 7.6 dB below the ultimate level that can be handled by codes operating at the Shannon limit.

  8. Using the full spectral capacity (six channels) of a real‐time PCR instrument can simplify diagnostic laboratory screening and typing protocols for pandemic H1N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Mark J.; Moorcroft, Jay F.; Correia, Jailson B; Hart, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hopkins et al. (2011) Using the full spectral capacity (six channels) of a real‐time PCR instrument can simplify diagnostic laboratory screening and typing protocols for pandemic H1N1 influenza. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 110–114. Background  Timely reporting of influenza A virus subtype affects patient management. Real‐time PCR is a rapid and sensitive method routinely used to characterise viral nucleic acid, but the full spectral capability of the instruments is not employed. Objectives  To evaluate a hexaplex real‐time PCR assay (Flu‐6plx assay) capable of detecting influenza A and B, hMPV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and distinguishing 2008 ‘human’ influenza A/H1 from 2009 pandemic A/H1 subtypes. Methods  Respiratory specimens (n = 213) were tested using the Flu‐6plx assay and a further four monoplex PCRs targeting hMPV, RSV, influenza A and B. The FDA‐approved ProFlu ST test was used to validate the Flu‐6plx PCR influenza A/H1 subtyping components. Discrepant 2009 pandemic A/H1 results were further tested using the CDC swine H1 assay. Results  The Flu‐6plx assay had excellent sensitivity identifying 106/106 influenza A RNA–positive samples. The ProFlu ST test was a less sensitive subtyping test, and discrepant analysis could not confirm A/H1 status for four samples resulting in Flu‐6plx PCR specificities of 98% and 95% for human A/H1 and 2009 pandemic A/H1, respectively. Co‐infection affected the sensitivity of the Flu‐6plx PCR hMPV component whereby low‐level hMPV RNA could be masked by much higher concentrations of influenza A virus RNA. Conclusions  The Flu‐6plx assay is a sensitive and specific test for the universal detection of influenza A infection and determination of A/H1 subtype. Concomitant detection of influenza B, hMPV and RSV demonstrates the utility of hexaplex real‐time PCRs in viral diagnostics. PMID:21306574

  9. One-Shot Classical-Quantum Capacity and Hypothesis Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ligong; Renner, Renato

    2012-05-01

    The one-shot classical capacity of a quantum channel quantifies the amount of classical information that can be transmitted through a single use of the channel such that the error probability is below a certain threshold. In this work, we show that this capacity is well approximated by a relative-entropy-type measure defined via hypothesis testing. Combined with a quantum version of Stein’s lemma, our results give a conceptually simple proof of the well-known Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland theorem for the capacity of memoryless channels. More generally, we obtain tight capacity formulas for arbitrary (not necessarily memoryless) channels.

  10. 33 CFR 83.09 - Narrow channels (Rule 9).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Narrow channels (Rule 9). (a) Keeping near to outer limit of channel or fairway which lies on vessel's... keep as near to the outer limit of the channel or fairway which lies on her starboard side as is...

  11. Some characteristics of the international space channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Poland, W. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some physical characteristics of radio transmission links and the technology of PCM modulation combine with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union to define a communications channel having a determinable channel capacity, error rate, and sensitivity to interference. These characteristics and the corresponding limitations on EIRP, power flux density, and power spectral density for space service applications are described. The ITU regulations create a critical height of 1027 km where some parameters of the limitation rules change. The nature of restraints on power spectral density are discussed and an approach to a standardized representation of Necessary Bandwidth for the Space Services is described. It is shown that, given the PFD (power flux density) and PSD (power spectral density) limitations of radio regulations, the channel performance is determined by the ratio of effective receiving antenna aperture to system noise temperature. Based on this approach, the method for a quantitative trade-off between spectrum spreading and system performance is presented. Finally, the effects of radio frequency interference between standard systems is analyzed.

  12. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed.

  13. Information capacity of genetic regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Tkačik, Gašper; Callan, Curtis G.; Bialek, William

    2010-01-01

    Changes in a cell’s external or internal conditions are usually reflected in the concentrations of the relevant transcription factors. These proteins in turn modulate the expression levels of the genes under their control and sometimes need to perform nontrivial computations that integrate several inputs and affect multiple genes. At the same time, the activities of the regulated genes would fluctuate even if the inputs were held fixed, as a consequence of the intrinsic noise in the system, and such noise must fundamentally limit the reliability of any genetic computation. Here we use information theory to formalize the notion of information transmission in simple genetic regulatory elements in the presence of physically realistic noise sources. The dependence of this “channel capacity” on noise parameters, cooperativity and cost of making signaling molecules is explored systematically. We find that, in the range of parameters probed by recent in vivo measurements, capacities higher than one bit should be achievable. It is of course generally accepted that gene regulatory elements must, in order to function properly, have a capacity of at least one bit. The central point of our analysis is the demonstration that simple physical models of noisy gene transcription, with realistic parameters, can indeed achieve this capacity: it was not self-evident that this should be so. We also demonstrate that capacities significantly greater than one bit are possible, so that transcriptional regulation need not be limited to simple “on-off” components. The question whether real systems actually exploit this richer possibility is beyond the scope of this investigation. PMID:18763985

  14. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  15. Electromagnetic limits to radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, R. E.; Sebastian, T.

    2013-01-01

    The viability of a radiofrequency (RF) telemetry channel for reporting individual neuron activity wirelessly from an embedded antenna to an external receiver is determined. Comparing the power at the transmitting antenna required for the desired Channel Capacity, to the maximum power that this antenna can dissipate in the body without altering or damaging surrounding tissue reveals the severe penalty incurred by miniaturization of the antenna. Using both Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and thermal damage limits as constraints, and 300 Kbps as the required capacity for telemetry streams 100 ms in duration, the model shows that conventional antennas smaller than 0.1 mm could not support human neuronal telemetry to a remote receiver (1 m away.) Reducing the antenna to 10 microns in size to enable the monitoring of single human neuron signals to a receiver at the surface of the head would require operating with a channel capacity of only 0.3 bps. PMID:24346503

  16. On entanglement-assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2002-09-01

    We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities.

  17. Evaluation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mullus barbatus from Sicily Channel and risk-based consumption limits.

    PubMed

    Conti, Gea Oliveri; Copat, Chiara; Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2012-06-01

    Our study is a preliminary step to evaluate water contamination of the Mediterranean Sea surrounding Lampedusa island and health risks for fish consumers. We analyzed muscle tissue of Mullus barbatus specimens to detect metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results show the following average concentrations of heavy metals: Pb 0.035, Cd 0.001, Hg 0.027, Cr 0.524, As 27.01, Cu 0.433, Co 0.013, Ni 0.042, Se 0.487, V 0.072, U 0.055 and Zn 3.360 ppm. PAHs ranged from 0.250 to 13.16 ppb. A possible risk to human health was determined based on consumption limits data and the content of total PAHs in fillets of this species.

  18. Evaluation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mullus barbatus from Sicily Channel and risk-based consumption limits.

    PubMed

    Conti, Gea Oliveri; Copat, Chiara; Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2012-06-01

    Our study is a preliminary step to evaluate water contamination of the Mediterranean Sea surrounding Lampedusa island and health risks for fish consumers. We analyzed muscle tissue of Mullus barbatus specimens to detect metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results show the following average concentrations of heavy metals: Pb 0.035, Cd 0.001, Hg 0.027, Cr 0.524, As 27.01, Cu 0.433, Co 0.013, Ni 0.042, Se 0.487, V 0.072, U 0.055 and Zn 3.360 ppm. PAHs ranged from 0.250 to 13.16 ppb. A possible risk to human health was determined based on consumption limits data and the content of total PAHs in fillets of this species. PMID:22450961

  19. Multi-carrier Communications over Time-varying Acoustic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aval, Yashar M.

    Acoustic communication is an enabling technology for many autonomous undersea systems, such as those used for ocean monitoring, offshore oil and gas industry, aquaculture, or port security. There are three main challenges in achieving reliable high-rate underwater communication: the bandwidth of acoustic channels is extremely limited, the propagation delays are long, and the Doppler distortions are more pronounced than those found in wireless radio channels. In this dissertation we focus on assessing the fundamental limitations of acoustic communication, and designing efficient signal processing methods that cam overcome these limitations. We address the fundamental question of acoustic channel capacity (achievable rate) for single-input-multi-output (SIMO) acoustic channels using a per-path Rician fading model, and focusing on two scenarios: narrowband channels where the channel statistics can be approximated as frequency- independent, and wideband channels where the nominal path loss is frequency-dependent. In each scenario, we compare several candidate power allocation techniques, and show that assigning uniform power across all frequencies for the first scenario, and assigning uniform power across a selected frequency-band for the second scenario, are the best practical choices in most cases, because the long propagation delay renders the feedback information outdated for power allocation based on the estimated channel response. We quantify our results using the channel information extracted form the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE'10). Next, we focus on achieving reliable high-rate communication over underwater acoustic channels. Specifically, we investigate orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the state-of-the-art technique for dealing with frequency-selective multipath channels, and propose a class of methods that compensate for the time-variation of the underwater acoustic channel. These methods are based on multiple

  20. Can Nonprivate Channels Transmit Quantum Information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the power of quantum channels with little or no capacity for private communication. Because privacy is a necessary condition for quantum communication, one might expect that such channels would be of little use for transmitting quantum states. Nevertheless, we find strong evidence that there are pairs of such channels that, when used together, can transmit far more quantum information than the sum of their individual private capacities. Because quantum transmissions are necessarily private, this would imply a large violation of additivity for the private capacity. Specifically, we present channels which display either (1) a large joint quantum capacity but very small individual private capacities or (2) a severe violation of additivity for the Holevo information.

  1. Basaltic Lava Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    or channel bends that exposes more core lava to cooling than simply that of the shear zones. Thus the channel geometry plays a major role in the thermal history of a flow. As lava flows rarely flow through pre-existing channels of prescribed geometry, we have performed an additional set of analog laboratory experiments to determine the relationship between flow rate, slope, and channel formation in solidifying flows. All flows develop stable uniform channels within solidified levees except when the flow rate is sufficiently low to permit flow front solidification, inflation, and tube formation. On constant slopes, increasing flow rates result in increases in both the rate of flow advance rate and the channel width, and a decrease in levee width. At constant flow rates, both channel width and levee width decrease with increasing slope while flow advance rate increases. Limited data on the geometry of basaltic lava channels indicate that experimental data are consistent with field observations, however, both additional field data and scaling relationships are required to fully utilize the laboratory experiments to predict channel development in basaltic lava flows.

  2. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.

    2012-01-01

    For a pure loss channel, the ultimate capacity can be achieved with classical coherent states (i.e., ideal laser light): (1) Capacity-achieving receiver (measurement) is yet to be determined. (2) Heterodyne detection approaches the ultimate capacity at high mean photon numbers. (3) Photon-counting approaches the ultimate capacity at low mean photon numbers. A number of current technology limits drive the achievable performance of free-space communication links. Approaching fundamental limits in the bandwidth-limited regime: (1) Heterodyne detection with high-order coherent-state modulation approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser phase noise, adaptive optics systems for atmospheric transmission would help. (2) High-order intensity modulation and photon-counting can approach heterodyne detection within approximately a factor of 2. This may have advantages over coherent detection in the presence of turbulence. Approaching fundamental limits in the photon-limited regime (1) Low-duty cycle binary coherent-state modulation (OOK, PPM) approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser extinction ratio, receiver dark noise, jitter, and blocking would help. (2) In some link geometries (near field links) number-state transmission could improve over coherent-state transmission

  3. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  4. Frequency Reuse, Cell Separation, and Capacity Analysis of VHF Digital Link Mode 3 TDMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2003-01-01

    The most recent studies by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation industry have indicated that it has become increasingly difficult to make new VHF frequency or channel assignments to meet the aviation needs for air-ground communications. FAA has planned for several aggressive improvement measures to the existing systems, but these measures would not meet the projected voice communications needs beyond 2009. FAA found that since 1974 there has been, on the average, a 4 percent annual increase in the number of channel assignments needed to satisfy the air-ground communication traffic (approximately 300 new channel assignments per year). With the planned improvement measures, the channel assignments are expected to reach a maximum number of 16615 channels by about 2010. Hence, the FAA proposed the use of VDL Mode 3 as a new integrated digital voice and data communications systems to meet the future air traffic demand. This paper presents analytical results of frequency reuse; cell separation and capacity estimation of VDL Mode 3 TDMA systems that FAA has planned to implement the future VHF air-ground communications system by the year 2010. For TDMA, it is well understood that the frequency reuse factor is a crucial parameter for capacity estimation. Formulation of this frequency reuse factor is shown, taking into account the limitation imposed by the requirement to have a sufficient Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio. Several different values for the Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio were utilized corresponding to the current analog VHF DSB-AM systems, and the future digital VDL Mode 3. The required separation of Co-Channel cells is computed for most of the Frequency Protected Service Volumes (FPSV's) currently in use by the FAA. Additionally, the ideal cell capacity for each FPSV is presented. Also, using actual traffic for the Detroit air space, a FPSV traffic distribution model is used to generate a typical cell for channel capacity

  5. Quantum entanglement capacity with classical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Alan W.

    2008-01-01

    For any quantum discrete memoryless channel, we define a quantity called quantum entanglement capacity with classical feedback (EB) , and we show that this quantity lies between two other well-studied quantities. These two quantities—namely the quantum capacity assisted by two-way classical communication (Q2) and the quantum capacity with classical feedback (QB) —are widely conjectured to be different: There exists a quantum discrete memoryless channel for which Q2>QB . We then present a general scheme to convert any quantum error-correcting codes into adaptive protocols for this newly defined quantity of the quantum depolarizing channel, and illustrate with the repetition code and Shor code. We contrast the present notion with entanglement purification protocols by showing that, whilst the Leung-Shor protocol can be applied directly, recurrence methods need to be supplemented with other techniques but at the same time offer a way to improve the aforementioned repetition code. For the quantum depolarizing channel, we prove a formula that gives lower bounds on the quantum capacity with classical feedback from any EB protocols. We then apply this formula to the EB protocols that we discuss to obtain lower bounds on the quantum capacity with classical feedback of the quantum depolarizing channel.

  6. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    PubMed Central

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  7. How does the connectivity between populations mediate range limits of marine invertebrates? A case study of larval dispersal between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel (North-East Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée; Lazure, Pascal; Thiébaut, Éric

    2010-10-01

    For many marine species, larval dispersal plays a crucial role in population persistence, re-colonization of disturbed areas, and distribution of species range limits through the control of population connectivity. Along the French Atlantic coast (NE Atlantic), a biogeographical transition zone has been reported between temperate and cold-temperate marine faunal assemblages. Hydrodynamics in this area are highly complex and variable including numerous mesoscale features (e.g. river plumes, fronts, upwellings, low salinity lenses), which could constrain larval transport and connectivity. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess how hydrodynamic conditions and biological traits influence larval transport and contribute to population connectivity along the biogeographical transition zone between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. A coupled bio-physical individual-based model was used at a regional scale to track larval trajectories under realistic hydroclimatic conditions (tides, river run-offs, and meteorological conditions) and for some common life-history traits. Larval particles were released monthly from February to August for the years 2001 to 2005, from 16 spawning populations corresponding to the main bays and estuaries of the study area. Two planktonic larval durations (2 vs. 4 weeks) and three vertical distributions (no swimming behaviour, diel vertical migration, and ontogenic vertical migration) were considered. Dispersal kernels were described by 17 parameters and analysed in a multivariate approach to calculate connectivity matrices and indices. The main factors responsible for the variability of the dispersal kernels were the spawning month in relation to the seasonal variations in river run-offs and wind conditions, the planktonic larval duration, the spawning population location, and the larval behaviour. No significant inter-annual variability was observed. Self-retention rates were high and larval exchanges occurred mainly within

  8. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  9. Molecular and cellular limits to somatosensory specificity

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Carlos; Viana, Félix

    2008-01-01

    Animals detect environmental changes through sensory neural mechanisms that enable them to differentiate the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of stimuli. The 'doctrine of specific nervous energies' postulates that the different sensory modalities experienced by humans result of the activation of specific nervous pathways. Identification of functional classes of sensory receptors provided scientific support to the concept that somatosensory modalities (touch, pain, temperature, kinesthesis) are subserved by separate populations of sensory receptor neurons specialized in detecting innocuous and injurious stimuli of different quality (mechanical forces, temperature, chemical compounds). The identification of receptor proteins activated by different physicochemical stimuli, in particular ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) superfamily, has put forward the concept that specificity of peripheral sensory receptor neurons is determined by their expression of a particular "molecular sensor" that confers to each functional type its selectivity to respond with a discharge of nerve impulses to stimuli of a given quality. Nonetheless, recent experimental data suggest that the various molecular sensors proposed as specific transducer molecules for stimuli of different quality are not as neatly associated with the distinct functional types of sensory receptors as originally proposed. First, many ion channel molecules initially associated to the transduction of only one particular form of energy are also activated by stimuli of different quality, implying a limited degree of specificity in their transducing capacities. Second, molecular sensors associated with a stimulus quality and hence to a sensory receptor type and ultimately to a sensory modality may be concomitantly expressed in sensory receptor neurons functionally defined as specific for another stimulus quality. Finally, activation of voltage gated channels involved primarily in nerve

  10. Channel-reach morphology controls of headwater streams based in flysch geologic structures: An example from the Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galia, Tomáš; Hradecký, Jan

    2014-07-01

    A detailed measurement of 93 channel reaches that were classified with an adjusted Montgomery-Buffington (1997) reach-scale system provided comprehensive information of approximately 9 at-a-reach parameters: the channel gradient, the bankfull width, the bankfull depth, d90, the percentage of resistant rocks in the bed sediment, the number of pieces of large woody debris, valley confinement, direct sediment inputs and the presence of fluvial accumulations in the stream channel. In addition, the quantified intensity of sediment transport (i.e. ratio between sediment supply and transport capacity in longitudinal stream profiles) during flood events has been estimated by the one-dimensional bedload transport model (TOMSED), which was validated in two local streams. The principal component analysis of the at-a-reach parameters did not reveal significant groups of channel-reach morphologies; thus, the selected parameters that exclude sediment transport dynamics within stream longitudinal profile cannot reliably distinguish or predict individual channel reach morphologies. Nevertheless, the channel gradient represented the most significant single explanatory variable for stepped-bed morphologies. The addition of bedload transport parameters demonstrated that limited sediment supply streams and streams with limited transport capacities featured different successions of the channel reach morphologies in terms of the channel gradient and, subsequently, the fluvial continuity. The bedrock-cascades and step-pools were significant for the first case, whereas cascade and step-rapid morphology often occurred in higher sediment supply conditions.

  11. Peptide models for membrane channels.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D

    1996-01-01

    Peptides may be synthesized with sequences corresponding to putative transmembrane domains and/or pore-lining regions that are deduced from the primary structures of ion channel proteins. These can then be incorporated into lipid bilayer membranes for structural and functional studies. In addition to the ability to invoke ion channel activity, critical issues are the secondary structures adopted and the mode of assembly of these short transmembrane peptides in the reconstituted systems. The present review concentrates on results obtained with peptides from ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels, as well as proton-conducting channels. These are considered within the context of current molecular models and the limited data available on the structure of native ion channels and natural channel-forming peptides. PMID:8615800

  12. Classical-quantum arbitrarily varying wiretap channel: Ahlswede dichotomy, positivity, resources, super-activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Deppe, Christian; Nötzel, Janis

    2016-08-01

    We establish the Ahlswede dichotomy for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., either the deterministic secrecy capacity of the channel is zero, or it equals its randomness-assisted secrecy capacity. We analyze the secrecy capacity of these channels when the sender and the receiver use various resources. It turns out that randomness, common randomness, and correlation as resources are very helpful for achieving a positive secrecy capacity. We prove the phenomenon "super-activation" for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., two channels, both with zero deterministic secrecy capacity, if used together allow perfect secure transmission.

  13. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large-m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  14. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large- m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  15. Entanglement-saving channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2016-03-01

    The set of Entanglement Saving (ES) quantum channels is introduced and characterized. These are completely positive, trace preserving transformations which when acting locally on a bipartite quantum system initially prepared into a maximally entangled configuration, preserve its entanglement even when applied an arbitrary number of times. In other words, a quantum channel ψ is said to be ES if its powers ψn are not entanglement-breaking for all integers n. We also characterize the properties of the Asymptotic Entanglement Saving (AES) maps. These form a proper subset of the ES channels that is constituted by those maps that not only preserve entanglement for all finite n but which also sustain an explicitly not null level of entanglement in the asymptotic limit n → ∞. Structure theorems are provided for ES and for AES maps which yield an almost complete characterization of the former and a full characterization of the latter.

  16. English Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.

  17. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  18. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  19. Channel Identification Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits. PMID:23227035

  20. Estimating changes in riparian and channel features along the Trinity River downstream of Lewiston Dam, California, 1980 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Dam construction, flow diversion, and legacy landuse effects reduced the transport capacity, sediment supply, channel complexity and floodplain-connectivity along the Trinity River, CA below Lewiston Dam. This study documents the geomorphic evolution of the Trinity River Restoration Program’s intensively managed 65-km long restoration reach from 1980 to 2011. The nature and extent of riparian and channel changes were assessed using a series of geomorphic feature maps constructed from ortho-rectified photography acquired at low flow conditions in 1980, 1997, 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2011. Since 1980 there has been a general conversion of riparian to channel features and expansion of the active channel area. The primary mechanism for expansion of the active channel was bank erosion from 1980 to 1997 and channel widening was well distributed longitudinally throughout the study reach. Subsequent net bar accretion from 1997 to 2001, followed by slightly higher net bar scour from 2001 to 2006, occurred primarily in the central and lower reaches of the study area. In comparison, post-2006 bank and bar changes were spatially-limited to reaches with sufficient local transport capacity or sediment supply supported by gravel augmentation, mechanical channel rehabilitation, and tributary contributions to flow and sediment supply. A series of tributary floods in 1997, 1998 and 2006 were the primary factors leading to documented increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity. During the post-2006 period managed flow releases, in the absence of large magnitude tributary flooding, combined with gravel augmentation and mechanical restoration caused localized increases in sediment supply and transport capacity leading to smaller but measurable increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity primarily in the upper river below Lewiston Dam.

  1. Permeation in potassium channels: implications for channel structure.

    PubMed

    Yellen, G

    1987-01-01

    The SR K+ channel is a single-ion channel with a tunnel that is not very selective, while the DR and CaK channels are both more selective, multi-ion channels. The permeation mechanisms of the three channels are probably most systematically distinguished by the length of their tunnels; the SR has the shortest and the DR the longest. Although different in their mechanisms of activation, the DR and CaK channels have very similar permeation characteristics, down to the details of selectivity and blockade. The longer tunnel and reduced conductance (perhaps a result of the extra tunnel length) of the DR K+ channel are the main differences. The selectivity of the rate-limiting barriers and the binding sites within the channels, however, are strikingly similar. A successful potassium channel must satisfy two criteria: It must let potassium ions through and not much else, and it must let many potassium ions through. To be selective the channel must have a narrow selectivity filter, so that an ion must shed some of its waters of hydration to pass through. Sodium ions are excluded because they are more reluctant to lose their water, and they are not adequately compensated for this loss by interaction with the selectivity filter. To carry a large current the narrow region must be short, with wide antechambers to reduce the diffusional access resistance (48). Energetically, the channel must strike a balance. There must be enough binding energy to compensate the ions for their lost hydration energy, so that the energy barrier to permeation is small. If the channel binds the ion too tightly, however, the ion will not be able to exit, and the current will be small. Some of the shared properties of different potassium channels are probably consequences of these requirements; others may be incidental to function, suggesting a common origin. Barium ions have almost exactly the same radius as potassium ions but twice the charge, so it is perhaps not surprising that barium can block

  2. A 96-channel neural stimulation system for driving AIROF microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Troyk, P; Cogan, S

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and testing of a 96-channel stimulation system to drive activated iridium oxide (AIROF) microelectrodes within safe charge-injection limits. Our system improves upon the traditional capacitively coupled, symmetric charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveform so as to maximize charge-injection capacity without endangering the microelectrodes. It can deliver computer-controlled cathodic current pulse for to up to 96 AIROF microelectrodes and positively bias them during the inter-pulse interval. The stimulation system is comprised of (1) 12 custom-designed PCB boards each hosting an 8-channel ASIC chip, (2) a motherboard to communicate between these 12 boards and the PC, (3) the PC interface equipped with a DIO card and the corresponding software. We plan to use this system in animal experiments for intracortical neural stimulation of implanted electrodes within our visual prosthesis project. PMID:17271241

  3. The BH4 domain of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL, but not that of the related Bcl-2, limits the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1)-mediated transfer of pro-apoptotic Ca2+ signals to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Giovanni; Decrock, Elke; Arbel, Nir; van Vliet, Alexander R; La Rovere, Rita M; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B; Agostinis, Patrizia; Leybaert, Luc; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda; Bultynck, Geert

    2015-04-01

    Excessive Ca(2+) fluxes from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria result in apoptotic cell death. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins exert part of their anti-apoptotic function by directly targeting Ca(2+)-transport systems, like the endoplasmic reticulum-localized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) at the outer mitochondrial membranes. We previously demonstrated that the Bcl-2 homology 4 (BH4) domain of Bcl-2 protects against Ca(2+)-dependent apoptosis by binding and inhibiting IP3Rs, although the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL was protective independently of binding IP3Rs. Here, we report that in contrast to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2, the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL binds and inhibits VDAC1. In intact cells, delivery of the BH4-Bcl-XL peptide via electroporation limits agonist-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and protects against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, in line with the results obtained with VDAC1(-/-) cells. Moreover, the delivery of the N-terminal domain of VDAC1 as a synthetic peptide (VDAC1-NP) abolishes the ability of BH4-Bcl-XL to suppress mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and to protect against apoptosis. Importantly, VDAC1-NP did not affect the ability of BH4-Bcl-2 to suppress agonist-induced Ca(2+) release in the cytosol or to prevent apoptosis, as done instead by an IP3R-derived peptide. In conclusion, our data indicate that the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL, but not that of Bcl-2, selectively targets VDAC1 and inhibits apoptosis by decreasing VDAC1-mediated Ca(2+) uptake into the mitochondria.

  4. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the

  5. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  6. Working memory's workload capacity.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Coleman, James R; Eidels, Ami; Watson, Jason M; Houpt, Joseph; Strayer, David L

    2015-10-01

    We examined the role of dual-task interference in working memory using a novel dual two-back task that requires a redundant-target response (i.e., a response that neither the auditory nor the visual stimulus occurred two back versus a response that one or both occurred two back) on every trial. Comparisons with performance on single two-back trials (i.e., with only auditory or only visual stimuli) showed that dual-task demands reduced both speed and accuracy. Our task design enabled a novel application of Townsend and Nozawa's (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39: 321-359, 1995) workload capacity measure, which revealed that the decrement in dual two-back performance was mediated by the sharing of a limited amount of processing capacity. Relative to most other single and dual n-back tasks, performance measures for our task were more reliable, due to the use of a small stimulus set that induced a high and constant level of proactive interference. For a version of our dual two-back task that minimized response bias, accuracy was also more strongly correlated with complex span than has been found for most other single and dual n-back tasks.

  7. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  8. Capacity Value of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2011-05-04

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

  9. Immature human dendritic cells enhance their migration through KCa3.1 channel activation.

    PubMed

    Crottès, David; Félix, Romain; Meley, Daniel; Chadet, Stéphanie; Herr, Florence; Audiger, Cindy; Soriani, Olivier; Vandier, Christophe; Roger, Sébastien; Angoulvant, Denis; Velge-Roussel, Florence

    2016-04-01

    Migration capacity is essential for dendritic cells (DCs) to present antigen to T cells for the induction of immune response. The DC migration is supposed to be a calcium-dependent process, while not fully understood. Here, we report a role of the KCa3.1/IK1/SK4 channels in the migration capacity of both immature (iDC) and mature (mDC) human CD14(+)-derived DCs. KCa3.1 channels were shown to control the membrane potential of human DC and the Ca(2+) entry, which is directly related to migration capacities. The expression of migration marker such as CCR5 and CCR7 was modified in both types of DCs by TRAM-34 (100nM). But, only the migration of iDC was decreased by use of both TRAM-34 and KCa3.1 siRNA. Confocal analyses showed a close localization of CCR5 with KCa3.1 in the steady state of iDC. Finally, the implication of KCa3.1 seems to be limited to the migration capacities as T cell activation of DCs appeared unchanged. Altogether, these results demonstrated that KCa3.1 channels have a pro-migratory effect on iDC migration. Our findings suggest that KCa3.1 in human iDC play a major role in their migration and constitute an attractive target for the cell therapy optimization.

  10. Quantum limits on optical phase estimation accuracy from classical rate-distortion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ranjith

    2014-12-04

    The classical information-theoretic lower bound on the distortion of a random variable upon transmission through a noisy channel is applied to quantum-optical phase estimation. An approach for obtaining Bayesian lower bounds on the phase estimation accuracy is described that employs estimates of the classical capacity of the relevant quantum-optical channels. The Heisenberg limit for lossless phase estimation is derived for arbitrary probe state and prior distributions of the phase, and shot-noise scaling of the phase accuracy is established in the presence of nonzero loss for a parallel entanglement-assisted strategy with a single probe mode.

  11. Capacity of optical communication in loss and noise with general quantum Gaussian receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat

    2014-04-01

    Laser-light (coherent-state) modulation is sufficient to achieve the ultimate (Holevo) capacity of classical communication over a lossy and noisy optical channel, but requires a receiver that jointly detects long modulated code words with highly nonlinear quantum operations, which are near-impossible to realize using current technology. We analyze the capacity of the lossy-noisy optical channel when the transmitter uses coherent-state modulation but the receiver is restricted to a general quantum-limited Gaussian receiver, i.e., one that may involve arbitrary combinations of Gaussian operations [passive linear optics: beam splitters and phase shifters; second-order nonlinear optics (or active linear optics): squeezers, along with homodyne or heterodyne detection measurements] and any amount of classical feedforward within the receiver. Under these assumptions, we show that the Gaussian receiver that attains the maximum mutual information is either homodyne detection, heterodyne detection, or time sharing between the two, depending upon the received power level. In other words, our result shows that to exceed the theoretical limit of conventional coherent optical communication, one has to incorporate non-Gaussian, i.e., third- or higher-order nonlinear operations in the receiver. Finally we compare our Gaussian receiver limit with experimentally feasible non-Gaussian receivers and show that in the regime of low received photon flux, it is possible to overcome the Gaussian receiver limit by relatively simple non-Gaussian receivers based on photon counting.

  12. Littoral steering of deltaic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-11-01

    The typically single-threaded channels on wave-influenced deltas show striking differences in their orientations, with some channels oriented into the incoming waves (e.g., Ombrone, Krishna), and others oriented away from the waves (e.g., Godavari, Sao Francisco). Understanding the controls on channel orientation is important as the channel location greatly influences deltaic morphology and sedimentology, both subaerially and subaqueously. Here, we explore channel orientation and consequent feedbacks with local shoreline dynamics using a plan-form numerical model of delta evolution. The model treats fluvial sediment delivery to a wave-dominated coast in two ways: 1) channels are assumed to prograde in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation and 2) a controlled fraction of littoral sediment transport can bypass the river mouth. Model results suggest that channels migrate downdrift when there is a significant net littoral transport and alongshore transport bypassing of the river mouth is limited. In contrast, river channels tend to orient themselves into the waves when fluvial sediment flux is relatively large, causing the shoreline of the downdrift delta flank to attain the orientation of maximum potential sediment transport for the incoming wave climate. Using model results, we develop a framework to estimate channel orientations for wave-influenced deltas that shows good agreement with natural examples. An increase in fluvial sediment input can cause a channel to reorient itself into incoming waves, behavior observed, for example, in the Ombrone delta in Italy. Our results can inform paleoclimate studies by linking channel orientation to fluvial sediment flux and wave energy. In particular, our approach provides a means to quantify past wave directions, which are notoriously difficult to constrain.

  13. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl−) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl− channels have shown that Cl− channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl− channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl− channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl− channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl− channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl− channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  14. Topics in quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhicheng

    In this thesis, we mainly investigate four different topics: efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion [51], quantum error-correcting codes based on privacy amplification [48], private classical capacity of quantum channels [44], and classical channel simulation with quantum side information [49, 50]. For the first topic, we propose an efficiently implementable quantum key expansion protocol, capable of increasing the size of a pre-shared secret key by a constant factor. Previously, the Shor-Preskill proof [64] of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) [6] quantum key distribution protocol relied on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the "dual-containing" property. But the explicit and efficiently decodable construction of such codes is unknown. We show that we can lift the dual-containing constraint by employing the non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. For the second topic, we propose a construction of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) [19, 68] quantum error-correcting codes, which are originally based on pairs of mutually dual-containing classical codes, by combining a classical code with a two-universal hash function. We show, using the results of Renner and Koenig [57], that the communication rates of such codes approach the hashing bound on tensor powers of Pauli channels in the limit of large block-length. For the third topic, we prove a regularized formula for the secret key assisted capacity region of a quantum channel for transmitting private classical information. This result parallels the work of Devetak on entanglement assisted quantum communication capacity. This formula provides a new family protocol, the private father protocol, under the resource inequality framework that includes the private classical communication without the assisted secret keys as a child protocol. For the fourth topic, we study and solve the problem of classical channel

  15. Testing of a high capacity research heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests were performed on a high-capacity channel-wick heat pipe to assess the transport limitations of v-grooves and the effects of boiling. The results showed that transport can vary significantly (less than 50 W) under similar conditions and the continuous boiling was observed at power levels as low as 40 W. In addition, some evidence was found to support the predictions using a groove transport model which shows that transport increases with lower groove densities and longer evaporators. However, due to transport variations, these results were not consistent throughout the program. When a glass fiber wick was installed over the grooves, a relatively low transport level was achieved (80 to 140 W). Based on these results and the identification of some potential causes for them, several design suggestions were recommended for reducing the possibility of boiling and improving groove transport.

  16. White light-emitting diode based wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing link with improved transmission capacity using Bayesian compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Seo, Dong-Sun; Yoon, Sang Min

    2016-04-01

    We propose a technique that improves the channel capacity of an optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which employs a visible light-emitting diode. An OFDM waveform encoded by quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature amplitude modulation is compressed and then transformed into a sparse waveform using a proposed advanced systematic sampling. At the optical wireless receiver, the original waveform is recovered by L1-minimization based on a Bayesian compressive sensing. Our experimental results show the significant increase in the channel capacity from 31.12 to 51.87 Mbit/s at forward error correction limit (i.e., error vector magnitude of 32%) in case of QPSK symbols.

  17. Pilot-aided chip-interleaved DS-CDMA transmission over time-varying channels (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Yanxin; Saquib, Mohammad; Win, Moe Z.

    2005-05-01

    Time-varying multipath fading associated with the wireless link limit the capacity of a wireless system. To adapt to this adverse radio environment efficiently, we investigate the use of a pilot-aided fade-resistant transmission scheme for the uplink of a chip-interleaved code division multiple access (CDMA) system. We analyze the trade-off between the number of diversity branches and the channel estimation error. We derive the optimum ratio of pilot signal power to information signal power. Our numerical study indicates that depending on the transmitter power and channel condition, the proposed system is capable of outperforming the conventional CDMA system.

  18. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  19. Voltage-gated proton channels.

    PubMed

    Decoursey, Thomas E

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely, the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance approximately 10(3) times smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn(2+) (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B-lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H(+) for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens.

  20. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    SciTech Connect

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-06-15

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  1. Distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels in forested mountain drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Abbe, Tim B.; Buffington, John M.; Peterson, N. Phil; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Stock, Jonathan D.

    1996-06-01

    MOUNTAIN river networks often consist of both bedrock and alluvial channels1-5, the spatial distribution of which controls several fundamental geomorphological and ecological processes6,7. The nature of river channels can influence the rates of river incision and landscape evolution1,2, as well as the stream habitat characteristics affecting species abundance and aquatic ecosystem structure8-11. Studies of the factors controlling the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels have hitherto been limited to anthropogenic badlands12. Here we investigate the distribution of channel types in forested mountain drainage basins, and show that the occurrence of bedrock and alluvial channels can be described by a threshold model relating local sediment transport capacity to sediment supply. In addition, we find that valley-spanning log jams create alluvial channels- hospitable to aquatic life-in what would otherwise be bedrock reaches. The formation of such jams depends critically on the stabilizing presence of logs derived from the largest trees in the riverside forests, suggesting that management strategies that allow harvesting of such trees can have a devastating influence on alluvial habitats in mountain drainage basins.

  2. Modeling the evolution of channel shape: Balancing computational efficiency with hydraulic fidelity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wobus, C.W.; Kean, J.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2008-01-01

    The cross-sectional shape of a natural river channel controls the capacity of the system to carry water off a landscape, to convey sediment derived from hillslopes, and to erode its bed and banks. Numerical models that describe the response of a landscape to changes in climate or tectonics therefore require formulations that can accommodate evolution of channel cross-sectional geometry. However, fully two-dimensional (2-D) flow models are too computationally expensive to implement in large-scale landscape evolution models, while available simple empirical relationships between width and discharge do not adequately capture the dynamics of channel adjustment. We have developed a simplified 2-D numerical model of channel evolution in a cohesive, detachment-limited substrate subject to steady, unidirectional flow. Erosion is assumed to be proportional to boundary shear stress, which is calculated using an approximation of the flow field in which log-velocity profiles are assumed to apply along vectors that are perpendicular to the local channel bed. Model predictions of the velocity structure, peak boundary shear stress, and equilibrium channel shape compare well with predictions of a more sophisticated but more computationally demanding ray-isovel model. For example, the mean velocities computed by the two models are consistent to within ???3%, and the predicted peak shear stress is consistent to within ???7%. Furthermore, the shear stress distributions predicted by our model compare favorably with available laboratory measurements for prescribed channel shapes. A modification to our simplified code in which the flow includes a high-velocity core allows the model to be extended to estimate shear stress distributions in channels with large width-to-depth ratios. Our model is efficient enough to incorporate into large-scale landscape evolution codes and can be used to examine how channels adjust both cross-sectional shape and slope in response to tectonic and climatic

  3. [Environment capacity of eco-tourism resort].

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Wang, R

    2000-08-01

    The results of quantitative analysis on the amount of tourist, service-environment capacity, eco-environment capacity, and their relations in Five-finger Mountain eco-tourism resort indicate that the amount of tourist in common situation and in its extreme was 1918 and 2301 visitor-hour per day, and the service-environment capacity and eco-environment capacity were 6000 and 2400 visitor-hour per day, respectively. The eco-environment capacity was smaller than its service-environment capacity, and would become the first limiting factor to the increase of tourist amount, which was mainly due to the ecological fragility of resort, the lower resistance of biological communities to the disturbance, and the slower speed of ecosystem restoration after its being destroyed.

  4. Saddle-Point Properties and Nash Equilibria for Channel Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathar, Rudolf; Schmeink, Anke

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, transmission over a wireless channel is interpreted as a two-person zero-sum game, where the transmitter gambles against an unpredictable channel, controlled by nature. Mutual information is used as payoff function. Both discrete and continuous output channels are investigated. We use the fact that mutual information is a convex function of the channel matrix or noise distribution densities, respectively, and a concave function of the input distribution to deduce the existence of equilibrium points for certain channel strategies. The case that nature makes the channel useless with zero capacity is discussed in detail. For each, the discrete, continuous, and mixed discrete-continuous output channel, the capacity-achieving distribution is characterized by help of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The results cover a number of interesting examples like the binary asymmetric channel, the Z-channel, the binary asymmetric erasure channel, and the [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary symmetric channel. In each case, explicit forms of the optimum input distribution and the worst channel behavior are achieved. In the mixed discrete-continuous case, all convex combinations of some noise-free and maximum-noise distributions are considered as channel strategies. Equilibrium strategies are determined by extending the concept of entropy and mutual information to general absolutely continuous measures.

  5. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries. PMID:25007200

  6. Capacity of Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Networks with D-Delay Transmission Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Jiang; Xi, Zhipeng; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity problem of heterogeneous wireless networks in mobility scenarios. A heterogeneous network model which consists of n normal nodes and m helping nodes is proposed. Moreover, we propose a D-delay transmission strategy to ensure that every packet can be delivered to its destination nodes with limited delay. Different from most existing network schemes, our network model has a novel two-tier architecture. The existence of helping nodes greatly improves the network capacity. Four types of mobile networks are studied in this paper: i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in two-dimensional space, i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in three-dimensional space. Using the virtual channel model, we present an intuitive analysis of the capacity of two-dimensional mobile networks and three-dimensional mobile networks, respectively. Given a delay constraint D, we derive the asymptotic expressions for the capacity of the four types of mobile networks. Furthermore, the impact of D and m to the capacity of the whole network is analyzed. Our findings provide great guidance for the future design of the next generation of networks. PMID:27023548

  7. Probing the early development of visual working memory capacity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Aaron T.; Fox, Nicholas; Boas, David A.; Spencer, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a core cognitive system with a highly limited capacity. The present study is the first to examine VWM capacity limits in early development using functional neuroimaging. We recorded optical neuroimaging data while 3- and 4-year-olds completed a change detection task where they detected changes in the shapes of objects after a brief delay. Near-infrared sources and detectors were placed over the following 10–20 positions: F3 and F5 in left frontal cortex, F4 and F6 in right frontal cortex, P3 and P5 in left parietal cortex, and P4 and P6 in right parietal cortex. The first question was whether we would see robust task-specific activation of the frontal-parietal network identified in the adult fMRI literature. This was indeed the case: three left frontal channels and 11 of 12 parietal channels showed a statistically robust difference between the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin following the presentation of the sample array. Moreover, four channels in the left hemisphere near P3, P5, and F5 showed a robust increase as the working memory load increased from 1–3 items. Notably, the hemodynamic response did not asymptote at 1–2 items as expected from previous fMRI studies with adults. Finally, 4-year-olds showed a more robust parietal response relative to 3-year-olds, and an increasing sensitivity to the memory load manipulation. These results demonstrate that fNIRS is an effective tool to study the neural processes that underlie the early development of VWM capacity. PMID:23707803

  8. Probing the early development of visual working memory capacity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buss, Aaron T; Fox, Nicholas; Boas, David A; Spencer, John P

    2014-01-15

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a core cognitive system with a highly limited capacity. The present study is the first to examine VWM capacity limits in early development using functional neuroimaging. We recorded optical neuroimaging data while 3- and 4-year-olds completed a change detection task where they detected changes in the shapes of objects after a brief delay. Near-infrared sources and detectors were placed over the following 10-20 positions: F3 and F5 in left frontal cortex, F4 and F6 in right frontal cortex, P3 and P5 in left parietal cortex, and P4 and P6 in right parietal cortex. The first question was whether we would see robust task-specific activation of the frontal-parietal network identified in the adult fMRI literature. This was indeed the case: three left frontal channels and 11 of 12 parietal channels showed a statistically robust difference between the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin following the presentation of the sample array. Moreover, four channels in the left hemisphere near P3, P5, and F5 showed a robust increase as the working memory load increased from 1 to 3 items. Notably, the hemodynamic response did not asymptote at 1-2 items as expected from previous fMRI studies with adults. Finally, 4-year-olds showed a more robust parietal response relative to 3-year-olds, and an increasing sensitivity to the memory load manipulation. These results demonstrate that fNIRS is an effective tool to study the neural processes that underlie the early development of VWM capacity. PMID:23707803

  9. Determining the least limiting water range using limited soil data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) is a useful tool to evaluate changes in soil physical condition caused by changing soil management. It incorporates limitations to plant growth based on limiting aeration, water holding capacity and soil strength. A disadvantage of the LLWR is the need to determ...

  10. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  11. A Computational Model of Spatial Visualization Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Don R.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to…

  12. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-08-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  13. Performance and capacity analysis of Poisson photon-counting based Iter-PIC OCDMA systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingbin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Dingchen; Hanzo, Lajos

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, an iterative parallel interference cancellation (Iter-PIC) technique is developed for optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) systems relying on shot-noise limited Poisson photon-counting reception. The novel semi-analytical tool of extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts is used for analysing both the bit error rate (BER) performance as well as the channel capacity of these systems and the results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed Iter-PIC OCDMA system is capable of achieving two orders of magnitude BER improvements and a 0.1 nats of capacity improvement over the conventional chip-level OCDMA systems at a coding rate of 1/10.

  14. Nonequilibrium heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

  15. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  16. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses.

  17. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  18. Quantum information theory: classical communication over quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, John Anthony

    This thesis studies classical communication over quantum channels. Chapter 1 describes an algebraic technique which extends several previously known qubit channel capacity results to the qudit quantum channel case. Chapter 2 derives a formula for the relative entropy function of two qubit density matrices in terms of their Bloch vectors. The application of the Bloch vector relative entropy formula to the determination of Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) capacities for qubit quantum channels is discussed. Chapter 3 outlines several numerical simulation results which support theoretical conclusions and conjectures discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 4 closes the thesis with comments, examples and discussion on the additivity of Holevo Chi and the HSW channel capacity.

  19. Advanced high capacity domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Akio; Kohiyama, Kenji; Odate, Hitoshi; Ishida, Noriaki

    This paper describes a concept of multibeam high capacity transmission possible with a 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz domestic satellite communication system. The relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy and multi-beam antenna interference, as well as the relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy and multi-satellite interference are looked at. The ultra high capacity domestic satellite communication system will have multi-beam antennas with a 76.0 dB at both 20 GHz and 40 GHz. These antennas will provide 4950 beams that approximately correspond to the number of end office of the Japanese telephone network, and have a pointing accuracy of 0.005 degrees. This system will be equipped with 9900 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz transponder channels with bit rates of 800 Mbps. Its capacity will be 119 Tbps through use of 15 large communication satellite platforms.

  20. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A.; Russell, Charles J.; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E.; Krauss, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes

  1. How many channels are needed for MEG?

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Robinson, S E; McCubbin, J

    2004-01-01

    Channel count in modern MEG systems has been steadily increasing, but are more channels necessary? Assuming that the spatial sampling considerations are satisfied, this question can be answered by examining the MEG system's ability to localize and resolve brain sources. For the simple situation where only uncorrelated sensor noise is present, dipole localization accuracy monotonically increases with increasing number of channels, while for spatially correlated brain noise the accuracy increases only until the number of channels reaches 100 to 200. Beyond this limit the inter-channel separation is comparable to the brain noise correlation distance and increasing the channel count does not help. Contrary to the above dipole result, we show by simulations with up to several thousand channels, that if the data is analyzed by beamformers even in the presence of correlated brain noise, the two-source resolvability and single-source localization accuracy monotonically improve with increasing number of channels. We demonstrate such behavior for a 275 channels system, where we have inserted an artificial dipole into real measured brain noise and resampled the number of channels to 138. Beamformer analysis of the data shows markedly improved localization accuracy when the number of channels is increased from 138 to 275. This finding also signifies that the beamformer performance is not limited by system imperfections when the number of channels is as large as 275. To clarify these results, we illustrate analytically the mechanism of beamformer resolution dependence on the number of channels, using an example of a simple system containing two dipole sources, and uncorrelated sensor noise. PMID:16012656

  2. Spectrally Shaped DP-16QAM Super-Channel Transmission with Multi-Channel Digital Back-Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Galdino, Lidia; Sato, Masaki; Alvarado, Alex; Shi, Kai; Savory, Seb J.; Thomsen, Benn C.; Killey, Robert I.; Bayvel, Polina

    2015-02-01

    The achievable transmission capacity of conventional optical fibre communication systems is limited by nonlinear distortions due to the Kerr effect and the difficulty in modulating the optical field to effectively use the available fibre bandwidth. In order to achieve a high information spectral density (ISD), while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, multi-channel fibre nonlinearity compensation and spectrally efficient data encoding must be utilised. In this work, we use a single coherent super-receiver to simultaneously receive a DP-16QAM super-channel, consisting of seven spectrally shaped 10GBd sub-carriers spaced at the Nyquist frequency. Effective nonlinearity mitigation is achieved using multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) and this technique is combined with an optimised forward error correction implementation to demonstrate a record gain in transmission reach of 85%; increasing the maximum transmission distance from 3190 km to 5890 km, with an ISD of 6.60 b/s/Hz. In addition, this report outlines for the first time, the sensitivity of MC-DBP gain to linear transmission line impairments and defines a trade-off between performance and complexity.

  3. Spectrally Shaped DP-16QAM Super-Channel Transmission with Multi-Channel Digital Back-Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Galdino, Lidia; Sato, Masaki; Alvarado, Alex; Shi, Kai; Savory, Seb J.; Thomsen, Benn C.; Killey, Robert I.; Bayvel, Polina

    2015-01-01

    The achievable transmission capacity of conventional optical fibre communication systems is limited by nonlinear distortions due to the Kerr effect and the difficulty in modulating the optical field to effectively use the available fibre bandwidth. In order to achieve a high information spectral density (ISD), while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, multi-channel fibre nonlinearity compensation and spectrally efficient data encoding must be utilised. In this work, we use a single coherent super-receiver to simultaneously receive a DP-16QAM super-channel, consisting of seven spectrally shaped 10GBd sub-carriers spaced at the Nyquist frequency. Effective nonlinearity mitigation is achieved using multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) and this technique is combined with an optimised forward error correction implementation to demonstrate a record gain in transmission reach of 85%; increasing the maximum transmission distance from 3190 km to 5890 km, with an ISD of 6.60 b/s/Hz. In addition, this report outlines for the first time, the sensitivity of MC-DBP gain to linear transmission line impairments and defines a trade-off between performance and complexity. PMID:25645457

  4. Methodology and method and appartus for signaling with capacity optimized constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Communication systems are described that use geometrically shaped constellations that have increased capacity compared to conventional constellations operating within a similar SNR band. In several embodiments, the geometrically shaped is optimized based upon a capacity measure such as parallel decoding capacity or joint capacity. In many embodiments, a capacity optimized geometrically shaped constellation can be used to replace a conventional constellation as part of a firmware upgrade to transmitters and receivers within a communication system. In a number of embodiments, the geometrically shaped constellation is optimized for an Additive White Gaussian Noise channel or a fading channel.

  5. Bilayer Protograph Codes for Half-Duplex Relay Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; VanNguyen, Thuy; Nosratinia, Aria

    2013-01-01

    Direct to Earth return links are limited by the size and power of lander devices. A standard alternative is provided by a two-hops return link: a proximity link (from lander to orbiter relay) and a deep-space link (from orbiter relay to Earth). Although direct to Earth return links are limited by the size and power of lander devices, using an additional link and a proposed coding for relay channels, one can obtain a more reliable signal. Although significant progress has been made in the relay coding problem, existing codes must be painstakingly optimized to match to a single set of channel conditions, many of them do not offer easy encoding, and most of them do not have structured design. A high-performing LDPC (low-density parity-check) code for the relay channel addresses simultaneously two important issues: a code structure that allows low encoding complexity, and a flexible rate-compatible code that allows matching to various channel conditions. Most of the previous high-performance LDPC codes for the relay channel are tightly optimized for a given channel quality, and are not easily adapted without extensive re-optimization for various channel conditions. This code for the relay channel combines structured design and easy encoding with rate compatibility to allow adaptation to the three links involved in the relay channel, and furthermore offers very good performance. The proposed code is constructed by synthesizing a bilayer structure with a pro to graph. In addition to the contribution to relay encoding, an improved family of protograph codes was produced for the point-to-point AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) channel whose high-rate members enjoy thresholds that are within 0.07 dB of capacity. These LDPC relay codes address three important issues in an integrative manner: low encoding complexity, modular structure allowing for easy design, and rate compatibility so that the code can be easily matched to a variety of channel conditions without extensive

  6. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  7. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Magdy G.

    2013-01-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated. PMID:25685482

  8. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    applications that must be stable against environmental perturbations, such as acceleration or power supply variations. Measurements on fabricated devices in fact confirm predictions by the new model of up to 4x improvement in frequency stability against DC-bias voltage variations for contour-mode disk resonators as the resistance loading their ports increases. By enhancing circuit visualization, this circuit model makes more obvious the circuit design procedures and topologies most beneficial for certain mechanical circuits, e.g., filters and oscillators. The second method enables simultaneous low motional resistance ( Rx 70,000) at 61 MHz using an improved ALD-partial electrode-to-resonator gap filling technique that reduces the Q-limiting surface losses of previous renditions by adding an alumina pre-coating before ALD of the gap-filling high-k dielectric. This effort increases the Q over the ˜10,000 of previous renditions by more than 6x towards demonstration of the first VHF micromechanical resonators in any material, piezoelectric or not, to meet the simultaneous high Q (>50,000) and low motional resistance Rx (< 200O) specs highly desired for front-end frequency channelizer requirements in cognitive and software-defined radio architectures. The methods presented in this chapter finally overcome the high impedance bottleneck that has plagued capacitively transduced micro-mechanical resonators over the past decade. The third method introduces a capacitively transduced micromechanical resonator constructed in hot filament CVD boron-doped microcrystalline diamond (MCD) structural material that posts a measured Q of 146,580 at 232.441 kHz, which is 3x higher than the previous high for conductive polydiamond. Moreover, radial-contour mode disk resonators fabricated in the same MCD film and using material mismatched stems exhibit a Q of 71,400 at 299.86 MHz. The material used here further exhibits an acoustic velocity of 18,516 m/s, which is now the highest to date among

  9. Low-intensity, stocker-based channel catfish culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-intensity Channel Catfish production is characterized by low stocking rates, low installed aeration capacity, and no automated dissolved oxygen monitoring. Two studies conducted in nine 0.25-acre ponds quantified production characteristics of stocker Channel Catfish stocked for low-intensity foo...

  10. Effective IPTV channel management method over heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Hyunchul; Lee, Dai-boong; Song, Hwangjun

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents an effective IPTV channel management method using SVC (scalable video coding) that considers concurrently both channel zapping time and network utilization. A broadcasting channel is encoded in two-layered bitstream (base-layer channel and enhancement-layer channel) to supply for heterogeneous environments. The proposed algorithm locates only a limited numbers of base-layer channels close to users to reduce the network delay part of channel zapping time and adjusts the length of GOP (group of picture) into each base-layer channel to decrease the video decoding delay part of channel zapping time, which are performed based on user's channel preference information. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  11. Working Memory Capacity as a Dynamic Process

    PubMed Central

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Perone, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    A well-known characteristic of working memory (WM) is its limited capacity. The source of such limitations, however, is a continued point of debate. Developmental research is positioned to address this debate by jointly identifying the source(s) of limitations and the mechanism(s) underlying capacity increases. Here we provide a cross-domain survey of studies and theories of WM capacity development, which reveals a complex picture: dozens of studies from 50 papers show nearly universal increases in capacity estimates with age, but marked variation across studies, tasks, and domains. We argue that the full pattern of performance cannot be captured through traditional approaches emphasizing single causes, or even multiple separable causes, underlying capacity development. Rather, we consider WM capacity as a dynamic process that emerges from a unified cognitive system flexibly adapting to the context and demands of each task. We conclude by enumerating specific challenges for researchers and theorists that will need to be met in order to move our understanding forward. PMID:23335902

  12. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  13. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  14. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, David; Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías; Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K(+) channels discriminate K(+) over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K(+) channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K(+) channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K(+) channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance.

  15. Channel nut tool

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  16. Age of Martian channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The ages of large Martian channels have been studied by determining the relative abundances of craters superimposed on channels and adjacent terrains and by examining superposition relationships between channels and plains and mantle materials. The channels are extremely old, are spatially confined and temporally related to the ancient cratered terrain, and in many cases are related to the as yet poorly understood genetic processes of fretting and chaos formation. No evidence is found for recent channel activity.

  17. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  18. Channeled spectropolarimetry using iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dennis J.; LaCasse, Charles F.; Craven, Julia M.

    2016-05-01

    Channeled spectropolarimeters (CSP) measure the polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Conventional Fourier reconstruction suffers from noise, assumes the channels are band-limited, and requires uniformly spaced samples. To address these problems, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm. We develop a mathematical model of CSP measurements and minimize a cost function based on this model. We simulate a measured spectrum using example Stokes parameters, from which we compare conventional Fourier reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. Importantly, our iterative approach can reconstruct signals that contain more bandwidth, an advancement over Fourier reconstruction. Our results also show that iterative reconstruction mitigates noise effects, processes non-uniformly spaced samples without interpolation, and more faithfully recovers the ground truth Stokes parameters. This work offers a significant improvement to Fourier reconstruction for channeled spectropolarimetry.

  19. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  20. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility.

  1. Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangqing; Yu, Fang; Yang, Chang; Song, Jinyan; Tang, Longhua; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Fast and accurate quantitative measurement of biologically relevant molecules has been demonstrated for medical diagnostics and drug applications in photonic integrated circuits. Herein, we reported a highly-sensitive optical biosensor based on cascaded double-microring resonators. The sensor was integrated with microfluidic channels and investigated with its label-free detection capability. With a wavelength resolution of 0.47 nm, the measured binding capacity of the antibody on the surface exhibits reliable detection limit down to 7.10 μg/mL using human immunoglobulin G (hIgG).

  2. Gated compressor, distortionless signal limiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, R. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A distortionless gated compressor for limiting the amplitude of a signal so as not to produce undesired signal levels responsive thereto is disclosed. The gated compressor includes a distortionless multiplier which multiplies an AC signal from a factor defined by a DC control signal. The compressor includes a plurality of channels each responsive to a signal produced in response to the multiplier's output. When the signal supplied to any channel exceeds a prescribed level, the level of the DC control signal is reduced to reduce the multiplier's output level and thereby prevent the signal applied to any channel from exceeding its prescribed level.

  3. Communication Limits Due to Photon-Detector Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Farr, William H.

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted of the limit imposed by photon-detector jitter on the capacity of a pulse-position-modulated optical communication system in which the receiver operates in a photon-counting (weak-signal) regime. Photon-detector jitter is a random delay between impingement of a photon and generation of an electrical pulse by the detector. In the study, jitter statistics were computed from jitter measurements made on several photon detectors. The probability density of jitter was mathematically modeled by use of a weighted sum of Gaussian functions. Parameters of the model were adjusted to fit histograms representing the measured-jitter statistics. Likelihoods of assigning detector-output pulses to correct pulse time slots in the presence of jitter were derived and used to compute channel capacities and corresponding losses due to jitter. It was found that the loss, expressed as the ratio between the signal power needed to achieve a specified capacity in the presence of jitter and that needed to obtain the same capacity in the absence of jitter, is well approximated as a quadratic function of the standard deviation of the jitter in units of pulse-time-slot duration.

  4. Attention Capacity and Task Difficulty in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2005-01-01

    When a visual search task is very difficult (as when a small feature difference defines the target), even detection of a unique element may be substantially slowed by increases in display set size. This has been attributed to the influence of attentional capacity limits. We examined the influence of attentional capacity limits on three kinds of…

  5. Generic theory for channel sinuosity

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  6. Microfluidic channel fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

  7. Gramicidin Channels: Versatile Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Olaf S.; Koeppe, Roger E., II; Roux, Benoît

    Gramicidin channels are miniproteins in which two tryptophan-rich subunits associate by means of transbilayer dimerization to form the conducting channels. That is, in contrast to other ion channels, gramicidin channels do not open and close; they appear and disappear. Each subunit in the bilayer-spanning channel is tied to the bilayer/solution interface through hydrogen bonds that involve the indole NH groups as donors andwater or the phospholipid backbone as acceptors. The channel's permeability characteristics are well-defined: gramicidin channels are selective for monovalent cations, with no measurable permeability to anions or polyvalent cations; ions and water move through a pore whose wall is formed by the peptide backbone; and the single-channel conductance and cation selectivity vary when the amino acid sequence is varied, even though the permeating ions make no contact with the amino acid side chains. Given the plethora of available experimental information—for not only the wild-type channels but also for channels formed by amino acid-substituted gramicidin analogues—gramicidin channels continue to provide important insights into the microphysics of ion permeation through bilayer-spanning channels. For similar reasons, gramicidin channels constitute a system of choice for evaluating computational strategies for obtaining mechanistic insights into ion permeation through the more complex channels formed by integral membrane proteins.

  8. Capacity Limit, Link Scheduling and Power Control in Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different structures and applications, and require different…

  9. Nonperturbative approach to relativistic quantum communication channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, André G. S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the transmission of both classical and quantum information between two arbitrary observers in globally hyperbolic spacetimes using a quantum field as a communication channel. The field is supposed to be in some arbitrary quasifree state and no choice of representation of its canonical commutation relations is made. Both sender and receiver possess some localized two-level quantum system with which they can interact with the quantum field to prepare the input and receive the output of the channel, respectively. The interaction between the two-level systems and the quantum field is such that one can trace out the field degrees of freedom exactly and thus obtain the quantum channel in a nonperturbative way. We end the paper determining the unassisted as well as the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum channel capacities.

  10. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  11. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  12. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  13. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  14. Proteomics: capacity versus utility.

    PubMed

    Harry, J L; Wilkins, M R; Herbert, B R; Packer, N H; Gooley, A A; Williams, K L

    2000-04-01

    Until recently scientists studied genes or proteins one at a time. With improvements in technology, new tools have become available to study the complex interactions that occur in biological systems. Global studies are required to do this, and these will involve genomic and proteomic approaches. High-throughput methods are necessary in each case because the number of genes and proteins in even the simplest of organisms are immense. In the developmental phase of genomics, the emphasis was on the generation and assembly of large amounts of nucleic acid sequence data. Proteomics is currently in a phase of technological development and establishment, and demonstrating the capacity for high throughput is a major challenge. However, funding bodies (both in the public and private sector) are increasingly focused on the usefulness of this capacity. Here we review the current state of proteome research in terms of capacity and utility.

  15. Cholesterol and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557

  16. Fading channel simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to high frequency (HF) radio signal propagation through fading channels and, more particularly, to simulation of fading channels in order to characterize HF radio system performance in transmitting and receiving signals through such fading channels. Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  17. An overview of relay channels - Information theory of satellite data relay link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Takashi

    1987-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of the theory of the relay channel, the communication channel having a relay encoder between transmitter and receiver. The relay channel corresponds to a satellite data relay link. The basic problem of this theory is to find the channel capacity. The theory of the relay channel was introduced by Van der Meulen (1971) and was expanded by Cover and El Gamal (1979). This paper reviews the meaning of relay in communication, and discusses the general, degraded, Gaussian degraded, and feedback relay channels. Furthermore, the satellite data relay link is discussed in comparison with the relay channel theory.

  18. Nerve membrane ion channels as the target site of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Narahashi, Toshio

    2002-08-01

    Most insecticides are potent neurotoxicants that act on various neuroreceptors and ion channels. However, the major target receptors are limited to sodium channels, GABA receptors, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. DDT and pyrethroids act similarly on sodium channels to keep them open leading to hyperexcitation. Indoxacarb inhibits sodium channels and certain subtypes of nicotinic receptors. Dieldrin, lindane and fipronil block GABA receptors. Imidacloprid modulates nicotinic receptors in a complex manner. Spinosad's major target site appears to be nicotinic receptors.

  19. Airway and lung pathology due to mucosal surface dehydration in β-Epithelial Na+ Channel-overexpressing mice: role of TNFα and IL-4Rα signaling, influence of neonatal development, and limited efficacy of glucocorticoid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Livraghi, Alessandra; Grubb, Barbara R.; Hudson, Elizabeth J.; Wilkinson, Kristen J.; Sheehan, John K.; Mall, Marcus A.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Boucher, Richard C.; Randell, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of the epithelial Na+ channel β subunit (Scnn1b gene, βENaC protein) in transgenic (Tg) mouse airways dehydrates mucosal surfaces, producing mucus obstruction, inflammation, and neonatal mortality. Airway inflammation includes macrophage activation, neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment, and elevated KC, TNFα and chitinase levels. These changes recapitulate aspects of complex human obstructive airway diseases, but their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to identify pathways relevant to the development of Scnn1b-Tg mouse lung pathology. Genetic deletion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or its receptor, TNFR1, had no measurable effect on the phenotype. Deletion of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha subunit (IL-4Rα) abolished transient mucous secretory cell (MuSC) abundance and eosinophilia normally observed in neonatal wild-type (WT) mice. Similarly, IL-4Rα deficiency decreased MuSC and eosinophils in neonatal Scnn1b-Tg mice, which correlated with improved neonatal survival. However, chronic lung pathology in adult Scnn1b-Tg mice was not affected by IL-4Rα status. Prednisolone treatment ablated eosinophilia and MuSC in adult Scnn1b-Tg mice, but did not decrease mucus plugging or neutrophilia. These studies demonstrate that: 1) normal neonatal mouse airway development entails an IL-4Rα-dependent, transient abundance of MuSC and eosinophils; 2) absence of IL-4Rα improved neonatal survival of Scnn1b-Tg mice, likely reflecting decreased formation of asphyxiating mucus plugs; and 3) in Scnn1b-Tg mice, neutrophilia, mucus obstruction, and airspace enlargement are IL-4Rα- and TNFα-independent, and only MuSC and eosinophilia are sensitive to glucocorticoids. Thus, manipulation of multiple pathways will likely be required to treat the complex pathogenesis caused by airway surface dehydration. PMID:19299736

  20. Organizational capacity of nonprofit social service agencies.

    PubMed

    Paynter, Sharon; Berner, Marueen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. social safety net is formed by governmental and nonprofit organizations, which are trying to respond to record levels of need. This is especially true for local level organizations, such as food pantries. The organizational capacity literature has not covered front-line, local, mostly volunteer and low resource organizations in the same depth as larger ones. This analysis is a consideration of whether grassroots nonprofit organizations have the ability to be a strong component of the social safety net. Based on the literature on organizational capacity, a model is developed to examine how service delivery at the local level is affected by organizational capacity. Surprisingly, we find few of the characteristics previously identified as important are statistically significant in this study. Even when so, the material effect is negligible. Current organizational capacity research may apply to larger nonprofits, but not to the tens of thousands of small community nonprofits, a significant limitation to the research to date.

  1. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

  3. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  4. Quantum channels and their entropic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Holevo, A S; Giovannetti, V

    2012-04-01

    One of the major achievements of the recently emerged quantum information theory is the introduction and thorough investigation of the notion of a quantum channel which is a basic building block of any data-transmitting or data-processing system. This development resulted in an elaborated structural theory and was accompanied by the discovery of a whole spectrum of entropic quantities, notably the channel capacities, characterizing information-processing performance of the channels. This paper gives a survey of the main properties of quantum channels and of their entropic characterization, with a variety of examples for finite-dimensional quantum systems. We also touch upon the 'continuous-variables' case, which provides an arena for quantum Gaussian systems. Most of the practical realizations of quantum information processing were implemented in such systems, in particular based on principles of quantum optics. Several important entropic quantities are introduced and used to describe the basic channel capacity formulae. The remarkable role of specific quantum correlations-entanglement-as a novel communication resource is stressed.

  5. Ultimate classical communication rates of quantum optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, V.; García-Patrón, R.; Cerf, N. J.; Holevo, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Optical channels, such as fibres or free-space links, are ubiquitous in today's telecommunication networks. They rely on the electromagnetic field associated with photons to carry information from one point to another in space. A complete physical model of these channels must necessarily take quantum effects into account to determine their ultimate performances. Single-mode, phase-insensitive bosonic Gaussian channels have been extensively studied over past decades, given their importance for practical applications. In spite of this, a long-standing unsolved conjecture on the optimality of Gaussian encodings has prevented finding their classical communication capacity. Here, this conjecture is solved by proving that the vacuum state achieves the minimum output entropy of these channels. This establishes the ultimate achievable bit rate under an energy constraint, as well as the long awaited proof that the single-letter classical capacity of these channels is additive.

  6. Optimal channels for channelized quadratic estimators.

    PubMed

    Kupinski, Meredith K; Clarkson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We present a new method for computing optimized channels for estimation tasks that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. Maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimates are challenging to compute from high-dimensional likelihoods. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of channelized quadratic estimators (CQEs), since estimating likelihood moments from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. The channelized likelihood is then used to form ML estimates of the parameter(s). In this work we choose an imaging example in which the second-order statistics of the image data depend upon the parameter of interest: the correlation length. Correlation lengths are used to approximate background textures in many imaging applications, and in these cases an estimate of the correlation length is useful for pre-whitening. In a simulation study we compare the estimation performance, as measured by the root-mean-squared error (RMSE), of correlation length estimates from CQE and power spectral density (PSD) distribution fitting. To abide by the assumptions of the PSD method we simulate an ergodic, isotropic, stationary, and zero-mean random process. These assumptions are not part of the CQE formalism. The CQE method assumes a Gaussian channelized likelihood that can be a valid for non-Gaussian image data, since the channel outputs are formed from weighted sums of the image elements. We have shown that, for three or more channels, the RMSE of CQE estimates of correlation length is lower than conventional PSD estimates. We also show that computing CQE by using a standard nonlinear optimization method produces channels that yield RMSE within 2% of the analytic optimum. CQE estimates of anisotropic correlation length estimation are reported to demonstrate this technique on a two-parameter estimation problem. PMID:27409452

  7. Ion channels and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Membrane ion channels are essential for cell proliferation and appear to have a role in the development of cancer. This has initially been demonstrated for potassium channels and is meanwhile also suggested for other cation channels and Cl- channels. For some of these channels, like voltage-gated ether à go-go and Ca2+-dependent potassium channels as well as calcium and chloride channels, a cell cycle-dependent function has been demonstrated. Along with other membrane conductances, these channels control the membrane voltage and Ca2+ signaling in proliferating cells. Homeostatic parameters, such as the intracellular ion concentration, cytosolic pH and cell volume, are also governed by the activity of ion channels. Thus it will be an essential task for future studies to unravel cell cycle-specific effects of ion channels and non-specific homeostatic functions. When studying the role of ion channels in cancer cells, it is indispensable to choose experimental conditions that come close to the in vivo situation. Thus, environmental parameters, such as low oxygen pressure, acidosis and exposure to serum proteins, have to be taken into account. In order to achieve clinical application, more studies on the original cancer tissue are required, and improved animal models. Finally, it will be essential to generate more potent and specific inhibitors of ion channels to overcome the shortcomings of some of the current approaches.

  8. Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José; Puerto, Gustavo; Capmany, José

    2007-12-10

    This paper presents a novel architecture for DWDM bidirectional access networks providing symmetric dynamic capacity allocation for both downlink and uplink signals. A foldback arrayed waveguide grating incorporating an optical switch enables the experimental demonstration of flexible assignment of multiservice capacity. Different analog and digital services, such as CATV, 10 GHz-tone, 155Mb/s PRBS and UMTS signals have been transmitted in order to successfully test the system performance under different scenarios of total capacity distribution from the Central Station to different Base Stations with two reconfigurable extra channels for each down and upstream direction. PMID:19550967

  9. Early Education: The Creation of Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumin, Melvin

    Every human being is always open to some degree; for example, open for learning, experience, change, improvement, or further degradation by his own standards or those of others. Every experience alters an individual's learning capacity. Therefore, to say a child is naturally of high or low intelligence with unlimited or limited learning power is…

  10. Experimental characterization of Gaussian quantum-communication channels

    SciTech Connect

    Di Guglielmo, James; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Schnabel, Roman; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2007-07-15

    We present a full experimental characterization of continuous-variable quantum-communication channels established by shared entanglement together with local operations and classical communication. The resulting teleportation channel was fully characterized by measuring all elements of the covariance matrix of the shared two-mode squeezed Gaussian state. From the experimental data we determined the lower bound to the quantum channel capacity, the teleportation fidelity of coherent states, and the logarithmic negativity and purity of the shared state. Additionally, a positive secret key rate was obtained for two of the established channels.

  11. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    applications that must be stable against environmental perturbations, such as acceleration or power supply variations. Measurements on fabricated devices in fact confirm predictions by the new model of up to 4x improvement in frequency stability against DC-bias voltage variations for contour-mode disk resonators as the resistance loading their ports increases. By enhancing circuit visualization, this circuit model makes more obvious the circuit design procedures and topologies most beneficial for certain mechanical circuits, e.g., filters and oscillators. The second method enables simultaneous low motional resistance ( Rx 70,000) at 61 MHz using an improved ALD-partial electrode-to-resonator gap filling technique that reduces the Q-limiting surface losses of previous renditions by adding an alumina pre-coating before ALD of the gap-filling high-k dielectric. This effort increases the Q over the ˜10,000 of previous renditions by more than 6x towards demonstration of the first VHF micromechanical resonators in any material, piezoelectric or not, to meet the simultaneous high Q (>50,000) and low motional resistance Rx (< 200O) specs highly desired for front-end frequency channelizer requirements in cognitive and software-defined radio architectures. The methods presented in this chapter finally overcome the high impedance bottleneck that has plagued capacitively transduced micro-mechanical resonators over the past decade. The third method introduces a capacitively transduced micromechanical resonator constructed in hot filament CVD boron-doped microcrystalline diamond (MCD) structural material that posts a measured Q of 146,580 at 232.441 kHz, which is 3x higher than the previous high for conductive polydiamond. Moreover, radial-contour mode disk resonators fabricated in the same MCD film and using material mismatched stems exhibit a Q of 71,400 at 299.86 MHz. The material used here further exhibits an acoustic velocity of 18,516 m/s, which is now the highest to date among

  12. Ion channels in plants

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742

  13. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  14. C. elegans TRP channels.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels represent a superfamily of cation channels found in all eukaryotes. The C. elegans genome encodes seventeen TRP channels covering all of the seven TRP subfamilies. Genetic analyses in C. elegans have implicated TRP channels in a wide spectrum of behavioral and physiological processes, ranging from sensory transduction (e.g. chemosensation, touch sensation, proprioception and osmosensation) to fertilization, drug dependence, organelle biogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression, and neurotransmitter/hormone release. Many C. elegans TRP channels share similar activation and regulatory mechanisms with their vertebrate counterparts. Studies in C. elegans have also revealed some previously unrecognized functions and regulatory mechanisms of TRP channels. C. elegans represents an excellent genetic model organism for the study of function and regulation of TRP channels in vivo. PMID:21290304

  15. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  16. C. elegans TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    TRP (transient receptor potential) channels represent a superfamily of cation channels found in all eukaryotes. The C. elegans genome encodes seventeen TRP channels covering all of the seven TRP subfamilies. Genetic analyses in C. elegans have implicated TRP channels in a wide spectrum of behavioral and physiological processes, ranging from sensory transduction (e.g. chemosensation, touch sensation, proprioception and osmosensation) to fertilization, drug dependence, organelle biogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression, and neurotransmitter/hormone release. Many C. elegans TRP channels share similar activation and regulatory mechanisms with their vertebrate counterparts. Studies in C. elegans have also revealed some previously unrecognized functions and regulatory mechanisms of TRP channels. C. elegans represents an excellent genetic model organism for the study of function and regulation of TRP channels in vivo. PMID:21290304

  17. Iran outlines oil productive capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    National Iranian Oil Co. (NIOC) tested production limits last month to prove a claim of 4 million bd capacity made at September's meeting of the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Onshore fields account for 3.6 million bd of the total, with offshore fields providing the rest. NIOC plans to expand total capacity to 4.5 million bd by April 1993, consisting of 4 million b/d onshore and 500,000 b/d offshore. Middle East Economic Survey says questions remain about completion dates for gas injection, drilling, and offshore projects, but expansion targets are attainable within the scheduled time. NIOC said some slippage may be unavoidable, but it is confident the objective will be reached by third quarter 1993 at the latest. More than 60 rigs are working or about to be taken under contract to boost development drilling in onshore fields and provide gas injection in some. NIOC has spent $3.2 billion in foreign exchange on the drilling program in the last 2 1/2 years.

  18. Age and physical work capacity.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1999-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decrement in various components of physical work capacity, including aerobic power and capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and the tolerance of thermal stress. A part of the functional loss can be countered by regular physical activity, control of body mass, and avoidance of cigarette smoking. Nevertheless, athletes who continue to train regularly still show a substantial aging of both physiological function and competitive performance, reflecting a deterioration of cardiac pump function, a decrease of muscle strength, and a progressive impairment of heat tolerance. These various changes are of concern to the occupational physician, because of the rising average age of the labor force. In theory, an over-taxing of the heart and skeletal muscles might be thought to lead to a decrease of productivity, manifestations of worker fatigue such as absenteeism, accidents, and industrial disputes, and an increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injuries, heart attacks, and strokes. However, in practice, the productivity, health, and safety of the older worker pose relatively few problems. Reasons for this paradox are discussed, and it is stressed that in general there is no longer need to push workers to their physical limits because of automation-related changes in methods of production.

  19. Irreducible error rate in aeronautical satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1988-01-01

    The irreducible error rate in aeronautical satellite systems is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the introduction of a delay in the multipath component of a Rician channel increases the channel irreducible error rate. However, since the carrier/multipath ratio is usually large for aeronautical applications, this rise in the irreducible error rate should not be interpreted as a practical limitation of aeronautical satellite communications.

  20. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  1. Community Capacity Building:

    PubMed Central

    Goytia, Crispin N.; Todaro-Rivera, Lea; Brenner, Barbara; Shepard, Peggy; Piedras, Veronica; Horowitz, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background: Successful community–academic research partnerships require building the capacity of both community-based organizations (CBOs) and academics to conduct collaborative research of mutual interest and benefit. Yet, information about the needs and goals of research-interested CBOs is lacking. Our partnership aimed to conduct a community research needs assessment and to use results to develop future capacity-building programs for CBOs. Methods: Based on our review of the literature, informal interviews with research-interested CBOs and community-engaged research groups locally and nationally, we developed a needs assessment survey. Key domains of this survey included history and experience with research collaboration, interest in specific research topics, and preference for learning format and structure. We trained community health workers (CHWs) to recruit senior leaders from CBOs in New York City (NYC) and encourage them to complete an on-line survey. Results: Fully 54% (33/61) of CBOs completed the needs assessment. Most (69%) reported involvement with research or evaluation in the last 2 years and 33% had some funding for research. Although 75% had collaborated with academic institutions in the past, 58% did not rate this experience well. The four areas respondents prioritized for skills building were program evaluation, developing needs assessments, building surveys, and understanding statistical analyses. They were less interested in learning to build collaborations with academics. Conclusions: A formal needs assessment of research training and educational needs of CBOs revealed that most had experience, albeit negative, with academic collaborations. CBO leaders wanted to build skills to conduct and analyze assessments and program evaluations. Our community–academic partnership is using these findings to develop a research capacity-building course. Other partnerships should consider conducting such assessments to transform the capacity of CBOs to

  2. Autodirected insertion: preinserted VDAC channels greatly shorten the delay to the insertion of new channels.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Colombini, M

    1997-01-01

    VDAC, a mitochondrial outer membrane channel, has the ability to catalyze and direct the insertion of other VDAC channels into planar phospholipid membranes. The spontaneous rate of insertion of detergent-solubilized VDAC channels into phospholipid membranes is estimated to be 1.5 x 10(-5) channels min-1 micron-2. VDAC channels already in the membrane can increase this rate by a factor of 10(9). The presence of 5 M urea on the opposite side of the membrane increases this 10-fold to 4.5 x 10(5) channels min-1 microns-2. Similar but weaker effects are observed with Triton X100 addition (10(-3)% (v/v)). These agents are not acting on uninserted channels because they do not affect the delay from sample addition to first insertion. Under the chosen conditions, this delay is long (240 s) without preinserted channels. However, the presence of a few VDAC channels in the membrane reduces this delay to 14 s, close to the diffusion limit. Therefore, urea and Triton, added to the side of the membrane opposite that to which the VDAC sample was added, likely increase the flexibility of the VDAC channels in the membrane, allowing them to be more efficient catalysts for VDAC insertion. There are obvious implications for membrane protein insertion and targeting. PMID:9129814

  3. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  4. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  5. Patch clamp studies of human sperm under physiological ionic conditions reveal three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels.

    PubMed

    Mansell, S A; Publicover, S J; Barratt, C L R; Wilson, S M

    2014-05-01

    Whilst fertilizing capacity depends upon a K(+) conductance (GK) that allows the spermatozoon membrane potential (Vm) to be held at a negative value, the characteristics of this conductance in human sperm are virtually unknown. We therefore studied the biophysical/pharmacological properties of the K(+) conductance in spermatozoa from normal donors held under voltage/current clamp in the whole cell recording configuration. Our standard recording conditions were designed to maintain quasi-physiological, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) gradients. Experiments that explored the effects of ionic substitution/ion channel blockers upon membrane current/potential showed that resting Vm was dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K(+) current that flowed via channels that displayed only weak voltage dependence and limited (∼7-fold) K(+) versus Na(+) selectivity. This conductance was blocked by quinidine (0.3 mM), bupivacaine (3 mM) and clofilium (50 µM), NNC55-0396 (2 µM) and mibefradil (30 µM), but not by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM, 4-AP). Progesterone had no effect upon the hyperpolarizing K(+) current. Repolarization after a test depolarization consistently evoked a transient inward 'tail current' (ITail) that flowed via a second population of ion channels with poor (∼3-fold) K(+) versus Na(+) selectivity. The activity of these channels was increased by quinidine, 4-AP and progesterone. Vm in human sperm is therefore dependent upon a hyperpolarizing K(+) current that flows via channels that most closely resemble those encoded by Slo3. Although 0.5 µM progesterone had no effect upon these channels, this hormone did activate the pharmacologically distinct channels that mediate ITail. In conclusion, this study reveals three functionally and pharmacologically distinct cation channels: Ik, ITail, ICatSper.

  6. The Extent of Channelized Basal Water Flow Under the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, J.; Johnson, J. V.; Harper, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial ice flows due to a combination of deformation and basal sliding, with sliding accounting for most of the fastest ice flow. Basal sliding is controlled by the transport of water at the glacier's bed, which can be accomplished through both high pressure, low discharge, distributed flow, or low pressure, high discharge, channelized flow. Higher pressures are generally associated with more complete decoupling of a glacier from its bed and faster flow. As the intensity of summer melt in Greenland has increased, our poor understanding of the drainage network's discharge capacity and its coupling to sliding has generated fundamental questions, such as: will larger fluxes of liquid water promote or inhibit basal sliding? To investigate this question we have implemented a model of distributed and channelized flow developed by Werder et. al 2013. The sensitivity of the modeled channel network to basal and surface geometry, melt rate, boundary conditions, and other parameters is examined in a sequence of experiments using synthetic geometries. Expanding on these experiments, we run the model with realistic surface and bedrock data from Issunguata Sermia in Western Central Greenland. These experiments benefit from a wealth of in-situ data, including observations of basal water pressure. Our results suggest that the development of large channels is limited to the margins of the ice sheet, and that higher pressures continue to prevail in the interior.

  7. A computational model of spatial visualization capacity.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A

    2008-09-01

    Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to perform it. In this model, developed within the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) architecture, visualization capacity is limited by three mechanisms. Two of these (associative interference and decay) are longstanding characteristics of ACT-R's declarative memory. A third (spatial interference) is a new mechanism motivated by spatial proximity effects in our data. We tested the model in two experiments, one with parameter-value fitting, and a replication without further fitting. Correspondence between model and data was close in both experiments, suggesting that the model may be useful for understanding why visualizing new, complex spatial material is so difficult.

  8. Capacity Value of Wind Power - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Dent, C.; Keane, A.

    2010-01-01

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for generation system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to generation system aequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America, along with some new analysis, are highlighted with a discussion of relevant issues also given.

  9. Fading channel simulator

    DOEpatents

    Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  10. Preeclampsia, biomarkers, syncytiotrophoblast stress, and placental capacity.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher W G; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2015-10-01

    The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is mediated by dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast (STB). When this is stressed by uteroplacental malperfusion, its signaling to the mother changes, as part of a highly coordinated stress response. The STB signals are both proinflammatory and dysangiogenic such that the preeclamptic mother has a stronger vascular inflammatory response than normal, with an antiangiogenic bias. Angiogenic factors have limitations as preeclampsia biomarkers, especially for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia at term. However, if they are recognized as markers of STB stress, their physiological changes at term demonstrate that STB stress develops in all pregnancies. The biomarkers reveal that the duration of pregnancies is restricted by placental capacity, such that there is increasing placental dysfunction, at and beyond term. This capacity includes limitations imposed by the size of the uterus, the capacity of the uteroplacental circulation and, possibly, the supply of villous progenitor trophoblast cells. Limited placental capacity explains the increasing risks of postmaturity, including preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia is predictable because STB stress and changes in its biomarkers are intrinsic to poor placentation, an early pregnancy pathology. Prediction of preeclampsia at term is not good because there is no early STB pathology. Moreover, biomarkers cannot accurately diagnose term preeclampsia against a background of universal STB dysfunction, which may or may not be clinically revealed before spontaneous or induced delivery. In this sense, postterm pregnancy is, at best, a pseudonormal state. However, the markers may prove useful in screening for women with more severe problems of postmaturity.

  11. PERMANENT ROCKBOLT AND TEMPORARY CHANNEL INTERACTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Keifer; M. Taylor

    1995-03-14

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the interaction of a quality assurance (QA) classified item (QA-1 and QA-5) with an item of temporary function (QA: NONE), in accordance with Requirement 8 of the Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) (Reference Section 5.1). This interaction analysis will be done by determining the forces on ''Williams'' rockbolts transferred from temporary function channels under maximum capacity loads, and ensuring that these loads do not compromise the critical characteristics of these rockbolts.

  12. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2)...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2)...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2)...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2)...

  16. Higgs in bosonic channels (CMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2015-05-01

    The main Higgs boson decays into bosonic channels will be considered, presenting and discussing results from the latest reprocessing of data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, using the full dataset recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. For this purpose, results from the final Run-I papers for the H → ZZ → 4ℓ, H → γγ and H → WW analyses are presented, focusing on the Higgs boson properties, like the mass, the signal strenght, the couplings to fermions and vector bosons, the spin and parity properties. Furthermore, the Higgs boson width measurement exploiting the on-shell versus the off-shell cross section (in the H → ZZ → 4ℓ and H → ZZ → 2ℓ2ν decay channels) will be shown. All the investigated properties result to be fully consistent with the SM predictions: the signal strength and the signal strength modifiers are consistent with unity in all the bosonic channels considered; the hypothesis of a scalar particle is strongly favored, against the pseudoscalar or the vector/pseudovector or the spin-2 boson hypotheses (all excluded at 99% CL or higher in the H → ZZ → 4ℓ channel). The Higgs boson mass measurement from the combination of H → ZZ → 4ℓ and H → γγ channels gives a value mH = 125.03+0.26-0.27 (stat.) +0.13-0.15 (syst.). An upper limit ΓH < 22 MeV can be put on the Higgs boson width thanks to the new indirect method.

  17. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

    2011-03-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories. Supported by an Undergraduate Research Grant from Penn State Erie, The Behrend College.

  18. Mechanosensitive channels in microbes.

    PubMed

    Kung, Ching; Martinac, Boris; Sukharev, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    All cells, including microbes, detect and respond to mechanical forces, of which osmotic pressure is most ancient and universal. Channel proteins have evolved such that they can be directly stretched open when the membrane is under turgor pressure. Osmotic downshock, as in rain, opens bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels to jettison osmolytes, relieving pressure and preventing cell lysis. The ion flux through individual channel proteins can be observed directly with a patch clamp. MS channels of large and small conductance (MscL and MscS, respectively) have been cloned, crystallized, and subjected to biophysical and genetic analyses in depth. They are now models to scrutinize how membrane forces direct protein conformational changes. Eukaryotic microbes have homologs from animal sensory channels of the TRP superfamily. The MS channel in yeast is also directly sensitive to membrane stretch. This review examines the key concept that proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer can respond to the changes in the mechanical environment the lipid bilayer provides.

  19. Amyloid peptide channels.

    PubMed

    Kagan, B L; Azimov, R; Azimova, R

    2004-11-01

    At least 16 distinct clinical syndromes including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), rheumatoid arthritis, type II diabetes mellitus (DM), and spongiform encephelopathies (prion diseases), are characterized by the deposition of amorphous, Congo red-staining deposits known as amyloid. These "misfolded" proteins adopt beta-sheet structures and aggregate spontaneously into similar extended fibrils despite their widely divergent primary sequences. Many, if not all, of these peptides are capable of forming ion-permeable channels in vitro and possibly in vivo. Common channel properties include irreversible, spontaneous insertion into membranes, relatively large, heterogeneous single-channel conductances, inhibition of channel formation by Congo red, and blockade of inserted channels by Zn2+. Physiologic effects of amyloid, including Ca2+ dysregulation, membrane depolarization, mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP), and cytotoxicity, suggest that channel formation in plasma and intracellular membranes may play a key role in the pathophysiology of the amyloidoses. PMID:15702375

  20. A 60 channel PCM-ADPCM converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-M.; Bonnerot, G.; Jeandot, J.-L.; Lacroix, R.

    1982-04-01

    Coding techniques based on adaptive linear prediction and quantization are well suited to signals carried by telephone channels and can provide, with a per channel rate of 32 kbits/s, a level of quality compatible with the specifications of the conventional 64 kbit/s rate. The ADPCM technique described in this paper features a simple adaptive quantization scheme and a tenth-order linear prediction adaptive filter realized as a cascade of five second-order sections. Besides superior performance characteristics, the nonaccumulation of degradations in tandem connections is achieved. The implementation is a 60 channel PCM-ADPCM converter, called TMN 162. It is a fully digital equipment which offers a doubling of the capacity of digital links in telephone networks.

  1. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  2. How the optic nerve allocates space, energy capacity, and information.

    PubMed

    Perge, János A; Koch, Kristin; Miller, Robert; Sterling, Peter; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2009-06-17

    Fiber tracts should use space and energy efficiently, because both resources constrain neural computation. We found for a myelinated tract (optic nerve) that astrocytes use nearly 30% of the space and >70% of the mitochondria, establishing the significance of astrocytes for the brain's space and energy budgets. Axons are mostly thin with a skewed distribution peaking at 0.7 microm, near the lower limit set by channel noise. This distribution is matched closely by the distribution of mean firing rates measured under naturalistic conditions, suggesting that firing rate increases proportionally with axon diameter. In axons thicker than 0.7 microm, mitochondria occupy a constant fraction of axonal volume--thus, mitochondrial volumes rise as the diameter squared. These results imply a law of diminishing returns: twice the information rate requires more than twice the space and energy capacity. We conclude that the optic nerve conserves space and energy by sending most information at low rates over fine axons with small terminal arbors and sending some information at higher rates over thicker axons with larger terminal arbors but only where more bits per second are needed for a specific purpose. Thicker axons seem to be needed, not for their greater conduction velocity (nor other intrinsic electrophysiological purpose), but instead to support larger terminal arbors and more active zones that transfer information synaptically at higher rates. PMID:19535603

  3. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background.

  4. Lower bounds for communication capacities of two-qudit unitary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Dominic W.

    2007-12-15

    It is known that entangling capacities of bipartite unitary operations may be used to place upper bounds on communication capacities. Here we present alternative definitions of entangling capacities for unitary operations and use them to place lower bounds on the communication capacities of arbitrary bipartite unitaries. Thus entangling capacities may be used to place both upper and lower bounds on the communication capacities for arbitrary bipartite unitaries, allowing them to be more easily estimated. We elucidate the connection between these results and the standard formula for the entanglement assisted capacity of channels. In addition, we present more general methods for producing ensembles for communication from initial states for entanglement creation, and thereby derive sufficient conditions such that the usual forms of entangling capacity provide lower bounds on communication capacities.

  5. Bedload transport in alluvial channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo-Espinosa, M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Lopes, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic, sediment, land-use, and rock-erosivity data of 22 alluvial streams were used to evaluate conditions of bedload transport and the performance of selected bedload-transport equations. Transport categories of transport-limited (TL), partially transport-limited (PTL), and supply-limited (SL) were identified by a semiquantitative approach that considers hydraulic constraints on sediment movement and the processes that control sediment availability at the basin scale. Equations by Parker et al. in 1982, Schoklitsch in 1962, and Meyer-Peter and Muller in 1948 adequately predicted sediment transport in channels with TL condition, whereas the equations of Bagnold in 1980, and Schoklitsch, in 1962, performed well for PTL and SL conditions. Overall, the equation of Schoklitsch predicted well the measured bedload data for eight of 22 streams, and the Bagnold equation predicted the measured data in seven streams.

  6. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  7. Phosphoinositides regulate ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Bertil; Dickson, Eamonn J.; Kruse, Martin; Vivas, Oscar; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides serve as signature motifs for different cellular membranes and often are required for the function of membrane proteins. Here, we summarize clear evidence supporting the concept that many ion channels are regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. We describe tools used to test their dependence on phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and consider mechanisms and biological meanings of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels. This lipid regulation can underlie changes of channel activity and electrical excitability in response to receptors. Since different intracellular membranes have different lipid compositions, the activity of ion channels still in transit towards their final destination membrane may be suppressed until they reach an optimal lipid environment. PMID:25241941

  8. IBEX channel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.E.; Frost, C.A.; Freeman, J.R.; Jojola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Exploding wire experiments have been conducted to form a low-density channel for endoatmospheric channel-tracking experiments to be performed on the IBEX accelerator. Stainless steel and tungsten wires as small as six microns radius have been exploded using a 50 kJ, 200 kV fast capacitor bank designed and constructed for the purpose. Density channels have been produced. Preliminary results will be compared with a simple circuit model and hydrocode analysis. Efforts to diagnose the low-density channel are beginning. 5 refs.

  9. The Houston Ship Channel security: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Han Q.; Bellamy, P. A.; Pei, S. S. S.

    2007-04-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is a 50-mile long shipping channel that contains many private ports including the Port of Houston Authority. It has a uniquely critical role with respect to the US petroleum energy supply. The HSC security is currently planned for significant enhancement under the auspices of the Harris County and the Houston-based Port Strategic Security Council. The ultimate objective is to comprehensively address the HSC threat matrix. This paper describes the technical effort in support of this program. The HSC security is a complex system of systems that includes the physical control access system, the command, control, communication, and information (C4I) system, and the telecom infrastructure. The strategy is to coordinate the improvements of different components to achieve a high-impact net effectiveness. A key element is a planned high-capacity backbone optical network for integrating the C4I of many different HSC administrative-jurisdictional authorities, which will allow unified situational awareness for a more effective cooperation and coordination. Enhancement of surveillance and intrusion protection is crucial. A feasibility study was conducted for the HSC assuming common surveillance technologies including visible/IR camera, radar, and sonar. The method includes survey and theoretical modeling to detect threats of concern in the HSC natural environment. The result indicates that the HSC unique river-like geography offers both advantages and challenges. The narrow channel allows ease of waterside surveillance, but likely incurs high cost for its great length. In addition, landside security is also important owing to its location amidst urban-industrial zone. Lastly, limitation of the various technologies is discussed by considering the broader challenges of the intrusion problem.

  10. Heat Capacity of Hydrous Silicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, G.; Whittington, A. G.; Stechern, A.; Behrens, H.

    2015-12-01

    We determined the heat capacities of four series of glasses and liquids of basaltic and basaltic andesite compositions including two natural remelts from Fuego volcano, Guatemala, and two Fe-free analogs. The samples are low-alkali, Ca- and Mg-rich aluminosilicates with non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally-coordinated cation ratios (NBO/T) ranging between 0.33 and 0.67. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at atmospheric pressure between room temperature and ≈100 K above the glass transition for hydrous samples and up to ≈1800 K for dry samples. The water contents investigated range up to 5.34 wt.% (16.4 mol%). Water does not measurably affect the heat capacity of glasses (T capacity, which generally gets larger with increasing water content and with decreasing polymerization. The onset of the glass transition in hydrous samples also occurs below the Dulong-Petit limit of 3R/g atom. We see little change in liquid heat capacity with increasing water content; hydrous liquid heat capacities are within 3-6% of the dry liquid, at low temperatures just above the glass transition. However, dry liquids show a decrease in heat capacity with increasing temperature above the glass transition, from supercooled to superliquidus temperatures. Liquid heat capacity values just above the glass transition range between 95-100 J/mol K, whereas liquid heat capacity values at superliquidus temperatures are between 85-91 J/mol K. Comparison with other studies of the heat capacity of hydrous glasses and liquids shows that the liquid heat capacity of strongly depolymerized samples (NBO/T ≥ 0.8) increases with increasing water content, whereas depolymerized samples (0.4 ≤ NBO/T ≤ 0.8) or polymerized samples (NBO/T ≤ 0.4) generally show little change or a moderate decrease in liquid heat capacity with increasing water content.

  11. Assessing the performance of multi-purpose channel management measures at increasing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve

    2016-04-01

    In addition to hydroclimatic drivers, sediment deposition from high energy river systems can reduce channel conveyance capacity and lead to significant increases in flood risk. There is an increasing recognition that we need to work with the interplay of natural hydrological and morphological processes in order to attenuate flood flows and manage sediment (both coarse and fine). This typically includes both catchment (e.g. woodland planting, wetlands) and river (e.g. wood placement, floodplain reconnection) restoration approaches. The aim of this work was to assess at which scales channel management measures (notably wood placement and flood embankment removal) are most appropriate for flood and sediment management in high energy upland river systems. We present research findings from two densely instrumented research sites in Scotland which regularly experience flood events and have associated coarse sediment problems. We assessed the performance of a range of novel trial measures for three different scales: wooded flow restrictors and gully tree planting at the small scale (<1 km2), floodplain tree planting and engineered log jams at the intermediate scale (5-60 km2), and flood embankment lowering at the large scale (350 km2). Our results suggest that at the smallest scale, care is needed in the installation of flow restrictors. It was found for some restrictors that vertical erosion can occur if the tributary channel bed is disturbed. Preliminary model evidence suggested they have a very limited impact on channel discharge and flood peak delay owing to the small storage areas behind the structures. At intermediate scales, the ability to trap sediment by engineered log jams was limited. Of the 45 engineered log jams installed, around half created a small geomorphic response and only 5 captured a significant amount of coarse material (during one large flood event). As scale increases, the chance of damage or loss of wood placement is greatest. Monitoring

  12. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nicholas P; Ng, Brian W-H; Hansen, Hedley J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view. PMID:27019723

  13. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Nicholas P.; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Hansen, Hedley J.

    2015-01-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view. PMID:27019723

  14. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nicholas P; Ng, Brian W-H; Hansen, Hedley J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view.

  15. Channel Narrowing and Channel Reset: Effects of a Large Flood on the Vegetated, Narrowing Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In September 2008, heavy precipitation from a tropical storm in the Sierra Madre Occidental, MX, produced large amounts of stream flow to the Rio Conchos and lower Rio Grande. This flood was well publicized in the media due to the widespread flooding in Ojinaga, Chih., and Presidio, TX. Gage records indicate that this flood had an approximate recurrence of 15 years as measured on the Rio Grande near Presidio. Nevertheless, flood stages were the highest ever recorded and resulted from a significant loss of channel capacity due to channel narrowing that had occurred during the previous 18 years. Measurements from aerial photographs indicate that channel width had decreased between 35 and 50% between 1990 and 2008 during regional drought. During this period of low stream flow, invasion by non-native riparian vegetation (Tamarix spp., Arundo donax) helped trap sediment and promote floodplain accretion. Our resurveys of the channel indicate that the 2008 flood was a reset event and that the channel was re-widened by 32 to 48%. Repeated, oblique photographs showed significant channel migration and large scale floodplain stripping during this flood. These results show that although riparian vegetation may actively promote channel narrowing and floodplain accretion, moderately large floods may cause large scale bank erosion, floodplain stripping, and vegetation removal in alluvial valleys subject to large-scale invasion by nonnative plants.

  16. Heat Capacity in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.

    2005-05-01

    Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.

  17. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  18. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  19. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  20. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  1. Unlimited Capacity Parallel Quantity Comparison of Multiple Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that integer comparison is quick and efficient. This efficiency may be a function of the structure of the integer comparison system. The present study tests whether integers are compared with an unlimited capacity system or a limited capacity system. We tested these models using a visual search task with time delimitation. The…

  2. Relativistic quantum channel of communication through field quanta

    SciTech Connect

    Cliche, M.; Kempf, A.

    2010-01-15

    Setups in which a system Alice emits field quanta that a system Bob receives are prototypical for wireless communication and have been extensively studied. In the most basic setup, Alice and Bob are modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors for scalar quanta, and the only noise in their communication is due to quantum fluctuations. For this basic setup, we construct the corresponding information-theoretic quantum channel. We calculate the classical channel capacity as a function of the spacetime separation, and we confirm that the classical as well as the quantum channel capacity are strictly zero for spacelike separations. We show that this channel can be used to entangle Alice and Bob instantaneously. Alice and Bob are shown to extract this entanglement from the vacuum through a Casimir-Polder effect.

  3. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  4. Construction dynamics of a lava channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Favalli, Massimiliano; Mazzarini, Francesco; Hamilton, Christopher W.

    2009-05-01

    We use a kinematic GPS and laser range finder survey of a 200 m-long section of the Muliwai a Pele lava channel (Mauna Ulu, Kilauea) to examine the construction processes and flow dynamics responsible for the channel-levee structure. The levees comprise three packages. The basal package comprises an 80-150 m wide 'a'a flow in which a ˜2 m deep and ˜11 m wide channel became centred. This is capped by a second package of thin (<45 cm thick) sheets of pahoehoe extending no more than 50 m from the channel. The upper-most package comprises localised 'a'a overflows. The channel itself contains two blockages located 130 m apart and composed of levee chunks veneered with overflow lava. The channel was emplaced over 50 h, spanning 30 May-2 June, 1974, with the flow front arriving at our section (4.4 km from the vent) 8 h after the eruption began. The basal 'a'a flow thickness yields effusion rates of 35 m3 s-1 for the opening phase, with the initial flow advancing across the mapped section at ˜10 m/min. Short-lived overflows of fluid pahoehoe then built the levee cap, increasing the apparent channel depth to 4.8 m. There were at least six pulses at 90-420 m3 s-1, causing overflow of limited extent lasting no more than 5 min. Brim-full flow conditions were thus extremely short-lived. During a dominant period of below-bank flow, flow depth was ˜2 m with an effusion rate of ˜35 m3 s-1, consistent with the mean output rate (obtained from the total flow bulk volume) of 23-54 m3 s-1. During pulses, levee chunks were plucked and floated down channel to form blockages. In a final low effusion rate phase, lava ponded behind the lower blockage to form a syn-channel pond that fed 'a'a overflow. After the end of the eruption the roofed-over pond continued to drain through the lower blockage, causing the roof to founder. Drainage emplaced inflated flows on the channel floor below the lower blockage for a further ˜10 h. The complex processes involved in levee-channel construction

  5. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  6. Transmission over EHF mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, W.; Chouinard, J.-Y.; Yongacoglu, A.

    1993-01-01

    Land mobile satellite communications at Ka-band (30/20 GHz) are attracting an increasing interest among researchers because of the frequency band availability and the possibility of small earth station designs. However, communications at the Ka-band pose significant challenges in the system designs due to severe channel impairments. Because only very limited experimental data for mobile applications at Ka-band is available, this paper studies the channel characteristics based on experimental data at L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) and the use of frequency scaling. The land mobile satellite communication channel at Ka-band is modelled as log-normal Rayleigh fading channel. The first and second-order statistics of the fading channel are studied. The performance of a coherent BPSK system over the fading channel at L-band and K-band is evaluated theoretically and validated by computer simulations. Conclusions on the communication channel characteristics and system performance at L-band and Ka-band are presented.

  7. Ion channels in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187

  8. Local capacity for groundwater protection in Ontario.

    PubMed

    De Loë, Rob C; Di Giantomasso, Sandra E; Kreutzwiser, Reid D

    2002-02-01

    Preventing groundwater contamination is vastly cheaper than remediation. Recognizing this, attention in water and land management agencies in North America increasingly turn to groundwater protection. Local agencies, such as municipalities and watershed management districts, are vital to successful groundwater protection, but they face daunting challenges. In the United States, senior governments have recognized these challenges and provide considerable support for local agencies. In Ontario, Canada, local agencies are, to a much greater extent, on their own. The aims in this paper are to analyze factors that shape local capacity for groundwater protection, focusing on Ontario, and to recommend avenues for capacity building. Interrelationships among five dimensions of capacity (technical, financial, institutional, social, and political) are explored through an analysis of three smaller Ontario communities: City of Guelph (population 93,400), Town of Orangeville (population 22,188), and Town of Erin (population 11,000). Size clearly influences capacity for groundwater protection. However, other considerations unrelated to size appear to be as important. These other factors include the ability to form horizontal and vertical linkages with external agencies, political leadership and commitment, and citizen involvement. Thus, smaller communities in Ontario (and other jurisdictions with limited senior government support) would do well to focus on these areas at the same time as they develop their technical, financial, and institutional capacity.

  9. Generalized channeled polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values. PMID:24979633

  10. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

    2010-03-01

    We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  11. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  12. Study of wavelength division multiplexing as a means of increasing the number of channels in multimode fiber optic communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Harry

    1990-01-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Presently, all of these channels utilize a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 nm. The theoretical bandwidth of the fiber far exceeds the utilized capacity. Yet, practical considerations limit the usable bandwidth. The fibers have the capability of transmitting a multiplicity of signals simultaneously in each of two separate bands (1300 and 1550 nm). Thus, in principle, the number of transmission channels can be increased without installing new cable if some means of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) can be utilized. The main goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that a factor of 2 increase in bandwidth utilization can share the same fiber in both a unidirectional configuration and a bidirectional mode of operation. Both signal and multimode fiber are installed at KSC. The great majority is multimode; therefore, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  13. Sexual Consent Capacity Assessment with Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Syme, Maggie L; Steele, Debora

    2016-09-01

    Many healthcare providers have a limited knowledge of sexual and intimate expression in later life, often due to attitudinal and informational limitations. Further, the likelihood of an older adult experiencing cognitive decline increases in a long-term care (LTC) setting, complicating the ability of the providers to know if the older adult can make his or her own sexual decisions, or has sexual consent capacity. Thus, the team is left to question if and how to support intimacy and/or sexuality among residents with intimacy needs. Psychologists working with LTC need to be aware and knowledgeable about sexual consent capacity in older adulthood to be prepared to conduct evaluations and participate in planning care. Limited research is available to consult for best practices in sexual consent capacity assessment; however, models of assessment have been developed based on the best available evidence, clinical judgment, and practice. Existing models will be discussed and an integrated model will be illustrated via a case study. PMID:27480989

  14. BK Channels in the Vascular System.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy-Natarajan, G; Koide, M

    2016-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is essential for the preservation of organ function to ensure continuous supply of oxygen and essential nutrients and removal of metabolic waste. This is achieved by controlling the diameter of muscular arteries and arterioles that exhibit a myogenic response to changes in arterial blood pressure, nerve activity and tissue metabolism. Large-conductance voltage and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (BK channels), expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vascular wall of healthy arteries, play a critical role in regulating the myogenic response. Activation of BK channels by intracellular, local, and transient ryanodine receptor-mediated "Ca(2+) sparks," provides a hyperpolarizing influence on the SMC membrane potential thereby decreasing the activity of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and limiting Ca(2+) influx to promote SMC relaxation and vasodilation. The BK channel α subunit, a large tetrameric protein with each monomer consisting of seven-transmembrane domains, a long intracellular C-terminal tail and an extracellular N-terminus, associates with the β1 and γ subunits in vascular SMCs. The BK channel is regulated by factors originating within the SMC or from the endothelium, perivascular nerves and circulating blood, that significantly alter channel gating properties, Ca(2+) sensitivity and expression of the α and/or β1 subunit. The BK channel thus serves as a central receiving dock that relays the effects of the changes in several such concomitant autocrine and paracrine factors and influences cardiovascular health. This chapter describes the primary mechanism of regulation of myogenic response by BK channels and the alterations to this mechanism wrought by different vasoactive mediators. PMID:27238270

  15. Fine Channel Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Rothmayer, A P

    2014-07-28

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large.

  17. Why are Channels Sinuous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, J. A.; Lazarus, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sinuosity is a ubiquitous property of channelized flow patterns on Earth and other planetary bodies. Sinuosity is typically discussed as an emergent consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, but meandering rivers are only one type of sinuous channel: there are many examples that show little or no indication of meandering, such as bedrock river canyons, drainage channels in tidal mudflats, and volcanic rilles. In some of these patterns, sinuosity is described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which elides an explanation for how the inherited sinuosity originated. Even in river meandering theory there is ongoing debate regarding how initial channel sinuosity arises. Comparing the results of a generalized flow-routing model to observations of natural flow patterns, we find that the ratio of floodplain resistance (R, representing topographic roughness, substrate erodibility, or vegetation density) relative to floodplain slope (m) produces a range of sinuous planforms with natural analogs. We offer a unifying theory for channel sinuosity in which this ratio of resistance to slope (R:m) exerts the primary landscape control on planform shape and predicts the range of sinuosity a floodplain may express. Resistance-dominated floodplains produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated floodplains because increased resistance impedes down-slope flow. Measurement of "relative resistance" (R:m) could inform how riparian restoration projects evaluate the floodplains of artificially straightened rivers. Our analysis suggests that if the sinuosity of a formerly natural channel derived from a high R:m, then even a channel redesigned to be sinuous will straighten if the relative resistance of its floodplain is suppressed or inherently low. (Alternatively, increasing floodplain resistance might foster a higher sinuosity than hydraulic geometry would forecast.) The explanation for sinuosity that we propose is universal enough to account

  18. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93 Airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  20. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  1. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  2. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  3. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  4. Limits to Tidal Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

  5. Channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of Tijuana, Mexico: Enlargement downstream of channel hardpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Biggs, Trent; Langendoen, Eddy; Castillo, Carlos; Gudiño, Napoleon; Yuan, Yongping; Liden, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Urban-induced erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, has led to excessive sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States. Urban areas in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, are characterized by much lower proportions of vegetation and impervious surfaces due to limited access to urban services such as road paving and landscaping, and larger proportions of exposed soils. In developing countries, traditional watershed scale variables such as impervious surfaces may not be good predictors of channel enlargement. In this research, we surveyed the stream channel network of an erodible tributary of the Tijuana River Watershed, Los Laureles Canyon, at 125 locations, including repeat surveys from 2008. Structure from Motion (SfM) and 3D photo-reconstruction techniques were used to create digital terrain models of stream reaches upstream and downstream of channel hardpoints. Channels are unstable downstream of hardpoints, with incision up to 2 meters and widening up to 12 meters. Coordinated channelization is essential to avoid piece-meal approaches that lead to channel degradation. Watershed impervious area is not a good predictor of channel erosion due to the overriding importance of hardpoints and likely to the high sediment supply from the unpaved roads which prevents channel erosion throughout the stream network.

  6. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum limiting factors contributed by the transmitter, the optical channel, and the receiver of a space-to-ground optical communications link are described. Approaches to move toward the ultimate quantum limit are discussed.

  7. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  8. Application of neural networks to channel assignment for cellular CDMA networks with multiple services and mobile base stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    1996-03-01

    The use of artificial neural networks to the channel assignment problem for cellular code- division multiple access (CDMA) telecommunications systems is considered. CDMA takes advantage of voice activity and spatial isolation because its capacity is only interference limited, unlike time-division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) where capacities are bandwidth limited. Any reduction in interference in CDMA translates linearly into increased capacity. FDMA and TDMA use a frequency reuse pattern as a method to increase capacity, while CDMA reuses the same frequency for all cells and gains a reuse efficiency by means of orthogonal codes. The latter method can improve system capacity by factors of four to six over digital TDMA or FDMA. Cellular carriers are planning to provide multiple communication services using CDMA in the next generation cellular system infrastructure. The approach of this study is the use of neural network methods for automatic and local network control, based on traffic behavior in specific cell cites and demand history. The goal is to address certain problems associated with the management of mobile and personal communication services in a cellular radio communications environment. In planning a cellular radio network, the operator assigns channels to the radio cells so that the probability of the processed carrier-to-interference ratio, CII, exceeding a predefined value is sufficiently low. The RF propagation, determined from the topography and infrastructure in the operating area, is used in conjunction with the densities of expected communications traffic to formulate interference constraints. These constraints state which radio cells may use the same code (channel) or adjacent channels at a time. The traffic loading and the number of service grades can also be used to calculate the number of required channels (codes) for each cell. The general assignment problem is the task of assigning the required number

  9. The Limits to Adaptation; A Systems Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Limits to Adaptation: A Systems Approach. The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering...

  10. Assessing the performance of quantum repeaters for all phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most sought-after goals in experimental quantum communication is the implementation of a quantum repeater. The performance of quantum repeaters can be assessed by comparing the attained rate with the quantum and private capacity of direct transmission, assisted by unlimited classical two-way communication. However, these quantities are hard to compute, motivating the search for upper bounds. Takeoka, Guha and Wilde found the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel to be an upper bound on both these capacities. In general it is still hard to find the exact value of the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel, but clever sub-optimal squashing channels allow one to upper bound this quantity, and thus also the corresponding capacities. Here, we exploit this idea to obtain bounds for any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. This bound allows one to benchmark the implementation of quantum repeaters for a large class of channels used to model communication across fibers. In particular, our bound is applicable to the realistic scenario when there is a restriction on the mean photon number on the input. Furthermore, we show that the squashed entanglement of a channel is convex in the set of channels, and we use a connection between the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel and its entanglement assisted classical capacity. Building on this connection, we obtain the exact squashed entanglement and two-way assisted capacities of the d-dimensional erasure channel and bounds on the amplitude-damping channel and all qubit Pauli channels. In particular, our bound improves on the previous best known squashed entanglement upper bound of the depolarizing channel.

  11. Calcium Channel Signaling Complexes with Receptors and Channels.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are not only mediators of cell signalling events, but also are recipients of signalling inputs from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their associated second messenger pathways. The coupling of GPCRs to calcium channels is optimized through the formation of receptor-channel complexes. In addition, this provides a mechanism for receptorchannel co-trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. On the other hand, voltage-gated calcium channel activity affects other types of ion channels such as voltage-and calcium-activated potassium channels. Coupling efficiency between these two families of channels is also enhanced through the formation of channel-channel complexes. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge on the physical interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels and members of the GPCR family, and with other types of ion channels.

  12. Channel in Kasei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 November 2004 The Kasei Valles are a suite of very large, ancient outflow channels. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the youngest channel system in the Kasei Valles. Torrents of mud, rocks, and water carved this channel as flow was constricted through a narrow portion of the valley. Layers exposed by the erosion that created the channel can be seen in its walls. This 1.4 meters (5 feet) per pixel image is located near 21.1oN, 72.6oW. The picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  13. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  14. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldschlager N. Cardiovascular toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ... SD. Calcium channel antagonists. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ...

  15. TRP channels in disease.

    PubMed

    Jordt, S E; Ehrlich, B E

    2007-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of proteins with six main subfamilies termed the TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPP (polycystin), TRPML (mucolipin), and TRPA (ankyrin) groups. The sheer number of different TRPs with distinct functions supports the statement that these channels are involved in a wide range of processes ranging from sensing of thermal and chemical signals to reloading intracellular stores after responding to an extracellular stimulus. Mutations in TRPs are linked to pathophysiology and specific diseases. An understanding of the role of TRPs in normal physiology is just beginning; the progression from mutations in TRPs to pathophysiology and disease will follow. In this review, we focus on two distinct aspects of TRP channel physiology, the role of TRP channels in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and their role in the transduction of painful stimuli in sensory neurons. PMID:18193640

  16. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  17. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

  18. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  19. Choked Flows in Open Capillary Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendhal, U.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the forced liquid flow through an open capillary channel is investigated experimentally under reduced gravity conditions (microgravity). The channel consists of two parallel plates and has two free liquid surfaces at the sides. Depending on the applied volume flux, the liquid pressure decreases in the flow direction due to flow losses. To achieve a stationary flow the difference between the liquid pressure and the ambient pressure has to be balanced by the capillary pressure of the free surface. Since the free surface can only withstand a certain difference pressure, the flow rate in the channel is limited. The maximum flow rate is achieved when the surfaces collapse at the end of the capillary channel. The aim of this investigation is to understand the mechanism of the flow rate limitation. Our thesis is, that the limitation occurs due to choking, which is known from compressible gas flows and open channel flow under normal gravity. The theory of choked flow predicts a limiting velocity corresponding to a characteristic signal velocity of the flow. Once that this critical velocity is reached the mass flow is maximal and cannot be increased further. For the open capillary channel flow we except a limiting velocity defined by the speed of longitudinal (capillary) waves. The investigations were performed in the Bremen drop tower and on board the sounding rocket TEXUS-37. For the prediction of the critical velocity an one-dimensional theoretical model taking into account the entrance pressure loss and the frictional pressure loss in the channel is developed. The experiment evaluation yields the critical velocity in the channel and the surface contour in good accuracy with the theoretical prediction. We show that the gained differential equation is of the same structure like the equations of similar compressible gas flows. The key parameter is the ratio of the liquid velocity and the characteristic wave speed which can be taken as a Weber number

  20. GIS technology for spatiotemporal measurements of gully channel width evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field observations of gully evolution in active croplands have often revealed the presence of a less erodible soil layer that is typically associated with tillage practices (i.e. plowpan). This more erosion-resistant layer limits channel incision forcing the gully channel to expand laterally through...