Hydrodynamical Dispersion in Taylor-Couette Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piva, M.; Calvo, A.; Aguirre, A.; Callegari, G.; Gabbanelli, S.; Rosen, M.; Wesfreid, J. E.
1997-04-01
In this article we study the mass tracer dispersion in organized flows. For this purpose we performed experiments in the flow arising from the Taylor-Couette hydrodynamic instability combined with axial flow. The tracer evolution is followed by means of optical measurements of the concentration. In this way transmission curves are obtained. We compare these curves with the solutions of the Gaussian models of mass diffusion and with phenomenological models including tracer trapping in the cells. This comparison gives us physical parameters related to the typical time and distances involved in the diffusive behaviour of tracers in the regions with recirculations and trapping.
Ultraviolet disinfection: similitude in Taylor-Couette and channel flow.
Forney, L J; Goodridge, C F; Pierson, J A
2003-11-01
The inactivation data for Escherichia coli are recorded for the three reactor geometries of Taylor-Couette flow and flow between either concentric cylinders or a square channel. All of the data are shown to be correlated with the assumption of plug flow. In particular, the effects of nonuniform radiation levels are accounted for by integration across the fluid channel as done previously. However, a new correction factor is introduced that is shown to be inversely proportional to the laminar, velocity boundary thickness to account for the effects of a concentration boundary layer of surviving pathogen. It has also been demonstrated that the common problems of nonuniform radiation levels and concentration boundary layer effects in UV reactors are largely eliminated with the use of Taylor-Couette flow. Moreover, the repetitive exposure of fluid parcels to a small number of lamps in the rotating Taylor-Couette flow decreases maintainance requirements compared to the hydrodynamic equivalent of cross-flow over a tube bank or lamp array. Over a 3-log reduction in the inactivation of E. coli was demonstrated compared to a conventional channel with the same radiation dosage. Moreover, greater than a 2-log reduction was evident compared to flow through concentric cylinders.
Structure parameters in rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knightly, George H.; Sather, D.
1986-01-01
It is well-known that a number of steady state problems in fluid mechanics involving systems of nonlinear partial differential equations can be reduced to the problem of solving a single operator equation of the form: v + lambda Av + lambda B(v) = 0, v is the summation of H, lambda is the summation of one-dimensional Euclid space, where H is an appropriate (real or complex) Hilbert space. Here lambda is a typical load parameter, e.g., the Reynolds number, A is a linear operator, and B is a quadratic operator generated by a bilinear form. In this setting many bifurcation and stability results for problems were obtained. A rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flow was studied, and it showed that, in general, the superposition of a Poiseuille flow on a rotating Couette channel flow is destabilizing.
Structure parameters in rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knightly, George H.; Sather, D.
It is well-known that a number of steady state problems in fluid mechanics involving systems of nonlinear partial differential equations can be reduced to the problem of solving a single operator equation of the form: v + lambda Av + lambda B(v) = 0, v is the summation of H, lambda is the summation of one-dimensional Euclid space, where H is an appropriate (real or complex) Hilbert space. Here lambda is a typical load parameter, e.g., the Reynolds number, A is a linear operator, and B is a quadratic operator generated by a bilinear form. In this setting many bifurcation and stability results for problems were obtained. A rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flow was studied, and it showed that, in general, the superposition of a Poiseuille flow on a rotating Couette channel flow is destabilizing.
Studies of Rossby waves and hydrodynamic turbulence in a Taylor-Couette device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edlund, Eric; Schartman, E.; Spence, E.; Roach, A.; Sloboda, P.; Ji, H.
2010-11-01
We present the design of a new experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with the mission of studying angular momentum transport in rotating incompressible fluids at Re >10^6. This hydrodynamic experiment supports and complements a similar device, the Princeton MRI experiment, which uses a liquid metal to study MHD effects [1]. The inner and outer cylinders may be separately driven; differentially rotating rings on the top and bottom boundaries between the cylinders allow the Ekman circulation to be greatly diminished while maintaining shear in the azimuthal flow close to the Rayleigh criterion. The top, fluid-facing boundary of the device can be outfitted with various surfaces or operated with a free surface to modify the Rossby wave characteristics. A set of ultrasonic transducers is used to measure the vr and vφ profiles at three distinct heights. A two component LDV system provides measurements of the local vr and vφ which will further constrain measurements of the turbulent angular momentum transport reported previously [2].[4pt] [1] E. Schartman et al., RSI 80, 024501 (2009).[0pt] [2] H. Ji et al., Nature 444, 343 (2006).
Hydrodynamic resistance and mobility of deformable objects in microfluidic channels.
Sajeesh, P; Doble, M; Sen, A K
2014-09-01
This work reports experimental and theoretical studies of hydrodynamic behaviour of deformable objects such as droplets and cells in a microchannel. Effects of mechanical properties including size and viscosity of these objects on their deformability, mobility, and induced hydrodynamic resistance are investigated. The experimental results revealed that the deformability of droplets, which is quantified in terms of deformability index (D.I.), depends on the droplet-to-channel size ratio [Formula: see text] and droplet-to-medium viscosity ratio [Formula: see text]. Using a large set of experimental data, for the first time, we provide a mathematical formula that correlates induced hydrodynamic resistance of a single droplet [Formula: see text] with the droplet size [Formula: see text] and viscosity [Formula: see text]. A simple theoretical model is developed to obtain closed form expressions for droplet mobility [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The predictions of the theoretical model successfully confront the experimental results in terms of the droplet mobility [Formula: see text] and induced hydrodynamic resistance [Formula: see text]. Numerical simulations are carried out using volume-of-fluid model to predict droplet generation and deformation of droplets of different size ratio [Formula: see text] and viscosity ratio [Formula: see text], which compare well with that obtained from the experiments. In a novel effort, we performed experiments to measure the bulk induced hydrodynamic resistance [Formula: see text] of different biological cells (yeast, L6, and HEK 293). The results reveal that the bulk induced hydrodynamic resistance [Formula: see text] is related to the cell concentration and apparent viscosity of the cells. PMID:25538806
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for water wave propagation in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidvar, Pourya; Norouzi, Hossein; Zarghami, Ahad
2015-01-01
In this paper, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to simulate the propagation of waves in an intermediate depth water channel. The major advantage of using SPH is that no special treatment of the free surface is required, which is advantageous for simulating highly nonlinear flows with possible wave breaking. The SPH method has an option of different formulations with their own advantages and drawbacks to be implemented. Here, we apply the classical and Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) formulation for wave propagation in a water channel. The classical SPH should come with an artificial viscosity which stabilizes the numerical algorithm and increases the accuracy. Here, we will show that the use of classical SPH with an artificial viscosity may cause the waves in the channel to decay. On the other hand, we will show that using the ALE-SPH algorithm with a Riemann solver is more stable, and in addition to producing the pressure fields with much less numerical noise, the waves propagate in the channel without dissipation.
Fluidic Channels Produced by Electro Hydrodynamic Viscous Fingering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behler, Kristopher; Wetzel, Eric
2010-03-01
Viscous fingering is a term describing fingerlike extensions of liquid from a column of low viscosity liquid that has been injected into a more viscous liquid. The modification of viscous fingering, known as electro hydrodynamic viscous fingering (EHVF), utilizes large electrical potentials of 10-60 kV. The fingers see a reduction in size and increase in branching behavior due to the potential applied to the system. The resulting finely structured patterns are analogous to biological systems such as blood vessels and the lymphatic system. In this study silicone oils and water were studied in thin channel Hele-Shaw cells. The interfacial tension was optimized by altering the surfactant concentration in the silicone oils. EHVF of liquid filled packed beds consisting of beads and silicone oils showed retardation of the relaxation of the fingers after the voltage was turned off. Decreased relaxation provides a means to solidify patterns into a curable material, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). After the water is evacuated from the fingers, the cured materials then possess hollow channels that can be refilled and emptied, thus creating an artificial circulatory system.
A spherical Taylor-Couette dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe
2016-04-01
We present a new scenario for magnetic field amplification in the planetary interiors where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) with thin aspect-ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a primary hydrodynamic instability is widely known to develop in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating, axisymmetric toroidal vortices (Taylor vortices) similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. We characterize the subcritical dynamo bifurcation due to this spherical Taylor-Couette flow and study its evolution as the flow successively breaks into wavy and turbulent Taylor vortices for increasing Reynolds number. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value as the Reynolds number is gradually increased. The role of global rotation on the dynamo threshold and the implications for planetary interiors are finally discussed.
Juice irradiation with Taylor-Couette flow: UV inactivation of Escherichia coli.
Forney, L J; Pierson, J A; Ye, Z
2004-11-01
A novel reactor is described with flow characteristics that approach that of ideal plug flow but with a residence time that is uncoupled from the hydrodynamics or boundary layer characteristics. The design described consists of an inner cylinder that rotates within a stationary but larger outer cylinder. At low rotation rates, a laminar, hydrodynamic configuration called Taylor-Couette flow is established, which consists of a system of circumferential vortices within the annular fluid gap. The latter constitutes a spatially periodic flow that is the hydrodynamic equivalent to cross flow over a tube bank or lamp array. These vortices provide radial mixing, reduce the boundary layer thickness, and are independent of the axial flow rate and thus the fluid residence time. An additional feature of the rotating design is the repetitive exposure of the fluid parcels to a minimum number of lamps, which substantially reduces the maintenance requirements. Inactivation data for Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) were recorded in commercial apple and grape juice that are relatively opaque to UV radiation. With initial E. coli concentrations of approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, Taylor-Couette flow was found to provide a 3- to 5-log improvement in the inactivation efficiency compared with simple channel flow between concentric cylinders. PMID:15553621
Coevolution of hydrodynamics, vegetation and channel evolution in wetlands of a semi-arid floodplain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seoane, Manuel; Rodriguez, Jose Fernando; Rojas, Steven Sandi; Saco, Patricia Mabel; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saintilan, Neil; Wen, Li
2015-04-01
The Macquarie Marshes are located in the semi-arid region in north western NSW, Australia, and constitute part of the northern Murray-Darling Basin. The Marshes are comprised of a system of permanent and semi-permanent marshes, swamps and lagoons interconnected by braided channels. The wetland complex serves as nesting place and habitat for many species of water birds, fish, frogs and crustaceans, and portions of the Marshes was listed as internationally important under the Ramsar Convention. Some of the wetlands have undergone degradation over the last four decades, which has been attributed to changes in flow management upstream of the marshes. Among the many characteristics that make this wetland system unique is the occurrence of channel breakdown and channel avulsion, which are associated with decline of river flow in the downstream direction typical of dryland streams. Decrease in river flow can lead to sediment deposition, decrease in channel capacity, vegetative invasion of the channel, overbank flows, and ultimately result in channel breakdown and changes in marsh formation. A similar process on established marshes may also lead to channel avulsion and marsh abandonment, with the subsequent invasion of terrestrial vegetation. All the previous geomorphological evolution processes have an effect on the established ecosystem, which will produce feedbacks on the hydrodynamics of the system and affect the geomorphology in return. In order to simulate the complex dynamics of the marshes we have developed an ecogeomorphological modelling framework that combines hydrodynamic, vegetation and channel evolution modules and in this presentation we provide an update on the status of the model. The hydrodynamic simulation provides spatially distributed values of inundation extent, duration, depth and recurrence to drive a vegetation model based on species preference to hydraulic conditions. It also provides velocities and shear stresses to assess geomorphological
Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a laminar flow of viscoelastic fluid in a flat slot channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananyev, D. V.; Halitova, G. R.; Vachagina, E. K.
2015-01-01
Results of the numerical study of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a laminar flow of viscoelastic fluid in a flat slot channel are presented in the present paper. The model of nonlinear viscoelastic fluid of Phan-Thien—Tanner is used to describe the viscoelastic properties of fluid. The solution to the stated problem by software package "COMSOL Multiphysics" is considered. The method of solution is verified, and results are compared with data of the other authors. It is determined that in the flow of viscoelastic fluid in a flat slot channel, the maximal contribution of heating due to dissipation is approximately 7-8 %.
Hydrodynamic chromatography and field flow fractionation in finite aspect ratio channels.
Shendruk, T N; Slater, G W
2014-04-25
Hydrodynamic chromatography (HC) and field-flow fractionation (FFF) separation methods are often performed in 3D rectangular channels, though ideal retention theory assumes 2D systems. Devices are commonly designed with large aspect ratios; however, it can be unavoidable or desirable to design rectangular channels with small or even near-unity aspect ratios. To assess the significance of finite-aspect ratio effects and interpret experimental retention results, an ideal, analytical retention theory is needed. We derive a series solution for the ideal retention ratio of HC and FFF rectangular channels. Rather than limiting devices' ability to resolve samples, our theory predicts that retention curves for normal-mode FFF are well approximated by the infinite plate solution and that the performance of HC is actually improved. These findings suggest that FFF devices need not be designed with large aspect ratios and that rectangular HC channels are optimal when the aspect ratio is unity.
Hydrodynamic chromatography and field flow fractionation in finite aspect ratio channels.
Shendruk, T N; Slater, G W
2014-04-25
Hydrodynamic chromatography (HC) and field-flow fractionation (FFF) separation methods are often performed in 3D rectangular channels, though ideal retention theory assumes 2D systems. Devices are commonly designed with large aspect ratios; however, it can be unavoidable or desirable to design rectangular channels with small or even near-unity aspect ratios. To assess the significance of finite-aspect ratio effects and interpret experimental retention results, an ideal, analytical retention theory is needed. We derive a series solution for the ideal retention ratio of HC and FFF rectangular channels. Rather than limiting devices' ability to resolve samples, our theory predicts that retention curves for normal-mode FFF are well approximated by the infinite plate solution and that the performance of HC is actually improved. These findings suggest that FFF devices need not be designed with large aspect ratios and that rectangular HC channels are optimal when the aspect ratio is unity. PMID:24674643
Hydrodynamic analysis of flagellated bacteria swimming in corners of rectangular channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shum, Henry; Gaffney, Eamonn A.
2015-12-01
The influence of nearby solid surfaces on the motility of bacteria is of fundamental importance as these interactions govern the ability of the microorganisms to explore their environment and form sessile colonies. Reducing biofouling in medical implants and controlling the transport of bacterial cells in a microfluidic device are two applications that could benefit from a detailed understanding of swimming in microchannels. In this study, we investigate the self-propelled motion of a model bacterium, driven by rotating a single helical flagellum, in such an environment. In particular, we focus on the corner region of a large channel modeled as two perpendicular sections of no-slip planes joined with a rounded corner. We numerically solve the equations of Stokes flow using the boundary element method to obtain the swimming velocities at different positions and orientations relative to the channel corner. From these velocities, we construct many trajectories to ascertain the general behavior of the swimmers. Considering only hydrodynamic interactions between the bacterium and the channel walls, we show that some swimmers can become trapped near the corner while moving, on average, along the axis of the channel. This result suggests that such bacteria may be found at much higher densities in corners than in other parts of the channel. Another implication is that these corner accumulating bacteria may travel quickly through channels since they are guided directly along the corner and do not turn back or swim transversely across the channel.
Hydrodynamics and sediment suspension in shallow tidal channels intersecting a tidal flat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieterse, Aline; Puleo, Jack A.; McKenna, Thomas E.
2016-05-01
A field study was conducted on a tidal flat intersected by small tidal channels (depth <0.1 m, width <2 m) within a tidal marsh. Data were collected in the channels, and on the adjacent tidal flat that encompasses approximately 1600 m2 in planform area. Hydrodynamic processes and sediment suspension between the channels and adjacent flat were compared. Shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were computed from high frequency velocity measurements. Maximum water depth at the field site varied from 0.11 m during the lowest neap high tide to 0.58 m during a storm event. In the channel intersecting the tidal flat, the shear stress, turbulence and along-channel velocity were ebb dominant; e.g. 0.33 m/s peak velocity for ebb compared to 0.19 m/s peak velocity for flood. Distinct pulses in velocity occurred when the water level was near the tidal flat level. The velocity pulse during flood tide occurred at a higher water level than during ebb tide. No corresponding velocity pulse on the tidal flat was observed. Sediment concentrations peaked at the beginning and end of each tidal cycle, and often had a secondary peak close to high tide, assumed to be related to sediment advection. The influence of wind waves on bed shear stress and sediment suspension was negligible. Water levels were elevated during a storm event such that the tidal flat remained inundated for 4 tidal cycles. The water did not drain from the tidal flat into the channels during the storm, and no velocity pulses occurred. Along-channel velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and shear stresses were therefore smaller in the channels during storm conditions than during non-storm conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Rohini
Modulation of solid-liquid interfacial interactions via electric field (or electrowetting) is an effective method to deform and move liquid drops on solid surfaces in micro-/nanoscale systems. The deformation and motion of a liquid drop on a solid surface in response to an external driving force is hindered by pinning of triple contact line. A better understanding of the mechanisms and limitations of electrowetting is warranted for design and optimization of active micro-/nanoscale systems. Modulation of hydrodynamic interactions via surface structures may contribute to the adhesion and locomotion mechanisms employed by tree frogs under flooded conditions: a better understanding of which will facilitate design of biomimetic systems inspired by the same. This thesis summarizes the results of investigation of the mechanisms and limitations of electrowetting (electrowetting on dielectric and potential-induced molecular reorganization) and the hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels. The mechanism at play during electrowetting on dielectric is probed via capillary condensation inside surface force apparatus. Height of a nanometer-sized annular water meniscus is measured and observed to be independent of the applied potential. These nanoscale electrowetting measurements unequivocally demonstrate that spreading of a liquid conductive drop on a charged dielectric is driven by electromechanics and not by a change in solid-liquid interfacial energy. Macroscopic electrowetting response of substrates with a range of contact angle hysteresis is characterized to quantify the relationship between contact angle hysteresis, threshold potential for liquid actuation, and electrowetting hysteresis. These results are interpreted within the electromechanical framework corrected for pinning of the moving triple contact line and demonstrate that the electrowetting hysteresis and the contact angle hysteresis are equal in magnitude. Alternatively, potential
Channeling of fast ions through the bent carbon nanotubes: The extended two-fluid hydrodynamic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazar, Karbunar; Duško, Borka; Ivan, Radović; Zoran, L. Mišković
2016-04-01
We investigate the interactions of charged particles with straight and bent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) under channeling conditions in the presence of dynamic polarization of the valence electrons in carbon. This polarization is described by a cylindrical, two-fluid hydrodynamic model with the parameters taken from the recent modelling of several independent experiments on electron energy loss spectroscopy of carbon nano-structures. We use the hydrodynamic model to calculate the image potential for protons moving through four types of SWNTs at a speed of 3 atomic units. The image potential is then combined with the Doyle–Turner atomic potential to obtain the total potential in the bent carbon nanotubes. Using that potential, we also compute the spatial and angular distributions of protons channeled through the bent carbon nanotubes, and compare the results with the distributions obtained without taking into account the image potential. Project supported by the Funds from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. 45005). Z. L. Mišković thanks the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for Finacial Support.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunn, R. J.; El Mountassir, G.; MacLachlan, E.; Moir, H.
2013-12-01
Evidence of fossilized microorganisms embedded within mineral veins and mineral-filled fractures has been observed in a wide range of geological environments. Microorganisms can act as sites for mineral nucleation and also contribute to mineral precipitation by inducing local geochemical changes. In this study, we explore fundamental controls on microbially induced mineralization in rock fractures. Specifically, we systematically investigate the influence of hydrodynamics (velocity, flow rate, aperture) on microbially mediated calcite precipitation. We use a case study of microbially induced calcite precipitation as a model biomineralization system to investigate potential feedback mechanisms between the temporally varying patterns of mineral precipitation within a fracture and the resulting variations in the local velocity field. Fractures are represented as a series of precision-etched parallel channels between a pair of sealed Perspex plates. Multiple channels are designed to maintain a constant flow rate, whilst independently adjusting channel aperture and width to explore the effects of aperture and fluid velocity on biomineral precipitation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a feedback mechanism exists between the gradual reduction in fracture aperture due to precipitation, and its effect on the local fluid velocity. This feedback results in mineral fill distributions that focus flow into a small number of self-organizing channels that remain open, ultimately controlling the final aperture profile that governs flow within the fracture. This feedback mechanism exists because precipitation on the fracture walls (as opposed to in solution) requires the bacteria to be transported to the fracture surface. Bacteria settle out of a quiescent solution at a velocity that is dependent on individual floc size and density. This settling velocity competes with the bed shear velocity, inhibiting deposition via entrainment. As precipitation progresses, the flow
PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier
2008-07-01
The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop (ICTW15) was held in Le Havre, France from 9-12 July 2007. This regular international conference started in 1979 in Leeds, UK when the research interest in simple models of fluid flows was revitalized by systematic investigation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Couette-Taylor flow. These two flow systems are good prototypes for the study of the transition to chaos and turbulence in closed flows. The workshop themes have been expanded from the original Couette-Taylor flow to include other centrifugal instabilities (Dean, Görtler, Taylor-Dean), spherical Couette flows, thermal convection instabilities, MHD, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, transition to turbulence, development of numerical and experimental techniques. The impressive longevity of the ICTW is due to the close interaction and fertile exchanges between international research groups from different disciplines: Physics and Astrophysics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering. The present workshop was attended by 100 participants, the program included over 83 contributions with 4 plenary lectures, 68 oral communications and 17 posters. The topics include, besides the classical Couette-Taylor flows, the centrifugal flows with longitudinal vortices, the shear flows, the thermal convection in curved geometries, the spherical Couette-Taylor flow, the geophysical flows, the magneto-hydrodynamic effects including the dynamo effect, the complex flows (viscoelasticity, immiscible fluids, bubbles and migration). Selected papers have been processed through the peer review system and are published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Workshop has been sponsored by Le Havre University, the Region Council of Haute-Normandie, Le Havre City Council, CNRS (ST2I, GdR-DYCOEC), and the European Space Agency through GEOFLOW program. The French Ministry of Defense (DGA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Craig; Kozarek, Jessica; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Guala, Michele
2016-02-01
An investigation into the interactions between a model axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine (rotor diameter, dT = 0.15 m) and the complex hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes within a meandering channel was carried out in the Outdoor StreamLab research facility at the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. This field-scale meandering stream with bulk flow and sediment discharge control provided a location for high spatiotemporally resolved measurements of bed and water surface elevations around the model turbine. The device was installed within an asymmetric, erodible channel cross section under migrating bed form and fixed outer bank conditions. A comparative analysis between velocity and topographic measurements, with and without the turbine installed, highlights the local and nonlocal features of the turbine-induced scour and deposition patterns. In particular, it shows how the cross-section geometry changes, how the bed form characteristics are altered, and how the mean flow field is distorted both upstream and downstream of the turbine. We further compare and discuss how current energy conversion deployments in meander regions would result in different interactions between the turbine operation and the local and nonlocal bathymetry compared to straight channels.
Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.
Mao, J Q; Zhang, H Q; Dai, H C; Yuan, B H; Hu, T F
2015-01-01
The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1) the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2) smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3) comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.
Hydrodynamic studies of post dryout two-phase downflow in narrow channels
Eberle, C.S.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.
1995-07-01
An experimental study of the hydrodynamics of a narrow channel was performed in order to obtain the heat transfer mechanisms and influences contributing to the flow regime transition from inverted annular to inverted slug flows for post dryout downflow. The experimental series consisted of both adiabatic and diabatic visualization tests over a wide range of fluid and thermal parameters. The system inlet gas velocities ranged from 0 to 14 meters per second while the inlet fluid velocities ranged from 1 to 3 meters per second. Full extent visualization of the flow regime was possible due to a quartz tube in tube construction with a clear heating fluid. Constant temperature heating of the freon was accomplished at bulk fluid temperatures above the critical heat flux temperature. For each hydrodynamic flow condition, one to three minuets of VHS-video filming was performed to acquire both flow regime and break-up length data. In addition to this the flow field parameters were recorded simultaneously with the filming.
Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements
Mao, J. Q.; Zhang, H. Q.; Dai, H. C.; Yuan, B. H.; Hu, T. F.
2015-01-01
The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1) the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2) smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3) comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization. PMID:26588840
Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.
Mao, J Q; Zhang, H Q; Dai, H C; Yuan, B H; Hu, T F
2015-01-01
The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1) the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2) smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3) comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization. PMID:26588840
Taylor-Couette flow of unmagnetized plasma
Collins, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Flanagan, K.; Khalzov, I. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Forest, C. B.; Clark, M.; Seidlitz, B.; Wallace, J.
2014-04-15
Differentially rotating flows of unmagnetized, highly conducting plasmas have been created in the Plasma Couette Experiment. Previously, hot-cathodes have been used to control plasma rotation by a stirring technique [C. Collins et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 115001 (2012)] on the outer cylindrical boundary—these plasmas were nearly rigid rotors, modified only by the presence of a neutral particle drag. Experiments have now been extended to include stirring from an inner boundary, allowing for generalized circular Couette flow and opening a path for both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic experiments, as well as fundamental studies of plasma viscosity. Plasma is confined in a cylindrical, axisymmetric, multicusp magnetic field, with T{sub e} < 10 eV, T{sub i} < 1 eV, and n{sub e}<10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}. Azimuthal flows (up to 12 km/s, M = V∕c{sub s} ∼ 0.7) are driven by edge J × B torques in helium, neon, argon, and xenon plasmas, and the experiment has already achieved Rm ∼ 65 and Pm∼0.2−12. We present measurements of a self-consistent, rotation-induced, species-dependent radial electric field, which acts together with pressure gradient to provide the centripetal acceleration for the ions. The maximum flow speeds scale with the Alfvén critical ionization velocity, which occurs in partially ionized plasma. A hydrodynamic stability analysis in the context of the experimental geometry and achievable parameters is also explored.
Linear Stability Analysis of Couette Flow with a Porous Wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilton, Nils; Cortelezzi, Luca
2006-11-01
It is well known that plane Couette flow in a channel with perfectly smooth, impermeable walls is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers. Little attention has been given in literature to the stability of plane Couette flow when at least one of the walls is porous. In this study, we consider a channel delimited by an impermeable moving wall, which drives the flow, and a stationary, rigid, homogeneous, isotropic, porous block. We perform a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of the fully developed laminar flow in both the channel and the porous block. We restrict the study to sufficiently small permeabilities in order to neglect inertial effects in the porous flow. We solve the coupled linear stability problem, arising from the adjacent channel and porous flows, using a spectral collocation technique. The linear stability analysis takes account of the coupling between the two disturbance fields through boundary conditions recently derived by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, 1995). We find that Couette flow over a permeable wall is no longer absolutely stable. While the critical Reynolds number tends to infinity as the permeability tends to zero, it decreases drastically for higher permeabilities. We also find a new channel mode and new class of modes in the porous region. We compare and discuss these results in terms of the recently published results of a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of a channel flow with porous walls (Tilton and Cortelezzi, Phys. Fluids 18, 051702, 2006).
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent plane Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Moon Joo
1991-01-01
Turbulent plane Couette flow was numerically simulated at a Reynolds number (U(sub w)h/nu) of 6000, where U(sub w) is the relative wall speed and h is half the channel-height. Unlike in Poiseuille flow, where the mean shear rate changes its sign at the centerline, the sign of mean shear rate in plane Couette flow remains the same across the whole channel. This difference is expected to yield several differences between the two flows, especially in the core region. The most significant and dramatic difference observed was the existence of large-scale structures in the core region of the plane Couette flow. The large eddies are extremely long in the flow direction and fill the entire channel (i.e., their vertical extent is 2h). The large-scale structures have the largest contribution from the wavenumber (k(sub x)h,k(sub z)h) = (0, plus or minus 1.5), corresponding to a wavelength lambda(sub z)/h is approximately equal to 4. The secondary motion associated with the k(sub x)h = 0 mode consists of the large-scale vortices. The large eddies contribute about 30 percent of turbulent kinetic energy.
Extended local balance model of turbulence and couette-taylor flow
Balonishnikov
2000-02-01
An extended local balance model of turbulence, based on a new transport equation for the dissipation rate with a negative diffusion coefficient, is presented. Analytical solutions for the mean velocity and the dissipation rate for the turbulent Couette-Taylor problem are derived. The dependence of torque on the Reynolds number is obtained. These solutions depend only on two constants k=0.4 and C=9.5 of the turbulent boundary layer and, within the limits of a narrow channel, are reduced to the well-known von Karman's solutions for planar Couette flow. Strange attractor behavior in this limit is also observed. PMID:11046418
Superfluid Couette flow in an enclosed annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Karen L.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2004-11-01
The Couette configuration of a fluid contained between two rotating concentric cylinders has proved useful to test and validate the HVBK equations which govern the motion of superfluid helium II. We critically review the current understanding of the superfluid Couette problem and compare theory and experiment, distinguishing between the results obtained with infinitely long cylinders and those obtained at small aspect ratio. After discussing some issues which are still unsolved, we point to what should be fruitful directions of further investigation which can be pursued in the Couette configuration.
Micro-Scale Couette-Poiseuille Flow in Curved Microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Halhouli, Ala'aldeen; Kilani, Mohammad; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmad; Buettgenbach, Stephanus
2007-11-01
This work presents an extended flow model estimates for the combined effect of geometrical design parameters: channel aspect ratio, mean radius to width ratio, and polar slope ratio on the Couette-Poiseuille flow in curved microchannels. For this purpose analytical and numerical investigations were performed at different boundary conditions. The flow in spiral channel, single and double disks micropumps are Couette-Poiseuille like flow and depend on dragging the fluid between the ends of the curved protrusion by spinning a flat disk in close proximity over the curved microchannel. The flow is generated due to a net tangential viscous stress on the boundaries which produces a positive pressure gradient in the direction of flow. The combined effect of the geometrical design parameters was expressed through defining drag and pressure shape factors. The analytical estimations were verified numerically and compared with the experimental. Results show that the flow rate varies linearly with both the pressure difference and boundary velocity. The obtained extended approximate model depicts complete representation for the effect of channel width, height, polar slope, spiral length, and mean radius on the flow through curved microchannels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, G. A.; Naar, D. F.; Hine, A. C.; Tebbens, S. F.; Donahue, B. T.; Brooks, G. R.; Wilson, R.
2002-12-01
High-resolution bathymetry surveys of Egmont Channel were conducted in 1999 and 2001 using a Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam bathymetric system. These data were supplemented with other bathymetry data, seismic profiles, underwater scuba observations, and current velocity data, in order to investigate the geologic and hydrodynamic characteristics of Egmont Channel, which is the main shipping channel for Tampa Bay. The cross sectional area (17,964 m2) and the tidal prism (6x108 m3) for Egmont Channel derived in this study are larger than theoretically predicted. The tidal prism is two orders of magnitude greater than previously calculated. This result indicates the current velocities near the deepest part of the channel, referred to herein as Egmont Deep (~30 m), are faster than the rest of the Tampa Bay and the large cross sectional area is most likely due to the large tidal prisms associated with storm events. Currents measured at Egmont Deep and the Sunshine Skyway Bridge (~11 km away) with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, have a high correlation (97%) indicating the current velocities at Sunshine Skyway Bridge can be used as a proxy for current velocities at Egmont Deep. Seismic profile data indicate that both the mouth of Tampa Bay and the bay proper contain many stratigraphic depressions. Egmont Deep is located at one of these depressions. Bathymetry and seismic data indicate that the main ebb jet for Tampa Bay is deflected northward by a local stratigraphic high underlying Egmont Key. This deflection appears to cause the asymmetry of Egmont Channel. The repeated high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys document sediment bedform migration. Large subaqueous dunes in the north and western portions of Egmont Channel have moved at least 13 m in a WNW direction over 24 months. Medium-sized dunes are superimposed on the large dunes. Smaller sandwaves appear intermittently in Egmont Deep, which is bounded to the north by a linear steep scarp (~38°) and by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chang, Kao-Hua; Kao, Hong-Ming
2014-11-01
A new approach to model weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows in open channels is proposed by using a Lagrangian meshless method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The Lagrangian form of the Boussinesq equations is solved through SPH to merge the local and convective derivatives as the material derivative. In the numerical SPH procedure, the present study uses a predictor-corrector method, in which the pure space derivative terms (the hydrostatic and source terms) are explicitly solved and the mixed space and time derivatives term (the material term of B1 and B2) is computed with an implicit scheme. It is thus a convenient tool in the processes of the space discretization compared to other Eulerian approaches. Four typical benchmark problems in weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows, including solitary wave propagation, nonlinear interaction of two solitary waves, dambreak flow propagation, and undular bore development, are selected to employ model validation under the closed and open boundary conditions. Numerical results are compared with the analytical solutions or published laboratory and numerical results. It is found that the proposed approach is capable of resolving weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows. Thus, the proposed SPH approach can supplement the lack of the SPH-Boussinesq researches in the literatures, and provide an alternative to model weakly nonhydrostatic shallow water flows in open channels.
Linear instability of plane Couette and Poiseuille flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chefranov, S. G.; Chefranov, A. G.
2016-05-01
It is shown that linear instability of plane Couette flow can take place even at finite Reynolds numbers Re > Reth ≈ 139, which agrees with the experimental value of Reth ≈ 150 ± 5 [16, 17]. This new result of the linear theory of hydrodynamic stability is obtained by abandoning traditional assumption of the longitudinal periodicity of disturbances in the flow direction. It is established that previous notions about linear stability of this flow at arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers relied directly upon the assumed separation of spatial variables of the field of disturbances and their longitudinal periodicity in the linear theory. By also abandoning these assumptions for plane Poiseuille flow, a new threshold Reynolds number Reth ≈ 1035 is obtained, which agrees to within 4% with experiment—in contrast to 500% discrepancy for the previous estimate of Reth ≈ 5772 obtained in the framework of the linear theory under assumption of the "normal" shape of disturbances [2].
Multiscale analysis of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Tie
2004-11-01
It is well known that the turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow has both shear driven and pressure driven mechanisms. The pure pressure driven Poiseuille flow and the pure shear driven Couette flow are just the two extremes of Couette-Poiseuille flow. Here the mean momentum balance equation of the fully developed turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow is studied using a new multiscale analysis. The analysis reveals a close relation between the structure of Couette-Poiseuille flow and the hierarchy structures of boundary layer identified by Fife et al. (2004). The skin friction coefficient of Couette-Poiseuille flow is presented in a new way based on the analysis, showing the close relation between Poiseuille, Couette and Couette-Poiseuille flows. The maximum Reynolds shear stresses locations and values, the shape of the Reynolds shear stress, and the relation between the zero Reynolds shear stress location and the maximum velocity location are also presented.
Couette flow in ferrofluids with magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Jitender; Bajaj, Renu
2005-06-01
Instability of a viscous, incompressible ferrofluid flow in an annular space between two coaxially rotating cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field has been investigated numerically. The magnetic field perturbations in fluid in the gap between the cylinders have been taken into consideration and these have been observed to stabilize the Couette flow.
Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, Sander G.; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2013-06-01
We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re=2×106 (Ta=6.2×1012) using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law u+=1/κlny++B. The von Kármán constant κ is found to depend on the driving strength Ta and for large Ta asymptotically approaches κ≈0.40. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around y+≈12 and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log dependence of y+ as also found for channel and pipe flows.
Characterizing the danger of in-channel river hazards using LIDAR and a 2D hydrodynamic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strom, M. A.; Pasternack, G. B.
2014-12-01
Despite many injuries and deaths each year worldwide, no analytically rigorous attempt exists to characterize and quantify the dangers to boaters, swimmers, fishermen, and other river enthusiasts. While designed by expert boaters, the International Scale of River Difficulty provides a whitewater classification that uses qualitative descriptions and subjective scoring. The purpose of this study was to develop an objective characterization of in-channel hazard dangers across spatial scales from a single boulder to an entire river segment for application over a wide range of discharges and use in natural hazard assessment and mitigation, recreational boating safety, and river science. A process-based conceptualization of river hazards was developed, and algorithms were programmed in R to quantify the associated dangers. Danger indicators included the passage proximity and reaction time posed to boats and swimmers in a river by three hazards: emergent rocks, submerged rocks, and hydraulic jumps or holes. The testbed river was a 12.2 km mixed bedrock-alluvial section of the upper South Yuba River between Lake Spaulding and Washington, CA in the Sierra Mountains. The segment has a mean slope of 1.63%, with 8 reaches varying from 1.07% to 3.30% slope and several waterfalls. Data inputs to the hazard analysis included sub-decimeter aerial color imagery, airborne LIDAR of the river corridor, bathymetric data, flow inputs, and a stage-discharge relation for the end of the river segment. A key derived data product was the location and configuration of boulders and boulder clusters as these were potential hazards. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling was used to obtain the meter-scale spatial pattern of depth and velocity at discharges ranging from baseflow to modest flood stages. Results were produced for four discharges and included the meter-scale spatial pattern of the passage proximity and reaction time dangers for each of the three hazards investigated. These results
A numerical simulation of finite-length Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
The processes leading to laminar-turbulent transition in finite-channel-length Taylor-Couette flow are investigated analytically, solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by spectral-collocation methods. A time-split algorithm, implementable in both axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional time-accurate versions, and an algorithm based on the staggered-mesh discretization of Bernardi and Maday (1986) are described in detail, and results obtained by applying the axisymmetric version of the first algorithm and a steady-state version of the second are presented graphically and compared with published experimental data. The feasibility of full three-dimensional simulations of the progression through chaotic states to turbulence under the constraints of Taylor-Couette flow is demonstrated.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1991-01-01
Compressible stability equations are solved using the spectral collocation method in an attempt to study the effects of temperature difference and compressibility on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. It is found that the Chebyshev collocation spectral method yields highly accurate results using fewer grid points for solving stability problems. Comparisons are made between the result obtained by assuming small Mach number with a uniform temperature distribution and that based on fully incompressible analysis.
Subcritical equilibria in Taylor-Couette flow.
Deguchi, Kengo; Meseguer, Alvaro; Mellibovsky, Fernando
2014-05-01
Nonlinear equilibrium states characterized by strongly localized vortex pairs are calculated in the linearly stable parameter region of counterrotating Taylor-Couette flow. These subcritical states are rotating waves whose region of existence is consistent with the critical threshold for relaminarization observed in experiments. For sufficiently rapid outer cylinder rotation the solutions extend beyond the static inner cylinder case to corotation, thus exceeding, for the first time, the boundary defined by the inviscid Rayleigh's stability criterion.
Circulation in a Short Cylindrical Couette System
Akira Kageyama; Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman
2003-07-08
In preparation for an experimental study of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal, we explore Couette flows having height comparable to the gap between cylinders, centrifugally stable rotation, and high Reynolds number. Experiments in water are compared with numerical simulations. The flow is very different from that of an ideal, infinitely long Couette system. Simulations show that endcaps co-rotating with the outer cylinder drive a strong poloidal circulation that redistributes angular momentum. Predicted toroidal flow profiles agree well with experimental measurements. Spin-down times scale with Reynolds number as expected for laminar Ekman circulation; extrapolation from two-dimensional simulations at Re less than or equal to 3200 agrees remarkably well with experiment at Re approximately equal to 106. This suggests that turbulence does not dominate the effective viscosity. Further detailed numerical studies reveal a strong radially inward flow near both endcaps. After turning vertically along the inner cylinder, these flows converge at the midplane and depart the boundary in a radial jet. To minimize this circulation in the MRI experiment, endcaps consisting of multiple, differentially rotating rings are proposed. Simulations predict that an adequate approximation to the ideal Couette profile can be obtained with a few rings.
Measurements of particle dynamics in slow, dense granular Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueth, Daniel M.
Experimental measurements of particle dynamics on the lower surface of a 3D Couette cell containing monodisperse spheres are reported. The average radial density and velocity profiles are similar to those previously measured within the bulk and on the lower surface of the 3D cell filled with mustard seeds. Observations of the evolution of particle velocities over time reveal distinct motion events, intervals where previously stationary particles move for a short duration before jamming again. The cross-correlation between the velocities of two particles at a given distance r from the moving wall reveals a characteristic lengthscale over which the particles are correlated. The autocorrelation of a single particle's velocity reveals a characteristic timescale tau which decreases with distance from the inner moving wall. This may be attributed to the increasing rarity at which the discrete motion events occur and the reduced duration of those events at large r. The radial profile of the velocity fluctuations about their mean, deltavtheta(r), was found to be almost identical in shape to the Gaussian component of the velocity profile vtheta(r). The relationship between the RMS azimuthal velocity fluctuations, delta vtheta(r), and average shear rate, ġ (r), was found to be deltav theta ∝ ġ alpha with alpha = 0.52 +/- 0.04. These observations are compared with other recent experiments and with the modified hydrodynamic model recently introduced by Bocquet et al.
Measurements of particle dynamics in slow, dense granular Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueth, Daniel M.
2003-01-01
Experimental measurements of particle dynamics on the lower surface of a three-dimensional (3D) Couette cell containing monodisperse spheres are reported. The average radial density and velocity profiles are similar to those previously measured within the bulk and on the lower surface of the 3D cell filled with mustard seeds. Observations of the evolution of particle velocities over time reveal distinct motion events, intervals where previously stationary particles move for a short duration before jamming again. The cross correlation between the velocities of two particles at a given distance r from the moving wall reveals a characteristic length scale over which the particles are correlated. The autocorrelation of a single particle’s velocity reveals a characteristic time scale τ, which decreases with increasing distance from the inner moving wall. This may be attributed to the increasing rarity at which the discrete motion events occur and the reduced duration of those events at large r. The relationship between the rms azimuthal velocity fluctuations, δvθ(r), and average shear rate, γ˙(r), was found to be δvθ∝γ˙α with α=0.52±0.04. These observations are compared with other recent experiments and with the modified hydrodynamic model recently introduced by Bocquet et al.
A novel control strategy for a Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouabdallah, A.; Oualli, H.; Mekadem, M.; Boukrif, M.; Saad, S.; Gad-El-Hak, M.
2015-11-01
Advancing transition is desired in applications where heat, mass, or momentum transfer needs to be augmented. On the other hand, delaying transition is imperative in crystal growth devices, where all instabilities are to be avoided in order to prevent the appearance of geometrical irregularities in the resulting crystal. The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous flow in a closed, fully filled Taylor-Couette system is considered in the present numerical study. The fluid evolves in an annular cavity between the rotating inner cylinder and the outer fixed one. The base flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength. The Taylor number varies in the range of 0-50. Numerical simulations are implemented on a finite-volume CFD code. The control strategy involves a pulsatile motion superimposed separately on the inner and outer cylinder's cross-section, with maximum amplitude of, respectively, 5% and 15% of the radius. The frequency varies in the range of 0-100 Hz. The objective is to localize the transition and to assess the flow's response to the imposed boundary motions. Substantial advancement of transition is found when the inner cylinder's cross-section is varied, while this transition is delayed when the outer cylinder's cross-section is pulsating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawata, Takuya; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
2016-07-01
Plane Couette flow under spanwise, anticyclonic system rotation [rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF)] is studied experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry for different Reynolds and rotation numbers in the fully turbulent regime. Similar to the laminar regime, the turbulent flow in RPCF is characterized by roll cells, however both instantaneous snapshots of the velocity field and space correlations show that the roll cell structure varies with the rotation number. All three velocity components are measured and both the mean flow and all four nonzero Reynolds stresses are obtained across the central parts of the channel. This also allows us to determine the wall shear stress from the viscous stress and the Reynolds stress in the center of the channel, and for low rotation rates the wall shear stress increases with increasing rotation rate as expected. The results show that zero absolute vorticity is established in the central parts of the channel of turbulent RPCF for high enough rotation rates, but also that the mean velocity profile for certain parameter ranges shows an S shape giving rise to a negative velocity gradient in the center of the channel. We find that from an analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equation using the present data there is a transport of the Reynolds shear stress towards the center of the channel, which may then result in a negative mean velocity gradient there.
Asymptotic analysis of plane turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lund, K. O.; Bush, W. B.
1980-01-01
Matched asymptotic expansions are used to describe turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow (plane duct flow with a pressure gradient and a moving wall). A special modification of conventional eddy-diffusivity closure accounts for the experimentally observed non-coincidence of the locations of zero shear stress and maximum velocity. An asymptotic solution is presented which is valid as the Reynolds number tends to infinity for the whole family of Couette-Poiseuille flows (adverse, favorable, and zero pressure gradients in combination with a moving wall). It is shown that plane Poiseuille flow is a limiting case of Couette-Poiseuille flow. The solution agrees with experimental data for plane Couette flow, for the limiting plane Poiseuille flow, and for a special case having zero net flow and an adverse pressure gradient. The asymptotic analysis shows that conventional eddy diffusivity closures are inadequate for general Couette-Poiseuille flows.
Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Couette-Poiseuille Flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panton, Ronald
1998-11-01
Flow in a channel with one moving wall and an applied pressure gradient is considered. This flow is of interest because of the two different mechanisms that drive the turbulence, Poiseuille dominated flows have a maximum velocity that does not coincide with the point of zero Reynolds stress. Couette dominated flows have an inflection point with a finite Reynolds stress. In a special case the stress on one wall is zero while the flow above the wall is turbulent. At high Re the flow consists of a turbulent core bounded by two wall layers. The velocity in the wall layers is assumed to follow the usual shear driven law-of-the-wall. Correspondingly, there is a law-of-the-wall for the Reynolds stress. This law has been determined from correlating experiments and DNS results of pressure driven pipe and channel flows. The Reynolds stress in the core is found analytically and a uniformly valid composite expansion formed. Integration of the exact momentum equation yields the velocity profiles. Results are compared to experiments for a variety of flow parameters. Influences of the Reynolds number are quantified.
Particle migration rates in a Couette apparatus.
Christensen, David.; Hsiao, Shih-Chun; Altobelli, Stephen A.; Ingber, Marc Stuart; Mondy, Lisa Ann
2005-02-01
Bulk migration of particles towards regions of lower shear occurs in suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in Newtonian fluids undergoing creeping flow in the annular region between two rotating, coaxial cylinders (a wide-gap Couette). For a monomodal suspension of spheres in a viscous fluid, dimensional analysis indicates that the rate of migration at a given concentration should scale with the square of the sphere radius. However, a previous experimental study showed that the rate of migration of spherical particles at 50% volume concentration actually scaled with the sphere radius to approximately the 2.9 power.
Particle migration rates in a Couette apparatus.
Hsiao, Shih-Chun; Altobelli, Stephen A.; Ingber, Marc Stuart; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Christensen, D.
2003-07-01
Bulk migration of particles towards regions of lower shear occurs in suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in Newtonian fluids undergoing creeping flow in the annular region between two rotating, coaxial cylinders (a wide-gap Couette). For a monomodal suspension of spheres in a viscous fluid, dimensional analysis indicates that the rate of migration at a given concentration should scale with the square of the sphere radius. However, a previous experimental study showed that the rate of migration of spherical particles at 50% volume concentration actually scaled with the sphere radius to approximately the 2.9 power.
Finite element simulation of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows using a low Reynolds number k- model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazemzadeh Hannani, Siamak; Stanislas, Michel
1999-05-01
Developing Couette-Poiseuille flows at Re=5000 are studied using a low Reynolds number k- two-equation model and a finite element formulation. Mesh-independent solutions are obtained using a standard Galerkin formulation and a Galerkin/least-squares stabilized method. The predictions for the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are compared with available experimental results and to the DNS data. Second moment closure's solutions are also compared with those of the k- model. The deficiency of eddy viscosity models to predict dissymmetric low Reynolds number channel flows has been demonstrated. Copyright
Plane Couette-Poiseuille flow past a homogeneous poroelastic layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexiou, Terpsichori S.; Kapellos, George E.
2013-07-01
An analytical solution is presented for the problem of fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow past a homogeneous, permeable poroelastic layer. Main novel feature of this work is that the compressibility, which is related to the action of the free-fluid pressure on the poroelastic layer, is taken into account. Therefore, the solid stress problem is two-dimensional, although the fluid flow problem remains one-dimensional in the limit of infinitesimal strain. The pressure-related compressibility affects strongly the distribution of the von Mises stress in the poroelastic layer by shifting the local maximum towards the high-pressure region of the channel. Furthermore, the established analytical solution is used to investigate some aspects of the mechanotransducing role of the endothelial surface layer. A compressible surface layer might serve as a "bumper'' by reducing the magnitude of the overall shearing force (viscous and elastic) acting on endothelial cells, as compared to the magnitude of the fluid shear force that would be exerted in its absence.
Centrifugal instability of pulsed Taylor-Couette flow in a Maxwell fluid.
Riahi, Mehdi; Aniss, Saïd; Ouazzani Touhami, Mohamed; Skali Lami, Salah
2016-08-01
Centrifugal instability of a pulsed flow in a viscoelastic fluid confined in a Taylor-Couette system is investigated. Both cylinders are subject to an out-of-phase modulation of rotation with equal modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. The fluid is assumed to obey a linear Maxwell fluid with a relaxation time and a constant viscosity. Attention is focused on the linear stability analysis and on the effect of Deborah and frequency numbers on the critical values of the Taylor and wave numbers. Using Floquet theory, we show that in the limit of low frequency, the Deborah number has no effect on the stability of the basic state which tends to the classical configuration of steady circular Couette flow. When the frequency number increases, the stability of the basic flow is enhanced and the Deborah number has a destabilizing effect which is strongly pronounced in the high-frequency limit. In this frequency limit, the critical parameters tend to constant values independently of the frequency number. These numerical results are in good agreement with the asymptotic solutions obtained in the limit of low and high frequencies. Moreover, a correlation between the rheological proprieties of the fluid in a rheometric experience, especially the loss and storage modulus, and this hydrodynamical instability behavior is presented. PMID:27589859
Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1992-01-01
A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bain, R. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Reed, M. J.; Best, J.
2015-12-01
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta hosts a dense network of tidal channels extending inland as far as 100 kilometers from the coast. With semidiurnal tides up to 6.7 meters in amplitude, this setting is ideal for testing hypotheses related to tidal meander morphology, intertidal sediment transport, and channel-platform linkages. We present results from two field surveys in March and September 2015, corresponding to the dry and monsoon seasons, respectively. Comparing acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and pressure sensor measurements from the Sibsa River in southwest Bangladesh reveals a phase lag of as much as 1 hour between maximum discharge and mean water level. Variations in this phase lag at different points along the channel allow us to test an existing conceptual model of cuspate tidal meander formation. To address a related but separate question, we observe that the ratio of cumulative discharges Qin/Qout is approximately equal during both spring and neap tides at a strategically-placed ADCP transect south of the study area. In contrast, ADCP data obtained north of the study area shows that Qin/Qout=1.4 during spring tides and 0.85 during neap tides. We examine the degree to which this phenomenon is controlled by the establishment of a hydraulic gradient between the Sibsa and a parallel tidal channel, the Pussur, versus the exchange of water between the channel and the tidal flats during the ebb-flood cycle. These results have implications for identifying loci of sediment erosion and deposition within the network.
Stability of oscillatory two phase Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coward, Adrian V.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.
1993-01-01
We investigate the stability of two phase Couette flow of different liquids bounded between plane parallel plates. One of the plates has a time dependent velocity in its own plane, which is composed of a constant steady part and a time harmonic component. In the absence of time harmonic modulations, the flow can be unstable to an interfacial instability if the viscosities are different and the more viscous fluid occupies the thinner of the two layers. Using Floquet theory, we show analytically in the limit of long waves, that time periodic modulations in the basic flow can have a significant influence on flow stability. In particular, flows which are otherwise unstable for extensive ranges of viscosity ratios, can be stabilized completely by the inclusion of background modulations, a finding that can have useful consequences in many practical applications.
MHD Couette two-fluid flow and heat transfer in presence of uniform inclined magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikodijevic, D.; Milenkovic, D.; Stamenkovic, Z.
2011-12-01
The MHD Couette flow of two immiscible fluids in a parallel plate channel in the presence of an applied electric and inclined magnetic field is investigated in the paper. One of the fluids is assumed to be electrically conducting, while the other fluid and the channel plates are assumed to be electrically insulating. Separate solutions with appropriate boundary conditions for each fluid are obtained and these solutions are matched at the interface using suitable matching conditions. The partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer are transformed to ordinary differential equations and closed-form solutions are obtained in both fluid regions of the channel. The results for various values of the Hartmann number, the angle of magnetic field inclination, the loading parameter and the ratio of the heights of the fluids are presented graphically to show their effect on the flow and heat transfer characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanwale, Makrand; Khadamkar, Hrushikesh; Mathpati, Channamallikarjun
2015-11-01
The physics of drop rise with continuous transfer of interfacial tension depressant (acetone), is mainly influenced by the coupling of mass transfer of interfacial depressent fluid, relative motion of two phases, and interface deformation. We present a investigation which focuses on the nature of hydrodynamic causation of aforementioned mass transfer process, which arise due to non-uniform shear at the interface, also known as the Marangoni instabilities. The effects of relative motion of two phases, and interface deformation are eliminated by operating in the spherical shape range (Eötvös number, Eo = 1 . 95 , and Morton number, M = 78 . 20) with creeping flow particle Reynolds number (Rep = 0 . 053). A improved technique for measurement and processing of data acquired from simultaneous planar PIV-PLIF is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields around the drop. A progressive non-Gaussian behaviour from large scales to small scales is seen, in scale wise wavelet energy decomposition of vorticity and concentration fields. This suggests similarity with high Schmidt and Reynolds number intermittent turbulence, even in the creeping flow region. Fourier spectra of concentration and velocity shows the plethora of length scales generated by the Marangoni instabilities. financial support by DAE-India, and TEQIP-India (COE-PI).
Development of a Couette-Taylor flow device with active minimization of secondary circulation
Ethan Schartman
2009-01-27
A novel Taylor-Couette experiment has been developed to produce rotating shear ows for the study of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities which are believed to drive angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. High speed, concentric, corotating cylinders generate the flow where the height of the cylinders is twice the radial gap width. Ekman pumping is controlled and minimized by splitting the vertical boundaries into pairs of nested, differentially rotating rings. The end rings and cylinders comprise four independently driven rotating components which provide exibility in developing flow profiles. The working fluids of the experiment are water, a water-glycerol mix, or a liquid gallium alloy. The mechanical complexity of the apparatus and large dynamic pressures generated by high speed operation with the gallium alloy presented unique challenges. The mechanical implementation of the experiment and some representative results obtained with Laser Doppler Velocimetry in water are discussed.
Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.
2010-01-01
The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.
Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S.; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia
2015-01-01
Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could “connect the dots” among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area. PMID:25915489
Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia
2015-01-01
Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could "connect the dots" among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area. PMID:25915489
Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia
2015-01-01
Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could "connect the dots" among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area.
Axially localized states in Taylor Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Jose M.; Marques, Francisco
2014-11-01
We present numerical simulations of the flow in a Taylor Couette system with the inner cylinder rotating and aspect ratio Γ restricted to 0 . 86 <Γ/N < 0 . 95 , being N the number of Taylor vortices. For these values a complex experimental bifurcation scenario has been reported. The transition from wavy vortex flow (WVF) to a very low frequency mode VLF happens via an axisymmetric eigenfunction. The VLF plays an essential role in the dynamics, leading to chaos through a two-tori period-doubling route. This chaotic regime vanishes with further increase in Re and gives rise to a new flow regime ALS characterized by the existence of large jet oscillations localized in some pairs of vortices. The aim of this numerical study is to extend the available information on ALS by means of a detailed exploration of the parameter space in which it occurs. Frequency analysis from time series simultaneously recorded at several points of the domain has been applied to identify the different transitions taking place. The VLF occurs in a wide range of control parameters and its interaction with the axially localized states is crucial is most transitions, either between different ALS or to the chaotic regime. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grants (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880 and BES-2010-041542.
Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements.
Johnson, Tyler J; Lang, Amy W; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Westcott, Matthew
2010-09-01
For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value. PMID:20887004
Rapid MRI and velocimetry of cylindrical Couette flow.
Hanlon, A D; Gibbs, S J; Hall, L D; Haycock, D E; Frith, W J; Ablett, S
1998-10-01
A narrow-gap, temperature-controlled Couette flow rheometer has been developed to study fluid velocities within the annular gap between two concentric cylinders by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and velocimetry. Alternative pulsed-field-gradient-based nuclear magnetic resonance imaging strategies which may be used for measurement of velocity within the Couette flow device have been evaluated. These include two-dimensional (2-D) imaging techniques with acquisition times of several minutes and a one-dimensional (1-D) projection method which exploits the symmetry of the device to reduce overall measurement time to less than 1 min. Velocity measurements made using each technique are presented for a Newtonian fluid undergoing Couette flow at shear rates of approximately 20 and 60 s(-1). PMID:9814778
Homotopy between plane Couette flow and Pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagata, Masato; Deguchi, Kengo
2014-11-01
In order to investigate symmetry connections between two canonical shear flows, i.e. plane Couette (PCF) and pipe flow (PF), which are linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers and therefore undergo subcritical transition, we take annular Poiseuille-Couette flow (APCF) as an intermediary Although PCF and PF are very different geometrically, APCF recovers PCF by taking the narrow gap limit, and also PF by taking the limit of vanishing inner cylinder where a homotopy of the basis functions from no-slip to regular conditions at the centre is considered. We show that the double-layered mirror-symmetric solutions in sliding Couette flow (APCF without axial pressure gradient) found by Deguchi & Nagata (2011) can be traced back to the mirror-symmetric solutions in PCF. Also we show that only the double-layered solution successfully reaches the PF limit, reproducing the mirror-symmetric solution in PF classified as M1 by Pringle & Kerswell (2007).
Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements.
Johnson, Tyler J; Lang, Amy W; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Westcott, Matthew
2010-09-01
For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value.
Inductionless magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with a helical magnetic field.
Priede, Jānis; Grants, Ilmārs; Gerbeth, Gunter
2007-04-01
We consider the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0) . This leads to a considerable simplification of the problem eventually containing only hydrodynamic variables. First, we point out that magnetic field adds more dissipation while it does not change the base flow which is the only source of energy for growing perturbations. Thus, it seems unclear from the energetic point of view how such a hydrodynamically stable flow can turn unstable in the presence of a helical magnetic field as it has been found recently by Hollerbach and Rüdiger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 124501 (2005)]. We revisit this problem by using a Chebyshev collocation method to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the linearized problem. In this way, we confirm that a helical magnetic field can indeed destabilize the flow in the inductionless approximation. Second, we integrate the linearized equations in time to study the transient behavior of small amplitude perturbations, thus showing that the energy arguments are correct as well. However, there is no real contradiction between both facts. The linear stability theory predicts the asymptotic development of an arbitrary small-amplitude perturbation, while the energy stability theory yields the instant growth rate of any particular perturbation, but it does not account for the evolution of this perturbation. Thus, although switching on the magnetic field instantly increases the energy decay rate of the dominating hydrodynamic perturbation, in the same time this perturbation ceases to be an eigenmode in the presence of the magnetic field. Consequently, this perturbation is transformed with time and so becomes able to extract energy from the base flow necessary for the growth. PMID:17501021
Inductionless magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with a helical magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priede, Jānis; Grants, Ilmārs; Gerbeth, Gunter
2007-04-01
We consider the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0) . This leads to a considerable simplification of the problem eventually containing only hydrodynamic variables. First, we point out that magnetic field adds more dissipation while it does not change the base flow which is the only source of energy for growing perturbations. Thus, it seems unclear from the energetic point of view how such a hydrodynamically stable flow can turn unstable in the presence of a helical magnetic field as it has been found recently by Hollerbach and Rüdiger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 124501 (2005)]. We revisit this problem by using a Chebyshev collocation method to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the linearized problem. In this way, we confirm that a helical magnetic field can indeed destabilize the flow in the inductionless approximation. Second, we integrate the linearized equations in time to study the transient behavior of small amplitude perturbations, thus showing that the energy arguments are correct as well. However, there is no real contradiction between both facts. The linear stability theory predicts the asymptotic development of an arbitrary small-amplitude perturbation, while the energy stability theory yields the instant growth rate of any particular perturbation, but it does not account for the evolution of this perturbation. Thus, although switching on the magnetic field instantly increases the energy decay rate of the dominating hydrodynamic perturbation, in the same time this perturbation ceases to be an eigenmode in the presence of the magnetic field. Consequently, this perturbation is transformed with time and so becomes able to extract energy from the base flow necessary for the growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnas, C. R.; Czuba, J. A.; Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.
2010-12-01
The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.
2010-05-01
The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Câmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, Demosthenes
1996-05-01
In view of its importance to astrophysical problems involving magnetized accretion disks and outflows in stars, we analyze the stability of incompressible, magnetized Couette flow to axisymmetric perturbations. We use an energy variational principle, the so-called interchange or Chandrasekhar's method, to derive the relevant stability criteria. This method is equivalent to the free-energy formalism that we have recently introduced to describe hydrodynamical instabilities in rotating, self-gravitating systems. In its implementation, all the applicable conservation laws are explicitly taken into account during the variations of the free-energy function. Thus we show that a purely toroidal magnetic field Bφ, which does not harm the conservation of circulation by imposing the additional conservation of azimuthal magnetic flux, leads to structural stability in Couette flow: the stability properties of the unmagnetized flow are recovered in the limit Bφ→0. In contrast, an axial-field component BZ, however small, destroys the conservation laws of circulation and azimuthal magnetic flux by imposing isorotation and conservation of the axial current along field lines. This radical change leads to a different stability criterion that implies structural instability, i.e., the stability properties of the flow with BZ ≡ 0 are not recovered in the limit BZ→0 irrespective of the presence of rotation and/or a toroidal-field component. We discuss the relevance of our results for magnetized accretion flows and for outflows around stars and compact objects in active galactic nuclei. We also provide an application to thin accretion disks in Keplerian rotation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.
2006-01-01
Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.
Traveling waves in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow
Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy
2007-07-15
We investigate numerically a traveling wave pattern observed in experimental magnetized Taylor-Couette flow at low magnetic Reynolds number. By accurately modeling viscous and magnetic boundaries in all directions, we reproduce the experimentally measured wave patterns and their amplitudes. Contrary to previous claims, the waves are shown to be transiently amplified disturbances launched by viscous boundary layers, rather than globally unstable magnetorotational modes.
Rubber Bands as Model Polymers in Couette Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunstan, Dave E.
2008-01-01
We present a simple device for demonstrating the essential aspects of polymers in flow in the classroom. Rubber bands are used as a macroscopic model of polymers to allow direct visual observation of the flow-induced changes in orientation and conformation. A transparent Perspex Couette cell, constructed from two sections of a tube, is used to…
Solution of the Problem of the Couette Flow for a Fermi Gas with Almost Specular Boundary Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedrikova, E. A.; Latyshev, A. V.
2016-06-01
A solution of the Couette problem for a Fermi gas is constructed. The kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation is used. Almost specular boundary conditions are considered. Formulas for the mass flux and the heat flux of the gas are obtained. These fluxes are proportional to the difference of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficients of the molecules. An expression for the viscous drag force acting on the walls of the channel is also found. An analysis of the macroparameters of the gas is performed. The limit to classical gases is taken. The obtained results are found to go over to the known results in this limit.
Heat transfer effects on the stability of low speed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özgen, Serkan; Dursunkaya, Zafer; Ebrinç, Ali Aslan
2007-10-01
The stability problem of low-speed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow of air under heat transfer effects is solved numerically using the linear stability theory. Stability equations obtained from two-dimensional equations of motion and their boundary conditions result in an eigenvalue problem that is solved using an efficient shoot-search technique. Variable fluid properties are accounted for both in the basic flow and the perturbation (stability) equations. A parametric study is performed in order to assess the roles of moving wall velocity and heat transfer. It is found that the moving wall velocity and the location of the critical layers play decisive roles in the instability mechanism. The flow becomes unconditionally stable whenever the moving wall velocity exceeds half of the maximum velocity in the channel. With wall heating and Mach number effects included, the flow is stabilized.
Mean and Instantaneous Axial Profile Measurements in Turbulent Couette-Poiseuille Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurlow, Ernest; Klewicki, Joseph
1996-11-01
Physical experiments of fully developed planar turbulent Poiseuille-Couette flow have been conducted in a recirculating gas flow facility. Poiseuille flow Reynolds numbers ranged from 1,000 to 10,000 based upon the maximum velocity, U and channel width while the upper wall velocity, W was varied between U\\over W=± 0.6. Owing to the negative wall velocities, intrusive probes could not be used. Instead, instantaneous axial profile data were acquired using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV). In these experiments, biacetyl was used as the photochemical and nitrogen as the carrier gas. Profiles of the mean velocity, U axial intensity, u^' and axial gradient intensity, (partial u\\over partial y)^' are presented. Special attention is paid to exploring the effect of the mean profile curvature on the shape and magnitude of the intensity profiles. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borrero-Echeverrry, Daniel; Morrison, Benjamin; Peairs, Evan
2015-11-01
Despite centuries of study, fluid dynamicists are still unable to explain why a large class of flows, including pipe flow and plane Couette flow, become turbulent. Hydrodynamic stability theory predicts these flows should be stable to infinitesimal perturbations, which means finite-amplitude perturbations need to be applied to destabilize them. We present the results of a series of experiments studying such subcritical transitions to turbulence in linearly-stable configurations of Taylor-Couette flow. In particular, we discuss how the stability of these flows depends on the size and duration of the applied perturbation as the aspect ratio of the experimental apparatus is varied. We show that for experimental configurations where the end caps rotate with the outer cylinder, the stability of the flow is enhanced at small aspect ratios. We find that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, perturbations must exceed a critical amplitude before the transition to turbulence can be triggered. The scaling of this threshold with Re appears to be different than that which has been reported for other linearly-stable shear flows. This work was supported by Reed College's Summer Scholarship Fund, the James Borders Physics Student Fellowship, and the Reed College Science Research Fellowship. We also thank H.L. Swinney, who kindly donated the apparatus used in these experiments.
Macrostatistical hydrodynamics
Brenner, H.
1989-01-01
Work performed during this contract period involved performing trajectory measurements of the three-dimensional position of the falling ball as a function of time. This has allowed us to calculate the dispersivity of the falling ball around its mean settling velocity. Whereas the mean settling velocity predicts the continuum behavior of the suspension, the dispersivity allows insight into the non-continuum behavior of the suspension caused by the presence of the macroscopic suspended spheres. Experiments were performed for several sphere sizes (0.635 and 0.3125 cm diameter) as a function of volume fraction ({phi} = 0.30 and 0.50) and relative size ratio of the settling to suspended sphere diameter (0.5 to 4.0). In addition, the bulk behavior of monodisperse and bidisperse sphere suspensions were examined for both Poiseuille and Couette flows. This allowed qualitative analysis of shear-induced particle migration phenomena observed during the processing of highly-concentrated suspensions. Finally, numerical methods are being developed to allow a more complete understanding of the micromechanical effects which cause the dispersivity phenomenon in both falling-ball and shear-induced particle migration experiments.
Measurements of small radius ratio turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Veen, Roeland; Huisman, Sander; Merbold, Sebastian; Sun, Chao; Harlander, Uwe; Egbers, Christoph; Lohse, Detlef
2014-11-01
In Taylor-Couette flows, the radius ratio (η =ri /ro) is one of the key parameters of the system. For small η, the asymmetry of the inner and outer boundary layer becomes more important, affecting the general flow structure and boundary layer characteristics. Using high-resolution particle image velocimetry we measure flow profiles, local transport, and statistical properties of the flow for a radius ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of up to 4 .104 . By measuring flow profiles at varying heights, roll structures are characterized for two different rotation ratios of the inner and outer cylinder. In addition, we systematically vary the rotation ratio and the Reynolds number. These results exemplify how curvature affects flow in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow.
Subcritical Transition and Spiral Turbulence in Taylor-Couette Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burin, M. J.; Czarnocki, C. J.; Dapron, T.; McDonald, K. R.
2010-11-01
We present measurements characterizing the transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow for a fully cyclonic regime, i.e. with only the outer cylinder rotating. Under this arrangement the flow is linearly-stable and the shear-driven transition to turbulence is understood to be both `catastrophic' and spatiotemporally intermittent. En route to a fully turbulent state, we observe a regime featuring co-extant laminar/turbulent domains known as spiral turbulence. To better understand this regime, and the transition in general, we have obtained velocimetry data (via LDV) and angular momentum transport estimates (via torque), in addition to flow visualization. These observations are discussed with respect to similar transition phenomena in planar and counter-rotating Couette flows. By utilizing three different inner cylinder radii within the apparatus, we also demonstrate the sensitivity of the subcritical transition scenario to annular gap width.
Coupling of couette flow and crystal morphologies in directional freezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Yang, Yong; Lu, Deyang; Zhou, Yaohe
1993-03-01
Experiment has focused on momentum transport effects on planar interface instability growth and morphologies, the presence of Couette flow and the flow over cells and dendrites in succinonitrille-acetone model alloy during directional solidification. The flow can inhance the planar growth stability strikingly and even induce the transition from cell to planar. The cell or dendrite will modify its arm growth direction without changing its crystallographic orientation and produce asymmetrical growth tips. Based on in-situ observation, plane Couette flow over curved surfaces is used to model the flow near the solid-liquid interface. The results explain qualitatively the experimental phenomena of the interaction between the melt flow and crystal morphologies.
Split rheometer Couette attachment to enable sample extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guthrie, Sarah E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.
2005-02-01
We report on the development of a Couette attachment insert for a rheometer, which is designed to split in half, enabling intact sample extraction of cocoa butter crystallized from the melt under known dynamic stress conditions. This cell is capable of producing a sample 1mm thick. At shear rates of 90-720s-1 and final temperatures of 18-20°C it was shown that the sample will completely separate from the cell surface intact.
Laboratory experiments on liquid metal spherical-Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andres Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel
2005-11-01
We present experimental observations on liquid sodium flow in a spherical-Couette geometry. By applying an external magnetic field we are able to clearly identify at least two induced magnetic field modes with different poloidal patterns as well as different azimuthal wave numbers. The origin of many of these induced field oscillations appears to be related to inertial wave oscillations propagating in the spherical annulus. Possible implications for dynamo action and to the magneto-rotational instability will also be discussed.
Shear-thinning-induced chaos in taylor-couette flow
Ashrafi; Khayat
2000-02-01
The effect of weak shear thinning on the stability of the Taylor-Couette flow is explored for a Carreau-Bird fluid in the narrow-gap limit. The Galerkin projection method is used to derive a low-order dynamical system from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. In comparison with the Newtonian system, the present equations include additional nonlinear coupling in the velocity components through the viscosity. It is found that the critical Taylor number, corresponding to the loss of stability of the base (Couette) flow, becomes lower as the shear-thinning effect increases. That is, shear thinning tends to precipitate the onset of Taylor vortex flow. Similar to Newtonian fluids, there is an exchange of stability between the Couette and Taylor vortex flows, which coincides with the onset of a supercritical bifurcation. However, unlike the Newtonian model, the Taylor vortex cellular structure loses its stability in turn as the Taylor number reaches a critical value. At this point, a Hopf bifurcation emerges, which exists only for shear-thinning fluids. PMID:11046426
High-Reynolds Number Taylor-Couette Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2016-01-01
Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two coaxial co- or counter-rotating cylinders, is one of the paradigmatic systems in the physics of fluids. The (dimensionless) control parameters are the Reynolds numbers of the inner and outer cylinders, the ratio of the cylinder radii, and the aspect ratio. One key response of the system is the torque required to retain constant angular velocities, which can be connected to the angular velocity transport through the gap. Whereas the low-Reynolds number regime was well explored in the 1980s and 1990s of the past century, in the fully turbulent regime major research activity developed only in the past decade. In this article, we review this recent progress in our understanding of fully developed Taylor-Couette turbulence from the experimental, numerical, and theoretical points of view. We focus on the parameter dependence of the global torque and on the local flow organization, including velocity profiles and boundary layers. Next, we discuss transitions between different (turbulent) flow states. We also elaborate on the relevance of this system for astrophysical disks (quasi-Keplerian flows). The review ends with a list of challenges for future research on turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.
Turbulence structure in a Taylor-Couette apparatus
Fehrenbacher, Noah; Aldredge, Ralph C.; Morgan, Joshua T.
2007-10-15
Turbulence measurements were made in a Taylor-Couette apparatus as a basis for future flame propagation studies. Results of the present study extend that of earlier work by more complete characterization of the featureless turbulence regime generated by the Taylor-Couette apparatus. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure Reynolds stresses, integral and micro time scales and power spectra over a wide range of turbulence intensities typically encountered by turbulent pre-mixed hydrocarbon-air flames. Measurements of radial velocity intensities are consistent with earlier axial and circumferential velocity measurements that indicated a linear relationship between turbulence intensity and the Reynolds number based on the average cylinder rotation speed and wall separation distance. Measured integral and micro time scales and approximated integral length scales were all found to decrease with the Reynolds number, possibly associated with a confinement of the largest scales (of the order of the cylinder wall separation distance). Regions of transverse isotropy were discovered in axial-radial cross correlations for average cylinder Reynolds numbers less than 6000 and are predicted to exist also for circumferential cross correlations at higher average Reynolds numbers, greater than 6000. Power spectra for the independent directions of velocity fluctuation exhibited -5/3 slopes, suggesting that the flow also has some additional isotropic characteristics and demonstrating the role of the Taylor-Couette apparatus as a novel means for generating turbulence for flame propagation studies. (author)
Traveling hairpin-shaped fluid vortices in plane Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguchi, K.; Nagata, M.
2010-11-01
Traveling-wave solutions are discovered in plane Couette flow. They are obtained when the so-called steady hairpin vortex state found recently by Gibson [J. Fluid Mech. 638, 243 (2009)]10.1017/S0022112009990863 and Itano and Generalis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 114501 (2009)]10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.114501 is continued to sliding Couette flow geometry between two concentric cylinders by using the radius ratio as a homotopy parameter. It turns out that in the plane Couette flow geometry two traveling waves having the phase velocities with opposite signs are associated with their appearance from the steady hairpin vortex state, where the amplitude of the phase velocities increases gradually from zero as the Reynolds number is increased. The solutions obviously inherit the streaky structure of the hairpin vortex state, but shape preserving flow patterns propagate in the streamwise direction. Other striking features of the solution are asymmetric mean flow profiles and strong quasistreamwise vortices which occupy the vicinity of only the top or bottom moving boundary, depending on the sign of the phase velocity. Furthermore, we find that the pitchfork bifurcation associated with the appearance of the solution becomes imperfect when the flow is perturbed by a Poiseuille flow component.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel
This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Hydromagnetic Dynamics and Magnetic Field Enhancement in a Turbulent Spherical Couette Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, Douglas; Adams, Matthew; Kara, Onur; Lathrop, Daniel
2015-11-01
The University of Maryland Three Meter Geodynamo, a spherical Couette experiment filled with liquid sodium and geometrically similar to the earth's core, is used to study hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic phenomena in rapidly rotating turbulence. An external coil applies a magnetic field in order to study hydromagnetic effects relevant to the earth's outer core such as dynamo action, while an array of 31 external Hall sensors measures the Gauss coefficients of the resulting magnetic field. The flow state is strongly dependent on Rossby number, Ro = (ΩI -ΩO) /ΩO , where ΩI and ΩO are the inner and outer sphere rotation frequencies. The flow state is inferred from the torque required to drive the inner sphere. The generation of internal toroidal magnetic field through the Ω-effect is measured by a Hall probe inserted into the sodium. A self-sustaining dynamo has not yet been observed at rotation speeds up to ΩO=3 Hz, which is three-fourths of the design maximum of the experiment. However, continuous dipole amplification up to 12% of a small applied field has been observed at Ro=?17.7 while bursts of dipole field have been observed up to 15% of a large external applied field at Ro=+6.0 and up to 20% of a small applied field at Ro=+2.15.
Recovery of short-lived chemical species in a couette flow reactor
Ouyang, Q.; Swinney, H.L. ); Roux, J.C.; Kepper, P.; Boissonade, J. )
1992-04-01
This paper reports on a new technique for studying and recovering short-lived chemical intermediate species that has been developed using a Couette reactor, which is an open one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. Reaction occurs in the annulus between concentric cylinders with the inner one rotating and the outer one at rest. Fresh reagents are in contact with the ends of the annulus, but there is no net axial flow. The axial transport arising from the hydrodynamic motion is effectively diffusive, but has a diffusion coefficient 3 to 5 order of magnitude larger than that of molecular diffusion. The oxidant (ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) and reductant (I{sup {minus}}) of an autocatalytic reaction are fed at opposite ends of the reactor. The reactants diffuse toward each other and react, forming a steady, sharp chemical front and a stable spatial concentration band of unstable intermediate species (HOCl) in the front region. Unstable intermediate species are thus stabilized at a well-defined spatial position where they can be recovered and studied. The experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the faster the reaction rate, the stabler the chemical front and the more effective the recovery of unstable intermediate species.
Hydromagnetic Dynamics and Magnetic Field Enhancement in a Turbulent Spherical Couette Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, D. S.; Liu, Q.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Triana, S. A.; Nataf, H. C.; Lathrop, D. P.
2014-11-01
The University of Maryland Three Meter Geodynamo, a spherical Couette experiment filled with liquid sodium and geometrically similar to the earth's core, is used to study hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic phenomena in rapidly rotating turbulence. Turbulent flow is driven in the sodium by differential rotation of the inner and outer spherical shells, while an external coil applies a magnetic field in order to study hydromagnetic effects relevant to the earth's outer core such as dynamo action. An array of 31 external Hall sensors measures the Gauss coefficients of the resulting magnetic field. The flow state is strongly dependent on Rossby number Ro = (ΩI -ΩO) /ΩO , where ΩI and ΩO are the inner and outer sphere rotation frequencies. The flow state is inferred from the torque required to drive the inner sphere and the generation of internal toroidal magnetic field through the Ω-effect, which is measured by a Hall probe inserted into the sodium. A self-sustaining dynamo has not yet been observed at rotation speeds up to about half of the design maximum. However, continuous dipole amplification up to 12% of a small applied field has been observed at Ro = - 17 . 7 while bursts of dipole field have been observed up to 15% of a large external applied field at Ro = + 6 . 0 and up to 20% of a small applied field at Ro = + 2 . 15 .
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauga, Eric
2016-01-01
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
Circular Couette cell for two-dimensional turbulence experiments in sheared flow: initial results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulmen, John V.; Fontana, Paul W.; Kearney-Fischer, Martin
2006-03-01
An experiment to study turbulence in quasi-two-dimensional flows with a controlled mean flow shear has been built. Experiments are underway to investigate the suppression of turbulent transport by sheared flow as seen in geostrophic flows and laboratory fusion plasmas. The apparatus, a circular Couette cell, uses a liquid film of dilute soap solution suspended freely in an annular channel with a rotating outer boundary. The channel is 7 cm wide with an average radius of 46.5 cm, and can be rotated at angular speeds exceeding 10 rad/s. Mean flow profiles will be presented showing the effect of air resistance on the flow; damping lengths on the order of 1 mm are observed. Turbulence is driven independently via electromagnetic forcing. The rate of turbulence injection can be varied continuously, and its spatial scale corresponds to the spatial frequency of an array of NdFeB magnets. Diagnostics include particle imaging velocimetry, two-point laser Doppler velocimetry, and thickness measurements via reflection interferometry. Initial results and plans for upcoming measurements will be presented.
Two-dimensional turbulence experiments in sheared flow using circular Couette cell: initial results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kearney-Fischer, Martin; Fontana, Paul; Windell, Simon; Rogers, Sean
2007-03-01
An experiment to study turbulence in quasi-two-dimensional flows with a controlled mean flow shear has been built. Experiments are underway to investigate the suppression of turbulent transport by sheared flow as seen in geostrophic flows and laboratory fusion plasmas. The apparatus, a circular Couette cell, uses a liquid film of dilute soap solution suspended freely in an annular channel with a rotating outer boundary. The channel is 7 cm wide with an average radius of 46.5 cm, and can be rotated at angular speeds exceeding 10 rad/s. Turbulence is driven independently via electromagnetic forcing. The rate of turbulence injection can be varied continuously, and its spatial scale corresponds to the spatial frequency of an array of NdFeB magnets. Diagnostics include particle imaging velocimetry, two-point laser Doppler velocimetry, and thickness measurements via reflection interferometry. Initial analysis will be presented which indicates the existence of both turbulent suppression and expansion in high and low frequency regimes respectively. Plans for further analysis will also be presented.
Periodic orbits near onset of chaos in plane Couette flow.
Kreilos, Tobias; Eckhardt, Bruno
2012-12-01
We track the secondary bifurcations of coherent states in plane Couette flow and show that they undergo a periodic doubling cascade that ends with a crisis bifurcation. We introduce a symbolic dynamics for the orbits and show that the ones that exist fall into the universal sequence described by Metropolis, Stein and Stein for unimodal maps. The periodic orbits cover much of the turbulent dynamics in that their temporal evolution overlaps with turbulent motions when projected onto a plane spanned by energy production and dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chefranov, Sergey; Chefranov, Alexander
2016-04-01
Linear hydrodynamic stability theory for the Hagen-Poiseuille (HP) flow yields a conclusion of infinitely large threshold Reynolds number, Re, value. This contradiction to the observation data is bypassed using assumption of the HP flow instability having hard type and possible for sufficiently high-amplitude disturbances. HP flow disturbance evolution is considered by nonlinear hydrodynamic stability theory. Similar is the case of the plane Couette (PC) flow. For the plane Poiseuille (PP) flow, linear theory just quantitatively does not agree with experimental data defining the threshold Reynolds number Re= 5772 ( S. A. Orszag, 1971), more than five-fold exceeding however the value observed, Re=1080 (S. J. Davies, C. M. White, 1928). In the present work, we show that the linear stability theory conclusions for the HP and PC on stability for any Reynolds number and evidently too high threshold Reynolds number estimate for the PP flow are related with the traditional use of the disturbance representation assuming the possibility of separation of the longitudinal (along the flow direction) variable from the other spatial variables. We show that if to refuse from this traditional form, conclusions on the linear instability for the HP and PC flows may be obtained for finite Reynolds numbers (for the HP flow, for Re>704, and for the PC flow, for Re>139). Also, we fit the linear stability theory conclusion on the PP flow to the experimental data by getting an estimate of the minimal threshold Reynolds number as Re=1040. We also get agreement of the minimal threshold Reynolds number estimate for PC with the experimental data of S. Bottin, et.al., 1997, where the laminar PC flow stability threshold is Re = 150. Rogue waves excitation mechanism in oppositely directed currents due to the PC flow linear instability is discussed. Results of the new linear hydrodynamic stability theory for the HP, PP, and PC flows are published in the following papers: 1. S.G. Chefranov, A
Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow.
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-06-12
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control.
Taylor--Couette--Poiseuille flow with a permeable inner cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilton, Nils; Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard
2010-11-01
We consider laminar Taylor--Couette--Poiseuille flow between an outer, fixed, impermeable cylinder and a concentric, inner, rotating, permeable cylinder with radial suction. Due to centrifugal instabilities the steady flow transitions to Taylor vortex flow. This system is used in filtration because the vortices wash contaminants away from the permeable cylinder. The coupling between the axial pressure drop driving the annular Poiseuille flow, and the transmembrane pressure driving the suction induces axial variations of the velocity field of the subcritical flow, which can evolve from suction to injection (cross flow reversal) or consume the whole axial flow (axial flow exhaustion). Moreover, the stability of this flow departs from that of Taylor--Couette flow. We propose an asymptotic solution to the subcritical flow assuming slow axial variations of the velocity and pressure fields. The transmembrane suction and pressure are coupled through Darcy's law. This solution is then used as a base flow to study the appearance of instabilities in the form of global modes. The analytical results for the subcritical and supercritical flows are then compared with dedicated 3-D spectral direct numerical simulations implementing Darcy's law on the inner cylinder.
Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572
Transitions in turbulent plane Couette flow with rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salewski, Matthew; Eckhardt, Bruno
2012-11-01
The interplay of shearing and rotational forces in fluids significantly affects the transport properties of turbulent fluids such as the heat flux in rotating convection and the angular momentum flux in a fluid annulus between differentially rotating cylinders. A numerical investigation was undertaken to study the role of these forces using plane Couette flow subject to rotation about an axis perpendicular to both wall-normal and streamwise directions. Using a set of progressively increasing Reynolds numbers (650 <= Re <= 5200), our primary findings show the momentum transport for a given Re is a smooth but non-monotonic function of inverse Rossby number (1 / Ro). For lower turbulent Reynolds numbers, Re <= 1300 , a peak in momentum transport occurs at 1 / Ro = 0 . 2 ; this peak is 50% higher than the non-rotating (1 / Ro = 0) flux and is attributed to the turbulent Taylor vortices. However, as the shear is increased to Re = 5200 , a second stronger peak emerges at 1 / Ro = 0 . 03 . The flux at the second peak is nearly 20% larger than the non-rotating flux compared to the Taylor vortex peak which is now only 16% larger. This finding contributes to the understanding of the torque maximum found in the high-turbulence Taylor-Couette experiments in Maryland, USA and Twente, NL. Funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), Project FOR-1182.
Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow.
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572
Geometry of state space in plane Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvitanović, P.; Gibson, J. F.
A large conceptual gap separates the theory of low-dimensional chaotic dynamics from the infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of turbulence. Recent advances in experimental imaging, computational methods, and dynamical systems theory suggest a way to bridge this gap in our understanding of turbulence. Recent discoveries show that recurrent coherent structures observed in wall-bounded shear flows (such as pipes and plane Couette flow) result from close passes to weakly unstable invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These 3D, fully nonlinear solutions (equilibria, traveling waves, and periodic orbits) structure the state space of turbulent flows and provide a skeleton for analyzing their dynamics. We calculate a hierarchy of invariant solutions for plane Couette, a canonical wall-bounded shear flow. These solutions reveal organization in the flow's turbulent dynamics and can be used to predict directly from the fundamental equations physical quantities such as bulk flow rate and mean wall drag. All results and the code that generates them are disseminated through through our group's open-source CFD software and solution database Channelflow.org and the collaborative e-book ChaosBook.org.
Calculation of plane turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows with a modified k-ɛ model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gretler, W.; Meile, W.
1997-10-01
Suitable modifications to the k—ɛ model are proposed for the calculation of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows. In the case of pure Couette flow a logarithmic expression for the turbulent kinetic energy could be derived which is valid over the entire fully turbulent region. The basic idea for numerical computations is the deviation from the concept of constant cμ. In the case of Couette-type flows proper distributions of this model parameter could be found. In Poiseuille-type flows the application of an extended eddy-diffusivity approach for the turbulent shear stress leads to results which satisfactorily correspond to the measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colgate, S. A.
1981-11-01
The physics as well as astrophysics of the supernova (SN) phenomenon are illustrated with the appropriate numbers. The explosion of a star, a supernova, occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN, or it may collapse, type I and type II SN, leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor is thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 interior mass, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star, 6 to 10 interior mass. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to model, being the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe.
Huizinga, Richard J.
2007-01-01
The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also
Self-assembly of protein fibrils in stable circular Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McBride, Samantha; Tilger, Christopher; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2014-11-01
Fluid flows are known to contribute to the chemical dynamics of self-assembling protein fibrils yet the roles of mixing and shear have not been elucidated. These long, crystalline structures are ubiquitous in-vivo and strongly associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding the mechanism of formation is a significant challenge because of the variety of gradients proteins are exposed to in biological fluid channels. A stable circular Couette flow device was constructed in order to conduct comprehensive tests on the effects of pure shear on a protein solution initially free of any pre-existing aggregates. The protein insulin was sheared at various Reynolds numbers at normothermia (37°C). Changes in fluid properties are observed at the onset of fibril precipitation, as the elongated structures generate complex particle-laden fluid dynamics. Measurements include fibrillization lag times, images of protein fibrils induced by shear, and changes to viscosity after exposure to shear. Discussion will cover biological implications and the role of fluid mechanics in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. NASA Grant NNX13AQ22G, NSF Grants CBET-1064644 and CBET-1064498.
Scaling laws of turbulent Couette flow with wall-normal transpiration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraheberger, Stephanie; Oberlack, Martin; Hoyas, Sergio
2015-11-01
An extensive DNS study of turbulent plane Couette flows with permeable boundary conditions, i.e. wall-normal transpiration, was conducted at Reτ = 250 , 500 , 1000 and varying transpiration velocities v0 . The discretization employed is speudo-spectral in wall-parallel and compact finite differences in wall-normal direction (see Hoyas et al., Phys. Fluids 2006). We derived a global stress relation for the flow, balancing total shear stresses, with very different friction velocities at lower and upper wall. This, in turn, was used to validate convergence of DNS statistics. Most important, we derived a viscous sublayer velocity scaling for the suction wall employing asymptotic methods. Moreover, using Lie group symmetry analysis applied to the multi-point correlation equation we derived scaling laws for the near-wall region on the blowing wall and the channel center, predicting mean velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; de Pablo, Juan; dePablo Team
2014-11-01
Liquid crystals (LC) posses anisotropic viscoelastic properties, and, as such, LC flow can be incredibly complicated. Here we employ a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (pioneered by Deniston, Yeomans and Cates) to systematically study the hydrodynamics of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) with and without solid particles. This method evolves the velocity field through lattice Boltzmann and the LC-order parameter via a finite-difference solver of the Beris-Edwards equation. The evolution equation of the boundary points with finite anchoring is obtained through Poisson bracket formulation. Our method has been validated by matching the Ericksen-Leslie theory. We demonstrate two applications in the flow alignment regime. We first investigate a hybrid channel flow in which the top and bottom walls have different anchoring directions. By measuring the apparent shear viscosity in terms of Couette flow, we achieve a viscosity inhomogeneous system which may be applicable to nano particle processing. In the other example, we introduce a homeotropic spherical particle to the channel, and focus on the deformations of the defect ring due to anchorings and flow. The results are then compared to the molecular dynamics simulations of a colloid particle in an LC modeled by a Gay-Berne potential.
High Reynolds number decay of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verschoof, Ruben A.; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2015-11-01
We study the decay of high-Reynolds number turbulence in a Taylor-Couette facility for pure inner cylinder rotation. The rotation of the inner cylinder (Rei = 2 ×106) is suddenly decelerated as fast as possible, thus removing the energy input within seconds. Local velocity measurements show that the decay in this wall-bounded inhomogeneous flow is faster than observed for homogeneous isotropic turbulent flows, due to the strong viscous drag applied by the inner and outer cylinder surfaces. We found that the decay over time can be described with the differential equation Re . (t) =cf (Re)Re2 , where the effects of the walls are included through the friction coefficient. A self-similar behavior of the azimuthal velocity is found: its normalized velocity profile as a function of the radius collapses over time during the decay process.
Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohse, Detlef; Huisman, Sander; Ostilla, Rodolfo; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Grossmann, Siegfried
2013-11-01
We provide direct measurements of boundary layer profiles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re = 2 ×106 using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, complemented by DNS data on the same system up to Re =105 . We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law, but with corrections due to the curvature of the cylinder, which we theoretically account for, based on the Navier-Stokes equation and a closure assumption for the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, we study how these corrections depend on the cylinder radius ratio and show that they are different for the boundary layers at the inner and at the outer cylinder.
Multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2014-05-01
The ubiquity of turbulent flows in nature and technology makes it of utmost importance to fundamentally understand turbulence. Kolmogorov’s 1941 paradigm suggests that for strongly turbulent flows with many degrees of freedom and large fluctuations, there would only be one turbulent state as the large fluctuations would explore the entire higher dimensional phase space. Here we report the first conclusive evidence of multiple turbulent states for large Reynolds number, Re(106) (Taylor number Ta(1012)) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence, by probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The manifestation of multiple turbulent states is exemplified by providing combined global torque- and local-velocity measurements. This result verifies the notion that bifurcations can occur in high-dimensional flows (that is, very large Re) and questions Kolmogorov’s paradigm.
Multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, Sander; van der Veen, Roeland; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2014-11-01
The ubiquity of turbulent flows in nature and technology makes it of utmost importance to fundamentally understand turbulence. Kolmogorov's 1941 paradigm suggests that for strongly turbulent flows with many degrees of freedom and its large fluctuations, there would only be one turbulent state as the large fluctuations would explore the entire higher-dimensional phase space. Here we report the first conclusive evidence of multiple turbulent states for large Reynolds number Re = O (106) (Taylor number Ta = O (1012) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence, by probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The manifestation of multiple turbulent states is exemplified by providing combined global torque and local velocity measurements. This result verifies the notion that bifurcations can occur in high-dimensional flows (i.e. very large Re) and questions Kolmogorov's paradigm.
Symmetry and stability in Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubitsky, M.; Stewart, I.
1986-01-01
The flow of a fluid between concentric rotating cylinders (the Taylor problem) is studied by exploiting the symmetries of the system. The Navier-Stokes equations, linearized about Couette flow, possess two zero and four purely imaginary eigenvalues at a suitable value of the speed of rotation of the outer cylinder. There is thus a reduced bifurcation equation on a six-dimensonal space which can be shown to commute with an action of the symmetry group 0(2) x S0(2). The group structure is used to analyze this bifurcation equation in the simplest (nondegenerate) case, and to compute the stabilities of solutions. In particular, when the outer cylinder is counterrotated, transitions which seem to agree with recent experiments of Andereck, Liu, and Swinney (1984) are obtained. It is also possible to obtain the 'main sequence' in this model. This sequence is normally observed in experiments when the outer cylinder is held fixed.
Shercliff layers in strongly magnetic cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollerbach, Rainer; Hulot, Deborah
2016-07-01
We numerically compute the axisymmetric Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of axially periodic magnetic fields, with Hartmann numbers up to Ha2 =107. The geometry of the field singles out special field lines on which Shercliff layers form. These are simple shear layers for insulating boundaries, versus super-rotating or counter-rotating layers for conducting boundaries. Some field configurations have previously studied spherical analogs, but fundamentally new configurations also exist, having no spherical analogs. Finally, we explore the influence of azimuthal fields Bϕ ∼r-1eˆϕ on these layers, and show that the flow is suppressed for conducting boundaries, but enhanced for insulating boundaries. xml:lang="fr"
Couette flow regimes with heat transfer in rarefied gas
Abramov, A. A. Butkovskii, A. V.
2013-06-15
Based on numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation by direct statistic simulation, the Couette flow with heat transfer is studied in a broad range of ratios of plate temperatures and Mach numbers of a moving plate. Flow regime classification by the form of the dependences of the energy flux and friction stress on the Knudsen number Kn is proposed. These dependences can be simultaneously monotonic and nonmonotonic and have maxima. Situations are possible in which the dependence of the energy flux transferred to a plate on Kn has a minimum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic or even has a maximum. Also, regimes exist in which the dependence of the energy flux on Kn has a maximum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic, and vice versa.
Time-dependent MHD Couette flow in a porous annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Basant K.; Apere, Clement A.
2013-08-01
This study presents the solution for the MHD transient Couette flow in an annulus formed by two concentric porous cylinders of infinite length. The fluid flow is induced by either the impulsive or the accelerated movements of the outer cylinder. A uniform magnetic field is assumed to be applied perpendicular to the direction of flow. General solution of the governing equations is obtained using a combination of Laplace transform and the Riemann-sum approximation method of Laplace inversion. The expressions for the skin friction at the two walls are obtained in both cases. The variations of the velocity and the skin friction with respect to the Hartmann number and suction/injection parameter have been discussed. It is found out that suction accelerates the flow whereas injection retards the flow.
DEM simulation of granular flow in a Couette device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidyapati, Vidyapati; Kheripour Langrudi, M.; Tardos, Gabriel; Sun, Jin; Sundaresan, Sankaran; Subramaniam, Shankar
2009-11-01
We study the shear motion of granular material in an annular shear cell operated in batch and continuous modes. In order to quantitatively simulate shear behavior of granular material composed of spherical shaped grains, a 3D discrete element method (DEM) is used. The ultimate goal of the present work is to compare DEM results for the normal and shear stresses in stationary and moving granular beds confined in Couette device with experimental results. The DEM captures the experimental observation of transition behavior from quasi-- static (in batch mode operation) to rapid flow (in continuous mode operation) regime of granular flows. Although there are quantitative differences between DEM model predictions and experiments, the qualitative features are nicely reproduced. It is observed (both in experiments and in simulations) that the intermediate regime is broad enough to require a critical assessment of continuum models for granular flows.
On the linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1991-01-01
The linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow is investigated. The correct and proper basic velocity and temperature distributions are perturbed by a small amplitude normal mode disturbance. The full small amplitude disturbance equations are solved numerically at finite Reynolds numbers, and the inviscid limit of these equations is then investigated in some detail. It is found that instability can occur, although the stability characteristics of the flow are quite different from unbounded flows. The effects of viscosity are also calculated, asymptotically, and shown to have a stabilizing role in all the cases investigated. Exceptional regimes to the problem occur when the wavespeed of the disturbances approaches the velocity of either of the walls, and these regimes are also analyzed in some detail. Finally, the effect of imposing radiation-type boundary conditions on the upper (moving) wall (in place of impermeability) is investigated, and shown to yield results common to both bounded and unbounded flows.
Optimal Taylor-Couette flow: radius ratio dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Huisman, Sander G.; Jannink, Tim J. G.; Van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2014-05-01
Taylor-Couette flow with independently rotating inner (i) and outer (o) cylinders is explored numerically and experimentally to determine the effects of the radius ratio {\\eta} on the system response. Numerical simulations reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=9.5 x 10^3 and Re_o=5x10^3, corresponding to Taylor numbers of up to Ta=10^8 for four different radius ratios {\\eta}=r_i/r_o between 0.5 and 0.909. The experiments, performed in the Twente Turbulent Taylor-Couette (T^3C) setup, reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=2x10^6$ and Re_o=1.5x10^6, corresponding to Ta=5x10^{12} for {\\eta}=0.714-0.909. Effective scaling laws for the torque J^{\\omega}(Ta) are found, which for sufficiently large driving Ta are independent of the radius ratio {\\eta}. As previously reported for {\\eta}=0.714, optimum transport at a non-zero Rossby number Ro=r_i|{\\omega}_i-{\\omega}_o|/[2(r_o-r_i){\\omega}_o] is found in both experiments and numerics. Ro_opt is found to depend on the radius ratio and the driving of the system. At a driving in the range between {Ta\\sim3\\cdot10^8} and {Ta\\sim10^{10}}, Ro_opt saturates to an asymptotic {\\eta}-dependent value. Theoretical predictions for the asymptotic value of Ro_{opt} are compared to the experimental results, and found to differ notably. Furthermore, the local angular velocity profiles from experiments and numerics are compared, and a link between a flat bulk profile and optimum transport for all radius ratios is reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung-Rack; Schumann, Guy; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Lin, Shih-Yuan
2014-09-01
Stereo analysis of in-orbital imagery provides valuable topographic data for scientific research over planetary surfaces especially for the interpretation of potential fluvial activity. The focus of research into planetary fluvial activity has been shifting toward quantitative modeling with various spatial resolution DTMs from visual interpretation with ortho images. Thus in this study, we tested the application of hydraulic analysis with multi resolution Martian DTMs, which were constructed following the approaches of Kim and Muller (2009). Planet. Space Sci. 57 (14), 2095. Subsequently, a two-dimensional hydraulic model was introduced to conduct flow simulation using the extracted 1.2-150 m resolution DTMs. As a result, it was found that the simulated water flows coincided with what might be water eroded geomorphic features over target areas. Moreover, the information acquired from the modeling, such as water depth along the time line, flow direction and travel time, is proving of great value for the interpretation of surface characteristics. Results highlighted the importance of DTM quality for simulating fluvial channel hydraulics across planetary surfaces.
Micro-Volume Couette Flow Sample Orientation for Absorbance and Fluorescence Linear Dichroism
Marrington, Rachel; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Halsall, David J.; Rodger, Alison
2004-01-01
Linear dichroism (LD) can be used to study the alignment of absorbing chromophores within long molecules. In particular, Couette flow LD has been used to good effect in probing ligand binding to DNA and to fibrous proteins. This technique has been previously limited by large sample requirements. Here we report the design and application of a new micro-volume Couette flow cell that significantly enhances the potential applications of flow LD spectroscopy by reducing the sample requirements for flow linear dichroism to 25 μL (with concentrations such that the absorbance maximum of the sample in a 1-cm pathlength cuvette is ∼1). The micro-volume Couette cell has also enabled the measurement of fluorescence-detected Couette flow linear dichroism. This new technique enables the orientation of fluorescent ligands to be probed even when their electronic transitions overlap with those of the macromolecule and conversely. The potential of flow-oriented fluorescence dichroism and application of the micro-volume Couette LD cell are illustrated by the collection of data for DNA with minor groove and intercalating ligands: DAPI, Hoechst, and ethidium bromide. As with conventional fluorescence, improved sensitivity compared with absorbance LD is to be expected after instrumentation optimization. PMID:15345576
Turbulent statistics and flow structures in spanwise-rotating turbulent plane Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gai, Jie; Xia, Zhenhua; Cai, Qingdong; Chen, Shiyi
2016-09-01
A series of direct numerical simulations of spanwise-rotating turbulent plane Couette flows at a Reynolds number of 1300 with rotation numbers Ro between 0 and 0.9 is carried out to investigate the effects of anticyclonic rotation on turbulent statistics and flow structures. Several typical turbulent statistics are presented, including the mean shear rate at the centerline, the wall-friction Reynolds number, and volume-averaged kinetic energies with respect to the secondary flow field, turbulent field, and total fluctuation field. Our results show that the rotation changes these quantities in different manners. Volume-averaged balance equations for kinetic energy are analyzed and it turns out that the interaction term acts as a kinetic energy bridge that transfers energy from the secondary flow to the turbulent fluctuations. Several typical flow regimes are identified based on the correlation functions across the whole channel and flow visualizations. The two-dimensional roll cells are observed at weak rotation Ro=0.01 , where alternant clustering of vortices appears. Three-dimensional roll cells emerge around Ro≈0.02 , where the clustering of vortices shows the meandering and bifurcating behavior. For moderate rotation 0.07 ≲Ro≲0.36 , well-organized structures are observed, where the herringbonelike vortices are clustered between streaks from the top view of three-dimensional flow visualization and form annuluses. More importantly, the vortices are rather confined to one side of the walls when Ro≤0.02 and are inclined from the bottom to upper walls when Ro≥0.07 .
Rotating plane Couette flow at high rotation number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suryadi, A.; Tillmark, N.; Alfredsson, P. H.
2012-11-01
Flow structures in the rotating plane Couette flow facility at KTH (described in Tsukahara, et al. J. Fluid Mech. vol. 648) have been studied at high rotation numbers. The test section is 20 mm wide with a length of 1500 mm in the streamwise (x) and 360 mm in the spanwise (z) directions and can be rotated in the spanwise direction up to angular velocities of Ωz ~ 0 . 6 rad/s. The flow is characterised by: (1) the Reynolds number Re based on the test section's half-width (h) and half of the velocity difference between the moving walls, (2) the rotation number Ω = 2Ωzh2 / ν . For low rotation numbers the primary instability consists of streamwise-oriented roll cells, but Tsukahara, et al. showed the secondary instability in the form of wavy streamwise oriented roll-cells at Re = 100 and Ω = 3 - 12 , whereas for higher Ω, the flow structures again stabilize to streamwise-oriented roll cells. Here we find that at even higher Ω in the range 40 - 70 , a new type of secondary instability develops in the form of counter-rotating helical roll-cells. The structure of this instability, as well as other instabilities, are investigated by flow visualization as well as two-dimensional PIV-measurements in several xz -planes.
Nonaxisymmetric linear instability of cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette flow.
Child, Adam; Kersalé, Evy; Hollerbach, Rainer
2015-09-01
We consider the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability present in Taylor-Couette flow under the application of helical magnetic fields, mainly for magnetic Prandtl numbers close to the inductionless limit, and conduct a full examination of marginal stability in the resulting parameter space. We allow for the azimuthal magnetic field to be generated by a combination of currents in the inner cylinder and fluid itself and introduce a parameter governing the relation between the strength of these currents. A set of governing eigenvalue equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability are derived and solved by spectral collocation with Chebyshev polynomials over the relevant parameter space, with the resulting instabilities examined in detail. We find that by altering the azimuthal magnetic field profiles the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, nonaxisymmetric helical magnetorotational instability, and Tayler instability yield interesting dynamics, such as different preferred mode types and modes with azimuthal wave number m>1. Finally, a comparison is given to the recent WKB analysis performed by Kirillov et al. [Kirillov, Stefani, and Fukumoto, J. Fluid Mech. 760, 591 (2014)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/jfm.2014.614] and its validity in the linear regime.
Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow
Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Herron, Isom
2006-11-15
Hollerbach and Ruediger have reported a new type of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The salient advantage of this 'helical' MRI (HMRI) is that marginal instability occurs at arbitrarily low magnetic Reynolds and Lundquist numbers, suggesting that HMRI might be easier to realize than standard MRI (axial field only), and that it might be relevant to cooler astrophysical disks, especially those around protostars, which may be quite resistive. We confirm previous results for marginal stability and calculate HMRI growth rates. We show that in the resistive limit, HMRI is a weakly destabilized inertial oscillation propagating in a unique direction along the axis. But we report other features of HMRI that make it less attractive for experiments and for resistive astrophysical disks. Large axial currents are required. More fundamentally, instability of highly resistive flow is peculiar to infinitely long or periodic cylinders: finite cylinders with insulating endcaps are shown to be stable in this limit, at least if viscosity is neglected. Also, Keplerian rotation profiles are stable in the resistive limit regardless of axial boundary conditions. Nevertheless, the addition of a toroidal field lowers thresholds for instability even in finite cylinders.
Spontaneous layer formation dynamics in stratified Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclercq, Colin; Partridge, Jamie L.; Augier, Pierre; Caulfield, C. P.; Linden, Paul F.; Dalziel, Stuart B.; MUST Collaboration
2015-11-01
The spontaneous formation of horizontal layers is a common feature of strongly and stably stratified flows and plays a major role in the dynamics of geophysical flows. However, little is known about the physical mechanism setting the depth of the layers spontaneously emerging in ``stratified Taylor-Couette flow'' in the annulus between a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder, initially filled with stably, axially and linearly stratified fluid. Using linear stability analysis, direct numerical simulations and experiments, we investigate the relative importance of primary linear instability and secondary nonlinear processes in the transient dynamics leading to the experimentally and numerically observed step-like density profile in this flow. We explore the effects of the particular form of the spin-up of the inner cylinder and initial conditions on the transient dynamics and nonlinear attractor of the flow. By better understanding the dynamics of layer formation, we are able to identify the approriate scaling laws relating layer depth to rotation rate, initial stratification, gap width and radius ratio. EPSRC programme grant EP/K034529/1.
Couette flows of a granular monolayer: An experimental study
Elliott, K.E.; Ahmadi, G.; Kvasnak, W.
1995-03-01
An experimental study concerning rapid flows of granular materials in a two dimensional planar granular Couette flow apparatus is performed. The device is capable of generating particulate flows in grain-inertia regime at different shearing rates and solid volume fractions. Multi-color spherical glass particles are sheared across an annular test-section for several wall angular velocities. A video recorder is used to record the motion of particles, and consecutive images are stored and analyzed by an image processing technique for evaluating individual grain velocities. Experimental data for the mean velocity, the root mean-square fluctuation velocity components and the solid volume fraction profile are obtained. The resulting mean velocity profiles have a roughly linear variation for the range of solid volume fractions and shear rates studied. The solid volume fraction profiles exhibit nonuniform variations with the highest concentration occuring near the center of the shearing cell. The RMS-fluctuation velocities are roughly constant, with the streamwise fluctuation being somewhat larger than the cross-stream direction. The experimentally measured flow properties are in reasonable agreement with the earlier theoretical and simulation results.
Effect of the radial buoyancy on a circular Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Antoine; Yoshikawa, Harunori N.; Mutabazi, Innocent
2015-11-01
The effect of a radial temperature gradient on the stability of a circular Couette flow is investigated when the gravitational acceleration is neglected. The induced radial stratification of the fluid density coupled with the centrifugal acceleration generates radial buoyancy which is centrifugal for inward heating and centripetal for outward heating. This radial buoyancy modifies the Rayleigh discriminant and induces the asymmetry between inward heating and outward heating in flow behavior. The critical modes are axisymmetric and stationary for inward heating while for outward heating, they can be oscillatory axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric depending on fluid diffusion properties, i.e., on the Prandtl number Pr. The dependence of the critical modes on Pr is explored for different values of the radius ratio of the annulus. The power input of the radial buoyancy is compared with other power terms. The critical frequency of the oscillatory axisymmetric modes is linked to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency due to the density stratification in the radial gravity field induced by the rotation. These modes are associated with inertial waves. The dispersion relation of the oscillatory axisymmetric modes is derived in the vicinity of the critical conditions. A weakly nonlinear amplitude equation with a forcing term is proposed to explain the domination of these axisymmetric oscillatory modes over the stationary centrifugal mode.
Characteristics of electrohydrodynamic roll structures in laminar planar Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kourmatzis, Agisilaos; Shrimpton, John S.
2016-02-01
The behaviour of an incompressible dielectric liquid subjected to a laminar planar Couette flow with unipolar charge injection is investigated numerically in two dimensions. The computations show new morphological characteristics of roll structures that arise in this forced electro-convection problem. The charge and velocity magnitude distributions between the two parallel electrodes are discussed as a function of the top wall velocity and the EHD Rayleigh number, T for the case of strong charge injection. A wide enough parametric space is investigated such that the observed EHD roll structures progress through three regimes. These regimes are defined by the presence of a single or double-roll free convective structure as observed elsewhere (Vazquez et al 2008 J. Phys. D 41 175303), a sheared or stretched roll structure, and finally by a regime where the perpendicular velocity gradient is sufficient to prevent the generation of a roll. These three regimes have been delineated as a function of the wall to ionic drift velocity {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E , and the T number. In the stretched regime, an increase in {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E can reduce charge and momentum fluctuations whilst in parallel de-stratify charge in the region between the two electrodes. The stretched roll regime is also characterised by a substantial influence of {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E on the steady development time, however in the traditional non-stretched roll structure regime, no influence of {{U}\\text{W}}/κ E on the development time is noted.
Numerical study of eccentric Couette Taylor flows and effect of eccentricity on flow patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, C.; Wang, L.; Chew, Y. T.; Zhao, N.
2004-10-01
In this study, the differential quadrature (DQ) method was used to simulate the eccentric Couette Taylor vortex flow in an annulus between two eccentric cylinders with rotating inner cylinder and stationary outer cylinder. An approach combining the SIMPLE (semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations) and DQ discretization on a non-staggered mesh was proposed to solve the time-dependent, three-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equations in the primitive variable form. The eccentric steady Couette Taylor flow patterns were obtained from the solution of three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations. The reported numerical results for steady Couette flow were compared with those from Chou [1], and San and Szeri [2]. Very good agreement was achieved. For steady eccentric Taylor vortex flow, detailed flow patterns were obtained and analyzed. The effect of eccentricity on the eccentric Taylor vortex flow pattern was also studied.
Kinematics of the stationary helical vortex mode in Taylor Couette Poiseuille Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raguin, L. Guy; Georgiadis, John G.
2004-10-01
We reconstruct a kinematically admissible (volume-preserving) three-dimensional velocity field corresponding to the stationary helical vortex (SHV) mode which is observed in the Taylor Couette Poiseuille (TCP) system with a ratio of inner to outer cylinder radii of 0.5 and a length to annulus gap ratio of 16, starting from experimental data obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for Rey {=} 11.14 and Ta(1/2) {=} 170 in water. The goal of the present work is to provide a complete kinematic representation of a strongly nonlinear duct flow that is of importance in the fields of mixing and segregation, as well as in the study of the kinematic structure of three-dimensional flows. By a judicious choice of a set of global basis functions that exploit the helical symmetry of SHV, an analytical approximation of the streamfunction is obtained despite the coarse MRI data and the non-uniform distribution of measurement error. This approximation is given in terms of a truncated series of smooth functions that converges weakly in L_2, and the reconstruction method is directly applicable to three-dimensional incompressible flows that possess a continuous volume-preserving symmetry. The SHV flow structure consists of a pair of asymmetric counter-rotating helical cells in a double helix structure, foliated with invariant helically symmetric surfaces containing fibre-like fluid particle orbits wrapped around the inner cylinder. Imposing general topological constraints, juxtaposing SHV with neighbouring hydrodynamic modes such as the propagating Taylor vortex flow and direct numerical simulation help corroborate the validity of the reconstruction of the SHV flow field. The kinematically admissible flow field obeys the Navier Stokes equations with 10% accuracy, which is consistent with experimental error, and has the same flow portrait as the numerically computed flow. Global analysis of the SHV mode indicates that it corresponds to a minimum in dissipation and mixing in
Bound of dissipation on a plane Couette dynamo
Alboussiere, Thierry
2009-06-15
Variational turbulence is among the few approaches providing rigorous results in turbulence. In addition, it addresses a question of direct practical interest, namely, the rate of energy dissipation. Unfortunately, only an upper bound is obtained as a larger functional space than the space of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations is searched. Yet, in some cases, this upper bound is in good agreement with experimental results in terms of order of magnitude and power law of the imposed Reynolds number. In this paper, the variational approach to turbulence is extended to the case of dynamo action and an upper bound is obtained for the global dissipation rate (viscous and Ohmic). A simple plane Couette flow is investigated. For low magnetic Prandtl number P{sub m} fluids, the upper bound of energy dissipation is that of classical turbulence (i.e., proportional to the cubic power of the shear velocity) for magnetic Reynolds numbers below P{sub m}{sup -1} and follows a steeper evolution for magnetic Reynolds numbers above P{sub m}{sup -1} (i.e., proportional to the shear velocity to the power of 4) in the case of electrically insulating walls. However, the effect of wall conductance is crucial: for a given value of wall conductance, there is a value for the magnetic Reynolds number above which energy dissipation cannot be bounded. This limiting magnetic Reynolds number is inversely proportional to the square root of the conductance of the wall. Implications in terms of energy dissipation in experimental and natural dynamos are discussed.
Shear stress related blood damage in laminar couette flow.
Paul, Reinhard; Apel, Jörn; Klaus, Sebastian; Schügner, Frank; Schwindke, Peter; Reul, Helmut
2003-06-01
Artificial organs within the blood stream are generally associated with flow-induced blood damage, particularly hemolysis of red blood cells. These damaging effects are known to be dependent on shear forces and exposure times. The determination of a correlation between these flow-dependent properties and actual hemolysis is the subject of this study. For this purpose, a Couette device has been developed. A fluid seal based on fluorocarbon is used to separate blood from secondary external damage effects. The shear rate within the gap is controlled by the rotational speed of the inner cylinder, and the exposure time by the amount of blood that is axially pumped through the device per given time. Blood damage is quantified by the index of hemolysis (IH), which is calculated from photometric plasma hemoglobin measurements. Experiments are conducted at exposure times from texp=25 - 1250 ms and shear rates ranging from tau=30 up to 450 Pa ensuring Taylor-vortex free flow characteristics. Blood damage is remarkably low over a broad range of shear rates and exposure times. However, a significant increase in blood damage can be observed for shear stresses of tau>or= 425 Pa and exposure times of texp>or= 620 ms. Maximum hemolysis within the investigated range is IH=3.5%. The results indicate generally lower blood damage than reported in earlier studies with comparable devices, and the measurements clearly indicate a rather abrupt (i.e., critical levels of shear stresses and exposure times) than gradual increase in hemolysis, at least for the investigated range of shear rates and exposure times. PMID:12780506
Linear stability of cylindrical Couette flow in the convection regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Mohamed E.; McFadden, G. B.
2005-05-01
The instability of steady circular Couette flow with radial heating across a vertically oriented annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated using a linear stability analysis. The convection regime base flow is developed for an infinite aspect ratio geometry and constant fluid properties with buoyancy included through the Boussinesq approximation. The base flow is characterized by a dimensionless stratification parameter γ that is proportional to the vertical temperature gradient. Critical stability boundaries are calculated for this assumed base flow with respect to both toroidal and helical disturbances. The numerical investigation is primarily restricted to a radius ratio of 0.6 at a Prandtl number of 100. Critical stability boundaries in Taylor-Grashof number space are presented for two values of the stratification parameter γ (4 and 13). The results follow the development of critical stability from Taylor cells at small Grashof numbers up to a maximum Grashof number used in this calculation of 20 000 and 80 000 for γ =4 and 13, respectively. Results show that increasing the stratification parameter stabilizes the isothermal Taylor vortices, followed by a destabilization at higher azimuthal mode numbers (n>0). The results also show that for γ =4 (close to the conduction regime), two modes are obtained: one is axisymmetric and the other is nonaxisymmetric. However, for the convection regime (large γ) six asymmetric modes are obtained. Finally, the disturbance wavelength, phase speed, and spiral inclination angle are presented as a function of the critical Grashof number for the stratification parameters considered in this work.
Generalized Couette Poiseuille flow with boundary mass transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marques, F.; Sanchez, J.; Weidman, P. D.
1998-11-01
A generalized similarity formulation extending the work of Terrill (1967) for Couette Poiseuille flow in the annulus between concentric cylinders of infinite extent is given. Boundary conditions compatible with the formulation allow a study of the effects of inner and outer cylinder transpiration, rotation, translation, stretching and twisting, in addition to that of an externally imposed constant axial pressure gradient. The problem is governed by [eta], the ratio of inner to outer radii, a Poiseuille number, and nine Reynolds numbers. Single-cylinder and planar problems can be recovered in the limits [eta][rightward arrow]0 and [eta][rightward arrow]1, respectively. Two coupled primary nonlinear equations govern the meridional motion generated by uniform mass flux through the porous walls and the azimuthal motion generated by torsional movement of the cylinders; subsidiary equations linearly slaved to the primary flow govern the effects of cylinder translation, cylinder rotation, and an external pressure gradient. Steady solutions of the primary equations for uniform source/sink flow of strength F through the inner cylinder are reported for 0[less-than-or-eq, slant][eta][less-than-or-eq, slant]1. Asymptotic results corroborating the numerical solutions are found in different limiting cases. For F<0 fluid emitted through the inner cylinder fills the gap and flows uniaxially down the annulus; an asymptotic analysis leads to a scaling that removes the effect of [eta] in the pressure parameter [beta], namely [beta]=[pi]2R*2, where R*=F(1[minus sign][eta])/(1+[eta]). The case of sink flow for F>0 is more complex in that unique solutions are found at low Reynolds numbers, a region of triple solutions exists at moderate Reynolds numbers, and a two-cell solution prevails at large Reynolds numbers. The subsidiary linear equations are solved at [eta]=0.5 to exhibit the effects of cylinder translation, rotation, and an axial pressure gradient on the source/sink flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.
2016-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.
Preferential accumulation of bubbles in Couette-Taylor flow patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Climent, Eric; Simonnet, Marie; Magnaudet, Jacques
2007-08-01
We investigate the migration of bubbles in several flow patterns occurring within the gap between a rotating inner cylinder and a concentric fixed outer cylinder. The time-dependent evolution of the two-phase flow is predicted through three-dimensional Euler-Lagrange simulations. Lagrangian tracking of spherical bubbles is coupled with direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. We assume that bubbles do not influence the background flow (one-way coupling simulations). The force balance on each bubble takes into account buoyancy, added-mass, viscous drag, and shear-induced lift forces. For increasing velocities of the rotating inner cylinder, the flow in the fluid gap evolves from the purely azimuthal steady Couette flow to Taylor toroidal vortices and eventually a wavy vortex flow. The migration of bubbles is highly dependent on the balance between buoyancy and centripetal forces (mostly due to the centripetal pressure gradient) directed toward the inner cylinder and the vortex cores. Depending on the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, bubbles tend to accumulate alternatively along the inner wall, inside the core of Taylor vortices or at particular locations within the wavy vortices. A stability analysis of the fixed points associated with bubble trajectories provides a clear understanding of their migration and preferential accumulation. The location of the accumulation points is parameterized by two dimensionless parameters expressing the balance of buoyancy, centripetal attraction toward the inner rotating cylinder, and entrapment in Taylor vortices. A complete phase diagram summarizing the various regimes of bubble migration is built. Several experimental conditions considered by Djéridi, Gabillet, and Billard [Phys. Fluids 16, 128 (2004)] are reproduced; the numerical results reveal a very good agreement with the experiments. When the rotation rate is increased further, the numerical results indicate the formation of oscillating bubble
Lin, Jau-Wen
2014-08-07
This study investigated the structuring of water molecules in a nanoscale Couette flow with the upper plate subjected to lateral forces with various magnitudes and water slipping against a metal wall. It was found that when the upper plate is subjected to a force, the water body deforms into a parallelepiped. Water molecules in the channel are then gradually arranged into lattice positions, creating a layered structure. The structural arrangement of water molecules is caused by the water molecules accommodating themselves to the increase in energy under the application of a lateral force on the moving plate. The ordering arrangement of water molecules increases the rotational degree of freedom, allowing the molecules to increase their Coulomb potential energy through polar rotation that accounts for the energy input through the upper plate. With a force continuously applied to the upper plate, the water molecules in contact with the upper plate move forward until slip between the water and upper plate occurs. The relation between the structural arrangement of water molecules, slip at the wall, and the shear force is studied. The relation between the slip and the locking/unlocking of water molecules to metal atoms is also studied.
In situ hydrodynamic lateral force calibration of AFM colloidal probes.
Ryu, Sangjin; Franck, Christian
2011-11-01
Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is an application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to sense lateral forces applied to the AFM probe tip. Recent advances in tissue engineering and functional biomaterials have shown a need for the surface characterization of their material and biochemical properties under the application of lateral forces. LFM equipped with colloidal probes of well-defined tip geometries has been a natural fit to address these needs but has remained limited to provide primarily qualitative results. For quantitative measurements, LFM requires the successful determination of the lateral force or torque conversion factor of the probe. Usually, force calibration results obtained in air are used for force measurements in liquids, but refractive index differences between air and liquids induce changes in the conversion factor. Furthermore, in the case of biochemically functionalized tips, damage can occur during calibration because tip-surface contact is inevitable in most calibration methods. Therefore, a nondestructive in situ lateral force calibration is desirable for LFM applications in liquids. Here we present an in situ hydrodynamic lateral force calibration method for AFM colloidal probes. In this method, the laterally scanned substrate surface generated a creeping Couette flow, which deformed the probe under torsion. The spherical geometry of the tip enabled the calculation of tip drag forces, and the lateral torque conversion factor was calibrated from the lateral voltage change and estimated torque. Comparisons with lateral force calibrations performed in air show that the hydrodynamic lateral force calibration method enables quantitative lateral force measurements in liquid using colloidal probes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei
2007-08-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is probably the main cause of turbulence and accretion in sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks. However, despite much theoretical and computational work, the nonlinear saturation of MRI is imperfectly understood. In Chap. 2 and Chap. 3 of this thesis we present non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Princeton MRI experiment. In vertically infinite or periodic cylinders, MRI saturates in a resistive current-sheet with a significant reduction of the mean shear, and with poloidal circulation scaling as the square root of resistivity. Angular momentum transport scales as the reciprocal square root of viscosity but only weakly depends on resistivity. For finite cylinders with insulating end caps, a method for implementing the fully insulating boundary condition is introduced. MRI grows with a clear linear phase from small amplitudes at rates in good agreement with linear analysis. In the final state one inflowing "jet" opposite to the usual Ekman "jet" is found near the inner cylinder. The MRI enhances the angular momentum transport at saturation. Under proper conditions, our experimental facility is a good platform to show that MRI could be suppressed by a strong magnetic field. Recently, Hollerbach and Rüdiger have reported that MRI modes may grow at much reduced magnetic Reynolds number ( Re m ) and Lundquist number S in the presence of a helical background field, a current-free combination of axial and toroidal field. We have investigated these helical MRI modes in Chap. 4 and Chap. 5. In vertically infinite or periodic cylinders, resistive HMRI is a weakly destabilized hydrodynamic inertial oscillation propagating axially along the background Poynting flux. Growth rates are small, however, and require large axial currents. Furthermore, finite cylinders with insulating endcaps were shown to reduce the growth rate and to stabilize highly resistive, inviscid flows entirely, and the new mode is stable in Keplerian
Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Veen, Roeland; Huisman, Sander; Dung, On Yu; Tang, Ho Lun; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2015-11-01
It was recently found that multiple turbulent states exist for large Reynolds number (Re =106) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence. Here we investigate how the transitions between the multiple states depend on the Reynolds number in the range of Re =105 to 2 .106 , by measuring global torque and local velocity while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. This sheds light on the question whether multiple states persist for Reynolds numbers beyond those currently reached. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in two Taylor-Couette setups with equal radius ratio but different aspect ratio, we furthermore investigate the influence of aspect ratio on the characteristics of the multiple states.
Short-time Lyapunov exponent analysis and the transition to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vastano, John A.; Moser, Robert D.
1991-01-01
The physical mechanism driving the weakly chaotic Taylor-Couette flow is investigated using the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis. In this procedure, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos is studied using direct numerical 3D simulations of axially periodic Taylor-Couette flow, and a partial Liapunov exponent spectrum for the flow is computed by simultaneously advancing the full solution and a set of perturbations. It is shown that the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis yields more information on the exponents and dimension than that obtained from the common Liapunov exponent calculations. Results show that the chaotic state studied here is caused by a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability of the outflow boundary jet of Taylor vortices.
Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2016-06-01
We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of Ta =1011 to 9 ×1012 by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond Ta =1013 . The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states are again observed. Here they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including an antisymmetrical roll state.
Evolution of vortices in 2D boundary layer and in the Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zametaev, Vladimir B.; Gorbushin, Anton R.
2016-10-01
A 2D incompressible laminar boundary layer and the Couette flow having the low velocity fluctuations are considered using asymptotic methods at high Reynolds number. Two classes of solutions for the first order inviscid perturbations have been derived. The integral-differential equation with initial data describing evolution of vortices in time have been solved numerically. It was found that the discontinuities are formed in a smooth solution for a vertical velocity component with the time increase. This first type solution explains instability mechanism in the Couette flow. The second class of solutions contains a singularity at the boundary layer bottom which reminds a source-sink with a variable intensity. The singularity can absorb the fluid from the main part of the boundary layer and eject it back with a possibly "new" vorticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier
2015-11-01
The analogy between viscoelastic instability in the Taylor-Couette flow and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been found by Ogilvie & Potter. It relies on the similarity between the governing equations of viscoelastic flows of constant viscosity (Oldroyd-B model equations)and those of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We have performed linear stability analysis of the Taylor-Couette flow with a polymer solution obeying the Oldroyd-B model. A diagram of critical states shows the existence of stationary and helicoidal modes depending on the elasticity of the polymer solution. A generalized Rayleigh criterion determines the potentially unstable zone to pure elasticity-driven perturbations. Experimental results yield four type of modes : one pure elasticity mode and three elastorotational modes that are the MRI-analog modes. Anti-Keplerian case has also been investigated. There is a good agreement between experimental and theoretical results. Work supported by the CPER and ANR-LABEX EMC3.
Weakly nonlinear behavior of periodic disturbances in two-layer Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renardy, Yuriko
1989-10-01
The stability of a plane Couette-Poiseuille flow consisting of two layers of different fluids is analyzed using methods of bifurcation theory. The fluids have different viscosities and densities, and there is surface tension at the interface. The center manifold theorem is used to justify the derivation of the final amplitude evolution equation. The nonlinear calculations are carried out with two alternative approaches. One approach is to keep the combined volume flux fixed, and the other is to keep the pressure gradient in the horizontal direction fixed. Numerical results are presented for some Couette flow profiles and a Poiseuille flow profile at low speeds, showing that traveling waves are supported at the interface. A computation at a high speed is also presented. The derivation and numerical results are compared with those of a formal approach, employing multiple scales, which has been used on related problems.
Absolute and convective instability of cylindrical Couette flow with axial and radial flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard M.
2009-10-01
Imposing axial flow in the annulus and/or radial flow through the cylindrical walls in a Taylor-Couette system alters the stability of the flow. Theoretical methods and numerical simulations were used to determine the impact of imposed axial and radial flows, homogeneous in the axial direction, on the first transition of Taylor-Couette flow in the framework of convective and absolute instabilities. At low axial Reynolds numbers the convective instability is axisymmetric, but convective helical modes with an increasing number of helices having a helicity opposite that of the base flow dominate as the axial flow increases. The number of helices and the critical Taylor number are affected only slightly by the radial flow. The flow becomes absolutely unstable at higher Taylor numbers. Absolutely unstable axisymmetric modes occur for inward radial flows, while helical absolute instability modes having a helicity identical to that of the base flow occur at high enough axial Reynolds numbers for outward radial flow.
Velocity measurement on Taylor Couette flow of a magnetic fluid with small aspect ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Takeda, Yasushi
2005-03-01
In this paper, the application of ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method to investigate magnetic-fluids flow is described. The objective of the research is to measure the internal flow of a magnetic fluid on Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect ratio using the UVP method and to analyze the influence of the applied magnetic field. The flow structure of a magnetic fluid in a concentric annular geometry with a small aspect ratio of 3 and a radius ratio of 0.6 for an inner-cylinder rotation was investigated. Axial velocity distributions were measured using the UVP measurement technique. A non-uniform magnetic field was applied to the flow field using a permanent magnet, located outside of the cylinders. The results demonstrated that the UVP method was capable to provide the information on the structure of Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect ratio, in a magnetic fluid.
A numerical simulation of finite-length Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1988-01-01
Results from numerical simulations of finite-length Taylor-Couette flow are presented. Included are time-accurate and steady-state studies of the change in the nature of the symmetric two-cell/asymmetric one-cell bifurcation with varying aspect ratio and of the Reynolds number/aspect ratio locus of the two-cell/four-cell bifurcation. Preliminary results from wavy-vortex simulations at low aspect ratios are also presented.
Transition to two-dimensionality in magnetohydrodynamic turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.
Zhao, Yurong; Tao, Jianjun; Zikanov, Oleg
2014-03-01
Transition from a Taylor-Couette turbulent flow to a completely two-dimensional axisymmetric turbulent state is realized numerically by increasing gradually the strength of the azimuthal magnetic field produced by electric current flowing through the axial rod. With the increase of the Hartmann number, the Taylor-vortex-like structures shrink, move closer to the inner cylinder, and turn into unsteady but perfect tori at sufficiently high Hartmann numbers.
New exact solution of the problem of rotationally symmetric Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aristov, S. N.; Knyazev, D. V.
2007-09-01
An exact solution is obtained for the problem of steady-state viscous incompressible flow under a pressure difference in the gap between coaxial cylinders for the case where the inner cylinder rotates at a constant angular velocity. The solution differs from the classical Couette-Poiseuille result by the presence of radial mass transfer, which provides for interaction between the poloidal and azimuthal circulations. The flow rate is found to depend linearly on the angular velocity of rotation of the inner cylinder.
Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment
Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.
2010-02-19
The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is damped but the observation provides a means for predicting the onset of the magnetorotational instability.
Modeling and Applications of the Cylindrical Couette Flow of a Rarefied Gas
Dankov, D.; Roussinov, V.
2008-10-30
The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas is studied in the case when the inner cylinder is rotating while the outer cylinder is at rest. Velocity, density and temperature profiles are investigated by a Direct Monte Carlo Simulation method and a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is found. The results prove good agreement between flow macro-characteristic values obtained by the two methods.
Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment
Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.
2009-09-14
The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is marginally damped but will become destabilized by the magnetorotational instability with a modest increase in rotation rate.
Angular momentum transport and flow super-rotation in Rayleigh stable Taylor-Couette
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordsiek, Freja; Huisman, Sander; van der Veen, Roeland; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel
2013-11-01
We present experimental velocimetry and torque measurements for Taylor-Couette flow in the Rayleigh stable regime. Measurements are taken on two geometrically similar experiments, both of which had axial boundaries attatched to the outer cylinder, which is known to cause Ekman pumping. The Twente experiment has a radius ratio of 0.716, an aspect ratio of 11.68, and measures azimuthal velocities by Laser Doppler Anenometry. The Maryland experiment has a radius ratio of 0.725, an aspect ratio of 11.47, and measures the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder. The torque on the inner cylinder is observed to be greater than that of the analytical Couette profile and has a complex dependence on the Reynolds number and Ωi /Ωo . The azimuthal velocity profiles also deviate from the laminar Couette profile. Signficantly, super-rotation in the angular velocity has been observed for 1 >Ωi /Ωo > 0 . In the quasi-Keplerian regime, the angular momentum profiles consist of an approximately constant inner region connected to an outer region approximately in solid-body rotation at Ωo, which suggests that angular momentum is being actively transported from the inner region to the axial boundaries.
The spectral link in mean-velocity profile of turbulent plane-Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongrong; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2015-03-01
In turbulent pipe and plane-Couette flows, the mean-velocity profile (MVP) represents the distribution of local mean (i.e., time-averaged) velocity on the cross section of a flow. The spectral theory of MVP in pipe flows (Gioia et al., PRL, 2010) furnishes a long-surmised link between the MVP and turbulent energy spectrum. This missing spectral link enables new physical insights into an imperfectly understood phenomenon (the MVP) by building on the well-known structure of the energy spectrum. Here we extend this theory to plane-Couette flows. Similar to pipe flows, our analysis allows us to express the MVP as a functional of the spectrum, and to relate each feature of the MVP relates to a specific spectral range: the buffer layer to the dissipative range, the log layer to the inertial range, and the wake (or the lack thereof) to the energetic range. We contrast pipe and plane-Couette flows in light of the theory.
Homoclinic snaking in plane Couette flow: bending, skewing and finite-size effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, J. F.; Schneider, T. M.
2016-05-01
Invariant solutions of shear flows have recently been extended from spatially periodic solutions in minimal flow units to spatially localized solutions on extended domains. One set of spanwise-localized solutions of plane Couette flow exhibits homoclinic snaking, a process by which steady-state solutions grow additional structure smoothly at their fronts when continued parametrically. Homoclinic snaking is well understood mathematically in the context of the one-dimensional Swift-Hohenberg equation. Consequently, the snaking solutions of plane Couette flow form a promising connection between the largely phenomenological study of laminar-turbulent patterns in viscous shear flows and the mathematically well-developed field of pattern-formation theory. In this paper we present a numerical study of the snaking solutions, generalizing beyond the fixed streamwise wavelength of previous studies. We find a number of new solution features, including bending, skewing, and finite-size effects. We show that the finite-size effects result from the shift-reflect symmetry of the traveling wave and establish the parameter regions over which snaking occurs. A new winding solution of plane Couette flow is derived from a strongly skewed localized equilibrium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, Christopher; Krygier, Michael; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Grigoriev, Roman; Schatz, Michael
2015-11-01
The transition to turbulence in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow typically occurs through a sequence of supercritical bifurcations of stable flow states (e.g. spiral vortices, interpenetrating spirals (IPS), and wavy interpenetrating spirals). Coughlin and Marcus have proposed a mechanism by which these laminar spiral flows undergo a secondary instability that leads to turbulence. We report the discovery of a counter-rotating regime (Reout = - 1000 , Rein ~ 640) of small aspect ratio/large radius ratio Taylor-Couette flow (Γ = 5 . 26 / η = 0 . 91), where the system bypasses the primary instability to stable laminar spirals and instead undergoes a direct transition to turbulence as the inner cylinder rotation rate is slowly increased. This transition is mediated by an unstable IPS state. We study the transition experimentally using flow visualization and tomographic PIV, and show that it is both highly repeatable and that it shows hysteresis as the inner cylinder rotation rate is decreased. As Rein is decreased, the turbulent flow relaminarizes into an intermediate, stable IPS state. Decreasing Rein further returns the system back to circular Couette flow. This study was supported by NSF DMS-1125302 and NSF CMMI-1234436.
Wall Slip of Semi-Solid A356 in Couette Rheometers
Harboe, S.; Modigell, M.
2011-05-04
Wall slip of suspensions in a couette rheometer is caused by segregation of a thin layer of liquid phase adjacent to the rheometer cylinder and cup, respectively. This causes the bulk phase to slide along the walls, which means that the fluid flow velocities respective to the walls are not zero. This affects the evaluation of the rheological properties and results in apparent flow curves. Despite of the importance of understanding and controlling segregation effects, little research has been done on this subject area. Indeed in industrial casting, the die filling behaviour, and therefore the product quality, may depend on the segregation phenomena. The wall slip occurring while investigating the semi-solid aluminium alloy A356 in a couette rheometer was investigated in the present work, employing the Kiljanski method. The goal of the present work was to obtain a true flow curve of the material, eliminating the effects of wall slip. Employing the method of Kiljanski, the wall slip velocity was calculated and subtracted from the apparent velocity of the alloy. Hence, the true shear rate in the medium and the true flow curve were estimated. The wall slip effect is assumed to be negligible in a couette system with a grooved rotational rod. This assumption was set to test by comparing the flow curve calculated from a system with grooved rotational rod with the flow curve calculated with the Kiljanski method. Both methods result in identical flow curves which can be assumed to be the physically correct one.
Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in glass microchannels
Lin, Tony A.; Hosoi, A. E.; Ehrlich, Daniel J.
2009-01-01
Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic devices is investigated through simulation and through direct experimental verification using a confocal microscope and a novel form of stroboscopic imaging. Optimization for microfluidic cytometry of biological cells is examined. By combining multiple crossing junctions, it is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates. PMID:19693394
Circular Couette cell for two-dimensional fluid dynamics experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, P. W.; Kearney-Fischer, M.; Rogers, S.; Ulmen, J. V.; Windell, S.
2007-03-01
A novel experiment to investigate fluid dynamics in quasi-two-dimensional flows has been built. A soap film is suspended horizontally in an annular channel with a rotating outer boundary, providing mean flow shear, and a vortex array is forced electromagnetically. The experiment will investigate sheared flow stability and the effect of mean flow shear on local vorticity and coherent structures. Particle image velocimetry measurements demonstrate the production of mean flow shear and induced vortices.
Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał
2016-04-01
It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.
Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.
2016-10-01
This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.
Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger
2013-12-01
An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.
Hydrodynamic self-consistent field theory for inhomogeneous polymer melts.
Hall, David M; Lookman, Turab; Fredrickson, Glenn H; Banerjee, Sanjoy
2006-09-15
We introduce a mesoscale technique for simulating the structure and rheology of block-copolymer melts and blends in hydrodynamic flows. The technique couples dynamic self-consistent field theory with continuum hydrodynamics and flow penalization to simulate polymeric fluid flows in channels of arbitrary geometry. We demonstrate the method by studying phase separation of an ABC triblock copolymer melt in a submicron channel with neutral wall wetting conditions. We find that surface wetting effects and shear effects compete, producing wall-perpendicular lamellae in the absence of flow and wall-parallel lamellae in cases where the shear rate exceeds some critical Weissenberg number.
Application of the homotopy method for analytical solution of non-Newtonian channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roohi, Ehsan; Kharazmi, Shahab; Farjami, Yaghoub
2009-06-01
This paper presents the homotopy series solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for non-Newtonian flows. Three different problems, Couette flow, Poiseuille flow and Couette-Poiseuille flow have been investigated. For all three cases, the nonlinear momentum and energy equations have been solved using the homotopy method and analytical approximations for the velocity and the temperature distribution have been obtained. The current results agree well with those obtained by the homotopy perturbation method derived by Siddiqui et al (2008 Chaos Solitons Fractals 36 182-92). In addition to providing analytical solutions, this paper draws attention to interesting physical phenomena observed in non-Newtonian channel flows. For example, it is observed that the velocity profile of non-Newtonian Couette flow is indistinctive from the velocity profile of the Newtonian one. Additionally, we observe flow separation in non-Newtonian Couette-Poiseuille flow even though the pressure gradient is negative (favorable). We provide physical reasoning for these unique phenomena.
Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P
2016-02-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems. PMID:26986407
Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.
2016-02-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.
Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P
2016-02-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.
Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal
Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.
2001-01-01
A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Thomas; Hou, Yu; Kowalski, Adam; Wiener, Richard
2006-05-01
The Reaction-Diffusion model predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in a situation analagous Taylor- Couette flow with hourglass geometry. This cascade to chaos was discovered in the actual fluid flow experiments. We model Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow by corresponding Reaction-Diffusion models. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program. H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miroshnikov, Stanislav
2011-11-01
The effect of the period of perturbations on the spatiotemporal statistics of the Kolmogorov-like cascades of the transitional Couette flow is explored using a new method of arbitrary-precision differentiation of trigonometric, hyperbolic, and elliptic structures. The trigonometric, hyperbolic, and elliptic structures are constructed and their differentiation is reduced to an algebraic processing, which may be executed with symbolic and numeric parameters. Computation of high-order derivatives by the arbitrary-precision differentiation and summation of the Boussinesq-Rayleigh-Taylor series for the perturbed Couette flow is implemented in Maple, Python, and C++. Performance of the proposed algorithms is compared both for workstations and clusters.
Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as analog of the magnetorotational instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent
2015-09-01
A linear stability analysis and an experimental study of a viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow corotating in the Keplerian ratio allow us to elucidate the analogy between the viscoelastic instability and the magnetorotational instability (MRI). A generalized Rayleigh criterion allows us to determine the potentially unstable zone to pure-elasticity-driven perturbations. Experiments with a viscoelastic polymer solution yield four modes: one pure-elasticity mode and three elastorotational instability (ERI) modes that represent the MRI-analog modes. The destabilization by the polymer viscosity is evidenced for the ERI modes.
Identification of complex flows in Taylor-Couette counter-rotating cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Czarny, O.; Serre, E.; Bontoux, P.; Lueptow, R. M.
2001-01-01
The transition in confined rotating flows is a topical problem with many industrial and fundamental applications. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Taylor-Couette flow in a finite-length cavity with counter-rotating walls, for two aspect ratios L=5 or L=6. Two complex regimes of wavy vortex and spirals are emphasized for the first time via direct numerical simulation, by using a three-dimensional spectral method. The spatio-temporal behavior of the solutions is analyzed and compared to the few data actually available. c2001 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.
Analog of astrophysical magnetorotational instability in a Couette-Taylor flow of polymer fluids
Boldyrev, Stanislav; Huynh, Don; Pariev, Vladimir
2009-12-15
We report experimental observation of an instability in a Couette-Taylor flow of a polymer fluid in a thin gap between two coaxially rotating cylinders in a regime where their angular velocity decreases with the radius while the specific angular momentum increases with the radius. In the considered regime, neither the inertial Rayleigh instability nor the purely elastic instability is possible. We propose that the observed 'elastorotational' instability is an analog of the magnetorotational instability which plays a fundamental role in astrophysical Keplerian accretion disks.
Jou, D.; Sciacca, M.; Mongiovi, M. S.
2008-07-01
An equation previously proposed to describe the evolution of vortex-line density in rotating counterflow turbulent tangles in superfluid helium [Phys. Rev B 69, 094513 (2004)] is generalized to incorporate nonvanishing barycentric velocity and velocity gradients. Our generalization is compared with an analogous approach proposed by Lipniacki [Eur. J. Mech. B Fluids 25, 435 (2006)], and with experimental results by Swanson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 190 (1983)] in rotating counterflow, and it is used to evaluate the vortex density in plane Couette and Poiseuille flows of superfluid helium.
Spiral vortices traveling between two rotating defects in the Taylor-Couette system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Ch.; Lücke, M.; Pinter, A.
2005-11-01
Numerical calculations of vortex flows in Taylor-Couette systems with counter rotating cylinders are presented. The full, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a combination of a finite difference and a Galerkin method. Annular gaps of radius ratio η=0.5 and of several heights are simulated. They are closed by nonrotating lids that produce localized Ekman vortices in their vicinity and that prevent axial phase propagation of spiral vortices. The existence and spatiotemporal properties of rotating defects, modulated Ekman vortices, and the spiral vortex structures in the bulk are elucidated in quantitative detail.
Linear stability of circular Couette flow in the limit of small radius ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearlstein, Arne J.
2005-11-01
In the context of a detailed study of the linear stability of spiral Poiseuille flow at small radius ratio (Cotrell and Pearlstein, J. Fluid Mech., in press), we have shown that in the limiting case of no rotation, annular Poiseuille flow is linearly stable at all Re, provided that the radius ratio lies below a critical value. Here, we consider the other limiting case, of no axial flow, and report a numerical investigation of the stability of circular Couette flow for small radius ratio. The results are compared to experimental work of Theodorsen for a whirling shaft in an unbounded, otherwise quiescent fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalski, Adam; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard
2006-11-01
Previously we have presented preliminary measurements indicating that the irregular generation of new Taylor Vortex Pairs in laminar Taylor-Couette flow with hourglass geometry could be characterized as low dimensional chaos and in the corresponding case of turbulent flow the chaotic dimension was higher. We now present data from far more extended time series of the periods between vortex formation, confirming and extending our original results. We present confirmation of our computational methodology in other systems. T. Olsen, R. Bjorge, & R. Wiener, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47-10, 76 (2002). T. Olsen, B. Tomlin, R. Bjorge, & R. Wiener, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48-10, 111 (2003)
Elongational flow effects on the vortex growth out of Couette flow in ferrofluids.
Altmeyer, S; Leschhorn, A; Hoffmann, Ch; Lücke, M
2013-05-01
The growth behavior of stationary axisymmetric vortices and of oscillatory, nonaxisymmetric spiral vortices in Taylor-Couette flow of a ferrofluid in between differentially rotating cylinders is analyzed using a numerical linear stability analysis. The investigation is done as a function of the inner and outer cylinder's rotation rates, the axial wave number of the vortex flows, and the magnitude of an applied homogeneous axial magnetic field. In particular, the consequences of incorporating elongational flow effects in the magnetization balance equation on the marginal control parameters that separate growth from decay behavior are determined. That is done for several values of the transport coefficient that measures the strength of these effects. PMID:23767623
New type of magnetorotational instability in cylindrical taylor-couette flow.
Hollerbach, Rainer; Rüdiger, Günther
2005-09-16
We study the stability of cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields, and show that adding an azimuthal field profoundly alters the previous results for purely axial fields. For small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, the critical Reynolds number Re(c) for the onset of the magnetorotational instability becomes independent of Pm, whereas for purely axial fields it scales as Pm-1. For typical liquid metals, Re(c) is then reduced by several orders of magnitude, enough that this new design should succeed in realizing this instability in the laboratory.
Lattice Models for Granular-Like Velocity Fields: Hydrodynamic Description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manacorda, Alessandro; Plata, Carlos A.; Lasanta, Antonio; Puglisi, Andrea; Prados, Antonio
2016-08-01
A recently introduced model describing—on a 1d lattice—the velocity field of a granular fluid is discussed in detail. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through next-neighbours inelastic collisions which conserve momentum but dissipate energy. The dynamics is described through the corresponding Master Equation for the time evolution of the probability distribution. In the continuum limit, equations for the average velocity and temperature fields with fluctuating currents are derived, which are analogous to hydrodynamic equations of granular fluids when restricted to the shear modes. Therefore, the homogeneous cooling state, with its linear instability, and other relevant regimes such as the uniform shear flow and the Couette flow states are described. The evolution in time and space of the single particle probability distribution, in all those regimes, is also discussed, showing that the local equilibrium is not valid in general. The noise for the momentum and energy currents, which are correlated, are white and Gaussian. The same is true for the noise of the energy sink, which is usually negligible.
Simulating hydrodynamics on tidal mudflats
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, S.; Lippmann, T. C.
2014-12-01
Biogeochemical cycling in estuaries is governed by fluxes from both riverine sources and through estuarine sediment deposits. Although estimates from river sources are relatively common and easily sampled, estimates of nutrient fluxes through the fluid-sediment interface are less common and limited to deeper portions of the bays away from intertidal areas. Lack of quantifiable shear stress estimates over intertidal areas limits our overall understanding of nutrient budgets in estuaries. Unfortunately, observation of intertidal hydrodynamics and nutrient fluxes over tidal flats and near the water's edge is difficult owing to the temporally varying and spatially extensive region where the tides inundate, and thus numerical modeling is often employed. In this work, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a three dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model was used to investigate the shear stresses over intertidal mudflats in the Great Bay, a tidally-dominated New England estuary cut by several tidal channels and with over 50% of the estuary exposed at low tide. The ROMS wetting and drying scheme was used to simulate the rising and falling tide on the flats, a successful approach adapted in other regions of the world but not always inclusive of tidal channels. Bathymetric data obtained in 2009 and 2013 was used to define the model grid. Predicted tides are forced at Adam's Pt., a natural constriction in the estuary about 20 km upstream of the mouth and at the entrance to the Great Bay. Of particular interest are fluxes of material on-to and off-of the tidal flats which contribute to water quality conditions in the estuary, and are largely governed by shear stresses that drive nutrient fluxes at the fluid-sediment interface. Basin wide estimates of near-bottom shear stresses can be used to estimate first order nutrient fluxes over a tidal cycle and hence describe general biogeochemical dynamics of the estuary. Future work will include enhanced forcing of currents by
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina
2015-12-18
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina
2015-12-18
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. PMID:26722945
Fluctuations in relativistic causal hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Ananta P.
2014-05-01
Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of Müller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation functions remain the same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and do not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation functions remains the same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.
Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Davis, Pete J.; Landram, Charles S.
2000-01-01
A saw having a self-pumped hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing for retaining the saw blade in a centered position in the saw kerf (width of cut made by the saw). The hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing utilizes pockets or grooves incorporated into the sides of the blade. The saw kerf in the workpiece provides the guide or bearing stator surface. Both sides of the blade entrain cutting fluid as the blade enters the kerf in the workpiece, and the trapped fluid provides pressure between the blade and the workpiece as an inverse function of the gap between the blade surface and the workpiece surface. If the blade wanders from the center of the kerf, then one gap will increase and one gap will decrease and the consequent pressure difference between the two sides of the blade will cause the blade to re-center itself in the kerf. Saws using the hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing have particular application in slicing slabs from boules of single crystal materials, for example, as well as for cutting other difficult to saw materials such as ceramics, glass, and brittle composite materials.
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-01-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric
2010-11-01
Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-08-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as an anolog of Magnetorotational instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier
2014-11-01
Our investigation of the viscoelastic instability (VEI) in the corotating Couette-Taylor system is motivated by the prediction of Ogilvie et. al that such an instability is analogous to the MRI (magneto-rotational instability) which is believed to play a key role in the angular momentum transport in accretion disks. This analogy is supported by stretched spring argument developed by Balbus and Hawley which is similar to that of the polymer stretching model in viscoelastic solutions. To our best knowledge, only one experiment by Boldyrev et al. has been reported for the search of the analogy VEI-MRI. We present both theoretical and experimental results obtained in the viscoelastic Couette-Taylor system when both the cylinders are constrained to rotate along the Keplerian and anti-Keplerian lines. The polymer solutions have a constant solution with respect to shear rate and can be described by the Odlroyd-B model. The control parameters are the aspect ratio Γ, the radius ratio η, the Reynolds number Re , the elastic number E = Wi / Re and the viscosity ratio S =μp / μ . After linear stability analysis, critical modes are oscillatory and non-axisymmetric. The observed modes are either stationary or oscillatory modes. A state diagram allows for a comparison to MRI Partial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the program Investissements d'Avenir (ANR-10 LABX-09-01), LABEX EMC3.
A spherical Couette experiment to observe inductionless MHD instabilities at medium Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, Elliot; Gohl, Benjamin; Gundrum, Thomas; Seilmayer, Martin; Stefani, Frank
2014-10-01
Turbulent spherical Couette flows in a strong axial magnetic field (Re ∈ (104 ,106) , Ha ∈ (0 , 3000)) have given rise to an interesting set of instabilities. Like the, long sought after, magnetorotational instability (MRI) they transport angular momentum outward. Unlike the MRI they are azimuthally nonaxisymmetric and change their equatorial symmetry as the applied field is increased [Sisan (2004)]. Subsequent theoretical and numerical investigations found a set of inductionless (Rm = 0) instabilities that replicate both these properties [Hollerbach (2009), Gissinger (2011)]. A liquid metal (GaInSn) spherical Couette flow is being carried out at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf to explore a region of Reynolds-Hartmann space (Re ∈ (103 ,104) , Ha ∈ (0 , 160)) between the simulations and the experiments. The diagnostic coverage in the new experiment is also much denser (ultrasound Doppler velocimeter array for m <= 3, electric potential probes for m <= 12) than that of the 2004 experiment. Data from the initial runs of the experiment and results from the predictive simulations are discussed here.
Ring-bursting behavior en route to turbulence in narrow-gap Taylor-Couette flows.
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-11-01
We investigate the Taylor-Couette system where the radius ratio is close to unity. Systematically increasing the Reynolds number, we observe a number of previously known transitions, such as one from the classical Taylor vortex flow (TVF) to wavy vortex flow (WVF) and the transition to fully developed turbulence. Prior to the onset of turbulence, we observe intermittent bursting patterns of localized turbulent patches, confirming the experimentally observed pattern of very short wavelength bursts (VSWBs). A striking finding is that, for a Reynolds number larger than that for the onset of VSWBs, a new type of intermittently bursting behavior emerges: patterns of azimuthally closed rings of various orders. We call them ring-bursting patterns, which surround the cylinder completely but remain localized and separated in the axial direction through nonturbulent wavy structures. We employ a number of quantitative measures including the cross-flow energy to characterize the ring-bursting patterns and to distinguish them from the background flow. These patterns are interesting because they do not occur in the wide-gap Taylor-Couette flow systems. The narrow-gap regime is less studied but certainly deserves further attention to gain deeper insights into complex flow dynamics in fluids. PMID:26651790
Ekman-Hartmann layer in a magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette flow
Szklarski, Jacek; Ruediger, Guenther
2007-12-15
We study magnetic effects induced by rigidly rotating plates enclosing a cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Taylor-Couette flow at the finite aspect ratio H/D=10. The fluid confined between the cylinders is assumed to be liquid metal characterized by small magnetic Prandtl number, the cylinders are perfectly conducting, an axial magnetic field is imposed with Hartmann number Ha{approx_equal}10, and the rotation rates correspond to Reynolds numbers of order 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}. We show that the end plates introduce, besides the well-known Ekman circulation, similar magnetic effects which arise for infinite, rotating plates, horizontally unbounded by any walls. In particular, there exists the Hartmann current, which penetrates the fluid, turns in the radial direction, and together with the applied magnetic field gives rise to a force. Consequently, the flow can be compared with a Taylor-Dean flow driven by an azimuthal pressure gradient. We analyze the stability of such flows and show that the currents induced by the plates can give rise to instability for the considered parameters. When designing a MHD Taylor-Couette experiment, special care must be taken concerning the vertical magnetic boundaries so that they do not significantly alter the rotational profile.
Stability of plane Couette-Poiseuille flow of shear-thinning fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nouar, Chérif; Frigaard, Ian
2009-06-01
A linear stability analysis of the combined plane Couette and Poiseuille flow of shear-thinning fluid is investigated. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described using the Carreau model. The linearized stability equations and their boundary conditions result in an eigenvalue problem that is solved numerically using a Chebyshev collocation method. A parametric study is performed in order to assess the roles of viscosity stratification and the Couette component. First of all, it is shown that for shear-thinning fluid, the critical Reynolds number for a two-dimensional perturbation is less than for a three dimensional. Therefore, it is sufficient to deal only with a modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation for the normal velocity component. The influence of the velocity of the moving wall on the critical conditions is qualitatively similar to that for a Newtonian fluid. Concerning the effect of the shear thinning, the computational results indicate that this behavior leads to a decrease in the phase velocity of the traveling waves and an increase in stability, when an appropriate viscosity is used in the definition of the Reynolds number. Using a long-wave version of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, the cutoff velocity is derived. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in the flow stability are discussed in terms of the location of the critical layers, Reynolds stress distribution, and the exchange of energy between the base flow and the disturbance.
Bubbly drag reduction in a vertical Couette-Taylor system with superimposed axial flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maryami, R.; Farahat, S.; Javad poor, M.; Shafiei Mayam, M. H.
2014-10-01
The effect of axial flow on bubbly drag reduction has been experimentally investigated in a vertical Couette-Taylor flow system. The water flow is combined from circumferential and axial flow. Flow condition is fully turbulence and Taylor vortices have appeared in the annulus gap. The shear stress modification in the simultaneous presence of air bubbles and axial flow in the system has been studied by measuring torque acting on the inner cylinder. The results show that axial flow improves the effect of bubbles on drag reduction by damping Taylor vortices and increasing upward velocity of bubbles. In this case, drag reduction of more than 25% has been achieved, which corresponds to lower tested {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{\\omega }} and this amount is gradually decreased with increasing {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{\\omega }} in each {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{a}} and {{Q}_{a}}. Increasing {{Q}_{a}} causes drag reduction enhancement which could be due to the effect of bubbles on flow density reduction, flow fluctuations and Taylor vortices. Moreover, it is observed that skin friction is affected by axial flow solely and by increasing its volume rates, drag reduction reaches 11%. It is concluded that when bubbles and axial flow are simultaneously applied into the Couette-Taylor flow, the amount of achieved drag reduction is more than when they are separately applied.
Coupling of Interfacial Mixing Events in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partridge, Jamie; Le Bihan, Anne-Claire; Caulfield, C. P.; Dalziel, Stuart; Augier, Pierre
2015-11-01
We examine experimentally the coupling of mixing events that occur in stratified Taylor-Couette flow. It has previously been observed that in a density-stratified Taylor-Couette flow consisting of two homogeneous layers there is a periodic mixing event that occurs on the interface separating the two layers. Additionally, if the fluid in the annulus is initially linearly stratified, layers spontaneously form, and an apparently similar quasi-periodic mixing event appears on each of the interfaces. By tracking the mixing event around the annulus we show that the mixing event is not temporally intermittent but is continuously advected around the annulus. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mixing events on adjacent interfaces can couple and become phase locked with an almost constant phase shift between events on each interface. We investigate how robust this coupling is and how it depends on the initial conditions and time evolution of the flow. Research supported by EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K034529/1 entitled `Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, John; Deusebio, Enrico
2015-11-01
We will describe results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of stratified plane Couette flow, which we use to explore the boundary between laminar and turbulent flows in a stratified fluid. The flow is described by three nondimensional parameters, the Reynolds (Re), Richardson (Ri), and Prandtl (Pr) numbers. For moderate values of Re and Ri laminar and turbulent flows can co-exist in a spatio-temporally intermittent flow. In large computational domains, laminar and turbulent regions spontaneously form stripes, reminiscent of those seen in transitional unstratified Couette flow at lower Re. We will present two sets of numerical experiments. The first set start with a fully developed stratified turbulent state, and abruptly increase Ri. The flow re-laminarizes for sufficiently large increases in Ri, although turbulent production persists throughout the decay phase. Using insights gained from the decay simulations, a new control scheme is devised, whereby Ri is adjusted based on the rate of change in TKE. Using this strategy, we have isolated localized turbulent spots in stratified turbulence. These newly found flow states lie near the boundary separating laminar and intermittent turbulence and may help describe generic features of stratified turbulence.
Perturbation Enstrophy Decay in Poiseuille and Couette Flows according to Synge's Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domenicale, Loris; Fraternale, Federico; Staffilani, Gigliola; Tordella, Daniela
2015-11-01
In this work we derive the conditions for no enstrophy growth for bidimensional perturbations in the plane Couette and Poiseuille flows. We follow the method of vorticity proposed by Synge in 1938 (see the Semi-Centennial Puplication of the Amer. Math. Soc., equation 12.13, and the more detailed version in the Proc. of the Fifth Inter. Congress of Applied Mechanics, pages 326-332), which is actually based on the analysis of the spatially averaged enstrophy. We find that the limit curve in the perturbation wavenumber-Reynolds number map differs from the limit for no energy growth (see e.g. Reddy 1993). In particular, the absolute stability region for the enstrophy is wider than that of the kinetic energy, and the maximum Reynolds number giving the monotonic enstrophy decay, at all wavenumbers, is 155 and 80 for the Poiseuille and Couette flows, respectively. It should be noted that in past literature the energy-based analysis was preferred to Synge's enstrophy analysis. This, possibly, for two reasons: the low diffusivity of the 1938 Vth ICAM proceedings and the objectively very complicated analytical treatment required. Nevertheless, the potentiality of this method seems high and therefore it is interesting nowadays to exploit it by means of the symbolic calculus. MITOR-MISTI SEEDS GRANT http://web.mit.edu/mitor/recipients/faculty.html
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordag, L. A.; Chkhetiani, O. G.; Fröhner, M.; Myrnyy, V.
2005-07-01
We analyze the stability of a Taylor Couette flow under the imposition of a weak axial flow in the case of a very short cylinder with a narrow annulus gap. We consider an incompressible viscous fluid contained in the narrow gap between two concentric short cylinders, in which the inner cylinder rotates with constant angular velocity. The caps of the cylinders have narrow tubes conically tapering to very narrow slits, allowing an axial flow along the surface of the inner cylinder. The approximated solution for the Taylor Couette flow for short cylinders was found and used for the stability analysis instead of the precise but bulky solution. The sensitivity of the Taylor Couette flow to small perturbations and to weak axial flow was studied. We demonstrate that perturbations coming from the axial flow cause the propagation of dispersive waves in the Taylor Couette flow. While in long cylinders the presence of an axial flow leads to the breaking of axial symmetry, in small cylinders it leads to the breaking of mirror symmetry. The coexistence of a rotation and an axial flow requires that, in addition to the energy and the angular momentum of the flow, the helicity must also be studied. The approximated form for the helicity formula in the case of short cylinders was derived. We found that the axial flow stabilizes the Taylor Couette flow. The supercritical flow includes a rich variety of vortical structures, including a symmetric pair of Taylor vortices, an anomalous single vortex and quasiperiodic oscillating vortices. Pattern formation was studied at large for rated ranges of azimuthal and axial Reynolds numbers. A region where three branches of different states occur was localized. Numerical simulations in 3-D and in the axisymmetrical case of the model flow are presented, which illustrate the instabilities analyzed.
Lindfors, Lennart; Jonsson, Malin; Weibull, Emelie; Brasseur, James G; Abrahamsson, Bertil
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to understand and predict the influence of hydrodynamic effects in the small intestine on dissolution of primary and aggregated drug particles. Dissolution tests of suspensions with a low-solubility drug, felodipine, were performed in a Couette cell under hydrodynamic test conditions corresponding to the fed small intestine. Dissolution was also performed in the USP II apparatus at two paddle speeds of 25 and 200 rpm and at different surfactant concentrations below critical micelle concentration. The experimental dissolution rates were compared with theoretical calculations. The different levels of shear stress in the in vitro tests did not influence the dissolution of primary or aggregated particles and experimental dissolution rates corresponded very well to calculations. The dissolution rate for the aggregated drug particles increased after addition of surfactant because of deaggregation, but there were still no effect of hydrodynamics. In conclusion, hydrodynamics do not influence dissolution and deaggregation of micronized drug particles in the small intestine of this model drug. Surface tension has a strong effect on the deaggregation and subsequent dissolution. Addition of surfactants at in vivo relevant surface tension levels is thus critical for in vivo predictive in vitro dissolution testing. PMID:25980801
Lindfors, Lennart; Jonsson, Malin; Weibull, Emelie; Brasseur, James G; Abrahamsson, Bertil
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to understand and predict the influence of hydrodynamic effects in the small intestine on dissolution of primary and aggregated drug particles. Dissolution tests of suspensions with a low-solubility drug, felodipine, were performed in a Couette cell under hydrodynamic test conditions corresponding to the fed small intestine. Dissolution was also performed in the USP II apparatus at two paddle speeds of 25 and 200 rpm and at different surfactant concentrations below critical micelle concentration. The experimental dissolution rates were compared with theoretical calculations. The different levels of shear stress in the in vitro tests did not influence the dissolution of primary or aggregated particles and experimental dissolution rates corresponded very well to calculations. The dissolution rate for the aggregated drug particles increased after addition of surfactant because of deaggregation, but there were still no effect of hydrodynamics. In conclusion, hydrodynamics do not influence dissolution and deaggregation of micronized drug particles in the small intestine of this model drug. Surface tension has a strong effect on the deaggregation and subsequent dissolution. Addition of surfactants at in vivo relevant surface tension levels is thus critical for in vivo predictive in vitro dissolution testing.
Moran, B
2005-06-02
We present test problems that can be used to check the hydrodynamic implementation in computer codes designed to model the implosion of a National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule. The problems are simplified, yet one of them is three-dimensional. It consists of a nearly-spherical incompressible imploding shell subjected to an exponentially decaying pressure on its outer surface. We present a semi-analytic solution for the time-evolution of that shell with arbitrary small three-dimensional perturbations on its inner and outer surfaces. The perturbations on the shell surfaces are intended to model the imperfections that are created during capsule manufacturing.
Molecular Hydrodynamics from Memory Kernels.
Lesnicki, Dominika; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2016-04-01
The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as t^{-3/2}. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, which is at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. Lastly, we discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales, and the crossover between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius. PMID:27104730
Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing
Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.
2002-01-01
A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.
Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael
2014-11-01
Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.
Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Cooperation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petroff, A.; Libchaber, A.
2012-12-01
Over the course of the last several decades, the study of microbial communities has identified countless examples of cooperation between microorganisms. Generally—as in the case of quorum sensing—cooperation is coordinated by a chemical signal that diffuses through the community. Less well understood is a second class of cooperation that is mediated through physical interactions between individuals. To better understand how the bacteria use hydrodynamics to manipulate their environment and coordinate their actions, we study the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus. These bacteria live in the diffusive boundary layer just above the muddy bottoms of ponds. As buried organic material decays, sulfide diffuses out of the mud. Oxygen from the pond diffuses into the boundary layer from above. These bacteria form communities—called veils— which are able to transport nutrients through the boundary layer faster than diffusion, thereby increasing their metabolic rate. In these communities, bacteria attach to surfaces and swim in place. As millions of bacteria beat their flagella, the community induces a macroscopic fluid flow, which mix the boundary layer. Here we present experimental observations and mathematical models that elucidate the hydrodynamics linking the behavior of an individual bacterium to the collective dynamics of the community. We begin by characterizing the flow of water around an individual bacterium swimming in place. We then discuss the flow of water and nutrients around a small number of individuals. Finally, we present observations and models detailing the macroscopic dynamics of a Thiovulum veil.
Magnetized Ekman layer and Stewartson layer in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei
2008-05-01
In this paper we present axisymmetric nonlinear simulations of magnetized Ekman and Stewartson layers in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow with a centrifugally stable angular-momentum profile and with a magnetic Reynolds number below the threshold of magnetorotational instability. The magnetic field is found to inhibit the Ekman suction. The width of the Ekman layer is reduced with increased magnetic field normal to the end plate. A uniformly rotating region forms near the outer cylinder. A strong magnetic field leads to a steady Stewartson layer emanating from the junction between differentially rotating rings at the endcaps. The Stewartson layer becomes thinner with larger Reynolds number and penetrates deeper into the bulk flow with stronger magnetic field and larger Reynolds number. However, at Reynolds number larger than a critical value ˜600 , axisymmetric, and perhaps also nonaxisymmetric, instabilities occur and result in a less prominent Stewartson layer that extends less far from the boundary.
Stabilization of Taylor-Couette flow due to time-periodic outer cylinder oscillation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murray, B. T.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.
1990-01-01
The linear stability of circular Couette flow between concentric infinite cylinders is considered for the case when the inner cylinder is rotated at a constant angular velocity and the outer cylinder is driven sinusoidally in time with zero mean rotation. This configuration was studied experimentally by Walsh and Donnelly. The critical Reynolds numbers calculated from linear stability theory agree well with the experimental values, except at large modulation amplitudes and small frequencies. The theoretical values are obtained using Floquet theory implemented in two distinct approaches: a truncated Fourier series representation in time, and a fundamental solution matrix based on a Chebyshev pseudospectral representation in space. For large amplitude, low frequency modulation, the linear eigenfunctions are temporally complex, consisting of a quiescent region followed by rapid change in the perturbed flow velocities.
Effect of Substrate Friction in a Two-Dimensional Granular Couette Shearing Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Templeman, Chris; Garg, Shila
2001-03-01
An investigation of the effect of substrate friction on the kinematics of rigid granular material in a two-dimensional granular Couette shearing cell was conducted. Cylindrical disks resting on a substrate were packed between a stationary outer ring and a rotating inner wheel. Previous work reports the velocity and particle rotation rates as a function of packing fraction and shearing rates [1]. The authors report the existence of a stick-slip condition of the disks in contact with the shearing wheel. The focus of our study is to investigate the impact of the substrate friction on the stick-slip condition as well as the kinematics of the system in general. [1] C.T. Veje, Daniel W. Howell, and R.P Behringer, Phys. Rev. E 59, 739 (1999). This research was partially supported by the Copeland Fund, administered by The College of Wooster. C.T. received support from NASA GRC LERCIP internship program.
A concentric cylinder Couette flow system for use in magnetic resonance imaging experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanlon, A. D.; Gibbs, S. J.; Hall, L. D.; Haycock, D. E.; Frith, W. J.; Ablett, S.; Marriott, C.
1998-04-01
The construction of a narrow-gap, concentric cylinder Couette flow system for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and velocimetry experiments is presented. The system can be operated over the range of temperatures 5-0957-0233/9/4/011/img5C and can produce shear rates up to 0957-0233/9/4/011/img6, yet is compatible with the demands of high-spatial-resolution MRI . Details of the design and device construction are given and typical results for a distilled water sample at a shear rate of 0957-0233/9/4/011/img7 and a temperature of 0957-0233/9/4/011/img8C are presented. The potential for further work is discussed.
The Sobolev Stability Threshold for 2D Shear Flows Near Couette
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedrossian, Jacob; Vicol, Vlad; Wang, Fei
2016-08-01
We consider the 2D Navier-Stokes equation on T × R , with initial datum that is ɛ -close in H^N to a shear flow (U(y), 0), where Vert U(y) - yVert _{H^{N+4}} ≪ 1 and N>1 . We prove that if ɛ ≪ ν ^{1/2} , where ν denotes the inverse Reynolds number, then the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation remains ɛ -close in H^1 to (e^{t ν partial _{yy}}U(y),0) for all t>0 . Moreover, the solution converges to a decaying shear flow for times t ≫ ν ^{-1/3} by a mixing-enhanced dissipation effect, and experiences a transient growth of gradients. In particular, this shows that the stability threshold in finite regularity scales no worse than ν ^{1/2} for 2D shear flows close to the Couette flow.
Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry of Varying Lengths Simulated by Reaction-Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yunjie; Halmstad, Andrew; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard
2008-11-01
Previously, we have observed chaotic formation of Taylor-Vortex pairs in Modified Taylor- Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry. In the experiment, the chaotic formation in a shorter system has been restricted to a narrow band about the waist of the hourglass. Such behavior has been modeled by The Reaction-Diffusion equation, which has been previously studied, by Riecke and Paap. Their calculation suggested that quadrupling length of the system would lead to spatial chaos in the vortex formation. We present a careful recreation of this result and consider an intermediate length. We demonstrate that doubling the length should be sufficient to observe spatially chaotic behavior. Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997). H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991).
Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow
Liu, Wei
2008-01-01
The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.
Modeling of Cylindrical Couette Flow of Rarefied Gas. The Case of Rotating Outer Cylinder
Gospodinov, P.; Dankov, D.; Roussinov, V.; Stefanov, S.
2009-10-29
The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas is studied in the case when the outer cylinder is rotating while the inner cylinder is at rest. Velocity, density and temperature profiles are investigated by a Direct Monte Carlo Simulation method and a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow is found. The results obtained by both methods are: in an excellent agreement at a small Knudsen number Kn = 0.02; in a satisfactory agreement at Kn = 0.1 and they vastly differs each other at a moderate Kn = 0.5. The comparison shows that the continuum approach can be used successfully for calculations of non-planar isothermal rarefied gas flows at small Knudsen numbers Kn<0.1. These results are important for applications in non-planar microfluidic problems.
Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow
W. Liu
2009-02-20
The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.
Discrete element simulation of dense granular flow in a modified Couette cell.
Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen
2005-02-01
Large-scale three dimensional Discrete Element simulations of granular flow in a modified split-bottom Couette cell for packs of up to 180,000 mono-disperse spheres are presented and compared with experiments. We find that the velocity profiles collapse onto a universal curve not only at the surface but also in the bulk of the pack until slip between layers becomes significant. In agreement with experiment, we find similar relations between the cell geometry and parameters involved in rescaling the velocities at the surface and in the bulk. Likewise, a change in the shape of the shear zone is observed as predicted for tall packs once the center of the shear zone is correctly defined; although the transition does not appear to be first order. Finally, the effect of cohesion is considered as a means to test the theoretical predictions.
Unsteady MHD Couette Flows in an Annuli: The Riemann-Sum Approximation Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Basant K.; Apere, Clement A.
2010-12-01
The unsteady MHD Couette flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two concentric horizontal cylinders of infinite length have been analysed when the outer cylinder has been set into uniform accelerated motion. A unified closed form expressions are derived corresponding to the cases of the magnetic field fixed relative to the fluid or to the accelerated outer cylinder. The well known Laplace transform technique is applied to solve the time-dependent governing equations, while the method of Riemann-sum approximation is employed to invert the Laplace domain to the time domain in order to obtain the velocity and the skin friction. The variations of the velocity and the skin friction with respect to the Hartmann number and time have been discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makinde, O. D.
2014-12-01
In this paper, the steady generalized axial Couette flow of Ostwald-de Waele power law reactive fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes is investigated. It is assumed that the outer cylinder is stationary and exchanges heat with the ambient surrounding following Newton's law of cooling, while the inner cylinder with isothermal surface is set in motion in the axial direction. The model nonlinear differential equations for the momentum and energy balance are obtained and tackled numerically using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique. The effects of various embedded thermophysical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields including skin friction, Nusselt number and thermal criticality conditions are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
Asymptotic theory of neutral stability curve of the Couette flow of vibrationally excited gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigor'ev, Yu N.; Ershov, I. V.
2016-06-01
The asymptotic theory of neutral stability curve of the supersonic plane Couette flow of vibrationally excited gas is constructed. The system of two-temperature viscous gas dynamics equations was used as original mathematical model. Spectral problem for an eighth order linear system of ordinary differential equations was obtained from the system within framework of classical theory of linear stability. Transformations of the spectral problem universal for all shear flows were carried along the classical Dunn — Lin scheme. As a result the problem was reduced to secular algebraic equation with a characteristic division on “inviscid” and “viscous” parts which was solved numerically. The calculated neutral stability curves coincide in limits of 10% with corresponding results of direct numerical solution of original spectral problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutam, Kamala Jyotsna; Mehandia, Vishwajeet; Nott, Prabhu R.
2013-07-01
The cylindrical Couette device is commonly employed to study the rheology of fluids, but seldom used for dense granular materials. Plasticity theories used for granular flows predict a stress field that is independent of the shear rate, but otherwise similar to that in fluids. In this paper we report detailed measurements of the stress as a function of depth, and show that the stress profile differs fundamentally from that of fluids, from the predictions of plasticity theories, and from intuitive expectation. In the static state, a part of the weight of the material is transferred to the walls by a downward vertical shear stress, bringing about the well-known Janssen saturation of the stress in vertical columns. When the material is sheared, the vertical shear stress changes sign, and the magnitudes of all components of the stress rise rapidly with depth. These qualitative features are preserved over a range of the Couette gap and shear rate, for smooth and rough walls and two model granular materials. To explain the anomalous rheological response, we consider some hypotheses that seem plausible a priori, but show that none survive after careful analysis of the experimental observations. We argue that the anomalous stress is due to an anisotropic fabric caused by the combined actions of gravity, shear, and frictional walls, for which we present indirect evidence from our experiments. A general theoretical framework for anisotropic plasticity is then presented. The detailed mechanics of how an anisotropic fabric is brought about by the above-mentioned factors is not clear, and promises to be a challenging problem for future investigations.
On the stability of plane Couette-Poiseuille flow with uniform crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Anirban; Frigaard, Ian A.
2010-06-01
We present a detailed study of the linear stability of plane Couette-Poiseuille flow in the presence of a cross-flow. The base flow is characterised by the cross flow Reynolds number, $R_{inj}$ and the dimensionless wall velocity, $k$. Squire's transformation may be applied to the linear stability equations and we therefore consider 2D (spanwise-independent) perturbations. Corresponding to each dimensionless wall velocity, $k\\in[0,1]$, two ranges of $R_{inj}$ exist where unconditional stability is observed. In the lower range of $R_{inj}$, for modest $k$ we have a stabilisation of long wavelengths leading to a cut-off $R_{inj}$. This lower cut-off results from skewing of the velocity profile away from a Poiseuille profile, shifting of the critical layers and the gradual decrease of energy production. Cross-flow stabilisation and Couette stabilisation appear to act via very similar mechanisms in this range, leading to the potential for robust compensatory design of flow stabilisation using either mechanism. As $R_{inj}$ is increased, we see first destabilisation and then stabilisation at very large $R_{inj}$. The instability is again a long wavelength mechanism. Analysis of the eigenspectrum suggests the cause of instability is due to resonant interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A linear energy analysis reveals that in this range the Reynolds stress becomes amplified, the critical layer is irrelevant and viscous dissipation is completely dominated by the energy production/negation, which approximately balances at criticality. The stabilisation at very large $R_{inj}$ appears to be due to decay in energy production, which diminishes like $R_{inj}^{-1}$. Our study is limited to two dimensional, spanwise independent perturbations.
Linear stability of radially-heated circular Couette flow with simulated radial gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tagg, Randy; Weidman, Patrick D.
2007-05-01
The stability of circular Couette flow between vertical concentric cylinders in the presence of a radial temperature gradient is considered with an effective “radial gravity.” In addition to terrestrial buoyancy - ρg e z we include the term - ρg m f(r)e r where g m f(r) is the effective gravitational acceleration directed radially inward across the gap. Physically, this body force arises in experiments using ferrofluid in the annular gap of a Taylor Couette cell whose inner cylinder surrounds a vertical stack of equally spaced disk magnets. The radial dependence f(r) of this force is proportional to the modified Bessel function K 1(κr), where 2π/κ is the spatial period of the magnetic stack and r is the radial coordinate. Linear stability calculations made to compare with conditions reported by Ali and Weidman (J. Fluid Mech., 220, 1990) show strong destabilization effects, measured by the onset Rayleigh number R, when the inner wall is warmer, and strong stabilization effects when the outer wall is warmer, with increasing values of the dimensionless radial gravity γ = g m /g. Further calculations presented for the geometry and fluid properties of a terrestrial laboratory experiment reveal a hitherto unappreciated structure of the stability problem for differentially-heated cylinders: multiple wavenumber minima exist in the marginal stability curves. Transitions in global minima among these curves give rise to a competition between differing instabilities of the same spiral mode number, but widely separated axial wavenumbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclercq, Colin; Nguyen, Florian; Kerswell, Rich R.
2016-10-01
The "Rayleigh line" μ =η2 , where μ =Ωo/Ωi and η =ri/ro are respectively the rotation and radius ratios between inner (subscript i ) and outer (subscript o ) cylinders, is regarded as marking the limit of centrifugal instability (CI) in unstratified inviscid Taylor-Couette flow, for both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric modes. Nonaxisymmetric stratorotational instability (SRI) is known to set in for anticyclonic rotation ratios beyond that line, i.e., η2<μ <1 for axially stably stratified Taylor-Couette flow, but the competition between CI and SRI in the range μ <η2 has not yet been addressed. In this paper, we establish continuous connections between the two instabilities at finite Reynolds number Re, as previously suggested by Le Bars and Le Gal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 064502 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.064502], making them indistinguishable at onset. Both instabilities are also continuously connected to the radiative instability at finite Re. These results demonstrate the complex impact viscosity has on the linear stability properties of this flow. Several other qualitative differences with inviscid theory were found, among which are the instability of a nonaxisymmetric mode localized at the outer cylinder without stratification and the instability of a mode propagating against the inner cylinder rotation with stratification. The combination of viscosity and stratification can also lead to a "collision" between (axisymmetric) Taylor vortex branches, causing the axisymmetric oscillatory state already observed in past experiments. Perhaps more surprising is the instability of a centrifugal-like helical mode beyond the Rayleigh line, caused by the joint effects of stratification and viscosity. The threshold μ =η2 seems to remain, however, an impassable instability limit for axisymmetric modes, regardless of stratification, viscosity, and even disturbance amplitude.
Linear stability of a circular Couette flow under a radial thermoelectric body force.
Yoshikawa, H N; Meyer, A; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I
2015-03-01
The stability of the circular Couette flow of a dielectric fluid is analyzed by a linear perturbation theory. The fluid is confined between two concentric cylindrical electrodes of infinite length with only the inner one rotating. A temperature difference and an alternating electric tension are applied to the electrodes to produce a radial dielectrophoretic body force that can induce convection in the fluid. We examine the effects of superposition of this thermoelectric force with the centrifugal force including its thermal variation. The Earth's gravity is neglected to focus on the situations of a vanishing Grashof number such as microgravity conditions. Depending on the electric field strength and of the temperature difference, critical modes are either axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric, occurring in either stationary or oscillatory states. An energetic analysis is performed to determine the dominant destabilizing mechanism. When the inner cylinder is hotter than the outer one, the circular Couette flow is destabilized by the centrifugal force for weak and moderate electric fields. The critical mode is steady axisymmetric, except for weak fields within a certain range of the Prandtl number and of the radius ratio of the cylinders, where the mode is oscillatory and axisymmetric. The frequency of this oscillatory mode is correlated with a Brunt-Väisälä frequency due to the stratification of both the density and the electric permittivity of the fluid. Under strong electric fields, the destabilization by the dielectrophoretic force is dominant, leading to oscillatory nonaxisymmetric critical modes with a frequency scaled by the frequency of the inner-cylinder rotation. When the outer cylinder is hotter than the inner one, the instability is again driven by the centrifugal force. The critical mode is axisymmetric and either steady under weak electric fields or oscillatory under strong electric fields. The frequency of the oscillatory mode is also correlated with the
General formulation of transverse hydrodynamics
Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech
2008-06-15
General formulation of hydrodynamics describing transversally thermalized matter created at the early stages of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. Similarities and differences with the standard three-dimensionally thermalized relativistic hydrodynamics are discussed. The role of the conservation laws as well as the thermodynamic consistency of two-dimensional thermodynamic variables characterizing transversally thermalized matter is emphasized.
Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas
2014-11-01
A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.
Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth
2008-03-01
Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.
Hydrodynamics, resurgence, and transasymptotics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Başar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.
2015-12-01
The second order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost-invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the nonhydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasinormal modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semiclassical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these nonhydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with initial conditions.
Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.
Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.
2006-10-01
The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.
Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish
2016-07-01
A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.
A hydrodynamic microchip for formation of continuous cell chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; Soffe, Rebecca; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Mitchell, Arnan
2014-05-01
Here, we demonstrate the unique features of a hydrodynamic based microchip for creating continuous chains of model yeast cells. The system consists of a disk shaped microfluidic structure, containing narrow orifices that connect the main channel to an array of spoke channels. Negative pressure provided by a syringe pump draws fluid from the main channel through the narrow orifices. After cleaning process, a thin layer of water is left between the glass substrate and the polydimethylsiloxane microchip, enabling leakage beneath the channel walls. A mechanical clamp is used to adjust the operation of the microchip. Relaxing the clamp allows leakage of liquid beneath the walls in a controllable fashion, leading to formation of a long cell chain evenly distributed along the channel wall. The unique features of the microchip are demonstrated by creating long chains of yeast cells and model 15 μm polystyrene particles along the side wall and analysing the hydrogen peroxide induced death of patterned cells.
Colgate, Stirling A.; Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Cebastian; Klein, Brianna; Schendel, Paul; Scharle, Cletus; McKinney, Travis; Ginanni, Rocky; Bentley, Ian; Mickey, Timothy; Ferrel, Regnar; Li, Hui; Pariev, Vladimir; Finn, John
2011-04-29
The {Omega} phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated a high toroidal field B{sub {phi}} that is {approx_equal}8xB{sub r}, where B{sub r} is the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by the rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at a magnetic Reynolds number Rm{approx_equal}120. Small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow at the end walls, which causes an estimated turbulence energy fraction of ({delta}v/v){sup 2{approx}}10{sup -3}.
Colgate, Stirling; Li, Jui; Finn, John; Pariev, Vladimir; Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Zeb; Klein, Brianna
2010-11-08
The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordsiek, Freja; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2015-07-01
We present azimuthal velocity profiles measured in a Taylor-Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of $\\eta = 0.716$, an aspect-ratio of $\\Gamma = 11.74$, and the plates closing the cylinders in the axial direction are attached to the outer cylinder. We investigate angular momentum transport and Ekman pumping in the Rayleigh-stable regime. The regime is linearly stable and is characterized by radially increasing specific angular momentum. We present several Rayleigh-stable profiles for shear Reynolds numbers $Re_S \\sim O(10^5) \\,$, both for $\\Omega_i > \\Omega_o > 0$ (quasi-Keplerian regime) and $\\Omega_o > \\Omega_i > 0$ (sub-rotating regime) where $\\Omega_{i,o}$ is the inner/outer cylinder rotation rate. None of the velocity profiles matches the non-vortical laminar Taylor-Couette profile. The deviation from that profile increased as solid-body rotation is approached at fixed $Re_S$. Flow super-rotation, an angular velocity greater than that of both cylinders, is observed in the sub-rotating regime. The velocity profiles give lower bounds for the torques required to rotate the inner cylinder that were larger than the torques for the case of laminar Taylor-Couette flow. The quasi-Keplerian profiles are composed of a well mixed inner region, having approximately constant angular momentum, connected to an outer region in solid-body rotation with the outer cylinder and attached axial boundaries. These regions suggest that the angular momentum is transported axially to the axial boundaries. Therefore, Taylor-Couette flow with closing plates attached to the outer cylinder is an imperfect model for accretion disk flows, especially with regard to their stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danish, Mohammad; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra
2012-03-01
Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles and flow rates have been obtained in explicit forms for the Poiseuille and Couette-Poiseuille flow of a third grade fluid between two parallel plates. These exact solutions match well with their numerical counter parts and are better than the recently developed approximate analytical solutions. Besides, effects of various parameters on the velocity profile and flow rate have been studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cercignani, Carlo; Lampis, Maria; Lorenzani, Silvia
2006-08-01
Rarefied gas flows in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, calculated from the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model equation [P. L. Bhatnagar, E. P. Gross, and M. Krook, Phys. Rev. 94, 511 (1954)], are studied in a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Both plane Poiseuille and Couette flows are investigated numerically by extending a finite difference technique first introduced by Cercignani and Daneri [J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3509 (1963)]. Moreover, a variational approach, applied to the integrodifferential form of the linearized Boltzmann equation [C. Cercignani, J. Stat. Phys. 1, 297 (1969)], is used to solve in a unified manner the plane Poiseuille-Couette problem by means of the computation of only one functional. General boundary conditions of Maxwell's type have been considered, assuming both symmetric and nonsymmetric molecular interaction between gas-solid interfaces, in order to take into account possible differences in the accommodation coefficients on the walls of MEMS devices. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, an accurate database valid in the entire Knudsen regime can be created for the Poiseuille-Couette problem, to be used in micromechanical applications.
Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirano, Tetsufumi
2014-09-01
In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions
Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution
Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael
2009-04-15
We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.
Hydrodynamic resistance of confined cells in rectangular microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Zeina S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.
2011-03-01
Several microfluidic approaches have been developed to screen suspended cells mechanically in microchannels by exploiting characteristics that are linked to their individual mechanical properties. Typically changes in cell shape due to shear-induced deformation and transit times are reported; while these measurements are qualitative compared to more precise techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration their advantage lies in throughput, with the ability to screen hundreds to thousands of cells in a minute. We study the potential of a microfluidic cell squeezer to characterize the hydrodynamic resistance of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by measuring dynamical pressure-drop variations along a micrometer-sized channel. The hydrodynamic resistance of the cell introduces an excess pressure drop in the narrow channel which depends on the mechanical stiffness of the cell. We additionally visualize the cell size and assess the influence of cell size on the hydrodynamic resistance of each cell, demonstrating the capability of the microfluidic cell squeezer to yield the hydrodynamic resistance as a mechanical fingerprint of cells.
Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.
Drury, J L; Dembo, M
1999-01-01
The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordsiek, Freja
This dissertation consists of two projects: Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow and granular electrification. Taylor-Couette flow is the fluid flow in the gap between two cylinders rotating at different rates. Azimuthal velocity profiles, dye visualization, and inner cylinder torques were measured on two geometrically similar Taylor-Couettes with axial boundaries attached to the outer cylinder, the Maryland and Twente T3C experiments. This was done in the Rayleigh stable regime, where the specific angular momentum increases radially, which is relevant to astrophysical and geophysical flows and in particular, stellar and planetary accretion disks. The flow substantially deviates from laminar Taylor-Couette flow beginning at moderate Reynolds number. Angular momentum is primarily transported to the axial boundaries instead of the outer cylinder due to Ekman pumping when the inner cylinder is rotating faster than the outer cylinder. A phase diagram was constructed from the transitions identified from torque measurements taken over four decades of the Reynolds number. Flow angular velocities larger and smaller than both cylinders were found. Together, these results indicate that experimental Taylor-Couette with axial boundaries attached to the outer cylinder is an imperfect model for accretion disk flows. Thunderstorms, thunder-snow, volcanic ash clouds, and dust storms all display lightning, which results from electrification of droplets and particles in the atmosphere. While lightning is fairly well understood (plasma discharge), the mechanisms that result in million-volt differences across the storm are not. A novel granular electrification experiment was upgraded and used to study some of these mechanisms in the lab. The relative importance of collective interactions between particles versus particle properties (material, size, etc.) on collisional electrification was investigated. While particle properties have an order of magnitude effect on the strength of
Hydrodynamic synchronization of colloidal oscillators
Kotar, Jurij; Leoni, Marco; Bassetti, Bruno; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Cicuta, Pietro
2010-01-01
Two colloidal spheres are maintained in oscillation by switching the position of an optical trap when a sphere reaches a limit position, leading to oscillations that are bounded in amplitude but free in phase and period. The interaction between the oscillators is only through the hydrodynamic flow induced by their motion. We prove that in the absence of stochastic noise the antiphase dynamical state is stable, and we show how the period depends on coupling strength. Both features are observed experimentally. As the natural frequencies of the oscillators are made progressively different, the coordination is quickly lost. These results help one to understand the origin of hydrodynamic synchronization and how the dynamics can be tuned. Cilia and flagella are biological systems coupled hydrodynamically, exhibiting dramatic collective motions. We propose that weakly correlated phase fluctuations, with one of the oscillators typically precessing the other, are characteristic of hydrodynamically coupled systems in the presence of thermal noise. PMID:20385848
Reciprocal relations in dissipationless hydrodynamics
Melnikovsky, L. A.
2014-12-15
Hidden symmetry in dissipationless terms of arbitrary hydrodynamics equations is recognized. We demonstrate that all fluxes are generated by a single function and derive conventional Euler equations using the proposed formalism.
Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphic cards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhard, Jochen; Lindenstruth, Volker; Bleicher, Marcus
2013-02-01
We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.
Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Feng
Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early
Rotation of a spheroidal particle in Couette flow: effects of fluid and particle inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, Tomas; Lundell, Fredrik; Do-Quang, Minh; Aidun, Cyrus K.
2012-11-01
Numerical simulations (Lattice Boltzmann simulations with External Boundary Force) of a single prolate spheroidal particle in a Couette flow have been performed, with the aim to study the transitions in particle rotation rate. The system is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, connected to fluid and particle inertia, respectively. Fluid inertia is controlled by the particle Reynolds number, Rep and particle inertia is controlled by the Stokes number, St= αRep, where α is the density ratio between particle and fluid. Two transitions have been previously reported and are the main focus for this study. The first transition is that with increasing Rep, a light (buoyant) particle eventually ceases to rotate. The second is that a heavy particle, at a certain St, undergoes a transition from a long period flipping motion to steady rotation with constant angular velocity. The results map out where particle or fluid inertia is more dominant. It was found that multiple solutions exist at constant Rep, where both periodic rotation and steady state can occur. This transition is determined by a critical density ratio, αc, for each Rep and aspect ratio (length/width) of the particle.
Taylor–Couette turbulence at radius ratio : scaling, flow structures and plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Merbold, Sebastian; Harlander, Uwe; Egbers, Christoph; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2016-07-01
Using high-resolution particle image velocimetry we measure velocity profiles, the wind Reynolds number and characteristics of turbulent plumes in Taylor-Couette flow for a radius ratio of 0.5 and Taylor number of up to $6.2\\cdot10^9$. The extracted angular velocity profiles follow a log-law more closely than the azimuthal velocity profiles due to the strong curvature of this $\\eta=0.5$ setup. The scaling of the wind Reynolds number with the Taylor number agrees with the theoretically predicted 3/7-scaling for the classical turbulent regime, which is much more pronounced than for the well-explored $\\eta=0.71$ case, for which the ultimate regime sets in at much lower Ta. By measuring at varying axial positions, roll structures are found for counter-rotation while no clear coherent structures are seen for pure inner cylinder rotation. In addition, turbulent plumes coming from the inner and outer cylinder are investigated. For pure inner cylinder rotation, the plumes in the radial velocity move away from the inner cylinder, while the plumes in the azimuthal velocity mainly move away from the outer cylinder. For counter-rotation, the mean radial flow in the roll structures strongly affects the direction and intensity of the turbulent plumes. Furthermore, it is experimentally confirmed that in regions where plumes are emitted, boundary layer profiles with a logarithmic signature are created.
Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638
Asymptotic behavior of modulated Taylor-Couette flows with a crystalline inner cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, R. J.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Murray, B. T.; Coriell, S. R.; Glicksman, M. E.; Selleck, M. E.
1993-01-01
The linear stability of a modulated Taylor-Couette system when the inner cylindrical boundary consists of a crystalline solid-liquid interface is considered. Both experimentally and in numerical calculations it is found that the two-phase system is significantly less stable than the analogous rigid-walled system for materials with moderately large Prandtl numbers. A numerical treatment based on Floquet theory is described, which gives results that are in good agreement with preliminary experimental findings. In addition, this instability is further examined by carrying out a formal asymptotic expansion of the solution in the limit of large Prandtl number. In this limit the Floquet analysis is considerably simplified, and the linear stability of the modulated system can be determined to leading order through a conventional stability analysis, without recourse to Floquet theory. The resulting simplified problem is then studied for both the narrow gap geometry and for the case of a finite gap. It is surprising that the determination of the linear stability of the two-phase system is considerably simpler than that of the rigid-walled system, despite the complications introduced by the presence of the crystal-melt interface.
Self-sustaining turbulence in a restricted nonlinear model of plane Couette flow
Thomas, Vaughan L.; Gayme, Dennice F.; Lieu, Binh K.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.; Farrell, Brian F.; Ioannou, Petros J.
2014-10-15
This paper demonstrates the maintenance of self-sustaining turbulence in a restricted nonlinear (RNL) model of plane Couette flow. The RNL system is derived directly from the Navier-Stokes equations and permits higher resolution studies of the dynamical system associated with the stochastic structural stability theory (S3T) model, which is a second order approximation of the statistical state dynamics of the flow. The RNL model shares the dynamical restrictions of the S3T model but can be easily implemented by reducing a DNS code so that it retains only the RNL dynamics. Comparisons of turbulence arising from DNS and RNL simulations demonstrate that the RNL system supports self-sustaining turbulence with a mean flow as well as structural and dynamical features that are consistent with DNS. These results demonstrate that the simplified RNL system captures fundamental aspects of fully developed turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows and motivate use of the RNL/S3T framework for further study of wall-turbulence.
Transient growth in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid.
Chen, Cheng; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guo
2015-04-01
In this paper we investigate linear transient growth of perturbation energy in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid. The effects of yield stress on transient growth and the structure of the optimal perturbation are mainly considered for both the wide-gap case and the narrow-gap case. For this purpose we complement the linear stability of this flow subjected to axisymmetric disturbances, presented by Landry et al. [M. P. Landry, I. A. Frigaard, and D. M. Martinez, J. Fluid Mech. 560, 321 (2006)], with the transient growth characteristics of both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations. We obtain the variations of the relative amplitude of optimal perturbation with yield stress, analyze the roles played by the Coriolis force and the additional stress in the evolution of meridional perturbations for the axisymmetric modes, and give the explanations for the possible change of the optimal azimuthal mode (featured by the maximum optimal energy growth G(opt)) with yield stress. These results might help us in the understanding of the effect of fluid rheology on transient growth mechanism in vortex flows. PMID:25974605
Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system.
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638
Selective interaction between microbubbles and modulating waves in a Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watamura, Tomoaki; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi
2012-11-01
Modifications of a coherent vortical structure by dispersed microbubbles have been investigated in a vertical Taylor-Couette flow, which is the flow generated between coaxial-rotating double cylinders. Radii of the inner and outer cylinders are 95 mm and 105 mm, respectively. The radius ratio and aspect ratio are 0.905 and 20, respectively. Flow mode in the experiments represents wavy vortex flow and modulated wavy vortex flow. Hydrogen bubbles with 60 μm in the mean diameter were generated by water electrolysis and dispersed from a platinum-wire electrode mounted at the bottom of the fluid layer. Maximum void fraction estimated by input power is smaller than 0.01%. Velocity distribution of microbubbles in a Taylor vortex array is determined by image analysis, and show preferential distribution and motion in the oscillating vortex tube. The fluctuation power of the basic wave was increased by adding microbubbles, while the power of its modulation was decreased. The gradient of the azimuthal velocity in the radial direction, i.e. origin of skin frictional drag acting on the cylinder walls, was decreased. These modifications of flow structure represent the suppression of the flow transition, due to the excitation of the basic wave oscillation and increase of momentum transfer by bubble swarm.
Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-12-01
We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices.
Modeling reaction--diffusion pattern formation in the Couette flow reactor
Elezgaray, J. ); Arneodo, A. )
1991-07-01
We report on a numerical and theoretical study of spatio--temporal pattern forming phenomena in a one-dimensional reaction--diffusion system with equal diffusion coefficients. When imposing a concentration gradient through the system, this model mimics the sustained stationary and periodically oscillating front structures'' observed in a recent experiment conducted in the Couette flow reactor. Conditions are also found under which oscillations of the nontrivial spatial patterns become chaotic. Singular perturbation techniques are used to study the existence and the linear stability of single-front and multi-front patterns. A nonlinear analysis of bifurcating patterns is carried out using a center manifold/normal form approach. The theoretical predictions of the normal form calculations are found in quantitative agreement with direct simulations of the Hopf bifurcation from steady to oscillating front patterns. The remarkable feature of these sustained spatio--temporal phenomena is the fact that they organize due to the interaction of the diffusion process with a chemical reaction which itself would proceed in a stationary manner if diffusion was negligible. This study clearly demonstrates that complex spatio--temporal patterns do not necessarily result from the coupling of oscillators or nonlinear transport.
Ultrasonic velocity profiling rheometry based on a widened circular Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiratori, Takahisa; Tasaka, Yuji; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Yuichi
2015-08-01
We propose a new rheometry for characterizing the rheological properties of fluids. The technique produces flow curves, which represent the relationship between the fluid shear rate and shear stress. Flow curves are obtained by measuring the circumferential velocity distribution of tested fluids in a circular Couette system, using an ultrasonic velocity profiling technique. By adopting a widened gap of concentric cylinders, a designed range of the shear rate is obtained so that velocity profile measurement along a single line directly acquires flow curves. To reduce the effect of ultrasonic noise on resultant flow curves, several fitting functions and variable transforms are examined to best approximate the velocity profile without introducing a priori rheological models. Silicone oil, polyacrylamide solution, and yogurt were used to evaluate the applicability of this technique. These substances are purposely targeted as examples of Newtonian fluids, shear thinning fluids, and opaque fluids with unknown rheological properties, respectively. We find that fourth-order Chebyshev polynomials provide the most accurate representation of flow curves in the context of model-free rheometry enabled by ultrasonic velocity profiling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krygier, Michael; Grigoriev, Roman
2015-11-01
A direct transition from laminar to turbulent flow has recently been discovered experimentally in the small-gap Taylor-Couette flow with counter-rotating cylinders. The subcritical nature of this transition is a result of relatively small aspect ratio, Γ = 5 . 26 for large Γ the transition is supercritical and involves an intermediate stable state (Coughlin & Marcus, 1996) - interpenetrating spirals (IPS). We investigate this transition numerically to probe the dynamics in regimes inaccessible to experiments for a fixed Reo = - 1000 by varying Rei . The numerics reproduce all the experimentally observed features and confirm the hysteretic nature of the transition. As Rei is increased, the laminar flow transitions to turbulence, with an unstable IPS state mediating the transition, similar to the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in plane Poiseuille flow. As Rei is decreased, turbulent flow transitions to a stable, temporally chaotic IPS state. This IPS state further transitions to either laminar or turbulent flow as Rei is decreased or increased. The stable IPS state is reminiscent of the pre-turbulent chaotic states found numerically in plane Poiseuille flow (Zammert & Eckhardt, 2015), but previously never observed experimentally.
Measurements of premixed-flame turbulence generation and modification in a Taylor-Couette burner
Arjomand-Kermani, Amir M.; Aldredge, Ralph C.
2007-10-15
Turbulent, premixed lean methane-air flames were studied experimentally in a Taylor-Couette burner, extending the previous work of non-reacting turbulent-flow measurements. A laser-Doppler velocimetry system is employed to measure velocity fluctuations in the circumferential direction at the center of the annulus where mean velocities are nearly zero. Turbulence parameters such as the intensities, approximated integral and micro-time and length scales and one-dimensional frequency spectra are obtained for the flow-field ahead and behind the flame front. The frequency spectra exhibit a -5/3 slope reaffirming isotropic characteristics. It is found that there is an increase in intensity, turbulence Reynolds number and energy across a broad range of frequencies behind the flame along with a shift toward larger scales. However, there appears to be a decrease in amplification of the intensities and turbulence Reynolds number with increasing pre-ignition turbulence in the burner (generated by counter-rotation of the cylinder walls). Results suggest that the presence of flame-generated turbulence in the TC burner is sensitive to both pre-ignition turbulence and equivalence ratio. (author)
Nonmodal growth of three-dimensional disturbances on plane Couette-Poiseuille flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergström, Lars B.
2005-01-01
The time development of three-dimensional disturbances superimposed on a variety of mean flow profiles representing plane Couette-Poiseuille flow is investigated numerically. Specifically, with y representing the wall normal coordinate, the mean flow profiles U(y ) are represented by U(y )=A(1-y2)+By, where B =1 when 0⩽A⩽1/2 and B =2√A(1-A ) when 1/2⩽A⩽1. For streamwise independent disturbances, which are the most amplified ones, there is an increase of the disturbance peak amplification when the parameter A increases in the interval 1/10⩽A⩽1/2. In the interval 1/2⩽A⩽9/10, and especially for 9/10⩽A⩽1, the disturbance peak amplification decreases rapidly when A is increased. For A close to 1, a slight reduction of A will therefore cause a strong increase of the disturbance amplification.
Couette flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in narrow eccentric annuli
Yang, L.; Chukwu, G.A.
1995-03-01
The analysis of the steady laminar Couette flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in a narrow eccentric cannulus is employed in this study to compute the surge or swab pressure encountered when running or pulling tubular goods in a liquid-filled borehole, respectively. Excessive surge pressure can fracture the formation, while uncontrolled swab pressure can result in well blowout. In this study, the eqs of motion are analytically solved and the solution of these eqs is presented in both dimensionless and graphical forms for a more general application to computing the surge or swab pressure. The family of curves is presented for different pipe/borehole eccentricity ratios and power-law fluid index values which span the range of typical drilling fluids. By employing the computed surge pressures, in combination with the family of curves, the maximum velocity at which the casing can be run in the hole without the danger of fracturing the formation can be obtained. The expected error in surge computation for a narrow concentric annulus represented by a slot, as a result of eccentricity, is evaluated. The results obtained from the these analyses will aid in proper design and optimization of drilling programs, especially in deviated holes.
PIV measurements of the velocity field in counter-rotating cylindrical Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hout, Rene; Katz, Joseph
2007-11-01
An experimental investigation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was carried out to study the latitudinal planar velocity field in air counter-rotating cylindrical Couette flow at high Reynolds numbers. The facility consisted of two concentric cylinders with a radius ratio of η=ri / ri ro . - ro= 0.55 and aspect ratio γ=L/( ro-ri )= 11.2. Measurements were done at two outer cylinder Reynolds numbers, Ro = -25,196 and -52,042 while the inner cylinder Reynolds number varied between Ri = 2,635 to 40,446. At constant Ro with increasing Ri, the mean azimuthal velocity profile became increasingly flatter over most of the annulus with a strong shear layer near the cylinder wall. The radius at which Uθ changed sign moved away from the inner cylinder. Plotted against inner wall coordinates, the azimuthal velocity profile displayed log law behavior albeit with increased values of κ and B as Ri was increased. Normalized rms values of the azimuthal fluctuating velocity component and Reynolds stresses peak near to the wall. Magnitudes increase and become more significant over the whole width of the annulus as Ri increased. Higher moments display double peaks. Holding the inner cylinder rotation speed constant while increasing the outer cylinder speed strongly influenced the radial profiles of turbulent stresses.
Mixing of a stable linear density stratification in Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oglethorpe, R. L. F.; Caulfield, C. P.; Woods, Andrew W.
2011-11-01
We consider mixing of an initially linear stable salt stratification in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. The fluid is confined to a cylindrical annulus with a vertical axis. Mixing is caused by rotating the inner cylinder at a constant rate. The outer cylinder is fixed. Experimental measurements show that at high initial bulk Richardson number, defined as Ri0 =N2 /Ω2 , where N is the buoyancy frequency of the initial stratification and Ω is the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, an initially linear salt stratification develops a series of well mixed layers separated by sharp interfaces. The size of these layers appears to depend on Ri0 and the gap width between the cylinders, ΔR. With time, the layers at the top and bottom of the tank evolve in salinity. This leads to entrainment from and eventual mixing with the adjacent layers as the salinity contrast across these interfaces decreases. As a result of successive merger events, eventually the system becomes well mixed. The salinity of the inner layers appears to remain constant, so that salt is transported from the bottom layer to the top layer without changing the structure of the interior. The salt flux through an interface appears to depend only on the rotation rate Ω of the inner cylinder, consistent with our previous study for an initial two-layer salt stratification (Woods et al. (2010) J Fluid Mech. 663, 347-357).
Ameer, Guillermo A.; Barabino, Gilda; Sasisekharan, Ram; Harmon, William; Cooney, Charles L.; Langer, Robert
1999-01-01
Efficient and safe heparin anticoagulation has remained a problem for continuous renal replacement therapies and intermittent hemodialysis for patients with acute renal failure. To make heparin therapy safer for the patient with acute renal failure at high risk of bleeding, we have proposed regional heparinization of the circuit via an immobilized heparinase I filter. This study tested a device based on Taylor-Couette flow and simultaneous separation/reaction for efficacy and safety of heparin removal in a sheep model. Heparinase I was immobilized onto agarose beads via cyanogen bromide activation. The device, referred to as a vortex flow plasmapheretic reactor, consisted of two concentric cylinders, a priming volume of 45 ml, a microporous membrane for plasma separation, and an outer compartment where the immobilized heparinase I was fluidized separately from the blood cells. Manual white cell and platelet counts, hematocrit, total protein, and fibrinogen assays were performed. Heparin levels were indirectly measured via whole-blood recalcification times (WBRTs). The vortex flow plasmapheretic reactor maintained significantly higher heparin levels in the extracorporeal circuit than in the sheep (device inlet WBRTs were 1.5 times the device outlet WBRTs) with no hemolysis. The reactor treatment did not effect any physiologically significant changes in complete blood cell counts, platelets, and protein levels for up to 2 hr of operation. Furthermore, gross necropsy and histopathology did not show any significant abnormalities in the kidney, liver, heart, brain, and spleen. PMID:10051645
Non-isothermal spherical Couette flow of Oldroyd-B fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, A. Abu-El; Zidan, M.; Moussa, M. M.
2009-01-01
The present paper is concerned with non-isothermal spherical Couette flow of Oldroyd-B fluid in the annular region between two concentric spheres. The inner sphere rotates with a constant angular velocity while the outer sphere is kept at rest. The viscoelasticity of the fluid is assumed to dominate the inertia such that the latter can be neglected in the momentum and energy equations. An approximate analytical solution is obtained through the expansion of the dynamical variable fields in power series of Nahme number. Non-homogeneous, harmonic for axial- velocity and temperature equations and biharmonic for stream function equations, have been solved up to second order approximation. In comparison of the present work with isothermal case; [1,2], two additional terms; a first order velocity and a second order stream function are stem as a result of the interaction between the fluid viscoelasticity and temperature profile. These contributions prove to be the most important results for rheology in this work.
Numerical solution of an extended White-Metzner model for eccentric Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Germann, N.; Dressler, M.; Windhab, E. J.
2011-09-01
In this study, we have developed a new numerical approach to solve differential-type viscoelastic fluid models for a commonly used benchmark problem, namely, the steady Taylor—Couette flow between eccentric cylinders. The proposed numerical approach is special in that the nonlinear system of discretized algebraic flow equations is solved iteratively using a Newton-Krylov method along with an inverse-based incomplete lower-upper preconditioner. The numerical approach has been validated by solving the benchmark problem for the upper-convected Maxwell model at a large Deborah number. Excellent agreement with the numerical data reported in the literature has been found. In addition, a parameter study was performed for an extended White-Metzner model. A large eccentricity ratio was chosen for the cylinder system in order to allow flow recirculation to occur. We detected several interesting phenomena caused by the large eccentricity ratio of the cylinder system and by the viscoelastic nature of the fluid. Encouraged by the results of this study, we intend to investigate other polymeric fluids having a more complex microstructure in an eccentric annular flow field.
Linear stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas. 2. viscous problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.
2016-03-01
Based on the linear theory, stability of viscous disturbances in a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas described by a system of linearized equations of two-temperature gas dynamics including shear and bulk viscosity is studied. It is demonstrated that two sets are identified in the spectrum of the problem of stability of plane waves, similar to the case of a perfect gas. One set consists of viscous acoustic modes, which asymptotically converge to even and odd inviscid acoustic modes at high Reynolds numbers. The eigenvalues from the other set have no asymptotic relationship with the inviscid problem and are characterized by large damping decrements. Two most unstable viscous acoustic modes (I and II) are identified; the limits of these modes were considered previously in the inviscid approximation. It is shown that there are domains in the space of parameters for both modes, where the presence of viscosity induces appreciable destabilization of the flow. Moreover, the growth rates of disturbances are appreciably greater than the corresponding values for the inviscid flow, while thermal excitation in the entire considered range of parameters increases the stability of the viscous flow. For a vibrationally excited gas, the critical Reynolds number as a function of the thermal nonequilibrium degree is found to be greater by 12% than for a perfect gas.
Transient growth in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Cheng; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guo
2015-04-01
In this paper we investigate linear transient growth of perturbation energy in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid. The effects of yield stress on transient growth and the structure of the optimal perturbation are mainly considered for both the wide-gap case and the narrow-gap case. For this purpose we complement the linear stability of this flow subjected to axisymmetric disturbances, presented by Landry et al. [M. P. Landry, I. A. Frigaard, and D. M. Martinez, J. Fluid Mech. 560, 321 (2006), 10.1017/S0022112006000620], with the transient growth characteristics of both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations. We obtain the variations of the relative amplitude of optimal perturbation with yield stress, analyze the roles played by the Coriolis force and the additional stress in the evolution of meridional perturbations for the axisymmetric modes, and give the explanations for the possible change of the optimal azimuthal mode (featured by the maximum optimal energy growth Gopt) with yield stress. These results might help us in the understanding of the effect of fluid rheology on transient growth mechanism in vortex flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazanas, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Contopoulos, J.
We obtain the general form of the axisymmetric stability criteria in a magnetized, compressible Couette flow using a variational principle, the so-called interchange method, which we applied successfully in the incompressible case in the past. This formulation accounts for the simultaneous presence of gravity, rotation, entropy and density gradients, a toroidal magnetic field and a weak axial magnetic field in its initial equilibrium state. The crucial aspect of the method is its explicit implementation of the relevant conservation laws in the computation of the "free energy" of the system in its original equilibrium. As in the incompressilbe case, the presence of an axial field invalidates the conservation laws of angular momentum and azimuthal magnetic flux, introducing instead isorotation and axial current conservation along field lines. The stability criteria are therefore markedly different depending on whether an axial magnetic field is present. In limiting cases our formulation transparently recovers the convective and Parker instability criteria, as well as those of Newcomb and Terkovnikov pertaining to rotating magnetized plasmas derived through the implementation of much more laborious techniques.
Magnetic induction and diffusion mechanisms in a liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabanes, Simon; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Nataf, Henri-Claude
2014-10-01
We present a reconstruction of the mean axisymmetric azimuthal and meridional flows in the Derviche Tourneur Sodium installation in Grenoble liquid sodium experiment. The experimental device sets a spherical Couette flow enclosed between two concentric spherical shells where the inner sphere holds a strong dipolar magnet, which acts as a magnetic propeller when rotated. Measurements of the mean velocity, mean induced magnetic field, and mean electric potentials have been acquired inside and outside the fluid for an inner sphere rotation rate of 9 Hz (Rm≃28 ). Using the induction equation to relate all measured quantities to the mean flow, we develop a nonlinear least-squares inversion procedure to reconstruct a fully coherent solution of the mean velocity field. We also include in our inversion the response of the fluid layer to the nonaxisymmetric time-dependent magnetic field that results from deviations of the imposed magnetic field from an axial dipole. The mean azimuthal velocity field we obtain shows superrotation in an inner region close to the inner sphere where the Lorentz force dominates, which contrasts with an outer geostrophic region governed by the Coriolis force, but where the magnetic torque remains the driver. The meridional circulation is strongly hindered by the presence of both the Lorentz and the Coriolis forces. Nevertheless, it contributes to a significant part of the induced magnetic energy. Our approach sets the scene for evaluating the contribution of velocity and magnetic fluctuations to the mean magnetic field, a key question for dynamo mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Nansheng; Khomami, Bamin
2011-11-01
Despite tremendous progress in development of numerical techniques and constitutive theories for polymeric fluids in the past decade, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of elastic turbulence has posed tremendous challenges to researchers engaged in developing first principles models and simulations that can accurately and robustly predict the dynamical behavior of polymeric flows. In this presentation, we report the first DNS of elastic turbulence in the Taylor-Couette (TC) flow. Specifically, our computations with prototypical constitutive equations for dilute polymeric solutions, such as the FENE-P model are capable of reproducing the essential features of the experimentally observed elastic turbulence in TC flow of this class of fluids, namely, randomly fluctuating fluid motion excited in a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and a significant increase of the flow resistance. Moreover, the experimentally measured Power Spectral Density of radial velocity fluctuations, i.e., two contiguous regions of power-law decay, -1.1 at lower frequencies and -2.2 at high-frequencies is accurately computed. We would like to thank NSF through grant CBET-0755269 and NSFC through grant NO. 10972211 for supporting of this work.
Mechanical and statistical study of the laminar hole formation in transitional plane Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolland, Joran
2015-03-01
This article is concerned with the numerical study and modelling of two aspects the formation of laminar holes in transitional turbulence of plane Couette flow (PCF). On the one hand, we consider quenches: sudden decreases of the Reynolds number R which force the formation of holes. The Reynolds number is decreased from featureless turbulence to the range of existence of the oblique laminar-turbulent bands [ R g; R t]. The successive stages of the quench are studied by means of visualisations and measurements of kinetic energy and turbulent fraction. The behaviour of the kinetic energy is explained using a kinetic energy budget: it shows that viscosity causes quasi modal decay until lift-up equals it and creates a new balance. Moreover, the budget confirms that the physical mechanisms at play are independent of the way the quench is performed. On the other hand we consider the natural formation of laminar holes in the bands, near R g. The direct numerical simulations (DNS) show that holes in the turbulent bands provide a mechanism for the fragmented bands regime and orientation fluctuations near R g. Moreover the analysis of the fluctuations of kinetic energy toward low values demonstrates that the disappearance of turbulence in the bands can be described within the framework of large deviations. A large deviation function is extracted from the probability density function of the kinetic energy.
MRI Study of Granular Flow in a Split-Bottomed Couette Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xiang
2005-03-01
Recent studies of dense granular flow in a split-bottomed Couette geometry have brought new insights into the concept of shear bands in granular systems [1]. However, to date experimental results have primarily focused on the flow at the top surface of the system. Here we present a study of the 3- dimensional structure of shear band formed in such a geometry using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We show that the angular velocity profiles in horizontal plane follow an error function as observed at the top surface. By measuring the center and the width of the shear band at the different heights in the bulk, we map out the 3-D shape of the shear band and investigate the behavior of the shear band as a function of the total filling height. We find that when the top of the shear band detaches from the surface of the bulk, its shape changes dramatically, similar to a first order transition as has been proposed by theory [2]. [1] D. Fenistein, J. W. van de Meent, and M. van Hecke, PRL 92, 094301 (2004). [2] T. Unger, J. Torok, J. Kertesz, D. E. Wolf, PRL 92, 214301 (2004).
Identifying coherent structures and vortex clusters in Taylor-Couette turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spandan, Vamsi; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Lohse, Detlef; Verzicco, Roberto
2016-04-01
The nature of the underlying structures in Taylor-Couette (TC) flow, the flow between two co-axial and independently rotating cylinders is investigated by two methods. First, the quadrant analysis technique for identifying structures with intense radial-azimuthal stresses (also referred to as ‘Q’s) of Lozano-Durán et al., (J. Fluid Mech. 694, 100-130) is used to identify the main structures responsible for the transport of angular velocity. Second, the vortex clusters are identified based on the analysis by del Álamo et al., (J. Fluid. Mech., 561, 329-358). In order to test these criteria, two different radius ratios η = ri/ro are considered, where ri and ro are the radii of inner and outer cylinder, respectively: (i) η = 0.5 and (ii) η = 0.909, which correspond to high and low curvature geometries, respectively and have different underlying structures. The Taylor rolls, i.e. the large-scale coherent structures, are effectively captured as ‘Q’s for the low curvature setup and it is observed that curvature plays a dominant role in influencing the size and volumes of these ‘Q’s. On the other hand, the vortex clusters are smaller in size when compared to the ‘Q’ structures. These vortex clusters are found to be taller in the case of η = 0.909, while the distribution of the lengths of these clusters is almost homogenous for both radius ratios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasiuk, Jan; Hindman, Richard; Iversen, James
1988-01-01
The azimuthal-invariant, three-dimensional cylindrical, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved to steady state for a finite-length, physically realistic model. The numerical method relies on an alternating-direction implicit scheme that is formally second-order accurate in space and first-order accurate in time. The equations are linearized and uncoupled by evaluating variable coefficients at the previous time iteration. Wall grid clustering is provided by a Roberts transformation in radial and axial directions. A vorticity-velocity formulation is found to be preferable to a vorticity-streamfunction approach. Subject to no-slip, Dirichlet boundary conditions, except for the inner cylinder rotation velocity (impulsive start-up) and zero-flow initial conditions, nonturbulent solutions are obtained for sub- and supercritical Reynolds numbers of 100 to 400 for a finite geometry where R(outer)/R(inner) = 1.5, H/R(inner) = 0.73, and H/Delta-R = 1.5. An axially-stretched model solution is shown to asymptotically approach the one-dimensional analytic Couette solution at the cylinder midheight. Flowfield change from laminar to Taylor-vortex flow is discussed as a function of Reynolds number. Three-dimensional velocities, vorticity, and streamfunction are presented via two-dimensional graphs and three-dimensional surface and contour plots.
Linear stability of Couette flow of vibrationally non-equilibrium gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigor'ev, Yurii N.; Ershov, Igor'V.
2016-10-01
Stability of the supersonic plane Couette flow of a perfect gas and of a vibrationally excited gas is studied within the framework of the linear theory. In both cases two variants are studied. When the transport coeffcients are taken as con-stant, and when they are dependent on the flow static temperature. The Satherland's viscosity law was used as temperature dependence of the shear viscosity. The thermal conductivity coeffcients caused by the translational, rotational and vibra-tional motions of gas molecules are determined by the Eucken's relations. Detailed comparison of the characteristics of the stability of the acoustic modes I and II for both viscosity models is carried out for a perfect gas. It is shown that the "viscous" stratification significantly increases flow stability as compared with the case of the constant viscosity model. It is obtained that characteristic features of development of viscous disturbances noted for the Sutherland's model are conserved for more simple model of the constant viscosity. The dissipative effect of the excitation of the vibrational mode is preserved in the case of the temperature dependence of the transport coeffcients. The relative decrease in growth rates of viscous modes I and II at the vibrational excitation is practically the same for both viscosity models. The increase in the critical Reynolds number is approximately 12 % in both cases.
Numerical study of crude oil fouling in a Taylor-Couette-type reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crastes, Misha; Lagkaditi, Lydia; Ball, Jonathan; Yang, Junfeng; Coletti, Francesco; Macchietto, Sandro; Matar, Omar
2015-11-01
We consider the non-isothermal flow of crude-oil mixtures in a Taylor-Couette-type reactor; this flow is accompanied by the deposition of soft-solid wall-layers, commonly referred to as ``fouling'', driven by chemical reactions and phase separation. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are carried out to resolve the flow and temperature fields, as well as the volume fraction of the foulant phase. The simulations also account for the effect of evolving deposit rheology. The CFD predictions are validated against published results for isothermal flow, in the absence of fouling, in terms of the characteristics of the vortical structures that accompany the flow. In the presence of fouling, we examine the spatial distribution of the wall stresses as a function of the Reynolds and Taylor numbers, and demonstrate that wall regions exposed to higher (lower) shear stresses tend to form thinner (thicker) fouling layers. The simulation results capture the trends observed experimentally. Skolkovo Foundation through the UNIHEAT Project.
Sheathless hydrodynamic positioning of buoyant drops and bubbles inside microchannels.
Stan, Claudiu A; Guglielmini, Laura; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Caviezel, Daniel; Stone, Howard A; Whitesides, George M
2011-09-01
Particles, bubbles, and drops carried by a fluid in a confined environment such as a pipe can be subjected to hydrodynamic lift forces, i.e., forces that are perpendicular to the direction of the flow. We investigated the positioning effect of lift forces acting on buoyant drops and bubbles suspended in a carrier fluid and flowing in a horizontal microchannel. We report experiments on drops of water in fluorocarbon liquid, and on bubbles of nitrogen in hydrocarbon liquid and silicone oil, inside microchannels with widths on the order of 0.1-1 mm. Despite their buoyancy, drops and bubbles could travel without contacting with the walls of channels; the most important parameters for reaching this flow regime in our experiments were the viscosity and the velocity of the carrier fluid, and the sizes of drops and bubbles. The dependencies of the transverse position of drops and bubbles on these parameters were investigated. At steady state, the trajectories of drops and bubbles approached the center of the channel for drops and bubbles almost as large as the channel, carried by rapidly flowing viscous liquids; among our experiments, these flow conditions were characterized by larger capillary numbers and smaller Reynolds numbers. Analytical models of lift forces developed for the flow of drops much smaller than the width of the channel failed to predict their transverse position, while computational fluid dynamic simulations of the experiments agreed better with the experimental measurements. The degrees of success of these predictions indicate the importance of confinement on generating strong hydrodynamic lift forces. We conclude that, inside microfluidic channels, it is possible to support and position buoyant drops and bubbles simply by flowing a single-stream (i.e., "sheathless") carrier liquid that has appropriate velocity and hydrodynamic properties.
A Microfluidic-based Hydrodynamic Trap for Single Particles
Johnson-Chavarria, Eric M.; Tanyeri, Melikhan; Schroeder, Charles M.
2011-01-01
The ability to confine and manipulate single particles in free solution is a key enabling technology for fundamental and applied science. Methods for particle trapping based on optical, magnetic, electrokinetic, and acoustic techniques have led to major advancements in physics and biology ranging from the molecular to cellular level. In this article, we introduce a new microfluidic-based technique for particle trapping and manipulation based solely on hydrodynamic fluid flow. Using this method, we demonstrate trapping of micro- and nano-scale particles in aqueous solutions for long time scales. The hydrodynamic trap consists of an integrated microfluidic device with a cross-slot channel geometry where two opposing laminar streams converge, thereby generating a planar extensional flow with a fluid stagnation point (zero-velocity point). In this device, particles are confined at the trap center by active control of the flow field to maintain particle position at the fluid stagnation point. In this manner, particles are effectively trapped in free solution using a feedback control algorithm implemented with a custom-built LabVIEW code. The control algorithm consists of image acquisition for a particle in the microfluidic device, followed by particle tracking, determination of particle centroid position, and active adjustment of fluid flow by regulating the pressure applied to an on-chip pneumatic valve using a pressure regulator. In this way, the on-chip dynamic metering valve functions to regulate the relative flow rates in the outlet channels, thereby enabling fine-scale control of stagnation point position and particle trapping. The microfluidic-based hydrodynamic trap exhibits several advantages as a method for particle trapping. Hydrodynamic trapping is possible for any arbitrary particle without specific requirements on the physical or chemical properties of the trapped object. In addition, hydrodynamic trapping enables confinement of a "single" target object in
Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics
Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Spalinski, Michal
2011-03-15
Recent advances in holography have led to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics of higher dimensional black holes. This paper introduces a correspondence between phenomenologically defined entropy currents in relativistic hydrodynamics and 'generalized horizons' of near-equilibrium black objects in a dual gravitational description. A general formula is given, expressing the divergence of the entropy current in terms of geometric objects which appear naturally in the gravity dual geometry. The proposed definition is explicitly covariant with respect to boundary diffeomorphisms and reproduces known results when evaluated for the event horizon.
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Latrache, Noureddine; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent
2012-11-01
The transition to turbulence in a flow of semidilute shear-thinning viscoelastic solution with a moderate elasticity was investigated in the Taylor-Couette system with a fixed outer cylinder. As the cylinder rotation frequency increases, the base flow bifurcates to a pattern of ribbons and then to disordered oscillations (DOs). Within these DOs, we have identified two particular regimes of turbulence: spatiotemporal intermittency (STI) followed by inertioelastic turbulence (IET) with a net transition between them. This transition is evidenced by a sharp peak of a diffusion velocity and a Weissenberg number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Wei; Lin, Chao-An
2006-06-01
Turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows inside a square duct at bulk Reynolds number 9700 are investigated using the large eddy simulation technique. Suppression of turbulence intensities and a tendency towards rod-like axisymmetric turbulence state at the wall bisector near the moving wall are identified. The turbulence generated secondary flow is modified by the presence of the top moving wall, where the symmetric vortex pattern vanishes. The angle between the two top vortices is found to correlate with the ratio of moving wall velocity to duct bulk velocity.
Taylor-Couette Flow of an Oldroyd-B Fluid in an Annulus Due to a Time-Dependent Couple
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetecau, Corina; Imran, Muhammad; Fetecau, Constantin
2011-02-01
Taylor-Couette flow in an annulus due to a time-dependent torque suddenly applied to one of the cylinders is studied by means of finite Hankel transforms. The exact solutions, presented under series form in terms of usual Bessel functions, satisfy both the governing equations and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. They can easily be reduced to give similar solutions for Maxwell, second grade, and Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. Finally, some characteristics of the motion, as well as the influence of the material parameters on the behaviour of the fluid, are emphasized by graphical illustrations.
Collective sub-diffusive dynamics in bacterial carpet microfluidic channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiao, Yi-Teng; Wang, Jing-Hui; Hsu, Yi-Chun; Chiu, Chien-Chun; Lo, Chien-Jung; Tsao, Chia-Wen; Yen Woon, Wei
2012-05-01
We experimentally investigate the collective dynamics in bacterial carpet microfluidic channel. The microfluidic channel is composed of single polar flagellated Vibrio alginolyticus deposited glass substrates. The individual flagellum swimming speed is tuned by varying buffer sodium concentration. Hydrodynamic coupling strength is tuned by varying buffer viscosity. The attached bacteria constantly perform two major modes in flagellum motion, namely, the local rotation and large angle flick. Particle tracking statistics shows high flagellum rotational rate and strong hydrodynamic coupling strength lead to collective sub-diffusive dynamics. The observed effect is strongly correlated to hydrodynamic coupling of flick motions between nearby bacteria.
Deformable cells in confined geometries: From hemolysis to hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Stone, Howard A.
2004-11-01
Recent developments in microfluidics allow a wide range of possibilities for studying cellular-scale hydrodynamics. Here we use microfluidic technology to address several open questions in the blood flow literature where cell deformation and hydrodynamic interactions are significant. In particular, we investigate the pressure-driven flow of a dilute suspension in a channel and characterize the transition from steady axisymmetric cell shapes (for which numerical calculations exist) to asymmetric, highly extended shapes, which are precursors to hemolysis (i.e. destruction of the cell). In addition, we examine the influence of geometry on hydrodynamic interactions of deformable cells by contrasting one-dimensional motion of a train of particles in a channel with two-dimensional motions in a Hele-Shaw cell. This study can help to understand flow of cells in microcirculation from the unidirectional flow in capillaries to the two-dimensional flow in the lung alveoli and provides the basic steps to understand certain aspects of microcirculatory deseases like sickle cell anemia for example.
Statistics of turbulent fluctuations in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, Sander G.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2013-12-01
The statistics of velocity fluctuations of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow are examined. The rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders are varied while keeping the Taylor number fixed to 1.49×1012 [O(Re)=106]. The azimuthal velocity component of the flow is measured using laser Doppler anemometry. For each experiment 5×106 data points are acquired and carefully analyzed. Using extended self-similarity [Benzi , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R29 48, R29 (1993)] the longitudinal structure function exponents are extracted and are found to weakly depend on the ratio of the rotation rates. For the case where only the inner cylinder rotates the results are in good agreement with results measured by Lewis and Swinney [Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.5457 59, 5457 (1999)] using hot-film anemometry. The power spectra show clear -5/3 scaling for the intermediate angular velocity ratios -ωo/ωi∈{0.6,0.8,1.0}, roughly -5/3 scaling for -ωo/ωi∈{0.2,0.3,0.4,2.0}, and no clear scaling law can be found for -ω0/ωi=0 (inner cylinder rotation only); the local scaling exponent of the spectra has a strong frequency dependence. We relate these observations to the shape of the probability density function of the azimuthal velocity and the presence of a neutral line.
Nonaxisymmetric MHD Instabilities of Chandrasekhar States in Taylor-Couette Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gellert, M.; Rüdiger, G.; Schultz, M.; Guseva, A.; Hollerbach, R.
2016-06-01
We consider axially periodic Taylor-Couette geometry with insulating boundary conditions. The imposed basic states are so-called Chandrasekhar states, where the azimuthal flow U ϕ and magnetic field B ϕ have the same radial profiles. Mainly three particular profiles are considered: the Rayleigh limit, quasi-Keplerian, and solid-body rotation. In each case we begin by computing linear instability curves and their dependence on the magnetic Prandtl number {{Pm}}. For the azimuthal wavenumber m = 1 modes, the instability curves always scale with the Reynolds number and the Hartmann number. For sufficiently small {{Pm}} these modes therefore only become unstable for magnetic Mach numbers less than unity, and are thus not relevant for most astrophysical applications. However, modes with m\\gt 1 can behave very differently. For sufficiently flat profiles, they scale with the magnetic Reynolds number and the Lundquist number, thereby allowing instability also for the large magnetic Mach numbers of astrophysical objects. We further compute fully nonlinear, three-dimensional equilibration of these instabilities, and investigate how the energy is distributed among the azimuthal (m) and axial (k) wavenumbers. In comparison spectra become steeper for large m, reflecting the smoothing action of shear. On the other hand kinetic and magnetic energy spectra exhibit similar behavior: if several azimuthal modes are already linearly unstable they are relatively flat, but for the rigidly rotating case where m = 1 is the only unstable mode they are so steep that neither Kolmogorov nor Iroshnikov-Kraichnan spectra fit the results. The total magnetic energy exceeds the kinetic energy only for large magnetic Reynolds numbers {{Rm}}\\gt 100.
Effect of roll number on the statistics of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Lohse, Detlef; Verzicco, Roberto
2016-09-01
A series of direct numerical simulations in large computational domains has been performed in order to probe the spatial feature robustness of the Taylor rolls in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. The latter is the flow between two coaxial independently rotating cylinders of radius ri and ro, respectively. Large axial aspect ratios Γ =7 -8 [with Γ =L /(ro-ri) , and L the axial length of the domain] and a simulation with Γ =14 were used in order to allow the system to select the most unstable wave number and to possibly develop multiple states. The radius ratio was taken as η =ri/ro=0.909 , the inner cylinder Reynolds number was fixed to Rei=3.4 ×104 , and the outer cylinder was kept stationary, resulting in a frictional Reynolds number of Reτ≈500 , except for the Γ =14 simulation where Rei=1.5 ×104 and Reτ≈240 . The large-scale rolls were found to remain axially pinned for all simulations. Depending on the initial conditions, stable solutions with different number of rolls nr and roll wavelength λz were found for Γ =7 . The effect of λz and nr on the statistics was quantified. The torque and mean flow statistics were found to be independent of both λz and nr, while the velocity fluctuations and energy spectra showed some box-size dependence. Finally, the axial velocity spectra were found to have a very sharp dropoff for wavelengths larger than λz, while for the small wavelengths they collapse.
Appearance and stability of vortices in Taylor-Couette flow of helium II
Swanson, C.J.
1992-01-01
The appearance and stability of vortices in helium II Taylor-Couette flow, flow between concentric rotating cylinder, has been studied. The two cylinders capable of independent rotation were first rotated as a solid body at slow speeds. Resonant second sound attenuation was used to examine the critical angular velocity for the onset of vorticity. The results are compared with previous experiments and theory in an attempt to understand which factors affect the first appearance of vortices. The most important factor is the existence of vorticity aligned perpendicular to the axis of rotation. This vorticity is created by acceleration and vibrational perturbation and renders detailed comparison to the theory impossible. Consequently it is also impossible to determine the size of the vortex core parameter from measurement of the critical angular velocity. It is argued, however, that the temperature dependence of the core parameter can be determined, and measurements of the temperature dependence agree well with expectations. Finally, studies of the prependicular component of the vorticity reveal that the parallel component of mutual friction B[double prime] is likely to be zero. A similar experiment was performed with the cylinders rotating at different speeds. Results are compared to theoretical predictions for shear flows in an annulus. It is found that the onset in this non-equilibrium flow does not agree well with the theory but instead exhibits an unexplained temperature dependence. Stability of the vortices was also studied at higher angular velocities. With the outer cylinder fixed and the inner cylinder increasing in speed, the helium undergoes a transition to unstable flow. An experimental study of the transition, again using second sound, was performed over a range of temperatures. The results agree with the stability analysis rigorously validating the helium II equations of flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2003-03-01
We obtain the general forms of the axisymmetric stability criteria in a magnetized compressible Couette flow using an energy variational principle, the so-called interchange or Chandrasekhar's method, which we applied successfully in the incompressible case. This formulation accounts for the simultaneous presence of gravity, rotation, a toroidal magnetic field, a weak axial magnetic field, entropy gradients, and density gradients in the initial equilibrium state. The power of the method lies in its simplicity, which allows us to derive extremely compact and physically clear expressions for the relevant stability criteria despite the inclusion of so many physical effects. In the implementation of the method, all the applicable conservation laws are explicitly taken into account during the variations of a quantity with dimensions of energy that we call the ``free-energy function.'' As in the incompressible case, the presence of an axial field invalidates the conservation laws of angular momentum and azimuthal magnetic flux and introduces instead isorotation and axial current conservation along field lines. Our results are therefore markedly different depending on whether an axial magnetic field is present, and they generalize in two simple expressions all previously known, partial stability criteria for the appearance of magnetorotational instability. Furthermore, the coupling between magnetic tension and buoyancy and its influence to the dynamics of nonhomoentropic magnetized flows become quite clear from our results. In the limits of plane-parallel atmospheres and homoentropic flows, our formulation easily recovers the stability criteria for suppression of convective and Parker instabilities, as well as some related special cases studied over 40 years ago by Newcomb and Tserkovnikov via laborious variational techniques.
Global Hall-MHD simulations of magnetorotational instability in a plasma Couette flow experiment
Ebrahimi, F.; Lefebvre, B.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forest, C. B.
2011-06-15
Global MHD and Hall-MHD numerical simulations relevant to the Madison plasma Couette flow experiment (MPCX) have been performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD. The MPCX has been constructed to study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a plasma. The two-fluid Hall effect, which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks, is also expected to be important in the MPCX. Here, we first derive the local Hall dispersion relation including viscosity, extending earlier work by Balbus and Terquem [Astrophys. J. 552, 235 (2001)]. The predictions of the local analysis are then compared with nonlocal calculations of linear stability of the MRI for a parameter range relevant to the MPCX. It is found that the MHD stability limit and mode structure are altered by the Hall term, and nonlocal analysis is necessary to obtain quantitatively reliable predictions for MPCX. Two-fluid physics also significantly changes the nonlinear evolution and saturation of the axisymmetric MRI. Both the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses contribute significantly to momentum transport. In the Hall regime, when the magnetic field is parallel to the rotation axis, the Maxwell stress is larger than the Reynolds stress (similar to the MHD regime). However, when the magnetic field is antiparallel to the rotation axis in the Hall regime, the Reynolds stress is much larger than the Maxwell stress. To further study the role of non-axisymmetric modes, we have also carried out fully nonlinear MHD computations. Non-axisymmetric modes play an increasingly important role as the magnetic Reynolds number increases and grow to large amplitudes in a saturated turbulent state.
Channel Flow of Wormlike Micellar Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cromer, Michael; Cook, Pam; McKinley, Gareth
2009-11-01
We examine the inhomogeneous response of the VCM model (Vasquez, Cook, McKinley 2006) in steady pressure-driven channel flow. The VCM model, a microstructural network model, was developed to describe concentrated solutions of wormlike micelles. The model comprises of a set of coupled partial differential equations, which incorporate breakage and reforming of two micellar species (a long species `A' and a shorter species `B') in addition to reptative and Rousian stress-relaxation mechanisms. We examine pressure-driven flow in microfluidic devices with rectangular cross-sections as well as with hyperbolic converging/diverging walls. The velocity profile predicted by the VCM model in Poiseuille flow deviates from the parabolic profile expected for a constant viscosity fluid and exhibits strong shear bands near channel walls. This shear-banding is analogous to that seen in circular Taylor-Couette flow and in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations in microfluidic channels. The hyperbolic planar contraction is of special interest due to the dominant contribution of extensional flow along the centerline and the proposed use of such flows as microfluidic extensional rheometers. The model predictions are compared with birefringence measurements of the evolution in the local microstructural orientation of CTAB and CPyCl-based micellar solutions.
Hydrodynamic slip in silicon nanochannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.
2016-03-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of water flowing through silicon nanochannels. The water-silicon interaction potential was calibrated by means of size-independent molecular dynamics simulations of silicon wettability. The wettability of silicon was found to be dependent on the strength of the water-silicon interaction and the structure of the underlying surface. As a result, the anisotropy was found to be an important factor in the wettability of these types of crystalline solids. Using this premise as a fundamental starting point, the hydrodynamic slip in nanoconfined water was characterized using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium calculations of the slip length under low shear rate operating conditions. As was the case for the wettability analysis, the hydrodynamic slip was found to be dependent on the wetted solid surface atomic structure. Additionally, the interfacial water liquid structure was the most significant parameter to describe the hydrodynamic boundary condition. The calibration of the water-silicon interaction potential performed by matching the experimental contact angle of silicon led to the verification of the no-slip condition, experimentally reported for silicon nanochannels at low shear rates.
Topics in fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics
Milner, S.T.
1986-01-01
Models of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics have enjoyed much success in explaining the effect of long-wavelength fluctuations in diverse hydrodynamic systems. This thesis explores two such problems; in both, the body of hydrodynamic assumptions powerfully constrains the predictions of a well-posed theory. The effects of layer fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals are first examined. The static theory (introduced by Grinstein and Pelcovits) is reviewed. Ward identities, resulting from the arbitrariness of the layering direction, are derived and exploited. The static results motivate an examination of dynamic fluctuation effects. A new sound-damping experiment is proposed that would probe singular dependence of viscosities on applied stress. A theory of Procaccia and Gitterman that reaction rates of chemically reacting binary mixtures are drastically reduced near their thermodynamic critical points is analyzed. Hydrodynamic arguments and Van Hove theory are applied, concluding that the PG idea is drastically slowed, and spatially varying composition fluctuations are at best slowed down over a narrow range of wavenumbers.
Atomistic Hydrodynamics and the Dynamical Hydrophobic Effect in Porous Graphene.
Strong, Steven E; Eaves, Joel D
2016-05-19
Mirroring their role in electrical and optical physics, two-dimensional crystals are emerging as novel platforms for fluid separations and water desalination, which are hydrodynamic processes that occur in nanoscale environments. For numerical simulation to play a predictive and descriptive role, one must have theoretically sound methods that span orders of magnitude in physical scales, from the atomistic motions of particles inside the channels to the large-scale hydrodynamic gradients that drive transport. Here, we use constraint dynamics to derive a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method for simulating steady-state mass flow of a fluid moving through the nanoscopic spaces of a porous solid. After validating our method on a model system, we use it to study the hydrophobic effect of water moving through pores of electrically doped single-layer graphene. The trend in permeability that we calculate does not follow the hydrophobicity of the membrane but is instead governed by a crossover between two competing molecular transport mechanisms.
3D hydrodynamic focusing microfluidics for emerging sensing technologies.
Daniele, Michael A; Boyd, Darryl A; Mott, David R; Ligler, Frances S
2015-05-15
While the physics behind laminar flows has been studied for 200 years, understanding of how to use parallel flows to augment the capabilities of microfluidic systems has been a subject of study primarily over the last decade. The use of one flow to focus another within a microfluidic channel has graduated from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional process and the design principles are only now becoming established. This review explores the underlying principles for hydrodynamic focusing in three dimensions (3D) using miscible fluids and the application of these principles for creation of biosensors, separation of cells and particles for sample manipulation, and fabrication of materials that could be used for biosensors. Where sufficient information is available, the practicality of devices implementing fluid flows directed in 3D is evaluated and the advantages and limitations of 3D hydrodynamic focusing for the particular application are highlighted.
Mode bifurcation control of a magnetic fluid on Taylor-Couette vortex flow with small aspect ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, D.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.; Takeda, Y.
2005-01-01
The study of Taylor-Couette vortex flow with small aspect ratio is great interesting. Additionally, the importance of magnetic fluids has been increasing in the engineering applications of various fields, and this leads to increase the interests to investigate the flow of magnetic fluids, which have the reactivity to magnetic field. Then Taylor-Couette vortex flow with magnetic fluids is expected to control the flow pattern and the mode bifurcation by using magnetic field. Recently, the velocity information of various flow fields is available by using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP). Hence, the method for investigating the flow fields in the magnetic fluids has also been available. In this study, the flow structure of a magnetic fluid in a concentric annular geometry with an aspect ratio of 3 and a radius ratio of 0.6 was investigated for an inner cylinder rotation. Axial velocity distributions of the flow field were measured using the UVP measuring technique. In the UVP measurement, an ultrasonic with basic frequency of 8 MHz and beam diameter of 3 mm was used. A non-uniform magnetic field was applied to the flow field using a permanent magnet located on the outside of the vessel, and the transitions of flow field with a magnet were investigated by using UVP.
Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George
2015-11-01
We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH - SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results base. US DOE Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4).
Hydrodynamic outcomes of planet scattering in transitional discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moeckel, Nickolas; Armitage, Philip J.
2012-01-01
A significant fraction of unstable multiple planet systems are likely to scatter during the transitional disc phase as gas damping becomes ineffectual. Using a large ensemble of FARGO hydrodynamic simulations and MERCURY N-body integrations, we directly follow the dynamics of planet-disc and planet-planet interactions through the clearing phase and through 50 Myr of planetary system evolution. Disc clearing is assumed to occur as a result of X-ray-driven photoevaporation. We find that the hydrodynamic evolution of individual scattering systems is complex, and can involve phases in which massive planets orbit within eccentric gaps, or accrete directly from the disc without a gap. Comparing the results to a reference gas-free model, we find that the N-body dynamics and hydrodynamics of scattering into one- and two-planet final states are almost identical. The eccentricity distributions in these channels are almost unaltered by the presence of gas. The hydrodynamic simulations, however, also form a population of low-eccentricity three-planet systems in long-term stable configurations, which are not found in N-body runs. The admixture of these systems results in modestly lower eccentricities in hydrodynamic as opposed to gas-free simulations. The precise incidence of these three-planet systems is likely a function of the initial conditions; different planet set-ups (number or spacing) may change the quantitative character of this result. We analyse the properties of surviving multiple planet systems, and show that only a small fraction (a few per cent) enter mean motion resonances after scattering, while a larger fraction form stable resonant chains and avoid scattering entirely. Our results remain consistent with the hypothesis that exoplanet eccentricity results from scattering, though the detailed agreement between observations and gas-free simulation results is likely coincidental. We discuss the prospects for further tests of scattering models by observing planets
Anomalous hydrodynamics of fractional quantum Hall states
Wiegmann, P.
2013-09-15
We propose a comprehensive framework for quantum hydrodynamics of the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. We suggest that the electronic fluid in the FQH regime can be phenomenologically described by the quantized hydrodynamics of vortices in an incompressible rotating liquid. We demonstrate that such hydrodynamics captures all major features of FQH states, including the subtle effect of the Lorentz shear stress. We present a consistent quantization of the hydrodynamics of an incompressible fluid, providing a powerful framework to study the FQH effect and superfluids. We obtain the quantum hydrodynamics of the vortex flow by quantizing the Kirchhoff equations for vortex dynamics.
Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murante, G.; Borgani, S.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.
2011-10-01
We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka, in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b) the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear-flow test and the 'blob' test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha, Inutsuka & Nayakshin: (i) GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), thus avoiding the appearance of spurious pressure forces; (ii) GSPH is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones; (iii) as a result, GSPH describes the development of curl structures in the shear-flow test and the dissolution of the cold cloud in the 'blob' test. Besides comparing the results of GSPH with those from standard SPH implementations, we also discuss in detail the effect on the performances of GSPH of changing different aspects of its implementation: choice of the number of neighbours, accuracy of the interpolation procedure to locate the interface between two fluid elements (particles) for the solution of the Riemann problem, order of the reconstruction for the assignment of variables at the interface, choice of the limiter to prevent oscillations of
Hydrodynamic interactions in colloidal systems confined to linear geometries with a singular corner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Binhua; Zarcone, Ryan; Rice, Stuart A.
Here we investigate the question of whether or not the requirement that particles diffuse around a corner affects their hydrodynamic coupling. We report the results of studies of the collective diffusion coefficients of particles in quasi-one-dimensional linear channels of widths 3 and 5um, each with a singular central corner of angle: 60-, 90-, 120-, and 180-degrees. We find that for large angles, the channels are so close in their geometry to 180-degrees that the corner has very little to no effect on the hydrodynamic coupling of particles on opposite sides of the apex. For small angles, the corner's effect is to increase the particle separation at which the maximum hydrodynamic coupling occurs. U Chicago MRSEC (NSF-DMR-1420709), Dreyfus Foundation (Agency Award #: SI-14-014).
Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions
Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2015-01-01
We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2
Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics
Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2007-07-03
This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.
Hydrodynamic Forces on Macromolecules Protruding from Lipid Bilayers Due to External Liquid Flows.
Jönsson, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt
2015-11-24
It has previously been observed that an externally applied hydrodynamic shear flow above a fluid lipid bilayer can change the local concentration of macromolecules that are associated with the lipid bilayer. The external liquid flow results in a hydrodynamic force on molecules protruding from the lipid bilayer, causing them to move in the direction of the flow. However, there has been no quantitative study about the magnitude of these forces. We here use finite element simulations to investigate how the magnitude of the external hydrodynamic forces varies with the size and shape of the studied macromolecule. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the effective hydrodynamic area of the studied molecule, Ahydro, multiplied by the mean hydrodynamic shear stress acting on the membrane surface, σhydro. The parameter Ahydro depends on the size and shape of the studied macromolecule above the lipid bilayer and scales with the cross-sectional area of the molecule. We also investigate how hydrodynamic shielding from other surrounding macromolecules decreases Ahydro when the surface coverage of the shielding macromolecules increases. Experiments where the protein streptavidin is anchored to a supported lipid bilayer on the floor of a microfluidic channel were finally performed at three different surface concentrations, Φ = 1%, 6%, and 10%, where the protein is being moved relative to the lipid bilayer by a liquid flow through the channel. From photobleaching measurements of fluorescently labeled streptavidin we found the experimental drift data to be within good accuracy of the simulated results, less than 12% difference, indicating the validity of the results obtained from the simulations. In addition to giving a deeper insight into how a liquid flow can affect membrane-associated molecules in a lipid bilayer, we also see an interesting potential of using hydrodynamic flow experiments together with the obtained results to study the size and
Direct numerical simulation of Taylor-Couette flow subjected to a radial temperature gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Hao; Liu, Nansheng; Lu, Xiyun; Khomami, Bamin
2015-12-01
Direct numerical simulations have been performed to study the Taylor-Couette (TC) flow between two rotating, coaxial cylinders in the presence of a radial temperature gradient. Specifically, the influence of the buoyant force and the outer cylinder rotation on the turbulent TC flow system with the radius ratio η = 0.912 was examined. For the co-rotating TC flows with Rei (inner cylinder) =1000 and Reo (outer cylinder) =100, a transition pathway to highly turbulent flows is realized by increasing σ, a parameter signifying the ratio of buoyant to inertial force. This nonlinear flow transition involves four intriguing states that emerge in sequence as chaotic wavy vortex flow for σ = 0, wavy interpenetrating spiral flows for σ = 0.02 and 0.05, intermittent turbulent spirals for σ = 0.1 and 0.2, and turbulent spirals for σ = 0.4. Overall, the fluid motion changes from a centrifugally driven flow regime characterized by large-scale wavy Taylor vortices (TVs) to a buoyancy-dominated flow regime characterized by small-scale turbulent vortices. Commensurate changes in turbulence statistics and heat transfer are seen as a result of the weakening of large-scale TV circulations and enhancement of turbulent motions. Additionally, the influence of variation of the outer cylinder rotation, -500 < Reo < 500 in presence of buoyancy (σ = 0.1) with Rei = 1000, has been considered. Specifically, it is demonstrated that this variation strongly influences the azimuthal and axial mean flows with a weaker influence on the fluctuating fluid motions. Of special interest, here are the turbulent dynamics near the outer wall where a marked decrease of turbulence intensity and a sign inversion of the Reynolds stress Rrz are observed for the strongly counter-rotating regimes (Reo = - 300 and -500). To this end, it has been shown that the underlying flow physics for this drastic modification are associated with the modification of the correlation between the radial and axial fluctuating
Direct numerical simulation of Taylor-Couette flow subjected to a radial temperature gradient
Teng, Hao; Liu, Nansheng Lu, Xiyun; Khomami, Bamin
2015-12-15
Direct numerical simulations have been performed to study the Taylor-Couette (TC) flow between two rotating, coaxial cylinders in the presence of a radial temperature gradient. Specifically, the influence of the buoyant force and the outer cylinder rotation on the turbulent TC flow system with the radius ratio η = 0.912 was examined. For the co-rotating TC flows with Re{sub i} (inner cylinder) =1000 and Re{sub o} (outer cylinder) =100, a transition pathway to highly turbulent flows is realized by increasing σ, a parameter signifying the ratio of buoyant to inertial force. This nonlinear flow transition involves four intriguing states that emerge in sequence as chaotic wavy vortex flow for σ = 0, wavy interpenetrating spiral flows for σ = 0.02 and 0.05, intermittent turbulent spirals for σ = 0.1 and 0.2, and turbulent spirals for σ = 0.4. Overall, the fluid motion changes from a centrifugally driven flow regime characterized by large-scale wavy Taylor vortices (TVs) to a buoyancy-dominated flow regime characterized by small-scale turbulent vortices. Commensurate changes in turbulence statistics and heat transfer are seen as a result of the weakening of large-scale TV circulations and enhancement of turbulent motions. Additionally, the influence of variation of the outer cylinder rotation, −500 < Re{sub o} < 500 in presence of buoyancy (σ = 0.1) with Re{sub i} = 1000, has been considered. Specifically, it is demonstrated that this variation strongly influences the azimuthal and axial mean flows with a weaker influence on the fluctuating fluid motions. Of special interest, here are the turbulent dynamics near the outer wall where a marked decrease of turbulence intensity and a sign inversion of the Reynolds stress R{sub rz} are observed for the strongly counter-rotating regimes (Re{sub o} = − 300 and −500). To this end, it has been shown that the underlying flow physics for this drastic modification are associated with the modification of the correlation
Particle hydrodynamics with tessellation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heß, Steffen; Springel, Volker
2010-08-01
Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a well-established approach to model fluids in astrophysical problems, thanks to its geometric flexibility and ability to automatically adjust the spatial resolution to the clumping of matter. However, a number of recent studies have emphasized inaccuracies of SPH in the treatment of fluid instabilities. The origin of these numerical problems can be traced back to spurious surface effects across contact discontinuities, and to SPH's inherent prevention of mixing at the particle level. We here investigate a new fluid particle model where the density estimate is carried out with the help of an auxiliary mesh constructed as the Voronoi tessellation of the simulation particles instead of an adaptive smoothing kernel. This Voronoi-based approach improves the ability of the scheme to represent sharp contact discontinuities. We show that this eliminates spurious surface tension effects present in SPH and that play a role in suppressing certain fluid instabilities. We find that the new `Voronoi Particle Hydrodynamics' (VPH) described here produces comparable results to SPH in shocks, and better ones in turbulent regimes of pure hydrodynamical simulations. We also discuss formulations of the artificial viscosity needed in this scheme and how judiciously chosen correction forces can be derived in order to maintain a high degree of particle order and hence a regular Voronoi mesh. This is especially helpful in simulating self-gravitating fluids with existing gravity solvers used for N-body simulations.
The Gulf of Lions' hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millot, Claude
1990-09-01
From an hydrodynamical point of view, the Gulf of Lions can be considered as a very complex region, because several intense and highly variable phenomena compete simultaneously. These processes include the powerful general circulation along the continental slope, the formation of dense water both on the shelf and offshore, a seasonal variation of stratification and the extreme energies associated with meteorological conditions. The cloudless atmospheric conditions encountered generally in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea have enabled us to make use of, over more than 10 years, large use of various satellite imageries. The large space and time variability of the hydrodynamical features, a complex topography and a noticeable fishing activity, represent certain difficulties to the collection of observations in situ. We have obtained, therefore, only a few current time series on the slope; those obtained on the shelf only cover the summer period. Models have been elaborated to help us understand the reasons for the general circulation. Observational programmes to be carried out in the forthcoming years will probably provide us with more definitive results on the Gulf of Lions' hydrodynamics.
Sound radiation in turbulent channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhiwei; Morfey, Christopher L.; Sandham, Neil D.
2003-01-01
Lighthill’s acoustic analogy is formulated for turbulent channel flow with pressure as the acoustic variable, and integrated over the channel width to produce a two-dimensional inhomogeneous wave equation. The equivalent sources consist of a dipole distribution related to the sum of the viscous shear stresses on the two walls, together with monopole and quadrupole distributions related to the unsteady turbulent dissipation and Reynolds stresses respectively. Using a rigid-boundary Green function, an expression is found for the power spectrum of the far-field pressure radiated per unit channel area. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent plane Poiseuille and Couette flow have been performed in large computational domains in order to obtain good resolution of the low-wavenumber source behaviour. Analysis of the DNS databases for all sound radiation sources shows that their wavenumber frequency spectra have non-zero limits at low wavenumber. The sound power per unit channel area radiated by the dipole distribution is proportional to Mach number squared, while the monopole and quadrupole contributions are proportional to the fourth power of Mach number. Below a particular Mach number determined by the frequency and radiation direction, the dipole radiation due to the wall shear stress dominates the far field. The quadrupole takes over at Mach numbers above about 0.1, while the monopole is always the smallest term. The resultant acoustic field at any point in the channel consists of a statistically diffuse assembly of plane waves, with spectrum limited by damping to a value that is independent of Mach number in the low-M limit.
Potential hydrodynamic effects on structures by the boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouazar, D.; Benmansour, N.
Problems based on a potential or streamfunction formulation of the BEM for the studying of hydrodynamic forces are addressed, with particular attention given to fluid applications of the constant conventional BEM (CBEM) and the regular BEM (RBEM). Comparison of the two methods for three numerical examples (the flow past a circular obstacle in an infinite medium, the flow past a circular obstacle in a channel, and the flow past a symmetric NACA 0018 airfoil) demonstrates the superiority of the RBEM over the CBEM in both accuracy and computational cost. It is noted that the optimal location of the singular points outside the domain remains unsolved on a rational basis.
Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates.
Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele; Bohr, Tomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Bruus, Henrik
2012-01-01
Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.
Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding
McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A.
1997-12-31
Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.
Multi-dimensional computer simulation of MHD combustor hydrodynamics
Berry, G.F.; Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Rimkus, W.A.
1991-04-04
Argonne National Laboratory is investigating the nonreacting jet-gas mixing patterns in an MHD second stage combustor by using a two-dimensional multi-phase hydrodynamics computer program and a three-dimensional single-phase hydrodynamics computer program. The computer simulations are intended to enhance the understanding of flow and mixing patterns in the combustor, which in turn may lead to improvement of the downstream MHD channel performance. A two-dimensional steady state computer model, based on mass and momentum conservation laws for multiple gas species, is used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the combustor in which a jet of oxidizer is injected into an unconfined cross-stream gas flow. A three-dimensional code is used to examine the effects of the side walls and the distributed jet flows on the non-reacting jet-gas mixing patterns. The code solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, and a transport equation of a turbulence parameter and allows permeable surfaces to be specified for any computational cell. 17 refs., 25 figs.
Moser, K W; Raguin, L G; Georgiadis, J G
2001-07-01
The quantitative visualization of flow in a wide-gap annulus (radius ratio 0.5) between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and a superimposed axial flow reveals a novel mixed-mode state at relatively high flow rates. A fast magnetic resonance imaging sequence allows the cinematographic dissection and three-dimensional reconstruction of supercritical nonaxisymmetric modes in a regime where stationary helical and propagating toroidal vortices coexist. The findings shed light on symmetry-breaking instabilities, flow pattern selection, and their consequences for hydrodynamic mixing in a complex laminar flow that constitutes a celebrated prototype of many mixing or fractionation processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Kevin W.; Raguin, L. Guy; Georgiadis, John G.
2001-07-01
The quantitative visualization of flow in a wide-gap annulus (radius ratio 0.5) between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and a superimposed axial flow reveals a novel mixed-mode state at relatively high flow rates. A fast magnetic resonance imaging sequence allows the cinematographic dissection and three-dimensional reconstruction of supercritical nonaxisymmetric modes in a regime where stationary helical and propagating toroidal vortices coexist. The findings shed light on symmetry-breaking instabilities, flow pattern selection, and their consequences for hydrodynamic mixing in a complex laminar flow that constitutes a celebrated prototype of many mixing or fractionation processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Hiroaki; Aoki, Kazuo
2005-05-01
The Taylor-Couette problem for a rarefied gas is studied numerically by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The gas is supposed to be contained in an annular domain, bounded by two coaxial rotating cylinders and top and bottom (specularly reflecting) boundaries, and the flow is assumed to be steady and axisymmetric. Special attention is focused on the effect of rotation of the outer cylinder on the type of the induced Taylor-vortex flow. It is shown that different types of flow can coexist stably in a wide range of speeds of rotation of the inner and outer cylinders unless the outer cylinder is rotating fast in the opposite direction to the inner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halmstad, Andrew; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard
2006-11-01
Previously, we have observed a period-doubling cascade to chaos in Modified Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry. Such behavior had been predicted by The Reaction-Diffusion model simulations. The chaotic formation of Taylor-Vortex pair formation was restricted to a very narrow band about the waist of the hourglass. It was suggested that with increasing lengths of systems, the chaotic region would expand. We present a battery of simulations to determine the variation of the size of the chaotic region with length, seeking the transition to spatio- temporal chaos. Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997). H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, H.; Yasui, S.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.
2009-02-01
This study focuses on the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow (TVF) in a photo-bioreactor in which CO2 is changed to O2 with high efficiency by the photosynthesis ability of micro algae. Stirring by means of a screw propeller is generally used for a simple agitation. However, the problem is that there exists a very high shearing flow region just near the propeller, which causes the destruction of the alga cell by the shearing force. In contrast, the TVF mixing is expected to reduce such a local and random shearing force because of their column of steady and orderly vortices. In this study, the relationship between the microorganism growth rate and the flow structures in dilute suspensions of a TVF is investigated and the flow characteristics are measured by using an ultrasonic velocity profiler with a small aspect ratio of 3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamonov, V. N.; Nazarov, A. D.; Serov, A. F.; Terekhov, V. I.
2016-01-01
The effect of parameters of the multi-ring Couette system with counter rotating coaxial cylinders on the process of thermal energy release in a viscous liquid filling this system is considered with regard to the problem of determining the possibility of creating the high-performance wind heat generator. The multi-cylinder rotor design allows directly conversion of the mechanical power of a device consisting of two "rotor" wind turbines with a common axis normal to the air flow into the thermal energy in a wide range of rotational speed of the cylinders. Experimental results on the measurement of thermal power released in the pilot heat generator at different relative angular speeds of cylinder rotation are presented.
Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications
R. Paul Drake
2005-12-01
We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.
Forced wetting and hydrodynamic assist
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, Terence D.; Fernandez-Toledano, Juan-Carlos; Doyen, Guillaume; De Coninck, Joël
2015-11-01
Wetting is a prerequisite for coating a uniform layer of liquid onto a solid. Wetting failure and air entrainment set the ultimate limit to coating speed. It is well known in the coating art that this limit can be postponed by manipulating the coating flow to generate what has been termed "hydrodynamic assist," but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Experiments have shown that the conditions that postpone air entrainment also reduce the apparent dynamic contact angle, suggesting a direct link, but how the flow might affect the contact angle remains to be established. Here, we use molecular dynamics to compare the outcome of steady forced wetting with previous results for the spontaneous spreading of liquid drops and apply the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting to rationalize our findings and place them on a quantitative footing. The forced wetting simulations reveal significant slip at the solid-liquid interface and details of the flow immediately adjacent to the moving contact line. Our results confirm that the local, microscopic contact angle is dependent not simply only on the velocity of wetting but also on the nature of the flow that drives it. In particular, they support an earlier suggestion that during forced wetting, an intense shear stress in the vicinity of the contact line can assist surface tension forces in promoting dynamic wetting, thus reducing the velocity-dependence of the contact angle. Hydrodynamic assist then appears as a natural consequence of wetting that emerges when the contact line is driven by a strong and highly confined flow. Our theoretical approach also provides a self-consistent model of molecular slip at the solid-liquid interface that enables its magnitude to be estimated from dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the model predicts how hydrodynamic assist and slip may be influenced by liquid viscosity and solid-liquid interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faranda, D.; Lucarini, V.; Manneville, P.
2012-04-01
Critical transitions are observed in many natural phenomena and it is a scientific challenge to find out whether there are suitable observables to get early warnings of them. Among all the relevant physical problems that exhibit critical transitions, the breakdown of the turbulence in a plane Couette Flow is of great interest as varying the Reynolds number (Re) we observe three different dynamic regimes: if for higher Reynolds number the flow is completely turbulent, when 325< Re<410 plane Couette forms alternately turbulent and laminar oblique bands out of featureless turbulence. Eventually, when Re<325 turbulence is suppressed and a laminar behaviour prevails. We focus on the transition between the intermediate bands regime and the laminar behaviour trying to analyse the fluctuations of the so called perturbation energy. In particular we find that studying extreme fluctuations of the perturbation energy transient through the classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) helps in understanding the mechanism of the suppression of turbulence: when the Reynolds number is decreased below Re=300, minima fluctuations amplitude increases considerably whereas maxima fluctuations remain about the same. This is compatible with the idea that the system is eventually going to suppress turbulence increasing the probability to observe very low values of turbulent perturbation energy. Although EVT was originally derived in the setting of stochastic variables, the application to fluid dynamics has been made possible by recent progresses on EVT in more general dynamical systems. We believe that testing EVT in an intermediate complexity fluid model could help in understanding what are the real possibilities in applying it to geophysical systems that represent complex real phenomena. Moreover, in the last years a lot of research effort has been directed towards understanding the role of early indicators of critical transitions both as diagnostic or prognostic tool: linking the behaviour of a
Wang, Ping; Song, Chaoming; Briscoe, Christopher; Makse, Hernán A
2008-06-01
We report experimental measurements of particle dynamics on slowly sheared granular matter in a three-dimensional Couette cell. A closely packed ensemble of transparent spherical beads is confined by an external pressure and filled with fluid to match both the density and refractive index of the beads. This allows us to track tracer particles embedded in the system and obtain three-dimensional trajectories [r(t),theta(t),z(t)] as a function of time. We study the probability distribution function of the vertical and radial displacements, finding Gaussian and exponential distributions, respectively. For slow shear rates, the mean-square fluctuations in all three directions are found to be dependent only on the angular displacement of the Couette cell, Delta theta e, (Delta z 2) approximately Delta theta e, (Delta r2) approximately Delta theta e alpha, Delta theta 2 approximately Delta theta e beta, where alpha and beta are constants. With Delta theta e proportional to the time between measurements, the values of the constants, alpha and beta , are found to be subdiffusive and superdiffusive, respectively. ThFe linear relation between (Delta z 2) and angular displacement implies a diffusive process, from which we can calculate an "effective temperature," T eff, in the vertical direction, through a fluctuation-dissipation relation. It is of interest to determine whether these systems can be described by analogous equilibrium statistical mechanics concepts such as "effective temperature" and "compactivity." By studying the dynamics of tracer particles, we find the effective temperature defined by the Stokes-Einstein relation to be independent of the tracer particle characteristic features, such as density and size, and dependent only on the packing density of the system. For slow shear rate, both the diffusivity and mobility of tracer particles are proportional to the shear rate, giving rise to a constant effective temperature, characteristic of the jammed system. We
Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics
Waltz, Jacob I.
2012-09-06
We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.
Hydrodynamic Synchronisation of Model Microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putz, V. B.; Yeomans, J. M.
2009-12-01
We define a model microswimmer with a variable cycle time, thus allowing the possibility of phase locking driven by hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers. We find that, for extensile or contractile swimmers, phase locking does occur, with the relative phase of the two swimmers being, in general, close to 0 or π, depending on their relative position and orientation. We show that, as expected on grounds of symmetry, self T-dual swimmers, which are time-reversal covariant, do not phase-lock. We also discuss the phase behaviour of a line of tethered swimmers, or pumps. These show oscillations in their relative phases reminiscent of the metachronal waves of cilia.
Ergoregion instability: The hydrodynamic vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Leandro A.; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luís C. B.
2014-06-01
Four-dimensional, asymptotically flat spacetimes with an ergoregion but no horizon have been shown to be linearly unstable against a superradiant-triggered mechanism. This result has wide implications in the search for astrophysically viable alternatives to black holes, but also in the understanding of black holes and Hawking evaporation. Here we investigate this instability in detail for a particular setup that can be realized in the laboratory: the hydrodynamic vortex, an effective geometry for sound waves, with ergoregion and without an event horizon.
Hydrodynamic instability modeling for ICF
Haan, S.W.
1993-03-31
The intent of this paper is to review how instability growth is modeled in ICF targets, and to identify the principal issues. Most of the material has been published previously, but is not familiar to a wide audience. Hydrodynamic instabilities are a key issue in ICF. Along with laser-plasma instabilities, they determine the regime in which ignition is possible. At higher laser energies, the same issues determine the achievable gain. Quantitative predictions are therefore of the utmost importance to planning the ICF program, as well as to understanding current Nova results. The key fact that underlies all this work is the stabilization of short wavelengths.
Effective actions for anomalous hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund
2014-03-01
We argue that an effective field theory of local fluid elements captures the constraints on hydrodynamic transport stemming from the presence of quantum anomalies in the underlying microscopic theory. Focussing on global current anomalies for an arbitrary flavour group, we derive the anomalous constitutive relations in arbitrary even dimensions. We demonstrate that our results agree with the constraints on anomaly governed transport derived hitherto using a local version of the second law of thermodynamics. The construction crucially uses the anomaly inflow mechanism and involves a novel thermofield double construction. In particular, we show that the anomalous Ward identities necessitate non-trivial interaction between the two parts of the Schwinger-Keldysh contour.
Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.
2006-03-01
This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.
Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics
Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.
1998-07-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to
Hydrodynamical models of young SNRs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosenko, D. I.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Sorokina, E. I.
X-ray observations of the Tycho supernova (SN) remnant by XMM-Newton telescope present radial profiles of the remnant in emission lines from silicon and iron \\citep{decour}. To reproduce observed spectrum and X-ray profiles hydrodynamical modelling of the remnant was performed by \\citet{elka}. Standard computational SN models cannot reproduce observed spacial behavoir of the X-ray profiles of the remnant in the emission lines. We perform analysis of these numerical models and find conditions under which it is possible to reproduce observed profiles.
Multiplex Particle Focusing via Hydrodynamic Force in Viscoelastic Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Doo Jin; Brenner, Howard; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok
2013-11-01
We introduce a multiplex particle focusing phenomenon that arises from the hydrodynamic interaction between the viscoelastic force and the Dean drag force in a microfluidic device. In a confined microchannel, the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic fluids results in a lateral migration of suspended particles. Such a viscoelastic force was harnessed to focus different sized particles in the middle of a microchannel, and spiral channel geometry was also considered in order to take advantage of the counteracting force, Dean drag force that induces particle migration in the outward direction. For theoretical understanding, we performed a numerical analysis of viscoelastic fluids in the spiral microfluidic channel. From these results, a concept of the `Dean-coupled Elasto-inertial Focusing band (DEF)' was proposed. This study provides in-depth physical insight into the multiplex focusing of particles that can open a new venue for microfluidic particle dynamics for a concrete high throughput platform at microscale.
Curvilinear grids for sinuous river channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatom, F. B.; Waldrop, W. R.; Smith, S. R.
1980-01-01
In order to effectively analyze the flow in sinuous river channels, a curvilinear grid system was developed for use in the appropriate hydrodynamic code. The CENTERLINE program was designed to generate a two dimensional grid for this purpose. The Cartesian coordinates of a series of points along the boundaries of the sinuous channel represent the primary input to CENTERLINE. The program calculates the location of the river centerline, the distance downstream along the centerline, and both radius of curvature and channel width as a function of such distance downstream. These parameters form the basis for the generation of the curvilinear grid. Based on input values for longitudinal and lateral grid spacing, the corresponding grid system is generated and a file is created containing the appropriate parameters for use in the associated explicit finite difference hydrodynamic programs. Because of the option for a nonuniform grid, grid spacing can be concentrated in areas containing the largest flow gradients.
Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.
1994-01-01
The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.
Thermal transport in a noncommutative hydrodynamics
Geracie, M. Son, D. T.
2015-03-15
We find the hydrodynamic equations of a system of particles constrained to be in the lowest Landau level. We interpret the hydrodynamic theory as a Hamiltonian system with the Poisson brackets between the hydrodynamic variables determined from the noncommutativity of space. We argue that the most general hydrodynamic theory can be obtained from this Hamiltonian system by allowing the Righi-Leduc coefficient to be an arbitrary function of thermodynamic variables. We compute the Righi-Leduc coefficient at high temperatures and show that it satisfies the requirements of particle-hole symmetry, which we outline.
Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.
Rothmayer, A P
2014-07-28
Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large.
Experimental studies toward the characterization of Inmetro's circulating water channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. M.; Alho, A. T. P.; Garcia, D. A.; Farias, M. H.; Massari, P. L.; Silva, V. V. S.
2016-07-01
Circulating water channels are facilities which can be used for conducting environmental, metrological and engineering studies. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology-INMETRO has a water channel of innovative design, and the present work deals with the prior experimental investigation of its hydrodynamics performance. By using the optical technique PIV - Particle Image Velocimetry, under certain conditions, the velocity profile behavior in a region inside the channel was analyzed in order to evaluate the scope of applicability of such bench.
Retrieval of vegetation hydrodynamic parameters from satellite multispectral data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forzieri, Giovanni; Degetto, Massimo; Righetti, Maurizio; Castelli, Fabio; Preti, Federico
2013-04-01
Riparian vegetation plays a crucial role on affecting the floodplain hydraulic roughness, which in turn significantly influences the dynamics of flood waves. This work explores the potential accuracies of retrieving vegetation hydrodynamic parameters through satellite multispectral data. The method is focused on estimation of vegetation height and flexural rigidity for herbaceous patterns and of plant density, tree height, stem diameter, crown base height and crown diameter of high-forest and coppice consociations for arboreal and shrub patterns. The retrieval algorithm performs: (1) classification procedure of riparian corridor; (2) land cover-based Principal Component Analysis of spectral channels; (3) explorative analysis of correlation structure between principal components and biomechanical properties and (4) model identification/estimation/validation for floodplain roughness parameterization. To capture the impacts of stiff/flexible vegetation, a GIS hydrodynamic model has been coupled with a flow resistance external routine that estimates the hydraulic roughness by using simulated water stages and the remote sensing-derived vegetation parameters. The procedure is tested along a 3-km reach of the Avisio river (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy) by comparing extended field surveys and a synchronous SPOT-5 multispectral image acquired on 28/08/2004. Results showed significant correlation values between spectral-derived information and hydrodynamic parameters. Predictive models provided high coefficients of determination, especially for mixed arboreal and shrub land covers. The generated structural parameter maps represent spatially explicit data layers that can be used as inputs to hydrodynamic models to analyze flow resistance effects in different submergence conditions of vegetation. The hydraulic modelling results showed that the new method is able to provide accurate hydraulic output data and to enhance the roughness estimation up to 73% with respect to a
Active and driven hydrodynamic crystals.
Desreumaux, N; Florent, N; Lauga, E; Bartolo, D
2012-08-01
Motivated by the experimental ability to produce monodisperse particles in microfluidic devices, we study theoretically the hydrodynamic stability of driven and active crystals. We first recall the theoretical tools allowing to quantify the dynamics of elongated particles in a confined fluid. In this regime hydrodynamic interactions between particles arise from a superposition of potential dipolar singularities. We exploit this feature to derive the equations of motion for the particle positions and orientations. After showing that all five planar Bravais lattices are stationary solutions of the equations of motion, we consider separately the case where the particles are passively driven by an external force, and the situation where they are self-propelling. We first demonstrate that phonon modes propagate in driven crystals, which are always marginally stable. The spatial structures of the eigenmodes depend solely on the symmetries of the lattices, and on the orientation of the driving force. For active crystals, the stability of the particle positions and orientations depends not only on the symmetry of the crystals but also on the perturbation wavelengths and on the crystal density. Unlike unconfined fluids, the stability of active crystals is independent of the nature of the propulsion mechanism at the single-particle level. The square and rectangular lattices are found to be linearly unstable at short wavelengths provided the volume fraction of the crystals is high enough. Differently, hexagonal, oblique, and face-centered crystals are always unstable. Our work provides a theoretical basis for future experimental work on flowing microfluidic crystals. PMID:22864543
Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive
Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.
1979-01-01
This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.
The hydrodynamics of lamprey locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leftwich, Megan C.
The lamprey, an anguilliform swimmer, propels itself by undulating most of its body. This type of swimming produces flow patterns that are highly three-dimensional in nature and not very well understood. However, substantial previous work has been done to understand two-dimensional unsteady propulsion, the possible wake structures and thrust performance. Limited studies of three-dimensional propulsors with simple geometries have displayed the importance of the third dimension in designing unsteady swimmers. Some of the results of those studies, primarily the ways in which vorticity is organized in the wake region, are seen in lamprey swimming as well. In the current work, the third dimension is not the only important factor, but complex geometry and body undulations also contribute to the hydrodynamics. Through dye flow visualization, particle induced velocimetry and pressure measurements, the hydrodynamics of anguilliform swimming are studied using a custom built robotic lamprey. These studies all indicate that the undulations of the body are not producing thrust. Instead, it is the tail which acts to propel the animal. This conclusion led to further investigation of the tail, specifically the role of varying tail flexibility on hydrodymnamics. It is found that by making the tail more flexible, one decreases the coherence of the vorticity in the lamprey's wake. Additional flexibility also yields less thrust.
Experimental Study of the Hydrodynamic Resistance of Liquid Droplets in Polycarbonate Microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almutairi, Zeyad; Ren, Carolyn; Johnson, David
2014-03-01
The presence of liquid droplets in a microchannel adds excess hydrodynamic resistance to the flow compared to single phase flow. The hydrodynamic resistance of liquid droplets is a function of fluid properties (viscosity ratios μd/μc, interfacial tension γ), geometrical properties of the droplet and the confining channel (droplet length Ld, microchannel width and height), and flow condition (Ca, Re). This work presents the results of an experimental examination of the transport properties of liquid droplets in a microchannel. Focus was given to the hydrodynamic resistance of droplets with lengths comparable or greater than the channel width (LdWch . Experiments were performed in surface modified polycarbonate microchannels since they will reduce measurement uncertainties associated with channel swelling in soft materials such as PDMS. For the droplets sizes that were examined results confirm the relation between the hydrodynamic resistance of liquid droplets and the Capillary number (Ca). It was also observed that droplet slip (β =ud/uc , avg) is less than 1 in all the experiments performed. Funds for microchannel fabrication from CMC Microsystems, and NSERC - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
Microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing for high-throughput applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng
2015-12-01
Microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing is critical for chip-based bioanalytical systems to increase throughput and sensitivity, especially for microflow cytometers, enabling a sample flow to be confined to the center of a microchannel with a narrow cross-section. Current microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing designs are usually unable to maintain stable focusing in high flow velocity conditions, resulting in a large cross-section or even failed focusing. To overcome this challenge, this paper aims to develop a design that can achieve effective microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing at high velocity with favorable performance. For this purpose, specially designed structures and arc-shaped channels are used. Two focusing regions are modeled and optimized mathematically, and flow behavior is investigated using numerical simulations. The functional relationship between flow rates and the cross-sectional dimensions of the focused sample flow is explored, and a measurement method for testing the dimensions is developed. The design is implemented in glass chips and characterized experimentally. In a rectangular channel with a cross-section of 300 μm × 150 μm the sample flow can be focused down to 5-11 μm horizontally and 10-21 μm vertically at a roughly constant velocity of 4.4 m s-1 when the sample flow rate varies between 10 and 60 μl min-1. Effective focusing is accessible within a wide velocity range from 0.7 to 10 m s-1. The experimental results validate that the focusing design performs better than existing microfluidic designs at high velocities, while its performance is close to that of the designs used in conventional flow cytometers with much less volume and a simpler structure. The focusing design can serve as the basis for microflow cytometers or it can be integrated into various microfluidic systems where complete focusing is needed.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves
2008-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…
Hydrodynamic models of a Cepheid atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karp, A. H.
1975-01-01
Instead of computing a large number of coarsely zoned hydrodynamic models covering the entire atmospheric instability strip, the author computed a single model as well as computer limitations allow. The implicit hydrodynamic code of Kutter and Sparks was modified to include radiative transfer effects in optically thin zones.
Hydrodynamic description for ballistic annihilation systems
Garcia de Soria, Maria Isabel; Trizac, Emmanuel; Maynar, Pablo; Schehr, Gregory; Barrat, Alain
2009-01-21
The problem of the validity of a hydrodynamic description for a system in which there are no collisional invariants is addressed. Hydrodynamic equations have been derived and successfully tested against simulation data for a system where particles annihilate with a probability p, or collide elastically otherwise. The response of the system to a linear perturbation is analyzed as well.
Near-bed turbulence and sediment flux measurements in tidal channels
Wright, S.A.; Whealdon-Haught, D.R.
2012-01-01
Understanding the hydrodynamics and sediment transport dynamics in tidal channels is important for studies of estuary geomorphology, sediment supply to tidal wetlands, aquatic ecology and fish habitat, and dredging and navigation. Hydrodynamic and sediment transport data are essential for calibration and testing of numerical models that may be used to address management questions related to these topics. Herein we report preliminary analyses of near-bed turbulence and sediment flux measurements in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, a large network of tidal channels and wetlands located at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, California, USA (Figure 1). Measurements were made in 6 channels spanning a wide range of size and tidal conditions, from small channels that are primarily fluvial to large channels that are tidally dominated. The results of these measurements are summarized herein and the hydrodynamic and sediment transport characteristics of the channels are compared across this range of size and conditions.
Comparative Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Polymorphism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric
2011-02-01
Most bacteria swim through fluids by rotating helical flagella which can take one of 12 distinct polymorphic shapes, the most common of which is the normal form used during forward swimming runs. To shed light on the prevalence of the normal form in locomotion, we gather all available experimental measurements of the various polymorphic forms and compute their intrinsic hydrodynamic efficiencies. The normal helical form is found to be the most efficient of the 12 polymorphic forms by a significant margin—a conclusion valid for both the peritrichous and polar flagellar families, and robust to a change in the effective flagellum diameter or length. Hence, although energetic costs of locomotion are small for bacteria, fluid mechanical forces may have played a significant role in the evolution of the flagellum.
Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping
Miles, Robin R.
2003-12-09
Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.
Radiation hydrodynamics in solar flares
Fisher, G.H.
1985-10-18
Solar flares are rather violent and extremely complicated phenomena, and it should be made clear at the outset that a physically complete picture describing all aspects of flares does not exist. From the wealth of data which is available, it is apparent that many different types of physical processes are involved during flares: energetic particle acceleration, rapid magnetohydrodynamic motion of complex field structures, magnetic reconnection, violent mass motion along magnetic field lines, and the heating of plasma to tens of millions of degrees, to name a few. The goal of this paper is to explore just one aspect of solar flares, namely, the interaction of hydrodynamics and radiation processes in fluid being rapidly heated along closed magnetic field lines. The models discussed are therefore necessarily restrictive, and will address only a few of the observed or observable phenomena. 46 refs., 6 figs.
Integration of quantum hydrodynamical equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulyanova, Vera G.; Sanin, Andrey L.
2007-04-01
Quantum hydrodynamics equations describing the dynamics of quantum fluid are a subject of this report (QFD).These equations can be used to decide the wide class of problem. But there are the calculated difficulties for the equations, which take place for nonlinear hyperbolic systems. In this connection, It is necessary to impose the additional restrictions which assure the existence and unique of solutions. As test sample, we use the free wave packet and study its behavior at the different initial and boundary conditions. The calculations of wave packet propagation cause in numerical algorithm the division. In numerical algorithm at the calculations of wave packet propagation, there arises the problem of division by zero. To overcome this problem we have to sew together discrete numerical and analytical continuous solutions on the boundary. We demonstrate here for the free wave packet that the numerical solution corresponds to the analytical solution.
Hydrodynamic assembly for Fast Ignition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabak, Max; Clark, Daniel; Town, Richard; Hatchett, Stephen
2007-11-01
We present directly and indirectly driven implosion designs for Fast Ignition. Directly driven designs using various laser illumination wavelengths are described. We compare these designs with simple hydrodynamic efficiency models. Capsules illuminated with less than 1 MJ of light with perfect zooming at low intensity and low contrast ratio in power can assemble 4 mg of fuel to column density in excess of 3 g/cm^2. We contrast these designs with more optimized designs that lead to Guderley-style self similar implosions. Indirectly driven capsules absorbing 75 kJ of xrays can assemble 0.7 mg to column density 2.7 g/cm^2 in 1D simulations. We describe 2-D simulations including both capsules and attached cones driven by radiation. We describe issues in assembling fuel near the cone tip and cone disruption.
Hydrodynamic model for drying emulsions.
Feng, Huanhuan; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper
2015-08-01
We present a hydrodynamic model for film formation in a dense oil-in-water emulsion under a unidirectional drying stress. Water flow through the plateau borders towards the drying end leads to the buildup of a pressure gradient. When the local pressure exceeds the critical disjoining pressure, the water films between droplets break and the droplets coalesce. We show that, depending on the critical pressure and the evaporation rate, the coalescence can occur in two distinct modes. At low critical pressures and low evaporation rates, coalescence occurs throughout the sample, whereas at high critical pressures and high evaporation rate, coalescence occurs only at the front. In the latter case, an oil layer develops on top of the film, which acts as a diffusive barrier and slows down film formation. Our findings, which are summarized in a state diagram for film formation, are in agreement with recent experimental findings.
Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminski, Matthias; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Bleicher, Marcus; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen
2016-09-01
Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.
IKT for quantum hydrodynamic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tessarotto, Massimo; Ellero, Marco; Nicolini, Piero
2007-11-01
A striking feature of standard quantum mechanics (SQM) is its analogy with classical fluid dynamics. In fact, it is well-known that the Schr"odinger equation is equivalent to a closed set of partial differential equations for suitable real-valued functions of position and time (denoted as quantum fluid fields) [Madelung, 1928]. In particular, the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations (QHE) can be viewed as the equations of a classical compressible and non-viscous fluid, endowed with potential velocity and quantized velocity circulation. In this reference, an interesting theoretical problem, in its own right, is the construction of an inverse kinetic theory (IKT) for such a type of fluids. In this note we intend to investigate consequences of the IKT recently formulated for QHE [M.Tessarotto et al., Phys. Rev. A 75, 012105 (2007)]. In particular a basic issue is related to the definition of the quantum fluid fields.
Effect of Surface Roughness on Hydrodynamic Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, B. C.; Hamrock, B. J.
1981-01-01
A theoretical analysis on the performance of hydrodynamic oil bearings is made considering surface roughness effect. The hydrodynamic as well as asperity contact load is found. The contact pressure was calculated with the assumption that the surface height distribution was Gaussian. The average Reynolds equation of partially lubricated surface was used to calculate hydrodynamic load. An analytical expression for average gap was found and was introduced to modify the average Reynolds equation. The resulting boundary value problem was then solved numerically by finite difference methods using the method of successive over relaxation. The pressure distribution and hydrodynamic load capacity of plane slider and journal bearings were calculated for various design data. The effects of attitude and roughness of surface on the bearing performance were shown. The results are compared with similar available solution of rough surface bearings. It is shown that: (1) the contribution of contact load is not significant; and (2) the hydrodynamic and contact load increase with surface roughness.
Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jose, Jordi
2016-01-01
Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.
Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jordi
2015-12-01
Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.
The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting
Weihs, Daniel
2004-01-01
Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. PMID:15132740
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd
The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.
Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.
2014-12-01
The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsameret, Avraham; Steinberg, Victor
1994-02-01
A detailed study of the Couette-Taylor system with axial flow in the range of Reynolds number Re up to 4.5, which is characterized by the propagating Taylor-vortices (PTV's) state, is presented. Two methods to measure the convective instability line are described. Comparative studies of the PTV's in the absolutely and convectively unstable regions are given. It was found that at Re<1 the PTV's appear first at the outlet at the absolute instability transition. At Re>1 the PTV's are also sustained in the convectively unstable region, but the properties of the PTV's in the absolutely and convectively unstable regions differ distinctively. In both regions the PTV's are characterized by the existence of an interface separating the pattern state from the Couette-Poiseuille flow. The interface is stationary in the absolutely unstable region and fluctuates in the convectively unstable region. The distance from the inlet to the interface changes as both control parameters ɛ¯ and Re are varied, where ɛ¯ is the distance from the convective line. This dependence is, however, different in both regions. In the absolutely unstable region the healing length is scaled with the PTV's group velocity at all values of ɛ¯ and Re, and diverges at the absolute instability transition line. In the convectively unstable region the healing length does not obey the general scaling but is about inversely proportional to ɛ¯. The most distinctive difference in the PTV's behavior in the two regions is a different sensitivity to noise. A time-dependent spatial profile of the PTV's leads to a broadband power spectrum of the velocity in the convectively unstable region near the outlet. The PTV's velocity power spectrum in the absolutely unstable region is, on the other hand, noise-free. The different sensitivity to noise was used as an experimental criterion to locate the absolute instability line for Re>1. The wave-number selection is also found to be different in both regions. As a result
Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Couette-Poiseuille Flow With Zero Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, Gary N.; Spalart, Philippe R.
2015-01-01
The near-wall scaling of mean velocity U(yw) is addressed for the case of zero skin friction on one wall of a fully turbulent channel flow. The present DNS results can be added to the evidence in support of the conjecture that U is proportional to the square root of yw in the region just above the wall at which the mean shear dU=dy = 0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savenkov, I. V.
2015-02-01
For the pressure-driven flow in an annular channel with a wall moving in the axial direction, its linear instability with respect to axisymmetric perturbations at high Reynolds numbers is investigated within the framework of the triple-deck theory. When the gap between the cylinders is sufficiently small (as compared to the radii of the cylinders), it is shown that the perturbations can split into two wave packets, the first of which grows faster and moves at a higher velocity.
Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, E.
2014-01-01
The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.
Nonlinear waves in second order conformal hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fogaça, D. A.; Marrochio, H.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.
2015-02-01
In this work we study wave propagation in dissipative relativistic fluids described by a simplified set of the 2nd order viscous conformal hydrodynamic equations corresponding to Israel-Stewart theory. Small amplitude waves are studied within the linearization approximation while waves with large amplitude are investigated using the reductive perturbation method, which is generalized to the case of 2nd order relativistic hydrodynamics. Our results indicate the presence of a "soliton-like" wave solution in Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics despite the presence of dissipation and relaxation effects.
Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions
Calzetta, E.
2014-01-14
The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.
Hydrodynamic Instabilities Produced by Evaporation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romo-Cruz, Julio Cesar Ruben; Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo
2012-11-01
When a liquid layer (alcohol in the present work) is in an environment where its relative humidity is less than 100 percent evaporation appears. When RH is above a certain threshold the liquid is at rest. If RH decreases below this threshold the flow becomes unstable, and hydrodynamic cells develop. The aim of this work is to understand the formation of those cells and its main features. Firstly, we investigate how the cell size depends on the layer width. We also study how temperature depends on the vertical coordinate when the cells are present. An inverse temperature gradient is found, that is, the bottom of liquid layer is colder than the free surface. This shows that the intuitive idea that the cells are due to a direct temperature gradient, following a Marangoni-like process, does not work. We propose the hypothesis that the evaporation produce a pressure gradient that is responsible of the cell development. On the other hand, using a Schlieren technique we study the topography of the free surface when cells are present. Finally the alcohol vapor layer adjacent to the liquid surface is explored using scattering experiments, giving some insight on the plausibility of the hypothesis described previously. Authors acknowledge support by DGAPA-UNAM under project IN116312 ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''
Hydrodynamic Simulations of Contact Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Frank, Juhan; Marcello, Dominic; Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, Jan E.
2015-01-01
The motivation for our project is the peculiar case of the 'red nova" V1309 Sco which erupted in September 2008. The progenitor was, in fact, a contact binary system. We are developing a simulation of contact binaries, so that their formation, structural, and merger properties could be studied using hydrodynamics codes. The observed transient event was the disruption of the secondary star by the primary, and their subsequent merger into one star; hence to replicate this behavior, we need a core-envelope structure for both the stars. We achieve this using a combination of Self Consistant Field (SCF) technique and composite polytropes, also known as bipolytropes. So far we have been able to generate close binaries with various mass ratios. Another consequence of using bipolytropes is that according to theoretical calculations, the radius of a star should expand when the core mass fraction exceeds a critical value, resulting in interesting consequences in a binary system. We present some initial results of these simulations.
Hydrodynamic aspects of fish olfaction
Cox, Jonathan P.L
2008-01-01
Flow into and around the olfactory chamber of a fish determines how odorant from the fish's immediate environment is transported to the sensory surface (olfactory epithelium) lining the chamber. Diffusion times in water are long, even over comparatively short distances (millimetres). Therefore, transport from the external environment to the olfactory epithelium must be controlled by processes that rely on convection (i.e. the bulk flow of fluid). These include the beating of cilia lining the olfactory chamber and the relatively inexpensive pumping action of accessory sacs. Flow through the chamber may also be induced by an external flow. Flow over the olfactory epithelium appears to be laminar. Odorant transfer to the olfactory epithelium may be facilitated in several ways: if the olfactory organs are mounted on stalks that penetrate the boundary layer; by the steep velocity gradients generated by beating cilia; by devices that deflect flow into the olfactory chamber; by parallel arrays of olfactory lamellae; by mechanical agitation of the chamber (or olfactory stalks); and by vortices. Overall, however, our knowledge of the hydrodynamics of fish olfaction is far from complete. Several areas of future research are outlined. PMID:18184629
Detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics
Cissoko, M. )
1992-02-15
This paper is concerned with an algebraic study of the equations of detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics taking into account the pressure and the energy of thermal radiation. A new approach to shock and detonation wavefronts is outlined. The fluid under consideration is assumed to be perfect (nonviscous and nonconducting) and to obey the following equation of state: {ital p}=({gamma}{minus}1){rho} where {ital p}, {rho}, and {gamma} are the pressure, the total energy density, and the adiabatic index, respectively. The solutions of the equations of detonation waves are reduced to the problem of finding physically acceptable roots of a quadratic polynomial {Pi}({ital X}) where {ital X} is the ratio {tau}/{tau}{sub 0} of dynamical volumes behind and ahead of the detonation wave. The existence and the locations of zeros of this polynomial allow it to be shown that if the equation of state of the burnt fluid is known then the variables characterizing the unburnt fluid obey well-defined physical relations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiełczewski, K.; Tuliszka-Sznitko, E.; Bontoux, P.
2014-08-01
In the paper the authors present the results obtained during a numerical investigation (Direct Numerical Simulation/Spectral Vanishing Viscosity method - DNS/SVV) of a flow with heat transfer in rotating cavities (i.e. the flow between two concentric disks and two concentric cylinders). These model flows are useful from numerical and experimental point of view among others because of the simplicity of their geometry. Simultaneously, the flows in rotating cavities appear in numerous industrial installations and machines in the field of mechanics and chemistry, e.g., in ventilation installations, desalination tanks and waste water tanks, in cooling system, in gas turbines and axial compressors. In the paper attention is focused on the laminar-turbulent region in the configuration of the large aspect ratio i.e. Taylor-Couette flow (a Batchelor flow case of small aspect ratio Γ = 0.04 is also presented for comparison). The main purpose of computations is to investigate the influence of different parameters (the aspect ratio, the end-wall boundary conditions and temperature gradient) on the flow structure and flow characteristics. For the non-isothermal flow cases the Nusselt number distributions along cylinders are presented and are correlated with the flow structures. The λ2 method has been used for visualization.
Curran, Stephen J; Black, Richard A
2005-03-30
Rotating wall vessel bioreactors have been proposed as a means of controlling the fluid dynamic environment during long-term culture of mammalian cells and engineered tissues. In this study, we show how the delivery of oxygen to cells in an annular flow bioreactor is enhanced by the forced convective transport afforded by Taylor vortex flows. A fiberoptic oxygen probe with negligible lag time was used to measure the dissolved oxygen concentration in real time and under carefully controlled aeration conditions. From these data, the overall mass transfer coefficients were calculated and mass transport correlations determined under laminar Couette flow conditions and discrete Taylor vortex flow regimes, including laminar, wavy, and turbulent flows. While oxygen transport in Taylor vortex flows was significantly greater, and the available oxygen exceeded that consumed by murine fibroblasts in free suspension, the proportion of cells that remained viable decreased with increasing Reynolds number (101.8 < Rei < 1018), which we attribute to the action of fluid shear stresses on the cells as opposed to any limitation in mass transport. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest that laminar Taylor-vortex flow regimes provide an effective means of maintaining the levels of oxygen transport required for long-term cell culture. PMID:15696514
Kosuge, Shingo
2015-07-01
The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated under the following two kinds of kinetic boundary conditions. One is the modified Maxwell-type boundary condition proposed by Dadzie and Méolans [J. Math. Phys. 45, 1804 (2004)] and the other is the Cercignani-Lampis condition, both of which have separate accommodation coefficients associated with the molecular velocity component normal to the boundary and with the tangential component. An asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation for small Knudsen numbers and a numerical analysis of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model equation for a wide range of the Knudsen number are performed to clarify the effect of each accommodation coefficient as well as of the boundary condition itself on the behavior of the gas, especially on the flow-velocity profile. As a result, the velocity-slip and temperature-jump conditions corresponding to the above kinetic boundary conditions are derived, which are necessary for the fluid-dynamic description of the problem for small Knudsen numbers. The parameter range for the onset of the velocity inversion phenomenon, which is related mainly to the decrease in the tangential momentum accommodation, is also obtained. PMID:26274275
Combined Effect of Hall and Ion-Slip Currents on Unsteady MHD Couette Flows in a Rotating System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Basant K.; Apere, Clement A.
2010-10-01
The unsteady MHD Couette flows of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two parallel plates in a rotating system are studied taking hall and ion-slip currents into consideration. The relevant equations are solved analytically using the Laplace transform techniques. A unified closed form analytical expressions for the velocity and the skin friction for the cases; when the magnetic lines of force are fixed relative to the fluid or to the moving plate are derived. The solution obtained shows that the inclusion of Hall and ion-slip currents gives some interesting results. It is found that the influence of the Hall and ion slip parameters have a reducing effect on the magnitude of the secondary velocity especially when the magnetic lines of force are fixed relative to the moving plate. It is also interesting to note that the presence of Hall and ion-slip currents led to an increase in the time it took both the primary and the secondary velocities to achieve their steady state values. On the other hand, the resultant skin friction on the moving plate decreases with an increase in both the Hall and ion-slip parameters when the magnetic field is fixed relative to the fluid, while the opposite behaviour is noticed the magnetic field is fixed relative to the moving plate.
Alignment of Red Poly[dodecadyin-1,12-diol-bis(4-butoxycarbonyl-methyl-urethane)] in Couette Flow.
Xie, Donglin; Wei, Yalin; Qiao, Greg G; Dunstan, Dave E
2016-09-01
The flow-induced alignment of red poly[dodecadyin-1,12-diol-bis(4-butoxycarbonyl-methyl-urethane)] (poly-4BCMU) in chloroform/toluene solution is reported. Absorption spectra have been measured over a range of shear rates in an optically transparent quartz Couette cell. The measured spectra show that the poly-4BCMU structure stays the same in flow, while the measured absorbance anisotropy is attributed to the flow-induced particle alignment in the red form poly-4BCMU solutions. A limiting orientation at shear rates >50 s(-1) is observed. Numerical simulations show that the spectral changes are consistent with the rodlike poly-4BCMU particle having an aspect ratio of 2.9. The dichroic ratio of 1.9 interpreted from the data indicates that the individual poly-4BCMU chains do not aggregate amorphously in the rodlike conformation, rather they show a preferred orientation along the long axis of the prolate aggregates. PMID:27509310
Theoretical and numerical study of air layer drag reduction in two-phase Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz
2008-11-01
The objective of the present study is to predict and understand the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon. Recent experiments (Elbing et al. 2008) have shown net drag reductions if air is injected beyond a critical rate next to the wall. The analysis is performed on a two-phase Couette-Poiseuille flow configuration, which mimics the far downstream region of boundary layer flow on a flat plate. Both theoretical and numerical approaches are employed to investigate the stability and mechanisms of ALDR. The linear stability of air-liquid interface is investigated by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equations. From the stability analysis, the stability of the interface is reduced as the liquid free-stream velocity, Froude number and velocity gradients at the interface are increased, while the stability is enhanced as the gas flow rate and surface tension are increased. The Critical gas flow rates from stability theory are compared with experimental results, showing good agreement. Direct numerical simulations with a Refiend Level Set Grid technique has been performed to investigate the evolution of the interface, the turbulence interaction and nonlinear mechanisms of ALDR. It is observed that the Weber number has significant impact on the characteristics of the interface development.
Small aspect ratio Taylor-Couette flow: onset of a very-low-frequency three-torus state.
Lopez, Juan M; Marques, Francisco
2003-09-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Taylor-Couette flow in a small aspect ratio annulus (where the length of the cylinders is half of the annular gap between them) is investigated by numerically solving the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The system is invariant to arbitrary rotations about the annulus axis and to a reflection about the annulus half-height, so that the symmetry group is SO(2)xZ2. In this paper, we systematically investigate primary and subsequent bifurcations of the basic state, concentrating on a parameter regime where the basic state becomes unstable via Hopf bifurcations. We derive the four distinct cases for the symmetries of the bifurcated orbit, and numerically find two of these. In the parameter regime considered, we also locate the codimension-two double Hopf bifurcation where these two Hopf bifurcations coincide. Secondary Hopf bifurcations (Neimark-Sacker bifurcations), leading to modulated rotating waves, are subsequently found and a saddle-node-infinite-period bifurcation between a stable (node) and an unstable (saddle) modulated rotating wave is located, which gives rise to a very-low-frequency three-torus. This paper provides the computed example of such a state, along with a comprehensive bifurcation sequence leading to its onset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu-El Hassan, A.
2006-05-01
The steady flow of an incompressible Oldroyd 8-constant fluid in the annular region between two spheres, or so-called spherical Couette flow, is investigated. The inner sphere rotates with anangular velocity about the z-axis, which passes through the center of the spheres, while the outer sphere is kept at rest. The viscoelasticity of the fluid is assumed to dominate the inertia such that the latter can be neglected in the momentum equation. An analytical solution is obtained through the expansion of the dynamical variables in a power series of the dimensionless retardation time. The leading velocity term denotes the Newtonian rotation about the z-axis. The first-order term results in a secondary flow represented by the stream function that divides the flow region into four symmetric parts. The second-order term is the viscoelastic contribution to the primary viscous flow. The first-order approximation depends on the viscosity and four of the material time-constants of the fluid. The second-order approximation depends on the eight viscometric parameters of the fluid. The torque acting on the outer sphere has an additional term due to viscoelasticity that depends on all the material parameters of the fluid under consideration. For an Oldroyd-B fluid this contributed term enhances the primary torque but in the case of fluids with higher elasticity the torque components may be enhanced or diminished depending on the values of the viscometric parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A. K.
2014-06-01
The role of elastic Taylor-Couette flow instabilities in the dynamic nonlinear viscoelastic response of an entangled wormlike micellar fluid is studied by large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) rheology and in situ polarized light scattering over a wide range of strain and angular frequency values, both above and below the linear crossover point. Well inside the nonlinear regime, higher harmonic decomposition of the resulting stress signal reveals that the normalized third harmonic I3/I1 shows a power-law behavior with strain amplitude. In addition, I3/I1 and the elastic component of stress amplitude σ0E show a very prominent maximum at the strain value where the number density (nv) of the Taylor vortices is maximum. A subsequent increase in applied strain (γ) results in the distortions of the vortices and a concomitant decrease in nv, accompanied by a sharp drop in I3 and σ0E. The peak position of the spatial correlation function of the scattered intensity along the vorticity direction also captures the crossover. Lissajous plots indicate an intracycle strain hardening for the values of γ corresponding to the peak of I3, similar to that observed for hard-sphere glasses.
Maximum entropy principle and relativistic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Weert, Ch. G.
1982-04-01
A relativistic theory of hydrodynamics applicable beyond the hydrodynamic regime is developed on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. This allows the construction of a unique statistical operator representing the state of the system as specified by the values of the hydrodynamical densities. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic limit and the virial theorem which leads to an expression for the pressure in terms of the field-theoretic energymomentum tensor of Coleman and Jackiw. It is argued that outside the hydrodynamic regime the notion of a local Gibbs relation, as usually postulated, must be abandoned in general. In the nontext of the linear approximation, the memory-retaining and non-local generalizations of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations are derived from the underlying Heisenberg equations of motion. The formal similarity to the Zwanzig-Mori description of non-relativistic fluids is expounded.
Hydrodynamic trapping of molecules in lipid bilayers
Jönsson, Peter; McColl, James; Clarke, Richard W.; Ostanin, Victor P.; Jönsson, Bengt; Klenerman, David
2012-01-01
In this work we show how hydrodynamic forces can be used to locally trap molecules in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). The method uses the hydrodynamic drag forces arising from a flow through a conical pipette with a tip radius of 1–1.5 μm, placed approximately 1 μm above the investigated SLB. This results in a localized forcefield that acts on molecules protruding from the SLB, yielding a hydrodynamic trap with a size approximately given by the size of the pipette tip. We demonstrate this concept by trapping the protein streptavidin, bound to biotin receptors in the SLB. It is also shown how static and kinetic information about the intermolecular interactions in the lipid bilayer can be obtained by relating how the magnitude of the hydrodynamic forces affects the accumulation of protein molecules in the trap. PMID:22699491
Stability of pressure-driven creeping flows in channels lined with a nonlinear elastic solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gkanis, Vasileios; Kumar, Satish
2004-11-01
The effect of pressure gradients on the stability of creeping flows of Newtonian fluids in channels lined with an incompressible and impermeable neo-Hookean material is examined in this work. Three different configurations are considered: (i) pressure-driven flow between a rigid wall and a wall lined with a neo-Hookean material, (ii) pressure-driven flow between neo-Hookean-lined walls, and (iii) combined Couette-Poiseuille flow between a rigid wall and a neo-Hookean-lined wall. In each case, a first normal stress difference whose magnitude depends on depth arises in the base state for the solid, and linear stability analysis reveals that this leads to a shortwave instability that is removed by the presence of interfacial tension. For sufficiently thick solids, low wavenumber modes become unstable first as the applied strain increases above a critical value, whereas for sufficiently thin solids, high wavenumber modes becomes unstable first instead. Comparison of the dimensionless critical strains shows that configurations (i) and (ii) are more difficult to destabilize than Couette flow past a neo-Hookean solid. The mechanisms underlying the behavior of the critical strains are explained through an analysis of the interfacial boundary conditions.
Stability of pressure-driven creeping flows in channels lined with a nonlinear elastic solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gkanis, Vasileios; Kumar, Satish
2005-02-01
The effect of pressure gradients on the stability of creeping flows of Newtonian fluids in channels lined with an incompressible and impermeable neo-Hookean material is examined in this work. Three different configurations are considered: (i) pressure-driven flow between a rigid wall and a wall lined with a neo-Hookean material; (ii) pressure-driven flow between neo-Hookean-lined walls; and (iii) combined Couette-Poiseuille flow between a rigid wall and a neo-Hookean-lined wall. In each case, a first normal stress difference whose magnitude depends on depth arises in the base state for the solid, and linear stability analysis reveals that this leads to a short-wave instability which is removed by the presence of interfacial tension. For sufficiently thick solids, low-wavenumber modes become unstable first as the applied strain increases above a critical value, whereas for sufficiently thin solids, high-wavenumber modes becomes unstable first. Comparison of the dimensionless critical strains shows that configurations (i) and (ii) are more difficult to destabilize than Couette flow past a neo-Hookean solid. For configuration (iii), the nonlinear elasticity of the solid leads to two physically distinct critical conditions, in contrast to what happens when a linear elastic material is used. The mechanisms underlying the behaviour of the critical strains are explained through an analysis of the interfacial boundary conditions.
A comparison of two finite element models of tidal hydrodynamics using a North Sea data set
Walters, R.A.; Werner, F.E.
1989-01-01
Using the region of the English Channel and the southern bight of the North Sea, we systematically compare the results of two independent finite element models of tidal hydrodynamics. The model intercomparison provides a means for increasing our understanding of the relevant physical processes in the region in question as well as a means for the evaluation of certain algorithmic procedures of the two models. ?? 1989.
Improvements to SOIL: An Eulerian hydrodynamics code
Davis, C.G.
1988-04-01
Possible improvements to SOIL, an Eulerian hydrodynamics code that can do coupled radiation diffusion and strength of materials, are presented in this report. Our research is based on the inspection of other Eulerian codes and theoretical reports on hydrodynamics. Several conclusions from the present study suggest that some improvements are in order, such as second-order advection, adaptive meshes, and speedup of the code by vectorization and/or multitasking. 29 refs., 2 figs.
Flagellar Synchronization Independent of Hydrodynamic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank
2012-09-01
Inspired by the coordinated beating of the flagellar pair of the green algae Chlamydomonas, we study theoretically a simple, mirror-symmetric swimmer, which propels itself at low Reynolds number by a revolving motion of a pair of spheres. We show that perfect synchronization between these two driven spheres can occur due to the motion of the swimmer and local hydrodynamic friction forces. Hydrodynamic interactions, though crucial for net propulsion, contribute little to synchronization for this free-moving swimmer.
Chemo-hydrodynamic patterns in porous media.
De Wit, A
2016-10-13
Chemical reactions can interplay with hydrodynamic flows to generate chemo-hydrodynamic instabilities affecting the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration of the chemicals. We review here such instabilities for porous media flows. We describe the influence of chemical reactions on viscous fingering, buoyancy-driven fingering in miscible systems, convective dissolution as well as precipitation patterns. Implications for environmental systems are discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597788
Taylor-Couette flow control by amplitude variation of the inner cylinder cross-section oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oualli, Hamid; Mekadem, Mahmoud; Lebbi, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Ahcene
2015-07-01
The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous fluid flow evolving in an annular space between a rotating inner cylinder with a periodically variable radius and an outer fixed cylinder is considered. The basic flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength along the whole filled system length. The numerical simulations are implemented on the commercial Fluent software package, a finite-volume CFD code. It is aimed to make investigation of the early flow transition with assessment of the flow response to radial pulsatile motion superimposed to the inner cylinder cross-section as an extension of a previous developed work in Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)] where a comparative controlling strategy is applied to the outer cylinder. The same basic system is considered with similar calculating parameters and procedure. In Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)], it is concluded that for the actuated outer cylinder and relatively to the non-controlled case, the critical Taylor number, Tac1, characterizing the first instability onset illustrated by the piled Taylor vortices along the gap, increases substantially to reach a growing rate of 70% when the deforming amplitude is ɛ = 15%. Interestingly, when this controlling strategy is applied to the inner cylinder cross-section with a slight modification of the actuating law, this tendency completely inverts and the critical Taylor number decreases sharply from Tac1 = 41.33 to Tac1 = 17.66 for ɛ = 5%, corresponding to a reduction rate of 57%. Fundamentally, this result is interesting and can be interpreted by prematurely triggering instabilities resulting in rapid development of flow turbulence. Practically, important applicative aspects can be met in several industry areas where substantial intensification of transport phenomena (mass, momentum and heat) is
Atomistic Hydrodynamics and the Dynamical Hydrophobic Effect in Porous Graphene.
Strong, Steven E; Eaves, Joel D
2016-05-19
Mirroring their role in electrical and optical physics, two-dimensional crystals are emerging as novel platforms for fluid separations and water desalination, which are hydrodynamic processes that occur in nanoscale environments. For numerical simulation to play a predictive and descriptive role, one must have theoretically sound methods that span orders of magnitude in physical scales, from the atomistic motions of particles inside the channels to the large-scale hydrodynamic gradients that drive transport. Here, we use constraint dynamics to derive a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method for simulating steady-state mass flow of a fluid moving through the nanoscopic spaces of a porous solid. After validating our method on a model system, we use it to study the hydrophobic effect of water moving through pores of electrically doped single-layer graphene. The trend in permeability that we calculate does not follow the hydrophobicity of the membrane but is instead governed by a crossover between two competing molecular transport mechanisms. PMID:27139634
Validation of a Global Hydrodynamic Flood Inundation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Alfieri, L.; Neal, J. C.
2014-12-01
In this work we present first validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at 1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and depth at 90m spatial resolution. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. We compare these predictions to flood hazard maps developed by national government agencies in the UK and Germany using similar methods but employing detailed local data, and to observed flood extent at a number of sites including St. Louis, USA and Bangkok in Thailand. Results show that global flood hazard models can have considerable skill given careful treatment to overcome errors in the publicly available data that are used as their input.
The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen
2006-05-01
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.
Measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics using optical coherence tomography
Weiss, Nicolás; Obied, Khalid El Tayeb El; Kalkman, Jeroen; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.
2016-01-01
We report on localized and simultaneous measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics in a microfluidic channel using optical coherence tomography. We measure independently with high spatio-temporal resolution the longitudinal flow velocity component parallel to the imaging beam and the transverse flow velocity component perpendicular to the imaging beam. Based on the measured velocities we calculate the shear-rates in the flow channel. We show the relation between the measured biofilm structure and flow velocities as biofilm growth progresses over the course of 48 hours.
Measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics using optical coherence tomography
Weiss, Nicolás; Obied, Khalid El Tayeb El; Kalkman, Jeroen; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.
2016-01-01
We report on localized and simultaneous measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics in a microfluidic channel using optical coherence tomography. We measure independently with high spatio-temporal resolution the longitudinal flow velocity component parallel to the imaging beam and the transverse flow velocity component perpendicular to the imaging beam. Based on the measured velocities we calculate the shear-rates in the flow channel. We show the relation between the measured biofilm structure and flow velocities as biofilm growth progresses over the course of 48 hours. PMID:27699116
Polymer translocation through a cylindrical channel
Wong, Chiu TaiAndrew; Muthukumar, M.
2008-01-01
A formalism of polymer translocation through a cylindrical channel of finite diameter and length between two spherical compartments is developed. Unlike previous simplified systems, the finite diameter of the channel allows the number of polymer segments inside the channel to be adjusted during translocation according to the free energy of possible conformations. The translocation process of a Gaussian chain without excluded volume and hydrodynamic interactions is studied using exact formulas of confinement free energy under this formalism. The free energy landscape for the translocation process, the distribution of the translocation time, and the average translocation time are presented. The complex dependencies of the average translocation time on the length and diameter of the channel, the sizes of the donor and receptor compartments, and the chain length are illustrated. PMID:18433273
Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.
2014-12-01
Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a tidal estuary
Walters, Roy A.; Cheng, Ralph T.
1979-01-01
A finite element model is described which is used in the computation of tidal currents in an estuary. This numerical model is patterned after an existing algorithm and has been carefully tested in rectangular and curve-sided channels with constant and variable depth. One of the common uncertainties in this class of two-dimensional hydrodynamic models is the treatment of the lateral boundary conditions. Special attention is paid specifically to addressing this problem. To maintain continuity within the domain of interest, ‘smooth’ curve-sided elements must be used at all shoreline boundaries. The present model uses triangular, isoparametric elements with quadratic basis functions for the two velocity components and a linear basis function for water surface elevation. An implicit time integration is used and the model is unconditionally stable. The resultant governing equations are nonlinear owing to the advective and the bottom friction terms and are solved iteratively at each time step by the Newton-Raphson method. Model test runs have been made in the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, California (South Bay) as well as in the Bay west of Carquinez Strait. Owing to the complex bathymetry, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Bay system are dictated by the generally shallow basins which contain deep, relict river channels. Great care must be exercised to ensure that the conservation equations remain locally as well as globally accurate. Simulations have been made over several representative tidal cycles using this finite element model, and the results compare favourably with existing data. In particular, the standing wave in South Bay and the progressive wave in the northern reach are well represented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, H. L.; Nath, R.; Singh, R. P.
1987-01-01
An analytical study is performed to examine the heat transfer characteristics on the flow of a viscous, incompressible rarefied gas in a parallel plate channel under the action of transverse magnetic field when (1) suction velocity normal to the plate is constant, (2) the second plate oscillates in time about a constant nonzero mean, (3) fluid is subjected to a constant heat source of absorption type. Approximate solutions for velocity, temperature, phase, and amplitude of skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are evaluated. Mean temperature profiles, phase and amplitude of rate of heat transfer at both plates are discussed graphically followed by a quantitative discussion. Mean rate of heat transfer is tabulated.
Hydrodynamics of penguin wing models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noca, Flavio; Cuong Duong, Nhut; Herpich, Jerome
2010-11-01
The three-dimensional kinematics of penguin wings were obtained from movie footage in aquariums. A 1:1 scale model of the penguin wing (with an identical planform but with a flat section profile and a rigid configuration) was actuated with a robotic arm in a water channel. The experiments were performed at a chord Reynolds number of about 10^4 (an order of magnitude lower than for the observed penguin). The dynamics of the wing were analyzed with force and flowfield measurements. The two main results are: 1. a net thrust on both the upstroke and downstroke movement; 2. the occurence of a leading edge vortex (LEV) along the wing span. The effects of section profile, wing flexibility, and a higher Reynolds number will be investigated in the future.
Impacts of salt marsh plants on tidal channel initiation and inheritance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, C.; Ye, Q. H.; Wal, D.; Zhang, L. Q.; Bouma, T.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P. M. J.
2014-02-01
At the transition between mudflat and salt marsh, vegetation is traditionally regarded as a sustaining factor for previously incised mudflat channels, able to conserve the channel network via bank stabilization following plant colonization (i.e., vegetation-stabilized channel inheritance). This is in contrast to recent studies revealing vegetation as the main driver of tidal channel emergence through vegetation-induced channel erosion. We present a coupled hydrodynamic morphodynamic plant growth model to simulate plant expansion and channel formation by our model species (Spartina alterniflora) during a mudflat-salt marsh transition with various initial bathymetries (flat, shoal dense, shoal sparse, and deep dense channels). This simulated landscape development is then compared to remote sensing images of the Yangtze estuary, China, and the Scheldt estuary in Netherlands. Our results propose the existence of a threshold in preexisting mudflat channel depth, which favors either vegetation-stabilized channel inheritance or vegetation-induced channel erosion processes. The increase in depth of preexisting mudflat channels favors flow routing through them, consequently leaving less flow and momentum remaining for vegetation-induced channel erosion processes. This threshold channel depth will be influenced by field specific parameters such as hydrodynamics (tidal range and flow), sediment characteristics, and plant species. Hence, our study shows that the balance between vegetation-stabilized channel inheritance and vegetation-induced channel erosion depends on ecosystem properties.
Hydrodynamic simulations of pulsar glitch recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howitt, G.; Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.
2016-08-01
Glitches are sudden jumps in the spin frequency of pulsars believed to originate in the superfluid interior of neutron stars. Superfluid flow in a model neutron star is simulated by solving the equations of motion of a two-component superfluid consisting of a viscous proton-electron plasma and an inviscid neutron condensate in a spherical Couette geometry. We examine the response of the model to glitches induced in three different ways: by instantaneous changes of the spin frequency of the inner and outer boundaries, and by instantaneous recoupling of the fluid components in the bulk. All simulations are performed with strong and weak mutual friction. It is found that the maximum size of a glitch originating in the bulk decreases as the mutual friction strengthens. It is also found that mutual friction determines the fraction of the frequency jump which is later recovered, a quantity known as the `healing parameter'. These behaviours may explain some of the diversity in observed glitch recoveries.
New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinti, Leonardo
2015-05-01
Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.
Hydrodynamic modulation of pluripotent stem cells
2012-01-01
Controlled expansion and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) using reproducible, high-throughput methods could accelerate stem cell research for clinical therapies. Hydrodynamic culture systems for PSCs are increasingly being used for high-throughput studies and scale-up purposes; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose PSCs to complex physical and chemical environments that include spatially and temporally modulated fluid shear stresses and heterogeneous mass transport. Furthermore, the effects of fluid flow on PSCs cannot easily be attributed to any single environmental parameter since the cellular processes regulating self-renewal and differentiation are interconnected and the complex physical and chemical parameters associated with fluid flow are thus difficult to independently isolate. Regardless of the challenges posed by characterizing fluid dynamic properties, hydrodynamic culture systems offer several advantages over traditional static culture, including increased mass transfer and reduced cell handling. This article discusses the challenges and opportunities of hydrodynamic culture environments for the expansion and differentiation of PSCs in microfluidic systems and larger-volume suspension bioreactors. Ultimately, an improved understanding of the effects of hydrodynamics on the self-renewal and differentiation of PSCs could yield improved bioprocessing technologies to attain scalable PSC culture strategies that will probably be requisite for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. PMID:23168068
On the definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables.
Español, Pep; Zúñiga, Ignacio
2009-10-28
The Green-Kubo formula for discrete hydrodynamic variables involves information about not only the fluid transport coefficients but also about discrete versions of the differential operators that govern the evolution of the discrete variables. This gives an intimate connection between discretization procedures in fluid dynamics and coarse-graining procedures used to obtain hydrodynamic behavior of molecular fluids. We observed that a natural definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables in terms of Voronoi cells leads to a Green-Kubo formula which is divergent, rendering the full coarse-graining strategy useless. In order to understand this subtle issue, in the present paper we consider the coarse graining of noninteracting Brownian particles. The discrete hydrodynamic variable for this problem is the number of particles within Voronoi cells. Thanks to the simplicity of the model we spot the origin of the singular behavior of the correlation functions. We offer an alternative definition, based on the concept of a Delaunay cell that behaves properly, suggesting the use of the Delaunay construction for the coarse graining of molecular fluids at the discrete hydrodynamic level.
Hydrodynamics in Holocene Lake Mega-Chad
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchette, Frédéric; Schuster, Mathieu; Ghienne, Jean-François; Denamiel, Cléa; Roquin, Claude; Moussa, Abderamane; Marsaleix, Patrick; Duringer, Philippe
2010-03-01
Holocene Lake Mega-Chad (LMC) was the largest late Quaternary water-body in Africa. The development of this giant paleo-lake is related to a northward shift of the isohyetes interpreted as evidence for an enhanced Monsoon (African Humid Period). Numerous preserved coastal features have been described all around the LMC shore. Such features reveal the main paleo-hydrodynamical tendencies. In the context of a closed water-body like LMC, hydrodynamics are forced mainly by winds. We use a three-dimensional numerical model (SYMPHONIE) to simulate the mean hydrodynamics in LMC under both Harmattan-like (northeasterly trade winds) and Monsoon-like (southwesterly winds) forcings. The northern part of LMC displays coastal features, such as sand spits, that are consistent with the simulations forced by Harmattan-like winds. Geomorphic features related to Monsoon-driven hydrodynamics are not clearly expressed. They could have developed during the early stage of LMC but subsequently reworked. At the time of sand-spit building, Harmattan-like driven hydrodynamics prevailed and related coastal features were preferentially preserved in the sedimentary record.
Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory
Kane, J O; Remington, B A; Arnett, D; Fryxell, B A; Drake, R P
1998-11-10
Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, they are attempting to rigorously scale the physics of the laboratory in supernova. The scaling of hydrodynamics on microscopic laser scales to hydrodynamics on the SN-size scales is presented and requirements established. Initial results were reported in [1]. Next the appropriate conditions are generated on the NOVA laser. 10-15 Mbar shock at the interface of a two-layer planar target, which triggers perturbation growth, due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability as the interface decelerates is generated. This scales the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at intermediate times, up to a few x10{sup 3} s. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike bubble velocities using potential flow theory and Ott thin shell theory is presented, as well as a study of 2D vs. 3D difference in growth at the He-H interface of Sn 1987A.
Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.
2016-01-01
We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.
Applications of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models in the San Francisco bay-delta estuary
Smith, P.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Wong, H.F.N.
2005-01-01
Three applications of three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle-tracking models are currently underway by the United States Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. The first application is to the San Francisco Bay and a portion of the coastal ocean. The second application is to an important, gated control channel called the Delta Cross Channel, located within the northern portion of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The third application is to a reach of the San Joaquin River near Stockton, California where a significant dissolved oxygen problem exists due, in part, to conditions associated with the deep-water ship channel for the Port of Stockton, California. This paper briefly discusses the hydrodynamic and particle tracking models being used and the three applications. Copyright ASCE 2005.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Bruggert, Gert-Wim H.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2015-06-01
A new Taylor-Couette system has been designed and constructed with precise temperature control. Two concentric independently rotating cylinders are able to rotate at maximum rates of fi = ± 20 Hz for the inner cylinder and fo = ± 10 Hz for the outer cylinder. The inner cylinder has an outside radius of ri = 75 mm, and the outer cylinder has an inside radius of ro = 105 mm, resulting in a gap of d = 30 mm. The height of the gap is L = 549 mm, giving a volume of V = 9.3 L. The geometric parameters are η = ri/ro = 0.714 and Γ = L/d = 18.3. With water as working fluid at room temperature, the Reynolds numbers that can be achieved are Rei = ωiri(ro - ri)/ν = 2.8 × 105 and Reo = ωoro(ro - ri)/ν = 2 × 105 or a combined Reynolds number of up to Re = (ωiri - ωoro)(ro - ri)/ν = 4.8 × 105. If the working fluid is changed to the fluorinated liquid FC-3284 with kinematic viscosity 0.42 cSt, the combined Reynolds number can reach Re = 1.1 × 106. The apparatus features precise temperature control of the outer and inner cylinders separately and is fully optically accessible from the side and top. The new facility offers the possibility to accurately study the process of boiling inside a turbulent flow and its effect on the flow.
Huisman, Sander G; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Bruggert, Gert-Wim H; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2015-06-01
A new Taylor-Couette system has been designed and constructed with precise temperature control. Two concentric independently rotating cylinders are able to rotate at maximum rates of f(i) = ± 20 Hz for the inner cylinder and f(o) = ± 10 Hz for the outer cylinder. The inner cylinder has an outside radius of r(i) = 75 mm, and the outer cylinder has an inside radius of r(o) = 105 mm, resulting in a gap of d = 30 mm. The height of the gap is L = 549 mm, giving a volume of V = 9.3 L. The geometric parameters are η = r(i)/r(o) = 0.714 and Γ = L/d = 18.3. With water as working fluid at room temperature, the Reynolds numbers that can be achieved are Re(i) = ω(i)r(i)(r(o) - r(i))/ν = 2.8 × 10(5) and Re(o) = ω(o)r(o)(r(o) - r(i))/ν = 2 × 10(5) or a combined Reynolds number of up to Re = (ω(i)r(i) - ω(o)r(o))(r(o) - r(i))/ν = 4.8 × 10(5). If the working fluid is changed to the fluorinated liquid FC-3284 with kinematic viscosity 0.42 cSt, the combined Reynolds number can reach Re = 1.1 × 10(6). The apparatus features precise temperature control of the outer and inner cylinders separately and is fully optically accessible from the side and top. The new facility offers the possibility to accurately study the process of boiling inside a turbulent flow and its effect on the flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hout, R.; Katz, J.
2011-10-01
Particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the velocity and Reynolds stress distributions in the latitudinal plane of counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow at high Reynolds numbers (Re). The ratio of outer to inner cylinder angular velocity, μ, varied between -10.79 and -0.68, and Rei based on the inner cylinder velocity ranged between 2635 and 40 446, substantially extending previously available data. The results were used for examining scaling trends, especially the effects of Re and μ on the mean flow and turbulence statistics. We showed that using a kind of "inner wall" scaling, μ was the primary parameter controlling the normalized profiles of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, TKE production and dissipation rates. Re effects on the scaled profiles were much smaller. Increasing μ flattened the mean azimuthal velocity profiles in the center of the annulus, increased the radial velocity gradients near the walls, and moved the radial point at which the velocity changed sign towards the outer cylinder. The flow also became more turbulent and a log layer with increasing extent developed near the inner wall. All the Reynolds stress components, along with the TKE production and dissipation rates peaked near the inner wall. Raising μ extended the high turbulence levels deeper into the annulus. At low μ, the stabilizing effect of the outer cylinder kept the flow in the outer regions laminar. Only when the magnitude of the inner cylinder angular velocity equaled or exceeded that of the outer one, the Reynolds stresses remained significant across the entire measurement range, and started increasing also near the outer cylinder. The azimuthal energy spectra confirmed these trends and showed that the changes to turbulence levels occurred at a broad range of scales. Furthermore, for low μ, the instantaneous vorticity fields were dominated by nearly parallel, elongated, counter-rotating vorticity contours, reminiscent of inclined counter-rotating vortex pairs. At
Nonlinear development of two-layer Couette-Poiseuille flow in the presence of surfactant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassom, Andrew P.; Blyth, M. G.; Papageorgiou, D. T.
2010-10-01
The two-dimensional nonlinear evolution of the interface between two superposed layers of viscous fluid moving in a channel in the presence of an insoluble surfactant is examined. A pair of coupled weakly nonlinear equations is derived describing the interfacial and surfactant dynamics when one of the two fluid layers is very thin in comparison to the other. In contrast to previous work, the dynamics in the thin film are coupled to the dynamics in the thicker layer through a nonlocal integral term. For asymptotically small Reynolds number, the flow in the thicker layer is governed by the Stokes equations. A linearized analysis confirms the linear instability identified by previous workers and it is proven that the film flow is linearly unstable if the undisturbed surfactant concentration exceeds a threshold value. Numerical simulations of the weakly nonlinear equations reveal the existence of finite amplitude traveling-wave solutions. For order one Reynolds number, the flow in the thicker layer is governed by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. In this case the weakly nonlinear film dynamics are more complex and include the possibility of periodic traveling-waves and chaotic flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Victor R.
1988-01-01
The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.
Hydrodynamics of a unitary Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Jay; Fletcher, Richard; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Rob; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-05-01
In general, normal-phase Bose gases are well described by modelling them as ideal gases. In particular, hydrodynamic flow is usually not observed in the expansion dynamics of normal gases, and is more readily observable in Bose-condensed gases. However, by preparing strongly-interacting clouds, we observe hydrodynamic behaviour in normal-phase Bose gases, including the `maximally' hydrodynamic unitary regime. We avoid the atom losses that often hamper experimental access of this regime by using radio-frequency injection, which switches on interactions much faster than trap or loss timescales. At low phase-space densities, we find excellent agreement with a collisional model based on the Boltzmann equation. At higher phase-space densities our results show a deviation from this model in the vicinity of an Efimov resonance, which cannot be accounted for by measured losses.
17. Local Characteristic Algorithms for Relativistic Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Font, Jose A.
Numerical schemes for the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are discussed. The use of conservative algorithms based upon the characteristic structure of those equations, developed during the last decade building on ideas first applied in Newtonian hydrodynamics, provides a robust methodology to obtain stable and accurate solutions even in the presence of discontinuities. The knowledge of the wave structure of the above system is essential in the construction of the so-called linearized Riemann solvers, a class of numerical schemes specifically designed to solve nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. In the last part of the review some astrophysical applications of such schemes, using the coupled system of the (characteristic) Einstein and hydrodynamic equations, are also briefly presented.
A hydrodynamic approach to cosmology - Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cen, Renyue
1992-01-01
The present study describes an accurate and efficient hydrodynamic code for evolving self-gravitating cosmological systems. The hydrodynamic code is a flux-based mesh code originally designed for engineering hydrodynamical applications. A variety of checks were performed which indicate that the resolution of the code is a few cells, providing accuracy for integral energy quantities in the present simulations of 1-3 percent over the whole runs. Six species (H I, H II, He I, He II, He III) are tracked separately, and relevant ionization and recombination processes, as well as line and continuum heating and cooling, are computed. The background radiation field is simultaneously determined in the range 1 eV to 100 keV, allowing for absorption, emission, and cosmological effects. It is shown how the inevitable numerical inaccuracies can be estimated and to some extent overcome.
Toward a Fully Consistent Radiation Hydrodynamics
Castor, J I
2009-07-07
Dimitri Mihalas set the standard for all work in radiation hydrodynamics since 1984. The present contribution builds on 'Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics' to explore the relativistic effects that have prevented having a consistent non-relativistic theory. Much of what I have to say is in FRH, but the 3-D development is new. Results are presented for the relativistic radiation transport equation in the frame obtained by a Lorentz boost with the fluid velocity, and the exact momentum-integrated moment equations. The special-relativistic hydrodynamic equations are summarized, including the radiation contributions, and it is shown that exact conservation is obtained, and certain puzzles in the non-relativistic radhydro equations are explained.
On the hydrodynamics of swimming enzymes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xiaoyu; Wolynes, Peter G.
2015-10-01
Several recent experiments suggest that rather generally the diffusion of enzymes may be augmented through their activity. We demonstrate that such swimming motility can emerge from the interplay between the enzyme energy landscape and the hydrodynamic coupling of the enzyme to its environment. Swimming thus occurs during the transit time of a transient allosteric change. We estimate the velocity during the transition. The analysis of such a swimming motion suggests the final stroke size is limited by the hydrodynamic size of the enzyme. This limit is quite a bit smaller than the values that can be inferred from the recent experiments. We also show that one proposed explanation of the experiments based on reaction heat effects can be ruled out using an extended hydrodynamic analysis. These results lead us to propose an alternate explanation of the fluorescence correlation measurements.
Dynamo efficiency controlled by hydrodynamic bistability.
Miralles, Sophie; Herault, Johann; Herault, Johann; Fauve, Stephan; Gissinger, Christophe; Pétrélis, François; Daviaud, François; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Boisson, Jean; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Verhille, Gautier; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas
2014-06-01
Hydrodynamic and magnetic behaviors in a modified experimental setup of the von Kármán sodium flow-where one disk has been replaced by a propeller-are investigated. When the rotation frequencies of the disk and the propeller are different, we show that the fully turbulent hydrodynamic flow undergoes a global bifurcation between two configurations. The bistability of these flow configurations is associated with the dynamics of the central shear layer. The bistable flows are shown to have different dynamo efficiencies; thus for a given rotation rate of the soft-iron disk, two distinct magnetic behaviors are observed depending on the flow configuration. The hydrodynamic transition controls the magnetic field behavior, and bifurcations between high and low magnetic field branches are investigated. PMID:25019895
Hydrodynamic stellar interactions in dense star clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rasio, Frederic A.
1993-01-01
Highly detailed HST observations of globular-cluster cores and galactic nuclei motivate new theoretical studies of the violent dynamical processes which govern the evolution of these very dense stellar systems. These processes include close stellar encounters and direct physical collisions between stars. Such hydrodynamic stellar interactions are thought to explain the large populations of blue stragglers, millisecond pulsars, X-ray binaries, and other peculiar sources observed in globular clusters. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics techniques now make it possible to perform realistic numerical simulations of these interactions. The results, when combined with those of N-body simulations of stellar dynamics, should provide for the first time a realistic description of dense star clusters. Here I review briefly current theoretical work on hydrodynamic stellar interactions, emphasizing its relevance to recent observations.
In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio
2012-12-01
The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.
Hydrodynamics and eutrophication in a mariculture site in the Philippines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escobar, M. T.; San Diego-McGlone, M. L.; Martin, M.; Villanoy, C.
2014-12-01
Bolinao, Pangasinan in the Philippines is a site for extensive and intensive culture of Chanos chanos. The proliferation of fish farm structures coupled with excessive feeding caused the deterioration of water quality in the area that lead to hypoxic condition (<2mg/L) and fish kills. A hydrodynamic model of the area, developed using DELFT3D, showed a residence time of 5-15 days in the northern channel and 25 to 28 days in the southern end. The complex configuration of the coast, which includes narrow channels that serve as bottlenecks, result to the inefficient flushing of the area. This was further aggravated by the presence of fish farm structures that restricted the natural flow of water. Water quality was monitored in the mariculture site and a nearby seagrass reserve. Nitrate+nitrite concentration ranged from 0.34 - 4.1 µM, 0.13 - 2.7 µM for phosphate, and 1.7 - 8.8 µM for ammonia. Highest nutrient concentrations were seen near the fish farms. Analysis of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and tss for a tidal cycle showed that these substances were inadequately flushed from the coastal waters. Long residence times and high nutrient loading in the area were ideal conditions for the development of hypoxia.
Integration of hydrodynamic interactions between filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
In many biological situations, slender filaments interact through a viscous fluid, and these hydrodynamic interactions play a crucial cellular role. Examples include the ability of peritrichous bacteria to bundle their flagella or the generation of metachronal waves in cilia arrays. In most cases of interest, three distinct length scales characterize the filaments, their typical thickness a, relative distance h, and length L, which are asymptotically separated as a << h << L . In this talk, we demonstrate how to analytically develop a long-wavelength integration of hydrodynamic singularities in this biologically-relevant limit.
Supernova hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser
Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.; Wallace, R.J.; Rubenchik, A.; Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Drake, R.P.; McCray, R.
1997-04-01
We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate two areas of physics relevant to core-collapse supernovae (SN): (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing and (2) radiative shock hydrodynamics. In the former, we are examining the differences between the 2D and 3D evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an issue critical to the observables emerging from SN in the first year after exploding. In the latter, we are investigating the evolution of a colliding plasma system relevant to the ejecta-stellar wind interactions of the early stages of SN remnant formation. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.
Shadowfax: Moving mesh hydrodynamical integration code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandenbroucke, Bert
2016-05-01
Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaj, O.; Merzeau, P.; Snabre, P.; Pouligny, B.
2011-06-01
We describe an experiment that allows us to record 3-dimensional trajectories of single particles in Couette shear flows, at low Reynolds number. The core of the apparatus is a Couette cell with transparent contra-rotating cylinders. Fluorescent spherical particles are used as tracers. A single tracer is imaged onto a webcam, equipped with a home-made autofocus system. For a given average shear rate, tracking of an individual tracer is performed automatically by driving the amount of contra-rotation between both cylinders and the position of the webcam. The performance of the tracker is illustrated through examples of trajectories of neutrally buoyant tracers in a Newtonian fluid. The setup is mostly aimed at characterizing complex flows in non-colloidal concentrated suspensions and wet granular materials. We show examples of 3d trajectories in a dense suspension of 200 μm spherical grains, revealing details of the short-scale diffusive-like particle motion, together with flow localization and large-scale non-azimuthal flow patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedrossian, Jacob; Masmoudi, Nader; Vicol, Vlad
2016-03-01
In this work we study the long time inviscid limit of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations near the periodic Couette flow. In particular, we confirm at the nonlinear level the qualitative behavior predicted by Kelvin's 1887 linear analysis. At high Reynolds number Re, we prove that the solution behaves qualitatively like two dimensional Euler for times {{t ≲ Re^{1/3}}}, and in particular exhibits inviscid damping (for example the vorticity weakly approaches a shear flow). For times {{t ≳ Re^{1/3}}}, which is sooner than the natural dissipative time scale O( Re), the viscosity becomes dominant and the streamwise dependence of the vorticity is rapidly eliminated by an enhanced dissipation effect. Afterwards, the remaining shear flow decays on very long time scales {{t ≳ Re}} back to the Couette flow. When properly defined, the dissipative length-scale in this setting is {{ℓ_D ˜ Re^{-1/3}}}, larger than the scale {{ℓ_D ˜ Re^{-1/2}}} predicted in classical Batchelor-Kraichnan two dimensional turbulence theory. The class of initial data we study is the sum of a sufficiently smooth function and a small (with respect to Re -1) L 2 function.
Circumstellar Hydrodynamics and Spectral Radiation in ALGOLS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrell, Dirk Curtis
1994-01-01
Algols are the remnants of binary systems that have undergone large scale mass transfer. This dissertation presents the results of the coupling of a hydrodynamical model and a radiative model of the flow of gas from the inner Lagrangian point. The hydrodynamical model is a fully Lagrangian, three-dimensional scheme with a novel treatment of viscosity and an implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method to compute pressure gradients. Viscosity is implemented by allowing particles within a specified interaction length to share momentum. The hydrodynamical model includes a provision for computing the self-gravity of the disk material, although it is not used in the present application to Algols. Hydrogen line profiles and equivalent widths computed with a code by Drake and Ulrich are compared with observations of both short and long period Algols. More sophisticated radiative transfer computations are done with the escape probability code of Ko and Kallman which includes the spectral lines of thirteen elements. The locations and velocities of the gas particles, and the viscous heating from the hydro program are supplied to the radiative transfer program, which computes the equilibrium temperature of the gas and generates its emission spectrum. Intrinsic line profiles are assumed to be delta functions and are properly Doppler shifted and summed for gas particles that are not eclipsed by either star. Polarization curves are computed by combining the hydro program with the Wilson-Liou polarization program. Although the results are preliminary, they show that polarization observations show great promise for studying circumstellar matter.
Stabilizing geometry for hydrodynamic rotary seals
Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.
2010-08-10
A hydrodynamic sealing assembly including a first component having first and second walls and a peripheral wall defining a seal groove, a second component having a rotatable surface relative to said first component, and a hydrodynamic seal comprising a seal body of generally ring-shaped configuration having a circumference. The seal body includes hydrodynamic and static sealing lips each having a cross-sectional area that substantially vary in time with each other about the circumference. In an uninstalled condition, the seal body has a length defined between first and second seal body ends which varies in time with the hydrodynamic sealing lip cross-sectional area. The first and second ends generally face the first and second walls, respectively. In the uninstalled condition, the first end is angulated relative to the first wall and the second end is angulated relative to the second wall. The seal body has a twist-limiting surface adjacent the static sealing lip. In the uninstalled condition, the twist-limiting surface is angulated relative to the peripheral wall and varies along the circumference. A seal body discontinuity and a first component discontinuity mate to prevent rotation of the seal body relative to the first component.
Hydrodynamic dispersion of microswimmers in suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Matthieu; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe
2014-11-01
In our laboratory, we study hydrodynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers. These micro-organisms are unicellular algae Chlamydomonas Rheinhardii which are able to swim by using their flagella. The swimming dynamics of these micro-swimmers can be seen as a random walk, in absence of any kind of interaction. In addition, these algae have the property of being phototactic, i.e. they swim towards the light. Combining this property with a hydrodynamic flow, we were able to reversibly separate algae from the rest of the fluid. But for sufficiently high volume fraction, these active particles interact with each other. We are now interested in how the coupling of hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers and phototaxis can modify the swimming dynamics at the scale of the suspension. To this aim, we conduct experiments in microfluidic devices to study the dispersion of the micro-organisms in a the liquid phase as a function of the volume fraction. We show that the dispersion of an assembly of puller type microswimmers is quantitatively affected by hydrodynamics interactions. Phd student.
Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics
Johnson, B M
2008-09-03
In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.
Hydrodynamically driven colloidal assembly in dip coating.
Colosqui, Carlos E; Morris, Jeffrey F; Stone, Howard A
2013-05-01
We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca(2/3)/sqrt[Bo] < 0.7, where Ca and Bo are the capillary and Bond numbers, respectively. An analytical model and numerical simulations are presented for the case of two-dimensional flow with circular particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.
Livermore Unstructured Lagrange Explicit Shock Hydrodynamics
2010-09-21
LULESH v1.0 is a 3D unstructured Lagrange hydrodynamics simulation written specifically to solve a standard analytical test problem, known as the Sedov problem. In this problem, a quantum of energy is deposited into a gas and propagates through the gas over time.
Boundary conditions in tunneling via quantum hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nassar, Antonio B.
1993-01-01
Via the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics, an approach to the problem of tunneling through sharp-edged potential barriers is developed. Above all, it is shown how more general boundary conditions follow from the continuity of mass, momentum, and energy.
Hydrodynamically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Dip Coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colosqui, Carlos E.; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Stone, Howard A.
2013-05-01
We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca2/3/Bo<0.7, where Ca and Bo are the capillary and Bond numbers, respectively. An analytical model and numerical simulations are presented for the case of two-dimensional flow with circular particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.
Hydrodynamic Issues in PAMS Mandrel Target Fabrication
McQuillan, B M; Paguio, R; Subramanian, P; Takagi, M; Zebib, A
2003-08-27
Imperfections in PAMS mandrels critically govern the quality of final ICF targets. Imperfections in the mandrels can have a wide range of origins. Here, they present observations of 3 types of imperfections, and data to support the proposal that hydrodynamic factors during the curing of the mandrel are potential causes of these imperfections.
HYDRODYNAMIC ISSUES IN PAMS MANDREL TARGET FABRICATION
McQUILLAN,B.W; PAGUIO,R; SUBRAMANIAN,P; TAKAGI,M; ZEBIB,A
2003-09-01
OAK-B135 Imperfections in PAMS mandrels critically govern the quality of final ICF targets. Imperfections in the mandrels can have a wide range of origins. Here, they present observations of 3 types of imperfections, and data to support the proposal that hydrodynamic factors during the curing of the mandrel are potential causes of these imperfections.
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Hydrodynamic Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Valentin I.
We review derivations of the chiral magnetic effect (ChME) in hydrodynamic approximation. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the effect. The main challenge now is to account for the strong interactions between the constituents of the fluid. The main result is that the ChME is not renormalized: in the hydrodynamic approximation it remains the same as for non-interacting chiral fermions moving in an external magnetic field. The key ingredients in the proof are general laws of thermodynamics and the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the chiral anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamics represents a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum phenomenon (chiral anomaly). Moreover, one can argue that the current induced by the magnetic field is dissipation free and talk about a kind of "chiral superconductivity". More precise description is a quantum ballistic transport along magnetic field taking place in equilibrium and in absence of a driving force. The basic limitation is the exact chiral limit while temperature—excitingly enough—does not seemingly matter. What is still lacking, is a detailed quantum microscopic picture for the ChME in hydrodynamics. Probably, the chiral currents propagate through lower-dimensional defects, like vortices in superfluid. In case of superfluid, the prediction for the chiral magnetic effect remains unmodified although the emerging dynamical picture differs from the standard one.
Testing different formulations of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinti, Leonardo; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech; Strickland, Michael
2016-02-01
A recently obtained set of the equations for leading-order (3+1)D anisotropic hydrodynamics is tested against exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation time approximation. In order to perform detailed comparisons, the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations are reduced to the boost-invariant and transversally homogeneous case. The agreement with the exact solutions found using the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations is similar to that found using previous, less general formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics. In addition, we find that, when compared to a state-of-the-art second-order viscous hydrodynamics framework, leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics better reproduces the exact solution for the pressure anisotropy and gives comparable results for the bulk pressure evolution. Finally, we compare the transport coefficients obtained using linearized anisotropic hydrodynamics with results obtained using second-order viscous hydrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durand, Michael; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Moller, Delwyn; Wilson, Matthew
2008-10-01
The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would provide measurements of water surface elevation (WSE) for characterization of storage change and discharge. River channel bathymetry is a significant source of uncertainty in estimating discharge from WSE measurements, however. In this paper, we demonstrate an ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) methodology for estimating bathymetric depth and slope from WSE measurements and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model. We performed two proof-of-concept experiments using synthetically generated SWOT measurements. The experiments demonstrated that bathymetric depth and slope can be estimated to within 3.0 microradians or 50 cm, respectively, using SWOT WSE measurements, within the context of our DA and modeling framework. We found that channel bathymetry estimation accuracy is relatively insensitive to SWOT measurement error, because uncertainty in LISFLOOD-FP inputs (such as channel roughness and upstream boundary conditions) is likely to be of greater magnitude than measurement error.
Hydrodynamic comparison between the north and south of Mallorca Island
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amores, Angel; Monserrat, Sebastià
2014-10-01
A hydrodynamic comparison between two zones of fishing interest, one located to the north and the other to the south of Mallorca Island (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) was done. The comparison was conducted using the data from two moorings, one placed in the middle of the Balearic Current, in the Balearic subbasin (herein, Sóller) and the other in the Mallorca Channel, near the Algerian subbasin (called Cabrera). The instruments moored, continuously recorded the temperature, salinity and currents at different depths, for over 15 months. The data analysis suggests that Sóller is hydrodynamically more active than Cabrera, at least during the time of recording the measurements. The mean currents were higher at Sóller than at Cabrera at all depths, also showing greater maximum speeds and variability. In addition, the presence of more mesoscale eddies in Sóller became evident from the altimetry data. These eddies were not only significantly more energetic near the surface, they also generally reached to greater depths, affecting the velocities of the seabed currents. Subsequent to each significant eddy episode, strong changes in temperature and/or salinity were observed, along the entire water column. Spectral analysis revealed the presence of high frequency oscillations with periods of a few hours. One energy peak, with a period around 3.7 h, was observed at both locations, probably related to trapped waves around Mallorca or the Balearic Islands, while others (3 h and 2 h) were reflected only in Sóller, suggesting they could be associated with some standing resonance waves between the Iberian Peninsula and Mallorca.
Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory
Kane, J.O.
1999-06-01
Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in J. Kane et al., Astrophys. J.478, L75 (1997) The Nova laser is used to shock two-layer targets, producing Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the interfaces between the layers, analogous to instabilities seen at the interfaces of SN 1987A. Because the hydrodynamics in the laser experiments at intermediate times (3-40 ns) and in SN 1987A at intermediate times (5 s-10{sup 4} s) are well described by the Euler equations, the hydrodynamics scale between the two regimes. The experiments are modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS, thus serving as a benchmark for PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike and bubble velocities in the experiment using potential flow theory and a modified Ott thin shell theory is presented. A numerical study of 2D vs. 3D differences in instability growth at the O-He and He-H interface of SN 1987A, and the design for analogous laser experiments are presented. We discuss further work to incorporate more features of the SN in the experiments, including spherical geometry, multiple layers and density gradients. Past and ongoing work in laboratory and laser astrophysics is reviewed, including experimental work on supernova remnants (SNRs). A numerical study of RM instability in SNRs is presented.
Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory
Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Bazan, G.; Drake, R.P.; Fryxell, B.A.; Teyssier, R.
1999-05-01
Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in J. Kane {ital et al.} [Astrophys. J. {bold 478}, L75 (1997) and B. A. Remington {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 4}, 1994 (1997)]. The Nova laser is used to generate a 10{endash}15 Mbar shock at the interface of a two-layer planar target, which triggers perturbation growth due to the Richtmyer{endash}Meshkov instability, and to the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability as the interface decelerates. This resembles the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at intermediate times, up to a few {times}10{sup 3}s. The scaling of hydrodynamics on microscopic laser scales to the SN-size scales is presented. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES [J. T. Larson and S. M. Lane, J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans. {bold 51}, 179 (1994)] and CALE [R. T. Barton, {ital Numerical Astrophysics} (Jones and Bartlett, Boston, 1985), pp. 482{endash}497], and the supernova code PROMETHEUS [P. R. Woodward and P. Collela, J. Comp. Phys. {bold 54}, 115 (1984)]. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike-and-bubble velocities using potential flow theory and Ott thin-shell theory is presented, as well as a study of 2D versus 3D differences in perturbation growth at the He-H interface of SN 1987A.
78 FR 9907 - Hydrodynamics, Inc.; Notice Denying Late Intervention
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-02-12
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hydrodynamics, Inc.; Notice Denying Late Intervention On June 24, 2010, Commission staff issued a three-year preliminary permit to Hydrodynamics, Inc. (Hydrodynamics) to study...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kałuża, Tomasz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Plesiński, Karol; Walczak, Natalia; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Radecki-Pawlik, Bartosz
2016-04-01
In the present time integrated water management is directly connected with management and direct works in river channels themselves which are taking into account morphological processes in rivers and improve flow conditions. Our work focused on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic consequences upon the introduction of the concept of the improvement of the hydromorphological conditions of the Flinta River in a given reach following river channel management concept. Based on a comprehensive study of the hydromorphological state of the river, four sections were selected where restoration measures can efficiently improve river habitat conditions in the river. For each section a set of technical and biological measures were proposed and implemented in practice. One of the proposed solutions was to construct plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) within the river channel, which are essentially plant barriers working as sediment traps, changing river channel morphology and are in line with concepts of Water Framework Directive. These relatively small structures work as crested weirs and unquestionably change the channel morphology. Along our work we show the results of three-year long (2013-2015) systematic measurements that provided information on the morphological consequences of introducing such structures into a river channel. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1. Plant basket hydraulic structures cause changes in hydrodynamic conditions and result in sediment accumulation and the formation of river backwaters upstream and downstream the obstacle; 2. The introduced plant basket hydraulic structures cause plant debris accumulation which influences the hydrodynamic flow conditions; 3. The installation of plant basket hydraulic structures on the river bed changes flow pattern as well as flow hydrodynamic conditions causing river braiding process; 4. The erosion rate below the plant basket hydraulic structures is due to the hydraulic work conditions of the PBHS and its
Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Joseph D.
2014-01-01
In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.
Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-09-01
We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH-SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results based on proper coupling of spatial-temporal scales agree well with analytical solutions. In particular, we find that the size of the overlap region should be at least rc,1 + 2rc,2, where rc,1 and rc,2 are cut off radii in the two sub-domains with rc,1 ≤rc,2. Subsequently, a perturbation wave is considered traveling either parallel or perpendicular to the hybrid interface. Compressibility is significant if transient behavior at short sonic-time-scale is relevant, while the fluid can be treated as quasi-incompressible at sufficiently long time scale. To this end, we propose a coupling of density fields from the two sub-domains. Finally, a steady Wannier flow is simulated, where a rotating cylinder is placed next to a
Direct characterization of hydrodynamic loading on a microelectromechanical systems microstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrnezhad, Ali; Bashir, Rashid; Park, Kidong
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic loading greatly affects resonant characteristic of microfabricated structures immersed in a viscous fluid. In this letter, we demonstrate a technique to measure hydrodynamic loading on a MEMS resonator in a broad range of actuation frequency. The extracted hydrodynamic loading is in a good agreement with an analytical solution of an oscillating sphere, and a highly accurate model is developed for the hydrodynamic loading of the resonator. The developed technique can directly characterize the hydrodynamic loading of a microstructure with an arbitrary geometry and will facilitate the optimization of MEMS devices and AFM probes operating in a viscous fluid.
Preasymptotic hydrodynamic dispersion as a quantitative probe of permeability.
Brosten, Tyler R; Vogt, Sarah J; Seymour, Joseph D; Codd, Sarah L; Maier, Robert S
2012-04-01
We interpret a generalized short-time expansion of stochastic hydrodynamic dispersion dynamics in the case of small Reynolds number flow through macroscopically homogenous permeable porous media to directly determine hydrodynamic permeability. The approach allows determination of hydrodynamic permeability from pulsed field gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of the short-time effective hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient. The analytical expansion of asymptotic dynamics agrees with experimental NMR data and lattice Boltzmann simulation of hydrodynamic dispersion in consolidated random sphere pack media. PMID:22680531
Effects of open boundary location on the far-field hydrodynamics of a Severn Barrage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Juntao; Pan, Shunqi; Falconer, Roger A.
2014-01-01
The Severn Estuary has the second largest tide range in the world and a barrage across the estuary from Cardiff in South Wales to Weston in South West England has been proposed for over half a century, to extract large amounts of tidal energy from the estuary. To assess the environmental impacts of the proposed tidal barrage requires accurate model predictions of both the near-field and far-field hydrodynamics, which can strongly depend on the model area and the appropriate boundary forcing. In this paper two models, based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) numerical model with a recently-developed Barrage module (EFDC_B), were set up with different computational domains. The Continental Shelf model, which was centred on the Bristol Channel, has its open boundary extended to beyond the Continental Shelf. The Irish Sea model, which was also centred around the Bristol Channel, only has its open boundary extended to the Celtic Sea in the south and the Irish Sea in the north. In order to investigate the effects of the open boundary conditions imposed in the models on the near and far-field hydrodynamics for the case of the Severn Barrage, the Continental Shelf model was first run with and without the operation of the Severn Barrage. The Irish Sea model was then run, also with and without the operation of the Severn Barrage, and with the open boundary conditions provided by the Continental Shelf model. The results from both models were then analysed to study the impact of the tidal barrage on the near-field and far-field hydrodynamics in the Bristol Channel and Irish Sea. Detailed comparisons of the model results indicate that the hydrodynamic conditions along the open boundaries of the Irish Sea model are affected by the tidal barrage and that the open boundary conditions also have noticeable impacts on the far-field hydrodynamics, especially in the Irish Sea, with approximately an average 4-7 cm difference in the maximum water levels predicted in Cardigan
Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Blast-Driven Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric
2014-11-01
Mixing from hydrodynamics instabilities such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, occurs in a wide range of engineering applications such as inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. The success of these applications depends on an accurate understanding of these phenomena. Following previous work investigating hydrodynamic mixing from the interaction of a perturbed interface with a planar blast wave, we model the perturbation growth by analyzing the different acceleration phases of a blast wave: an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). Depending on the characteristics of these phases, the instability will be dominated by Richtmyer-Meshkov or Rayleigh-Taylor growth. We use a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces with variable specific heats ratios to simulate these systems and understand the different growth regimes.
Hydrodynamics with spin in bacterial suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belovs, M.; CÄ`bers, A.
2016-06-01
We describe a kind of self-propelling motion of bacteria based on the cooperative action of rotating flagella on the surface of bacteria. Describing the ensemble of rotating flagella in the framework of the hydrodynamics with spin, the reciprocal theorem of Stokesian hydrodynamics is generalized accordingly. The velocity of the self-propulsion is expressed in terms of the characteristics of the vector field of flagella orientation and it is shown that the unusually high velocities of Thiovulum majus bacteria may be explained by the cooperative action of the rotating flagella. The expressions obtained enable us to estimate the torque created by the rotary motors of the bacterium and show quantitative agreement with the existing experimental data.
A Hydrodynamical Mechanism for Generating Astrophysical Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, X.; Rendón, P. L.; Rodríguez-Mota, R. G.; Capella, A.
2014-04-01
Whenever in a classical accretion disk the thin disk approximation fails interior to a certain radius, a transition from Keplerian to radial infalling trajectories should occur. We show that this transition is actually expected to occur interior to a certain critical radius, provided surface density profiles are steeper than Sigma(R) ~ R(-1/2) , and further, that it probably corresponds to the observationally inferred phenomena of thick hot walls internally limiting the extent of many stellar accretion disks. Infalling trajectories will lead to the convergent focusing and concentration of matter towards the very central regions, most of which will simply be swallowed by the central object. We show through a perturbative hydrodynamical analysis, that this will naturally develop a well collimated pair of polar jets. A first analytic treatment of the problem described is given, proving the feasibility of purely hydrodynamical mechanisms for astrophysical jet generation.
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel
2016-04-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Hydrodynamic approach to boost invariant free streaming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, E.
2015-08-01
We consider a family of exact boost invariant solutions of the transport equation for free-streaming massless particles, where the one-particle distribution function is defined in terms of a function of a single variable. The evolution of second and third moments of the one-particle distribution function [the second moment being the energy momentum tensor (EMT) and the third moment the nonequilibrium current (NEC)] depends only on two moments of that function. Given those two moments, we show how to build a nonlinear hydrodynamic theory which reproduces the early time evolution of the EMT and the NEC. The structure of these theories may give insight on nonlinear hydrodynamic phenomena on short time scales.
Pursuit and Synchronization in Hydrodynamic Dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanso, Eva; Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou
2015-10-01
We study theoretically the behavior of a class of hydrodynamic dipoles. This study is motivated by recent experiments on synthetic and biological swimmers in microfluidic Hele-Shaw type geometries. Under such confinement, a swimmer's hydrodynamic signature is that of a potential source dipole, and the long-range interactions among swimmers are obtained from the superposition of dipole singularities. Here, we recall the equations governing the positions and orientations of interacting asymmetric swimmers in doubly periodic domains and focus on the dynamics of pairs of swimmers. We obtain two families of "relative equilibria"-type solutions that correspond to pursuit and synchronization of the two swimmers. Interestingly, the pursuit mode is stable for large-tail swimmers, whereas the synchronization mode is stable for large-head swimmers. These results have profound implications on the collective behavior reported in several recent studies on populations of confined microswimmers.
Structure and hydrodynamics of colloidal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayter, John B.
1986-02-01
Invited paperColloidal phases (for example, micellar solutions, latex suspensions, ferrofluids and microemulsions) provide excellent model systems with which to test structural and hydrodynamic theories of the liquid state. Interparticle potentials may be attractive or repulsive, and the experimentalist is often free to control the strength, range and symmetry of the interactions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle neutron spin-echo (SANSE) provide excellent complementary tools for studying the structure and time-dependence of these systems, where correlation lengths typically vary from about one to several tens of nm. Correlation times are usually in the nsec to μsec range, but may be of order minutes in certain systems. This paper will review some of the current theories and their recent experimental tests, using colloidal systems in which the direct interaction potentials may have spherical, dipolar or cylindrical symmetry and the hydrodynamic interactions may be weak or strong.
Structure and hydrodynamics of colloidal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayter, J. B.
1985-07-01
Colloidal phases (for example, micellar solutions, latex suspensions, ferrofluids and microemulsions) provide excellent model systems with which to test structural and hydrodynamic theories of the liquid state. Interparticle potentials may be attractive or repulsive, and the experimentalist is often free to control the strength, range and symmetry of the interactions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle neutron spin-echo (SANSE) provide excellent complementary tools for studying the structure and time-dependence of these systems, where correlation lengths typically vary from about one to several tens of nm. Correlation times are usually in the nsec to (MU) sec range, but may be of order minutes in certain systems. This paper will review some of the current theories and their recent experimental tests, using colloidal systems in which the direct interaction potentials may have spherical, dipolar or cylindrical symmetry and the hydrodynamic interactions may be weak or strong.
Quasinormal modes of the polytropic hydrodynamic vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Leandro A.; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luís C. B.
2015-07-01
Analogue systems are a powerful instrument to investigate and understand in a controlled setting many general-relativistic effects. Here, we focus on superradiant-triggered instabilities and quasinormal modes. We consider a compressible hydrodynamic vortex characterized by a polytropic equation of state, the polytropic hydrodynamic vortex, a purely circulating system with an ergoregion but no event horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of this system numerically with different methods, finding excellent agreement between them. When the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound, an ergoregion appears in the effective spacetime, triggering an "ergoregion instability." We study the details of the instability for the polytropic vortex, and in particular find analytic expressions for the marginally stable configuration.
Electro-hydrodynamic synchronization of piezoelectric flags
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yifan; Doaré, Olivier; Michelin, Sébastien
2016-08-01
Hydrodynamic coupling of flexible flags in axial flows may profoundly influence their flapping dynamics, in particular driving their synchronization. This work investigates the effect of such coupling on the harvesting efficiency of coupled piezoelectric flags, that convert their periodic deformation into an electrical current. Considering two flags connected to a single output circuit, we investigate using numerical simulations the relative importance of hydrodynamic coupling to electrodynamic coupling of the flags through the output circuit due to the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is shown that electrodynamic coupling is dominant beyond a critical distance, and induces a synchronization of the flags' motion resulting in enhanced energy harvesting performance. We further show that this electrodynamic coupling can be strengthened using resonant harvesting circuits.
Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.
Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn
2013-06-17
We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens. PMID:23787690
HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY.
Schaffranck, Raymond W.
1986-01-01
Hydrodynamics of the upper extent of the Potomac Estuary between Indian Head and Morgantown, Md. , are simulated using a two-dimensional model. The model computes water-surface elevations and depth-averaged velocities by numerically integrating finite-difference forms of the equations of mass and momentum conservation using the alternating direction implicit method. The fundamental, non-linear, unsteady-flow equations, upon which the model is formulated, include additional terms to account for Coriolis acceleration and meteorological influences. Preliminary model/prototype data comparisons show agreement to within 9% for tidal flow volumes and phase differences within the measured-data-recording interval. Use of the model to investigate the hydrodynamics and certain aspects of transport within this Potomac Estuary reach is demonstrated. Refs.
SPHGR: Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Robert
2015-02-01
SPHGR (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction) is a python based open-source framework for analyzing smoothed-particle hydrodynamic simulations. Its basic form can run a baryonic group finder to identify galaxies and a halo finder to identify dark matter halos; it can also assign said galaxies to their respective halos, calculate halo & galaxy global properties, and iterate through previous time steps to identify the most-massive progenitors of each halo and galaxy. Data about each individual halo and galaxy is collated and easy to access. SPHGR supports a wide range of simulations types including N-body, full cosmological volumes, and zoom-in runs. Support for multiple SPH code outputs is provided by pyGadgetReader (ascl:1411.001), mainly Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and TIPSY (ascl:1111.015).
Hydrodynamics and electromyography: ergonomics aspects in aquatics.
Clarys, J P
1985-03-01
In a quadruple approach we have suggested the ergonomics links between fundamental hydrodynamics, applied dynamics of swimming, electromyographical aspects and specific training. Fundamental and applied hydrodynamics were investigated in a Dutch Marine Ship model test station allowing for the measurement of passive drag in different positions and of active (swimming) drag. It was found that drag in a prone position under the water surface was greater than at the water surface, but active drag while swimming reached twice the drag values of any passive drag condition. This indicates that body form has no influence on drag and propulsion. Since it is merely the technical execution of the swimming movement that will influence performance, telemetric EMG of the involved musculature has allowed a complete kinesiological picture of the front crawl movements to be made. This knowledge is basic for the study of specific and alternative training systems, such as specific dry land training.
The Radiation Transport Conundrum in Radiation Hydrodynamics
Castor, J I
2005-03-18
The summary of this paper is: (1) The conundrum in the title is whether to treat radiation in the lab frame or the comoving frame in a radiation-hydrodynamic problem; (2) Several of the difficulties are associated with combining a somewhat relativistic treatment of radiation with a non-relativistic treatment of hydrodynamics; (3) The principal problem is a tradeoff between easily obtaining the correct diffusion limit and describing free-streaming radiation with the correct wave speed; (4) The computational problems of the comoving-frame formulation in more than one dimension, and the difficulty of obtaining both exact conservation and full u/c accuracy argue against this method; (5) As the interest in multi-D increases, as well as the power of computers, the lab-frame method is becoming more attractive; and (6) The Monte Carlo method combines the advantages of both lab-frame and comoving-frame approaches, its only disadvantage being cost.
Structure and hydrodynamics of colloidal systems
Hayter, J.B.
1985-07-01
Colloidal phases (for example, micellar solutions, latex suspensions, ferrofluids and microemulsions) provide excellent model systems with which to test structural and hydrodynamic theories of the liquid state. Interparticle potentials may be attractive or repulsive, and the experimentalist is often free to control the strength, range and symmetry of the interactions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle neutron spin-echo (SANSE) provide excellent complementary tools for studying the structure and time-dependence of these systems, where correlation lengths typically vary from about one to several tens of nm. Correlation times are usually in the nsec to ..mu..sec range, but may be of order minutes in certain systems. This paper will review some of the current theories and their recent experimental tests, using colloidal systems in which the direct interaction potentials may have spherical, dipolar or cylindrical symmetry and the hydrodynamic interactions may be weak or strong.
Protostellar Collapse Using Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaytet, N.; Chabrier, G.; Audit, E.; Commerçon, B.; Masson, J.; González, M.; Ferguson, J.; Delahaye, F.
2015-10-01
Many simulations of protostellar collapse make use of a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, interstellar gas and dust opacities present large variations as a function of frequency. In this paper, we present multigroup radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of a spherically symmetric cloud and the formation of the first and second Larson cores. We have used a non-ideal gas equation of state as well as an extensive set of spectral opacities. Small differences between grey and multigroup simulations were observed. The first and second core accretion shocks were found to be super- and sub-critical, respectively. Varying the initial size and mass of the parent cloud had little impact on the core properties (especially for the second core). We finally present early results from 3D simulations that were performed using the RAMSES code.
Hydrodynamic Object Recognition: When Multipoles Count
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sichert, Andreas B.; Bamler, Robert; van Hemmen, J. Leo
2009-02-01
The lateral-line system is a unique mechanosensory facility of aquatic animals that enables them not only to localize prey, predator, obstacles, and conspecifics, but also to recognize hydrodynamic objects. Here we present an explicit model explaining how aquatic animals such as fish can distinguish differently shaped submerged moving objects. Our model is based on the hydrodynamic multipole expansion and uses the unambiguous set of multipole components to identify the corresponding object. Furthermore, we show that within the natural range of one fish length the velocity field contains far more information than that due to a dipole. Finally, the model we present is easy to implement both neuronally and technically, and agrees well with available neuronal, physiological, and behavioral data on the lateral-line system.
Intrachain dynamics of large dsDNA confined to slitlike channels.
Jones, Jeremy J; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Doyle, Patrick S
2013-02-01
Exploration of intrachain hydrodynamics of dsDNA within channels has been limited to indirect analysis of global coil dynamics. In this Letter, we isolate hydrodynamic interactions within single molecules of dsDNA confined to slitlike channels by making use of density covariance measurements. We show that the strength of hydrodynamic interactions in DNA is dependent on the intrachain correlation length and that screening by symmetry in slitlike confinement results in a screening length that is proportional channel height. Moreover, we directly show the partial draining nature of the blobs formed by dsDNA in slits and predict under what conditions a dsDNA blob should obey nondraining Zimm behavior. PMID:23432310
Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments. Revision 1
Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.
1993-02-17
An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes.
The Quantum Hydrodynamic Description of Tunneling
Kendrick, Brian K.
2012-06-15
The quantum hydrodynamic approach is based on the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics. The resulting fluid-like equations of motion describe the flow of probability and an accurate solution to these equations is equivalent to solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic approach provides new insight into the mechanisms as well as an alternative computational approach for treating tunneling phenomena. New concepts include well-defined 'quantum trajectories', 'quantum potential', and 'quantum force' all of which have classical analogues. The quantum potential and its associated force give rise to all quantum mechanical effects such as zero point energy, tunneling, and interference. A new numerical approach called the Iterative Finite Difference Method (IFDM) will be discussed. The IFDM is used to solve the set of non-linear coupled hydrodynamic equations. It is 2nd-order accurate in both space and time and exhibits exponential convergence with respect to the iteration count. The stability and computational efficiency of the IFDM is significantly improved by using a 'smart' Eulerian grid which has the same computational advantages as a Lagrangian or Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) grid. The IFDM is also capable of treating anharmonic potentials. Example calculations using the IFDM will be presented which include: a one-dimensional Gaussian wave packet tunneling through an Eckart barrier, a one-dimensional bound-state Morse oscillator, and a two-dimensional (2D) model collinear reaction using an anharmonic potential energy surface. Approximate treatments of the quantum hydrodynamic equations will also be discussed which could allow scaling of the calculations to hundreds of degrees of freedom which is important for treating tunneling phenomena in condensed phase systems.
VH-1: Multidimensional ideal compressible hydrodynamics code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawley, John; Blondin, John; Lindahl, Greg; Lufkin, Eric
2012-04-01
VH-1 is a multidimensional ideal compressible hydrodynamics code written in FORTRAN for use on any computing platform, from desktop workstations to supercomputers. It uses a Lagrangian remap version of the Piecewise Parabolic Method developed by Paul Woodward and Phil Colella in their 1984 paper. VH-1 comes in a variety of versions, from a simple one-dimensional serial variant to a multi-dimensional version scalable to thousands of processors.
Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics
Dudukovic, M.P.
1999-05-14
The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.
Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor
Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing
2015-01-01
An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399
Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.
2016-08-01
We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.
Hydrodynamic Forces on Microbubbles under Ultrasound Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Alicia; Aliseda, Alberto
2014-11-01
Ultrasound (US) pressure waves exert a force on microbubbles that can be used to steer them in a flow. To control the motion of microbubbles under ultrasonic excitation, the coupling between the volume oscillations induced by the ultrasound pressure and the hydrodynamic forces needs to be well understood. We present experimental results for the motion of small, coated microbubbles, with similar sizes and physico-chemical properties as clinically-available ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). The size distribution for the bubbles, resulting from the in-house manufacturing process, was characterized by analysis of high magnification microscopic images and determined to be bimodal. More than 99% of the volume is contained in microbubbles less than 10 microns in diameter, the size of a red blood cell. The motion of the microbubbles in a pulsatile flow, at different Reynolds and Womersley numbers, is studied from tracking of high-speed shadowgraphy. The influence of ultrasound forcing, at or near the resonant frequency of the bubbles, on the hydrodynamic forces due to the pulsatile flow is determined from the experimental measurements of the trajectories. Previous evidence of a sign reversal in Saffman lift is the focus of particular attention, as this is frequently the only hydrodynamic force acting in the direction perpendicular to the flow pathlines. Application of the understanding of this physical phenomenon to targeted drug delivery is analyzed in terms of the transport of the microbubbles. NSF GRFP.
MUFASA: galaxy formation simulations with meshless hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davé, Romeel; Thompson, Robert; Hopkins, Philip F.
2016-11-01
We present the MUFASA suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employs the GIZMO meshless finite mass (MFM) code including H2-based star formation, nine-element chemical evolution, two-phase kinetic outflows following scalings from the Feedback in Realistic Environments zoom simulations, and evolving halo mass-based quenching. Our fiducial (50 h-1 Mpc)3 volume is evolved to z = 0 with a quarter billion elements. The predicted galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) reproduces observations from z = 4 → 0 to ≲ 1.2σ in cosmic variance, providing an unprecedented match to this key diagnostic. The cosmic star formation history and stellar mass growth show general agreement with data, with a strong archaeological downsizing trend such that dwarf galaxies form the majority of their stars after z ˜ 1. We run 25 and 12.5 h-1 Mpc volumes to z = 2 with identical feedback prescriptions, the latter resolving all hydrogen-cooling haloes, and the three runs display fair resolution convergence. The specific star formation rates broadly agree with data at z = 0, but are underpredicted at z ˜ 2 by a factor of 3, re-emphasizing a longstanding puzzle in galaxy evolution models. We compare runs using MFM and two flavours of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and show that the GSMF is sensitive to hydrodynamics methodology at the ˜×2 level, which is sub-dominant to choices for parametrizing feedback.
Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing
2015-05-01
An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment.
The quantum hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices
Gardner, C.L. )
1994-04-01
The classical hydrodynamic equations can be extended to include quantum effects by incorporating the first quantum corrections. The full three-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model is derived for the first time by a moment expansion of the Wigner-Boltzmann equations. The QHD conservation laws have the same form as the classical hydrodynamic equations, but the energy density and stress tensor have additional quantum terms. These quantum terms allow particles to tunnel through potential barriers and to build up in potential wells. The three-dimensional QHD transport equations are mathematically classified as having two Schroedinger modes, two hyperbolic modes, and one parabolic mode. The one-dimensional steady-state QHD equations are discretized in conservation form using the second upwind method. Simulations of a resonant tunneling diode are presented that show charge buildup in the quantum well and negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current-voltage curve. These are the first simulations of the full QHD equations to show NDR in the resonant tunneling diode. The computed current-voltage curve agrees quantitatively with experimental measurements. NDR interpreted in terms of the time spent by electrons in the quantum well.
Computer-assisted hydrodynamic gene delivery.
Suda, Takeshi; Suda, Kieko; Liu, Dexi
2008-06-01
The recently developed hydrodynamic delivery method makes it possible to deliver DNA and RNA into parenchyma cells by intravascular injection of nucleic acid-containing solution. While this procedure is effective in rodents, it is difficult to perform in large animals, because manual control while delivering the injection cannot be sufficiently reliable for achieving a just-right hydrodynamic pressure in targeted tissue. In order to overcome this problem, we have developed a computer-controlled injection device that uses real-time intravascular pressure as a regulator. Using the new injection device, and mouse liver as the model organ, we demonstrated continuous injection at a single pressure and different pressures, and also serial (repeated) injections at intervals of 250 ms, by programming the computer according to the need. When assessed by reporter plasmids, the computer-controlled injection device exhibits gene delivery efficiency similar to that of conventional hydrodynamic injection. The device is also effective in gene delivery to kidney and muscle cells in rats, with plasmids or adenoviral vectors as gene carriers. Successful gene delivery to liver and kidney was also demonstrated in pigs, with the computer-controlled injection being combined with image-guided catheterization. These results represent a significant advance in in vivo gene delivery research, with potential for use in gene therapy in humans.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandi, Steven; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Saco, Patricia M.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Wen, Li; Saintilan, Neil
2016-04-01
The Macquarie Marshes is a complex system of marshes, swamps and lagoons interconnected by a network of streams in the semi-arid region in north western NSW, Australia. The low-gradient topography of the site leads to channel breakdown processes where the river network becomes practically non-existent. As a result, the flow extends over large areas of wetland that later re-join and reform channels exiting the system. Vegetation in semiarid wetlands are often water dependent and flood tolerant species that rely on periodical floods in order to maintain healthy conditions. The detrimental state of vegetation in the Macquarie Marshes over the past few decades has been linked to decreasing inundation frequencies. Spatial distribution of flood tolerant overstory species such as River Red Gum and Black Box has not greatly changed since early 1990's, however; the condition of the vegetation patches shows a clear deterioration evidenced by terrestrial species encroachment on the wetland understory. On the other hand, areas of flood dependent species such as Water Couch and Common Reed have undergone complete succession to terrestrial species and dryland. In order to simulate the complex dynamics of the marshes we have developed an ecogeomorphological modelling framework that combines hydrodynamic, vegetation and channel evolution modules and in this presentation we provide an update on the status of the model. The hydrodynamic simulation provides spatially distributed values of inundation extent, duration, depth and recurrence to drive a vegetation model based on species preference to hydraulic conditions. It also provides velocities and shear stresses to assess geomorphological changes. Regular updates of stream network, floodplain surface elevations and vegetation coverage provide feedbacks to the hydrodynamic model. We presents also the development and assessment of transitional rules to determine if the water conditions have been met for different vegetation
Field Evidence of The Influence of Low Momentum Ratio on Confluence Hydrodynamics and Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Gelare; Lane, Stuart; Rennie, Colin; Cardot, Romain
2016-04-01
River confluences are zones where two or more rivers join and form a single channel downstream of their junction. Because of their essential role in dendritic drainage networks as a control on stream hydrodynamics, sediment flux and ecology, the last three decades have seen significant attention given to their hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. In general, the latter are controlled by the momentum ratio (Mr) between the two incoming channels, confluence angle and bed morphology. Most studies to date have focused on confluences with Mr values close to one. Much less attention has been given to confluences with Mr values much less than one, that is where the tributary has a flow momentum much less than the main stream, and there are almost no field studies of such confluences. Here, three upper Rhône river confluences in Switzerland, which are characterized by low momentum ratio and a varied rate of poorly sorted sediment transport, have been monitored using spatial distributed acoustic Doppler current profiling (aDcp) measurements. Experimental results have suggested that in such confluences, if the rate of sediment transported from the tributary into the main channel is high enough, formation of bed discordance and a two layer flow downstream of the junction, should be evident. In this case mixing will take place more rapidly downstream of the junction because of the formation of secondary circulation. On the other hand, if the tributary sediment delivery rate is low and the tributary mouth bar is absent, the formation of a pronounced scour hole downstream of the junction apex and within the hydrodynamic zone is more probable. Secondary circulation is less intense and mixing will take place farther downstream of the junction. These results are in conflict with existing conceptual models that do not explain fully the flow behaviour in confluences with low momentum ratio. Key words: river confluences, momentum ratio (Mr), junction angle, bed discordance, sediment
Nguyen, Mary-Anne; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Collier, C Patrick; Retterer, Scott T; Sarles, Stephen A
2016-09-21
The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a modular technique for assembling planar lipid membranes between water droplets in oil. The DIB method thus provides a unique capability for developing digital, droplet-based membrane platforms for rapid membrane characterization, drug screening and ion channel recordings. This paper demonstrates a new, low-volume microfluidic system that automates droplet generation, sorting, and sequential trapping in designated locations to enable the rapid assembly of arrays of DIBs. The channel layout of the device is guided by an equivalent circuit model, which predicts that a serial arrangement of hydrodynamic DIB traps enables sequential droplet placement and minimizes the hydrodynamic pressure developed across filled traps to prevent squeeze-through of trapped droplets. Furthermore, the incorporation of thin-film electrodes fabricated via evaporation metal deposition onto the glass substrate beneath the channels allows for the first time in situ, simultaneous electrical interrogation of multiple DIBs within a sealed device. Combining electrical measurements with imaging enables measurements of membrane capacitance and resistance and bilayer area, and our data show that DIBs formed in different trap locations within the device exhibit similar sizes and transport properties. Simultaneous, single channel recordings of ion channel gating in multiple membranes are obtained when alamethicin peptides are incorporated into the captured droplets, qualifying the thin-film electrodes as a means for measuring stimuli-responsive functions of membrane-bound biomolecules. This novel microfluidic-electrophysiology platform provides a reproducible, high throughput method for performing electrical measurements to study transmembrane proteins and biomembranes in low-volume, droplet-based membranes. PMID:27513561
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Da A.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Rusterholtz, Diane L.; Elias, Paul-Quentin; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.
2011-09-01
We report on an experimental study of the hydrodynamic expansion following a nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharge in atmospheric pressure air preheated up to 1000 K. Single-shot schlieren images starting from 50 ns after the discharge were recorded to show the shock-wave propagation and the expansion of the heated gas channel. The temporal evolution of the gas temperature behind the shock-front is estimated from the measured shock-wave velocity by using the Rankine-Hugoniot relationships. The results show that a gas temperature increase of up to 1100 K can be observed 50 ns after the nanosecond pulse.
Accuracy of an estuarine hydrodynamic model using smooth elements
Walters, Roy A.; Cheng, Ralph T.
1980-01-01
A finite element model which uses triangular, isoparametric elements with quadratic basis functions for the two velocity components and linear basis functions for water surface elevation is used in the computation of shallow water wave motions. Specifically addressed are two common uncertainties in this class of two-dimensional hydrodynamic models: the treatment of the boundary conditions at open boundaries and the treatment of lateral boundary conditions. The accuracy of the models is tested with a set of numerical experiments in rectangular and curvilinear channels with constant and variable depth. The results indicate that errors in velocity at the open boundary can be significant when boundary conditions for water surface elevation are specified. Methods are suggested for minimizing these errors. The results also show that continuity is better maintained within the spatial domain of interest when ‘smooth’ curve-sided elements are used at shoreline boundaries than when piecewise linear boundaries are used. Finally, a method for network development is described which is based upon a continuity criterion to gauge accuracy. A finite element network for San Francisco Bay, California, is used as an example.
AGN Feedback and Cooling Flows: Problems with Simple Hydrodynamic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernaleo, John C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2006-07-01
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that active galactic nuclei, and radio galaxies in particular, have an impact on large-scale structure and galaxy formation. In principle, radio galaxies are energetic enough to halt the cooling of the virialized intracluster medium (ICM) in the inner regions of galaxy clusters, solving the cooling flow problem and explaining the high-mass truncation of the galaxy luminosity function. We explore this process through a series of high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of jetted active galaxies that act in response to cooling-mediated accretion of an ICM atmosphere. We find that our models are incapable of producing a long-term balance of heating and cooling; catastrophic cooling can be delayed by the jet action but inevitably takes hold. At the heart of the failure of these models is the formation of a low-density channel through which the jet can freely flow, carrying its energy out of the cooling core. It is possible that this failure is due to an oversimplified treatment of the fast jet (which may underestimate the ``dentist drill'' effect). However, it seems likely that additional complexity (large-angle jet precession or ICM turbulence) or additional physics (magnetohydrodynamic effects and plasma transport processes) is required to produce a spatial distribution of jet heating that can prevent catastrophic cooling. This work also underscores the importance of including jet dynamics in any feedback model, as opposed to the isotropically inflated bubble approach taken in some previous works.
Hydrodynamics of DNA confined in nanoslits and nanochannels
Dorfman, Kevin D.; Gupta, Damini; Jain, Aashish; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Tree, Douglas R.
2014-01-01
Modeling the dynamics of a confined, semi exible polymer is a challenging problem, owing to the complicated interplay between the configurations of the chain, which are strongly affected by the length scale for the confinement relative to the persistence length of the chain, and the polymer-wall hydrodynamic interactions. At the same time, understanding these dynamics are crucial to the advancement of emerging genomic technologies that use confinement to stretch out DNA and “read” a genomic signature. In this mini-review, we begin by considering what is known experimentally and theoretically about the friction of a wormlike chain such as DNA confined in a slit or a channel. We then discuss how to estimate the friction coefficient of such a chain, either with dynamic simulations or via Monte Carlo sampling and the Kirk-wood pre-averaging approximation. We then review our recent work on computing the diffusivity of DNA in nanoslits and nanochannels, and conclude with some promising avenues for future work and caveats about our approach. PMID:25566349
A Nanoscale Hydrodynamical Model for Transport of Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhadauria, Ravi; Sanghi, Tarun; Aluru, N. R.
2015-11-01
We present here a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for SPC/E water. Two separate mechanisms of flow, viz. viscous and slip are incorporated in the present formulation. Spatially varying viscosity is modeled using the local average density method. Slip velocity is provided as a form of the boundary condition which in turn depends upon the macroscopic interfacial friction coefficient. The friction coefficient bridges the atomistic and continuum descriptions of the problem. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using particle-based wall-fluid force autocorrelations and wall-fluid force-velocity cross correlations, where the particle trajectory is generated using a Generalized Langevin Equation formulation. To test the accuracy of the model, gravity driven flow of SPC/E water confined between graphene and silicon slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples for low and high friction cases. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the slip length is constant for different channel widths for a fixed thermodynamic state under the linear response regime.
Ley, Mikkel W H; Bruus, Henrik
2016-04-01
A continuum model is established for numerical studies of hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions. A suspension of microparticles placed in a microfluidic channel and influenced by an external force, is described by a continuous particle-concentration field coupled to the continuity and Navier-Stokes equation for the solution. The hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for through the concentration dependence of the suspension viscosity, of the single-particle mobility, and of the momentum transfer from the particles to the suspension. The model is applied on a magnetophoretic and an acoustophoretic system, respectively, and based on the results, we illustrate three main points: (1) for relative particle-to-fluid volume fractions greater than 0.01, the hydrodynamic interaction effects become important through a decreased particle mobility and an increased suspension viscosity. (2) At these high particle concentrations, particle-induced flow rolls occur, which can lead to significant deviations of the advective particle transport relative to that of dilute suspensions. (3) Which interaction mechanism that dominates, depends on the specific flow geometry and the specific external force acting on the particles. PMID:26948344
Hydrodynamic interactions of spherical particles in Poiseuille flow between two parallel walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, S.; Bławzdziewicz, J.; Wajnryb, E.
2006-05-01
We study hydrodynamic interactions of spherical particles in incident Poiseuille flow in a channel with infinite planar walls. The particles are suspended in a Newtonian fluid, and creeping-flow conditions are assumed. Numerical results, obtained using our highly accurate Cartesian-representation algorithm [Physica A 356, 294 (2005)] are presented for a single sphere, two spheres, and arrays of many spheres. We consider the motion of freely suspended particles as well as the forces and torques acting on particles adsorbed at a wall. We find that the pair hydrodynamic interactions in this wall-bounded system have a complex dependence on the lateral interparticle distance due to the combined effects of the dissipation in the gap between the particle surfaces and the backflow associated with the presence of the walls. For immobile particle pairs we have examined the crossover between several far-field asymptotic regimes corresponding to different relations between the particle separation and the distances of the particles from the walls. We have also shown that the cumulative effect of the far-field flow substantially influences the force distribution in arrays of immobile spheres, and it affects trajectories of suspended particles. Therefore, the far-field contributions should be included in any reliable algorithm for evaluating many-particle hydrodynamic interactions in the parallel-wall geometry.
Ley, Mikkel W H; Bruus, Henrik
2016-04-01
A continuum model is established for numerical studies of hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions. A suspension of microparticles placed in a microfluidic channel and influenced by an external force, is described by a continuous particle-concentration field coupled to the continuity and Navier-Stokes equation for the solution. The hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for through the concentration dependence of the suspension viscosity, of the single-particle mobility, and of the momentum transfer from the particles to the suspension. The model is applied on a magnetophoretic and an acoustophoretic system, respectively, and based on the results, we illustrate three main points: (1) for relative particle-to-fluid volume fractions greater than 0.01, the hydrodynamic interaction effects become important through a decreased particle mobility and an increased suspension viscosity. (2) At these high particle concentrations, particle-induced flow rolls occur, which can lead to significant deviations of the advective particle transport relative to that of dilute suspensions. (3) Which interaction mechanism that dominates, depends on the specific flow geometry and the specific external force acting on the particles.
Colgate, S. A.; Beckley, H.; Si, J.; Martinic, J.; Westpfahl, D.; Slutz, J.; Westrom, C.; Klein, B.; Schendel, P.; Scharle, C.; McKinney, T.; Ginanni, R.; Bentley, I.; Mickey, T.; Ferrel, R.; Li, H.; Pariev, V.; Finn, J.
2011-04-28
The Ω phase of the liquid sodium α-Ω dynamo experiment at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated a high toroidal field B_{Φ} that is ≃8×B_{r}, where B_{r} is the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by the rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at a magnetic Reynolds number Rm≃120. Small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow at the end walls, which causes an estimated turbulence energy fraction of (δv/v)^{2}~10^{-3}.