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Sample records for channel subunits sur2a

  1. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE OF KATP CHANNEL SUR2A NUCLEOTIDE BINDING DOMAINS RESOLVED BY SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY SCATTERING

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Heterodimeric nucleotide binding domains NBD1/NBD2 distinguish the ATP-binding cassette protein SUR2A, a recognized regulatory subunit of cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. The tandem function of these core domains ensures metabolism-dependent gating of the Kir6.2 channel pore, yet their structural arrangement has not been resolved. Here, purified monodisperse and interference-free recombinant particles were subjected to synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in solution. Intensity function analysis of SAXS profiles resolved NBD1 and NBD2 as octamers. Implemented by ab initio simulated annealing, shape determination prioritized an oblong envelope wrapping NBD1 and NBD2 with respective dimensions of 168 × 80 × 37 Å3 and 175 × 81 × 37 Å3 based on symmetry constraints, validated by atomic force microscopy. Docking crystal structure homology models against SAXS data reconstructed the NBD ensemble surrounding an inner cleft suitable for Kir6.2 insertion. Human heart disease-associated mutations introduced in silico verified the criticality of the mapped protein-protein interface. The resolved quaternary structure delineates thereby a macromolecular arrangement of KATP channel SUR2A regulatory domains. PMID:19919849

  2. A functional role of the C-terminal 42 amino acids of SUR2A and SUR2B in the physiology and pharmacology of cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2005-07-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel is composed of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR). Intracellular ATP inhibits K(ATP) channels through Kir6.2. SUR is an ABC protein bearing transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). SUR increases the open probability of K(ATP) channels by interacting with ATP and ADP through NBDs and with K(+) channel openers such as nicorandil through its transmembrane domain. Because NBDs and the drug receptor allosterically interact with each other, nucleotides and drugs probably activate K(ATP) channels by causing the same conformational change of SUR. SUR2A and SUR2B have the identical drug receptor and NBDs and differ only in the C-terminal 42 amino acids (C42). Nonetheless, nicorandil ~100 times more potently activates SUR2B/Kir6.2 than SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels. Based on our allosteric model, we have analyzed the interaction between NBDs and the drug receptor in SUR2A and SUR2B and found that both nucleotide-bound NBD1 and NBD2 more strongly induce the conformational change in SUR2B than SUR2A. Therefore, C42 modulates the function of not only NBD2 which is close to C42 in a primary structure but NBD1 which is more than 630 amino acid N-terminal to C42. This raises the possibility that in the presence of nucleotides, NBD1 and NBD2 dimerize to induce the conformational change and that the dimerization enables C42 to gain access to both NBDs. Modulation of the nucleotide-NBD1 and -NBD2 interactions by C42 would determine the stability of the nucleotide-dependent dimer and thus, the physiological and pharmacological properties of K(ATP) channels.

  3. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  4. Proximal C-terminal domain of sulphonylurea receptor 2A interacts with pore-forming Kir6 subunits in KATP channels.

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, Richard D; James, Marian; Hudman, Diane; Al Johi, Mohammed; Singh, Harprit; Watson, Peter J; Ashmole, Ian; Davies, Noel W; Lodwick, David; Norman, Robert I

    2004-01-01

    Functional KATP (ATP-sensitive potassium) channels are hetero-octamers of four Kir6 (inwardly rectifying potassium) channel subunits and four SUR (sulphonylurea receptor) subunits. Possible interactions between the C-terminal domain of SUR2A and Kir6.2 were investigated by co-immunoprecipitation of rat SUR2A C-terminal fragments with full-length Kir6.2 and by analysis of cloned KATP channel function and distribution in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) in the presence of competing rSUR2A fragments. Three maltose-binding protein-SUR2A fusions, rSUR2A-CTA (rSUR2A residues 1254-1545), rSUR2A-CTB (residues 1254-1403) and rSUR2A-CTC (residues 1294-1403), were co-immunoprecipitated with full-length Kir6.2 using a polyclonal anti-Kir6.2 antiserum. A fourth C-terminal domain fragment, rSUR2A-CTD (residues 1358-1545) did not co-immunoprecipitate with Kir6.2 under the same conditions, indicating a direct interaction between Kir6.2 and a 65-amino-acid section of the cytoplasmic C-terminal region of rSUR2A between residues 1294 and 1358. ATP- and glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents were decreased in HEK-293 cells expressing full-length Kir6 and SUR2 subunits that were transiently transfected with fragments rSUR2A-CTA, rSUR2A-CTC and rSUR2A-CTE (residues 1294-1359) compared with fragment rSUR2A-CTD or mock-transfected cells, suggesting either channel inhibition or a reduction in the number of functional KATP channels at the cell surface. Anti-KATP channel subunit-associated fluorescence in the cell membrane was substantially lower and intracellular fluorescence increased in rSUR2A-CTE expressing cells; thus, SUR2A fragments containing residues 1294-1358 reduce current by decreasing the number of channel subunits in the cell membrane. These results identify a site in the C-terminal domain of rSUR2A, between residues 1294 and 1358, whose direct interaction with full-length Kir6.2 is crucial for the assembly of functional KATP channels. PMID:14672537

  5. Mild hypoxia in vivo regulates cardioprotective SUR2A: A role for Akt and LDH.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Abdul, Khaja Shameem; Jovanović, Sofija; Du, Qingyou; Sukhodub, Andriy; Jovanović, Aleksandar

    2015-05-01

    High-altitude residents have lower mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease and this is ascribed to cardiac gene remodelling by chronic hypoxia. SUR2A is a cardioprotective ABC protein serving as a subunit of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SUR2A is regulated by mild hypoxia in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Mice were exposed to either 21% (control) or 18% (mild hypoxia) oxygen for 24h. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not affect partial pressure of O(2) (PO(2)) and CO(2) (PCO(2)) in the blood, haematocrit or level of ATP in the heart. However, hypoxia increased myocardial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate as well as NAD(+) without affecting total NAD. SUR2A levels were significantly increased as well as myocardial resistance to ischaemia-reperfusion. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not phosphorylate extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2) or AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), but it phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt). An inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), LY294002 (0.2mg/mouse), abolished all observed effects of hypoxia. LDH inhibitors, galloflavin (50 μM) and sodium oxamate (80 mM) significantly decreased levels of SUR2A in heart embryonic H9c2 cells, while inactive mutant LDH form, gly193-M-LDH increased cellular sensitivity towards stress induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol (10mM). Treatment of H9c2 cells with sodium lactate (30 mM) increased intracellular lactate, but did not affect LDH activity or SUR2A levels. We conclude that PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and LDH play a crucial role in increase of cardiac SUR2A induced by in vivo exposure to 18% oxygen. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Calcium channel beta subunits differentially modulate recovery of the channel from inactivation.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, M C; Greenberg, R M; Anderson, P A

    2000-10-20

    We examined the effects of calcium channel beta subunits upon the recovery from inactivation of alpha(1) subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Recovery of the current carried by the L-type alpha(1) subunit (cyCa(v)1) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was accelerated by coexpression of any beta subunit, but the degree of potentiation differed according to which beta isoform was coexpressed. The Cyanea beta subunit was most effective, followed by the mammalian b(3), b(4), and beta(2a) subtypes. Recovery of the human Ca(v)2.3 subunit was also modulated by beta subunits, but was slowed instead. beta(3) was the most potent subunit tested, followed by beta(4), then beta(2a), which had virtually no effect. These results demonstrate that different beta subunit isoforms can affect recovery of the channel to varying degrees, and provide an additional mechanism by which beta subunits can differentially regulate alpha(1) subunits.

  7. Sodium channel β subunits: emerging targets in channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Heather A.; Isom, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for initiation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. VGSCs in mammalian brain are heterotrimeric complexes of α and β subunits. Originally called “auxiliary,” we now know that β subunit proteins are multifunctional signaling molecules that play roles in both excitable and non-excitable cell types, and with or without the pore-forming α subunit present. β subunits function in VGSC and potassium channel modulation, cell adhesion, and gene regulation, with particularly important roles in brain development. Mutations in the genes encoding β subunits are linked to a number of diseases, including epilepsy, sudden death syndromes like SUDEP and SIDS, and cardiac arrhythmia. While VGSC β subunit-specific drugs have not yet been developed, this protein family is an emerging therapeutic target. PMID:25668026

  8. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Brendan A; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-09-06

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior.

  9. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, Brendan A.

    2016-01-01

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior. PMID:27551100

  10. Mechanism of β4 Subunit Modulation of BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Rothberg, Brad S.; Brenner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Large-conductance (BK-type) Ca2+-activated potassium channels are activated by membrane depolarization and cytoplasmic Ca2+. BK channels are expressed in a broad variety of cells and have a corresponding diversity in properties. Underlying much of the functional diversity is a family of four tissue-specific accessory subunits (β1–β4). Biophysical characterization has shown that the β4 subunit confers properties of the so-called “type II” BK channel isotypes seen in brain. These properties include slow gating kinetics and resistance to iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin blockade. In addition, the β4 subunit reduces the apparent voltage sensitivity of channel activation and has complex effects on apparent Ca2+ sensitivity. Specifically, channel activity at low Ca2+ is inhibited, while at high Ca2+, activity is enhanced. The goal of this study is to understand the mechanism underlying β4 subunit action in the context of a dual allosteric model for BK channel gating. We observed that β4's most profound effect is a decrease in Po (at least 11-fold) in the absence of calcium binding and voltage sensor activation. However, β4 promotes channel opening by increasing voltage dependence of Po-V relations at negative membrane potentials. In the context of the dual allosteric model for BK channels, we find these properties are explained by distinct and opposing actions of β4 on BK channels. β4 reduces channel opening by decreasing the intrinsic gating equilibrium (L0), and decreasing the allosteric coupling between calcium binding and voltage sensor activation (E). However, β4 has a compensatory effect on channel opening following depolarization by shifting open channel voltage sensor activation (Vho) to more negative membrane potentials. The consequence is that β4 causes a net positive shift of the G-V relationship (relative to α subunit alone) at low calcium. At higher calcium, the contribution by Vho and an increase in allosteric coupling to Ca2+ binding (C

  11. ATP-sensitive potassium currents from channels formed by Kir6 and a modified cardiac mitochondrial SUR2 variant

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are found in both the sarcoplasmic reticulum (sarcKATP) and the inner membrane of mitochondria (mitoKATP). SarcKATP are composed of a pore containing subunit Kir6.2 and a regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunit (SUR2), but the composition of mitoKATP remains unclear. An unusual intra-exonic splice variant of SUR2 (SUR2A-55) was previously identified in mitochondria of mammalian heart and brain, and by analogy with sarcKATP we proposed SUR2A-55 as a candidate regulatory subunit of mitoKATP. Although SUR2A-55 lacks the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD), it has a hybrid TMD and retains the second NBD. It resembles a hemi-ABC transporter suggesting it could multimerize to function as a regulatory subunit. A putative mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminal domain of SUR2A-55 was removed by truncation and when co-expressed with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 it targeted to the plasma membrane and yielded KATP currents. Single channel conductance, mean open time, and burst open time of SUR2A-55 based KATP was similar to the full-length SUR2A based KATP. However, the SUR2A-55 KATP were 70-fold less sensitive to block by ATP, and twice as resistant to intracellular Ca2+ inhibition compared with the SUR2A KATP, and were markedly insensitive to KATP drugs, pinacidil, diazoxide, and glybenclamide. These results suggest that the SUR2A-55 based channels would tend to be open under physiological conditions and in ischemia, and could account for cardiac and mitochondrial phenotypes protective for ischemia. PMID:24037327

  12. New disguises for an old channel: MaxiK channel beta-subunits.

    PubMed

    Orio, Patricio; Rojas, Patricio; Ferreira, Gonzalo; Latorre, Ramón

    2002-08-01

    Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels of large conductance (MaxiK or BK channels) control a large variety of physiological processes, including smooth muscle tone, neurosecretion, and hearing. Despite being coded by a single gene (Slowpoke), the diversity of MaxiK channels is great. Regulatory b-subunits, splicing, and metabolic regulation create this diversity fundamental to the adequate function of many tissues.

  13. Calcium channel gamma subunits: a functionally diverse protein family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren-Shiang; Deng, Tzyy-Chyn; Garcia, Thomas; Sellers, Zachary M; Best, Philip M

    2007-01-01

    The calcium channel gamma subunits comprise an eight-member protein family that share a common topology consisting of four transmembrane domains and intracellular N- and C-termini. Although the first gamma subunit was identified as an auxiliary subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel, a review of phylogenetic, bioinformatic, and functional studies indicates that they are a functionally diverse protein family. A cluster containing gamma1 and gamma6 conforms to the original description of the protein family as they seem to act primarily as subunits of calcium channels expressed in muscle. Members of a second cluster (gamma2, gamma3, gamma4, gamma8) function as regulators of AMPA receptor localization and function in the brain and are collectively known as TARPs. The function of members of the third cluster (gamma5, gamma7) remains unclear. Our analysis shows that the members of each cluster contain conserved regulatory motifs that help to differentiate the groups. However, the physiological significance of these motifs in many cases remains to be demonstrated.

  14. Subunit composition of Kv1 channels in human CNS.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S K; Newcombe, J; Pryke, J; Dolly, J O

    1999-08-01

    The alpha subunits of Shaker-related K+ channels (Kv1.X) show characteristic distributions in mammalian brain and restricted coassembly. Despite the functional importance of these voltage-sensitive K+ channels and involvement in a number of diseases, little progress has been achieved in deciphering the subunit composition of the (alpha)4(beta)4 oligomers occurring in human CNS. Thus, the association of alpha and beta subunits was investigated in cerebral grey and white matter and spinal cord from autopsy samples. Immunoblotting established the presence of Kv1.1, 1.2, and 1.4 in all the tissues, with varying abundance. Sequential immunoprecipitations identified the subunits coassembled. A putative tetramer of Kv1.3/1.4/1.1/1.2 was found in grey matter. Both cerebral white matter and spinal cord contained the heterooligomers Kv1.1/1.4 and Kv1.1/1.2, similar to grey matter, but both lacked Kv1.3 and the Kv1.4/1.2 combination. An apparent Kv1.4 homooligomer was detected in all the samples, whereas only the brain tissue possessed a putative Kv1.2 homomer. In grey matter, Kvbeta2.1 was coassociated with the Kv1.1/1.2 combination and Kv1.2 homooligomer. In white matter, Kvbeta2.1 was associated with Kv1.2 only, whereas Kvbeta1.1 coprecipitated with all the alpha subunits present. This represents the first description of Kv1 subunit complexes in the human CNS and demonstrates regional variations, indicative of functional specialisation.

  15. The β Subunit of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Buraei, Zafir; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Calcium regulates a wide spectrum of physiological processes such as heartbeat, muscle contraction, neuronal communication, hormone release, cell division, and gene transcription. Major entry-ways for Ca2+ in excitable cells are high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca2+channels. These are plasma membrane proteins composed of several subunits, including α1, α2δ, β, and γ. Although the principal α1 subunit (Cavα1) contains the channel pore, gating machinery and most drug binding sites, the cytosolic auxiliary β subunit (Cavβ) plays an essential role in regulating the surface expression and gating properties of HVA Ca2+ channels. Cavβ is also crucial for the modulation of HVA Ca2+ channels by G proteins, kinases, and the Ras-related RGK GTPases. New proteins have emerged in recent years that modulate HVA Ca2+ channels by binding to Cavβ. There are also indications that Cavβ may carry out Ca2+ channel-independent functions, including directly regulating gene transcription. All four subtypes of Cavβ, encoded by different genes, have a modular organization, consisting of three variable regions, a conserved guanylate kinase (GK) domain, and a conserved Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain, placing them into the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family. Crystal structures of Cavβs reveal how they interact with Cavα1, open new research avenues, and prompt new inquiries. In this article, we review the structure and various biological functions of Cavβ, with both a historical perspective as well as an emphasis on recent advances. PMID:20959621

  16. Rescue of lethal subunits into functional K+ channels.

    PubMed Central

    Taglialatela, M; Payne, J P; Drewe, J A; Brown, A M

    1994-01-01

    In a chimeric, voltage-dependent K+ channel (CHM), the valine at position 369 and the leucine at position 374 interact within the pore or P-region to regulate ion permeation and block. Here we show that the point mutation, CHM V369L, abolished channel function whereas previous experiments showed that CHM V369 and CHM V369I are functional. Coinjection of "lethal" CHM V369L cRNA with CHM L374V cRNA but not CHM cRNA generated functional heteromultimers. The whole-cell Rb+/K+ conductance ratio was 2.98 +/- 0.43 for CHM L374V and was reduced to 0.87 +/- 0.04 for the coexpressed CHM V369L and CHM L374V subunits. When single-channel currents were recorded, a single class of CHM V369L/CHM L374V heteromultimers was identified. This class was readily distinguishable from CHM L374V homomultimers by K+ conductance, gating, and blockade by internal tetraethylammonium. Coinjection experiments at various RNA ratios suggest that the CHM V369L/CHM L374V heteromultime, assuming it to be a tetramer, was composed of three CHM L374V subunits and one CHM V369L subunit. It appears that in the critical P-region of CHM position 369 may tolerate only one leucine. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:8130337

  17. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  18. Unraveling Subunit Cooperativity in Homotetrameric HCN2 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, Klaus; Thon, Susanne; Schulz, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    In a multimeric receptor protein, the binding of a ligand can modulate the binding of a succeeding ligand. This phenomenon, called cooperativity, is caused by the interaction of the receptor subunits. By using a complex Markovian model and a set of parameters determined previously, we analyzed how the successive binding of four ligands leads to a complex cooperative interaction of the subunits in homotetrameric HCN2 pacemaker channels. The individual steps in the model were characterized by Gibbs free energies for the equilibria and activation energies, specifying the affinity of the binding sites and the transition rates, respectively. Moreover, cooperative free energies were calculated for each binding step in both the closed and the open channel. We show that the cooperativity sequence positive-negative-positive determined for the binding affinity is generated by the combined effect of very different cooperativity sequences determined for the binding and unbinding rates, which are negative-negative-positive and no-negative-no, respectively. It is concluded that in the ligand-induced activation of HCN2 channels, the sequence of cooperativity based on the binding affinity is caused by two even qualitatively different sequences of cooperativity that are based on the rates of ligand binding and unbinding. PMID:23199914

  19. The role of auxiliary subunits for the functional diversity of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent the sole mechanism to convert membrane depolarization into cellular functions like secretion, contraction, or gene regulation. VGCCs consist of a pore-forming α(1) subunit and several auxiliary channel subunits. These subunits come in multiple isoforms and splice-variants giving rise to a stunning molecular diversity of possible subunit combinations. It is generally believed that specific auxiliary subunits differentially regulate the channels and thereby contribute to the great functional diversity of VGCCs. If auxiliary subunits can associate and dissociate from pre-existing channel complexes, this would allow dynamic regulation of channel properties. However, most auxiliary subunits modulate current properties very similarly, and proof that any cellular calcium channel function is indeed modulated by the physiological exchange of auxiliary subunits is still lacking. In this review we summarize available information supporting a differential modulation of calcium channel functions by exchange of auxiliary subunits, as well as experimental evidence in support of alternative functions of the auxiliary subunits. At the heart of the discussion is the concept that, in their native environment, VGCCs function in the context of macromolecular signaling complexes and that the auxiliary subunits help to orchestrate the diverse protein-protein interactions found in these calcium channel signalosomes. Thus, in addition to a putative differential modulation of current properties, differential subcellular targeting properties and differential protein-protein interactions of the auxiliary subunits may explain the need for their vast molecular diversity.

  20. The α2δ subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Annette C

    2013-07-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels consist of the main pore-forming α1 subunit, together, except in the case of the T-type channels, with β and α2δ and sometimes γ subunits, which are collectively termed auxiliary or accessory subunits. This review will concentrate on the properties and role of the α2δ subunits of these channels. These proteins are largely extracellular, membrane-associated proteins which influence the trafficking, localization, and biophysical properties of the channels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.

  1. Voltage-gated calcium channel subunits from platyhelminths: potential role in praziquantel action.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, Michael C; Greenberg, Robert M

    2006-05-31

    Voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels provide the pathway for Ca2+ influxes that underlie Ca2+ -dependent responses in muscles, nerves and other excitable cells. They are also targets of a wide variety of drugs and toxins. Ca2+ channels are multisubunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming alpha(1) subunit and other modulatory subunits, including the beta subunit. Here, we review the structure and function of schistosome Ca2+ channel subunits, with particular emphasis on variant Ca2+ channel beta subunits (Ca(v)betavar) found in these parasites. In particular, we examine the role these beta subunits may play in the action of praziquantel, the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis. We also present evidence that Ca(v)betavar homologs are found in other praziquantel-sensitive platyhelminths such as the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and that these variant beta subunits may thus represent a platyhelminth-specific gene family.

  2. Voltage-gated calcium channel subunits from platyhelminths: Potential role in praziquantel action✩

    PubMed Central

    Jeziorski, Michael C.; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels provide the pathway for Ca2+ influxes that underlie Ca2+-dependent responses in muscles, nerves and other excitable cells. They are also targets of a wide variety of drugs and toxins. Ca2+ channels are multisubunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming α1 subunit and other modulatory subunits, including the β subunit. Here, we review the structure and function of schistosome Ca2+ channel subunits, with particular emphasis on variant Ca2+ channel β subunits (Cavβvar) found in these parasites. In particular, we examine the role these β subunits may play in the action of praziquantel, the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis. We also present evidence that Cavβvar homologs are found in other praziquantel-sensitive platyhelminths such as the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and that these variant β subunits may thus represent a platyhelminth-specific gene family. PMID:16545816

  3. Subunit-dependent effects of nickel on NMDA receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Carla; Gavazzo, Paola

    2003-10-07

    Nickel (Ni2+) is a transition metal that affects different neuronal ionic channels. We investigated its effects on glutamate channels of the NMDA-type in the presence of saturating concentration of glutamate or NMDA (50 microM), in 0 external Mg and in the continuous presence of saturating glycine (30 microM). In neonatal rat cerebellar granule cells, Ni2+ inhibited the current evoked by NMDA at -60 mV with an IC50 close to 40 microM. The inhibition was weakly voltage-dependent and the current at +40 mV was inhibited with IC50=86 microM. Wash out of the metal unmasked a stimulatory effect which persisted for a few seconds. In HEK293 cells transiently transfected with recombinant NR1a-NR2A receptors, Ni2+ inhibited the current elicited by glutamate with an IC50=52 microM at -60 mV and 90 microM at +40 mV. In HEK293 expressing NR1a-NR2B receptors, 0.1-100 microM Ni2+ caused a potentiation of the current, with EC50=4 microM, while with 300 microM, a voltage-dependent block became apparent (IC50=170 microM). As previously reported, the current through both classes of recombinant receptors was steeply dependent on external pH, and in both cases the protonic block had an IC50 close to pH 7.2. Application of Ni2+ showed that stimulation of NR1a-NR2B receptor channels was dependent on external pH, while voltage-independent inhibition of NR1a-NR2A was less sensitive to pH change. These results indicate that Ni2+ has multiple and complex effects on NMDA channels, which are largely dependent on the NR2 subunit.

  4. Subunit regulation of the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    De Waard, M; Campbell, K P

    1995-01-01

    1. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are multi-protein complexes composed of at least three subunits: alpha 1, alpha 2 delta and beta. Ba2+ currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes expressing the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Various subunit combinations were studied: alpha 1A, alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b, alpha 1A beta or alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b beta. 2. The alpha 1A subunit alone directs the expression of functional Ca2+ channels. It carries all the properties of the channel: gating, permeability, voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and pharmacology. The alpha 1A channel is activated by low voltages when physiological concentrations of the permeant cation are used. Both ancillary subunits alpha 2 delta and beta induced considerable changes in the biophysical properties of the alpha 1A current. The subunit specificity of the changes in current properties was analysed for all four beta gene products by coexpressing beta 1b, beta 2a, beta 3 and beta 4. 3. All beta subunits induce a stimulation in the current amplitude, a change in inactivation kinetics, and two hyperpolarizing shifts--one in the voltage dependence of activation and a second in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. The most significant difference in regulation among beta subunits is the induction of variable rate constants of current inactivation. Rates of inactivation were induced in the following order (fastest to slowest): beta 3 > beta 1b = beta 4 > beta 2a. 4. The alpha 2 delta b subunit does not modify the properties of alpha 1A Ca2+ channels in the absence of beta subunits. However, this subunit increases the beta-induced stimulation in current amplitude and also regulates the beta-induced change in inactivation kinetics. 5. Of all the subunit combinations tested, Ca2+ channels that included a beta subunit were the most prone to decrease in activity. It is concluded that beta subunits are the primary target for the

  5. Folding of active calcium channel beta(1b) -subunit by size-exclusion chromatography and its role on channel function.

    PubMed

    Neely, Alan; Garcia-Olivares, Jennie; Voswinkel, Stephan; Horstkott, Hannelore; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2004-05-21

    Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate the influx of Ca(2+) ions into eukaryotic cells in response to membrane depolarization. They are hetero-multimer membrane proteins formed by at least three subunits, the poreforming alpha(1)-subunit and the auxiliary beta- and alpha(2)delta-subunits. The beta-subunit is essential for channel performance because it regulates two distinct features of voltage-gated calcium channels, the surface expression and the channel activity. Four beta-subunit genes have been cloned, beta(1-4), with molecular masses ranging from 52 to 78 kDa, and several splice variants have been identified. The beta(1b)-subunit, expressed at high levels in mammalian brain, has been used extensively to study the interaction between the pore forming alpha(1)- and the regulatory beta-subunit. However, structural characterization has been impaired for its tendency to form aggregates when expressed in bacteria. We applied an on-column refolding procedure based on size exclusion chromatography to fold the beta(1b)-subunit of the voltage gated-calcium channels from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies. The beta(1b)-subunit refolds into monomers, as shown by sucrose gradient analysis, and binds to a glutathione S-transferase protein fused to the known target in the alpha(1)-subunit (the alpha-interaction domain). Using the cut-open oocyte voltage clamp technique, we measured gating and ionic currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing cardiac alpha(1)-subunit (alpha(1C)) co-injected with folded-beta(1b)-protein or beta(1b)-cRNA. We demonstrate that the co-expression of the alpha(1C)-subunit with either folded-beta(1b)-protein or beta(1b)-cRNA increases ionic currents to a similar extent and with no changes in charge movement, indicating that the beta(1b)-subunit primarily modulates channel activity, rather than expression.

  6. Redox-sensitive extracellular gates formed by auxiliary beta subunits of calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xu-Hui; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J

    2003-06-01

    An important step to understanding ion channels is identifying the structural components that act as the gates to ion movement. Here we describe a new channel gating mechanism, produced by the beta3 auxiliary subunits of Ca2+-activated, large-conductance BK-type K+ channels when expressed with their pore-forming alpha subunits. BK beta subunits have a cysteine-rich extracellular segment connecting two transmembrane segments, with small cytosolic N and C termini. The extracellular segments of the beta3 subunits form gates to block ion permeation, providing a mechanism by which current can be rapidly diminished upon cellular repolarization. Furthermore, this gating mechanism is abolished by reduction of extracellular disulfide linkages, suggesting that endogenous mechanisms may regulate this gating behavior. The results indicate that auxiliary beta subunits of BK channels reside sufficiently close to the ion permeation pathway defined by the alpha subunits to influence or block access of small molecules to the permeation pathway.

  7. The Role of Auxiliary Subunits for the Functional Diversity of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent the sole mechanism to convert membrane depolarization into cellular functions like secretion, contraction, or gene regulation. VGCCs consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit and several auxiliary channel subunits. These subunits come in multiple isoforms and splice-variants giving rise to a stunning molecular diversity of possible subunit combinations. It is generally believed that specific auxiliary subunits differentially regulate the channels and thereby contribute to the great functional diversity of VGCCs. If auxiliary subunits can associate and dissociate from pre-existing channel complexes, this would allow dynamic regulation of channel properties. However, most auxiliary subunits modulate current properties very similarly, and proof that any cellular calcium channel function is indeed modulated by the physiological exchange of auxiliary subunits is still lacking. In this review we summarize available information supporting a differential modulation of calcium channel functions by exchange of auxiliary subunits, as well as experimental evidence in support of alternative functions of the auxiliary subunits. At the heart of the discussion is the concept that, in their native environment, VGCCs function in the context of macromolecular signaling complexes and that the auxiliary subunits help to orchestrate the diverse protein–protein interactions found in these calcium channel signalosomes. Thus, in addition to a putative differential modulation of current properties, differential subcellular targeting properties and differential protein–protein interactions of the auxiliary subunits may explain the need for their vast molecular diversity. J. Cell. Physiol. 999: 00–00, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2019–2031, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25820299

  8. Ca(2+) channel inactivation heterogeneity reveals physiological unbinding of auxiliary beta subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Restituito, S; Cens, T; Rousset, M; Charnet, P

    2001-01-01

    Voltage gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) auxiliary beta subunits increase membrane expression of the main pore-forming alpha(1) subunits and finely tune channel activation and inactivation properties. In expression studies, co-expression of beta subunits also reduced neuronal Ca(2+) channel regulation by heterotrimeric G protein. Biochemical studies suggest that VGCC beta subunits and G protein betagamma can compete for overlapping interaction sites on VGCC alpha(1) subunits, suggesting a dynamic association of these subunits with alpha(1). In this work we have analyzed the stability of the alpha(1)/beta association under physiological conditions. Regulation of the alpha(1A) Ca(2+) channel inactivation properties by beta(1b) and beta(2a) subunits had two major effects: a shift in voltage-dependent inactivation (E(in)), and an increase of the non-inactivating current (R(in)). Unexpectedly, large variations in magnitude of the effects were recorded on E(in), when beta(1b) was expressed, and R(in), when beta(2a) was expressed. These variations were not proportional to the current amplitude, and occurred at similar levels of beta subunit expression. beta(2a)-induced variations of R(in) were, however, inversely proportional to the magnitude of G protein block. These data underline the two different mechanisms used by beta(1b) and beta(2a) to regulate channel inactivation, and suggest that the VGCC beta subunit can unbind the alpha1 subunit in physiological situations. PMID:11423397

  9. Regulation of Voltage-Activated K(+) Channel Gating by Transmembrane β Subunits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohui; Zaydman, Mark A; Cui, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-activated K(+) (K(V)) channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. K(V) channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD) surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many K(V) channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the K(V) β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM) segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of K(V) α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening, and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into K(V) channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  10. Cell- and subunit-specific mechanisms of CNG channel ciliary trafficking and localization in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyniak, Martin; Brear, Andrea G.; O'Halloran, Damien M.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Summary Primary cilia are ubiquitous sensory organelles that concentrate transmembrane signaling proteins essential for sensing environmental cues. Mislocalization of crucial ciliary signaling proteins, such as the tetrameric cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, can lead to cellular dysfunction and disease. Although several cis- and trans-acting factors required for ciliary protein trafficking and localization have been identified, whether these mechanisms act in a protein- and cell-specific manner is largely unknown. Here, we show that CNG channel subunits can be localized to discrete ciliary compartments in individual sensory neurons in C. elegans, suggesting that channel composition is heterogeneous across the cilium. We demonstrate that ciliary localization of CNG channel subunits is interdependent on different channel subunits in specific cells, and identify sequences required for efficient ciliary targeting and localization of the TAX-2 CNGB and TAX-4 CNGA subunits. Using a candidate gene approach, we show that Inversin, transition zone proteins, intraflagellar transport motors and a MYND-domain protein are required to traffic and/or localize CNG channel subunits in both a cell- and channel subunit-specific manner. We further find that TAX-2 and TAX-4 are relatively immobile in specific sensory cilia subcompartments, suggesting that these proteins undergo minimal turnover in these domains in mature cilia. Our results uncover unexpected diversity in the mechanisms that traffic and localize CNG channel subunits to cilia both within and across cell types, highlighting the essential contribution of this process to cellular functions. PMID:23886944

  11. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  12. Crystal structure and molecular imaging of the Nav channel β3 subunit indicates a trimeric assembly.

    PubMed

    Namadurai, Sivakumar; Balasuriya, Dilshan; Rajappa, Rajit; Wiemhöfer, Martin; Stott, Katherine; Klingauf, Jurgen; Edwardson, J Michael; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Jackson, Antony P

    2014-04-11

    The vertebrate sodium (Nav) channel is composed of an ion-conducting α subunit and associated β subunits. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human β3 subunit immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, a functionally important component of Nav channels in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Surprisingly, we found that the β3 subunit Ig domain assembles as a trimer in the crystal asymmetric unit. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirmed the presence of Ig domain monomers, dimers, and trimers in free solution, and atomic force microscopy imaging also detected full-length β3 subunit monomers, dimers, and trimers. Mutation of a cysteine residue critical for maintaining the trimer interface destabilized both dimers and trimers. Using fluorescence photoactivated localization microscopy, we detected full-length β3 subunit trimers on the plasma membrane of transfected HEK293 cells. We further show that β3 subunits can bind to more than one site on the Nav 1.5 α subunit and induce the formation of α subunit oligomers, including trimers. Our results suggest a new and unexpected role for the β3 subunits in Nav channel cross-linking and provide new structural insights into some pathological Nav channel mutations.

  13. Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minyoung; Brager, Darrin; Jaramillo, Thomas C.; Johnston, Daniel; Chetkovich, Dane M.

    2008-01-01

    Many animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) begin with status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. Increased hippocampal pyramidal neuron excitability may contribute to seizures in TLE. Ih, mediated by h channels, regulates intrinsic membrane excitability by modulating synaptic integration and dampening dendritic calcium signaling. In a rat model of TLE, we found bidirectional changes in h channel function in CA1 pyramidal neurons. 1–2 days after SE, before onset of spontaneous seizures, physiological parameters dependent upon h channels were augmented and h channel subunit surface expression was increased. 28–30 days following SE, after onset of spontaneous seizures, h channel function in dendrites was reduced, coupled with diminished h channel subunit surface expression and relocalization of subunits from distal dendrites to soma. These results implicate h channel localization as a molecular mechanism influencing CA1 excitability in TLE. PMID:18657617

  14. The glycosylation of the extracellular loop of β2 subunits diversifies functional phenotypes of BK Channels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Hao-Wen; Yan, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Lu-Yang; Ding, Jiu-Ping

    2017-03-04

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated potassium (MaxiK or BK) channels are composed of a pore-forming α subunit (Slo) and 4 types of auxiliary β subunits or just a pore-forming α subunit. Although multiple N-linked glycosylation sites in the extracellular loop of β subunits have been identified, very little is known about how glycosylation influences the structure and function of BK channels. Using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, western blot and patch-clamp recordings, we demonstrated that 3 sites in the extracellular loop of β2 subunit are N-glycosylated (N-X-T/S at N88, N96 and N119). Glycosylation of these sites strongly and differentially regulate gating kinetics, outward rectification, toxin sensitivity and physical association between the α and β2 subunits. We constructed a model and used molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate how the glycosylation facilitates the association of α/β2 subunits and modulates the dimension of the extracellular cavum above the pore of the channel, ultimately to modify biophysical and pharmacological properties of BK channels. Our results suggest that N-glycosylation of β2 subunits plays crucial roles in imparting functional heterogeneity of BK channels, and is potentially involved in the pathological phenotypes of carbohydrate metabolic diseases.

  15. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Yolima P.; Granados, Sara T.; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above. PMID:25346693

  16. Kir3 channel ontogeny – the role of Gβγ subunits in channel assembly and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zylbergold, Peter; Sleno, Rory; Khan, Shahriar M.; Jacobi, Ashley M.; Belhke, Mark A.; Hébert, Terence E.

    2014-01-01

    The role of Gβγ subunits in Kir3 channel gating is well characterized. Here, we have studied the role of Gβγ dimers during their initial contact with Kir3 channels, prior to their insertion into the plasma membrane. We show that distinct Gβγ subunits play an important role in orchestrating and fine-tuning parts of the Kir3 channel life cycle. Gβ1γ2, apart from its role in channel opening that it shares with other Gβγ subunit combinations, may play a unique role in protecting maturing channels from degradation as they transit to the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that Gβ1γ2 prolongs the lifetime of the Kir3.1/Kir3.2 heterotetramer, although further studies would be required to shed more light on these early Gβγ effects on Kir3 maturation and trafficking. PMID:24782712

  17. Functional regulation of BK potassium channels by γ1 auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, Vivian; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Many K(+) channels are oligomeric complexes with intrinsic structural symmetry arising from the homo-tetrameric core of their pore-forming subunits. Allosteric regulation of tetramerically symmetric proteins, whether by intrinsic sensing domains or associated auxiliary subunits, often mirrors the fourfold structural symmetry. Here, through patch-clamp recordings of channel population ensembles and also single channels, we examine regulation of the Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel by associated γ1-subunits. Through expression of differing ratios of γ1:α-subunits, the results reveal an all-or-none functional regulation of BK channels by γ-subunits: channels either exhibit a full gating shift or no shift at all. Furthermore, the γ1-induced shift exhibits a state-dependent labile behavior that recapitulates the fully shifted or unshifted behavior. The γ1-induced shift contrasts markedly to the incremental shifts in BK gating produced by 1-4 β-subunits and adds a new layer of complexity to the mechanisms by which BK channel functional diversity is generated.

  18. Energetic Contributions to Channel Gating of Residues in the Muscle Nicotinic Receptor β1 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Gustav; Eaton, Megan; Li, Ping; Zheng, Steven; Lo, Joshua; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2013-01-01

    In the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, transmitter binds in the extracellular domain and conformational changes result in channel opening in the transmembrane domain. In the muscle nicotinic receptor and other heteromeric members of the family one subunit does not contribute to the canonical agonist binding site for transmitter. A fundamental question is whether conformational changes occur in this subunit. We used records of single channel activity and rate-equilibrium free energy relationships to examine the β1 (non-ACh-binding) subunit of the muscle nicotinic receptor. Mutations to residues in the extracellular domain have minimal effects on the gating equilibrium constant. Positions in the channel lining (M2 transmembrane) domain contribute strongly and relatively late during gating. Positions thought to be important in other subunits in coupling the transmitter-binding to the channel domains have minimal effects on gating. We conclude that the conformational changes involved in channel gating propagate from the binding-site to the channel in the ACh-binding subunits and subsequently spread to the non-binding subunit. PMID:24194945

  19. Functional regulation of BK potassium channels by γ1 auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Vivian; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Many K+ channels are oligomeric complexes with intrinsic structural symmetry arising from the homo-tetrameric core of their pore-forming subunits. Allosteric regulation of tetramerically symmetric proteins, whether by intrinsic sensing domains or associated auxiliary subunits, often mirrors the fourfold structural symmetry. Here, through patch-clamp recordings of channel population ensembles and also single channels, we examine regulation of the Ca2+- and voltage-activated large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel by associated γ1-subunits. Through expression of differing ratios of γ1:α-subunits, the results reveal an all-or-none functional regulation of BK channels by γ-subunits: channels either exhibit a full gating shift or no shift at all. Furthermore, the γ1-induced shift exhibits a state-dependent labile behavior that recapitulates the fully shifted or unshifted behavior. The γ1-induced shift contrasts markedly to the incremental shifts in BK gating produced by 1–4 β-subunits and adds a new layer of complexity to the mechanisms by which BK channel functional diversity is generated. PMID:24639523

  20. Temporal expression of calcium channel subunits in satellite cells and bone marrow mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Grajales, Liliana; Lach, Lawrence E; Janisch, Patrick; Geenen, David L; García, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be differentiated into myocytes, as well as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes in culture. Calcium channels mediate excitation-contraction coupling and are essential for the function of muscle. However, little is known about the expression of calcium channel subunits and calcium handling in stem cells. We examined whether the expression of calcium channel subunits in MSC is similar to that of skeletal muscle satellite cells and if their levels of expression are modified after treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). We found that during myogenic differentiation, MSC first express the α2δ1 subunit and the cardiac channel subunit Cav1.2. In contrast to the α2δ1 subunit levels, the Cav1.2 subunit decreases rapidly with time. The skeletal channel subunit Cav1.1 is detected at day 3 but its expression increases considerably, resembling more closely the expression of the subunits in satellite cells. Treatment of MSC with BMP4 caused a significant increase in expression of Cav1.2, a delay in expression of Cav1.1, and a reduction in the duration of calcium transients when extracellular calcium was removed. Calcium currents and transients followed a pattern related to the expression of the cardiac (Cav1.2) or skeletal (Cav1.1) α1subunits. These results indicate that differentiation of untreated MSC resembles differentiation of skeletal muscle and that BMP4 reduces skeletal muscle calcium channel expression and promotes the expression of cardiac calcium channels during myogenic differentiation.

  1. Electrophysiology and beyond: multiple roles of Na+ channel β subunits in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Patino, Gustavo A; Isom, Lori L

    2010-12-10

    Voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) β Subunits are not "auxiliary." These multi-functional molecules not only modulate Na+ current (I(Na)), but also function as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)-playing roles in aggregation, migration, invasion, neurite outgrowth, and axonal fasciculation. β subunits are integral members of VGSC signaling complexes at nodes of Ranvier, axon initial segments, and cardiac intercalated disks, regulating action potential propagation through critical intermolecular and cell-cell communication events. At least in vitro, many β subunit cell adhesive functions occur both in the presence and absence of pore-forming VGSC α subunits, and in vivo β subunits are expressed in excitable as well as non-excitable cells, thus β subunits may play important functional roles on their own, in the absence of α subunits. VGSC β1 subunits are essential for life and appear to be especially important during brain development. Mutations in β subunit genes result in a variety of human neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, some cancer cells exhibit alterations in β subunit expression during metastasis. In short, these proteins, originally thought of as merely accessory to α subunits, are critical players in their own right in human health and disease. Here we discuss the role of VGSC β subunits in the nervous system.

  2. Relationship between auxiliary gamma subunits and mallotoxin on BK channel modulation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xin; Li, Qin; Yan, Jiusheng

    2017-01-01

    The large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated K+(BK) channel consists of the pore-forming α subunits (BKα) and auxiliary subunits. The auxiliary γ1-3 subunits potently modulate the BK channel by shifting its voltage-dependence of channel activation toward the hyperpolarizing direction by approximately 145 mV (γ1), 100 mV (γ2), and 50 mV (γ3). Mallotoxin is a potent small-molecule BK channel activator. We analyzed the relationship between mallotoxin and the γ subunits in their BK channel-activating effects in membrane patches excised from HEK-293 cells. We found that mallotoxin, when applied extracellularly, shifted the half-activation voltage (V1/2) of BKα channels by −72 mV. The channel-activating effect of mallotoxin was greatly attenuated in the presence of the γ1, γ2, or γ3 subunit, with resultant ΔV1/2 (+/− mallotoxin) values of −9, −28, or −15 mV, respectively. Most examined γ1 mutant subunits antagonized mallotoxin’s channel-activating effect in a manner that was largely dependent on its own modulatory function. However, mallotoxin caused an irreversible functional and structural disengagement of the γ1-F273S mutant from BK channels. We infer that the auxiliary γ subunit effectively interferes with mallotoxin on BK channel modulation via either a direct steric competition or an indirect allosteric influence on mallotoxin’s binding and action on BKα. PMID:28165042

  3. Functional characterization of Kv channel beta-subunits from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, S H; Rettig, J; Graack, H R; Pongs, O

    1996-01-01

    1. The potassium channel beta-subunit from rat brain, Kv beta 1.1, is known to induce inactivation of the delayed rectifier channel Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 delta 1-110. 2. Kv beta 1.1 was co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with various other potassium channel alpha-subunits. Kv beta 1.1 induced inactivation in members of the Kv1 subfamily with the exception of Kv 1.6; no inactivation of Kv 2.1, Kv 3.4 delta 2-28 and Kv4.1 channels could be observed. 3. The second member of the beta-subunit subfamily, Kv beta 2, had a shorter N-terminal end, accelerated inactivation of the A-type channel Kv 1.4, but did not induce inactivation when co-expressed with delayed rectifiers of the Kv1 channel family. 4. To test whether this subunit co-assembles with Kv alpha-subunits, the N-terminal inactivating domains of Kv beta 1.1 and Kv beta 3 were spliced to the N-terminus of Kv beta 2. The chimaeric beta-subunits (beta 1/ beta 2 and beta 3/ beta 2) induced fast inactivation of several Kv1 channels, indicating that Kv beta 2 associates with these alpha-subunits. No inactivation was induced in Kv 1.3, Kv 1.6, Kv2.1 and Kv3.4 delta 2-28 channels. 5. Kv beta 2 caused a voltage shift in the activation threshold of Kv1.5 of about -10 mV, indicating a putative physiological role. Kv beta 2 had a smaller effect on Kv 1.1 channels. 6. Kv beta 2 accelerated the activation time course of Kv1.5 but had no marked effect on channel deactivation. PMID:8799886

  4. Functional characterization of Kv channel beta-subunits from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, S H; Rettig, J; Graack, H R; Pongs, O

    1996-06-15

    1. The potassium channel beta-subunit from rat brain, Kv beta 1.1, is known to induce inactivation of the delayed rectifier channel Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 delta 1-110. 2. Kv beta 1.1 was co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with various other potassium channel alpha-subunits. Kv beta 1.1 induced inactivation in members of the Kv1 subfamily with the exception of Kv 1.6; no inactivation of Kv 2.1, Kv 3.4 delta 2-28 and Kv4.1 channels could be observed. 3. The second member of the beta-subunit subfamily, Kv beta 2, had a shorter N-terminal end, accelerated inactivation of the A-type channel Kv 1.4, but did not induce inactivation when co-expressed with delayed rectifiers of the Kv1 channel family. 4. To test whether this subunit co-assembles with Kv alpha-subunits, the N-terminal inactivating domains of Kv beta 1.1 and Kv beta 3 were spliced to the N-terminus of Kv beta 2. The chimaeric beta-subunits (beta 1/ beta 2 and beta 3/ beta 2) induced fast inactivation of several Kv1 channels, indicating that Kv beta 2 associates with these alpha-subunits. No inactivation was induced in Kv 1.3, Kv 1.6, Kv2.1 and Kv3.4 delta 2-28 channels. 5. Kv beta 2 caused a voltage shift in the activation threshold of Kv1.5 of about -10 mV, indicating a putative physiological role. Kv beta 2 had a smaller effect on Kv 1.1 channels. 6. Kv beta 2 accelerated the activation time course of Kv1.5 but had no marked effect on channel deactivation.

  5. Mechanism of Auxiliary Subunit Modulation of Neuronal α1E Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lisa P.; Wei, Shao-kui; Yue, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are composed of a main pore-forming α1 moiety, and one or more auxiliary subunits (β, α2δ) that modulate channel properties. Because modulatory properties may vary greatly with different channels, expression systems, and protocols, it is advantageous to study subunit regulation with a uniform experimental strategy. Here, in HEK 293 cells, we examine the expression and activation gating of α1E calcium channels in combination with a β (β1–β4) and/or the α2δ subunit, exploiting both ionic- and gating-current measurements. Furthermore, to explore whether more than one auxiliary subunit can concomitantly specify gating properties, we investigate the effects of cotransfecting α2δ with β subunits, of transfecting two different β subunits simultaneously, and of COOH-terminal truncation of α1E to remove a second β binding site. The main results are as follows. (a) The α2δ and β subunits modulate α1E in fundamentally different ways. The sole effect of α2δ is to increase current density by elevating channel density. By contrast, though β subunits also increase functional channel number, they also enhance maximum open probability (Gmax/Qmax) and hyperpolarize the voltage dependence of ionic-current activation and gating-charge movement, all without discernible effect on activation kinetics. Different β isoforms produce nearly indistinguishable effects on activation. However, β subunits produced clear, isoform-specific effects on inactivation properties. (b) All the β subunit effects can be explained by a gating model in which subunits act only on weakly voltage-dependent steps near the open state. (c) We find no clear evidence for simultaneous modulation by two different β subunits. (d) The modulatory features found here for α1E do not generalize uniformly to other α1 channel types, as α1C activation gating shows marked β isoform dependence that is absent for α1E. Together, these results help to establish a more

  6. SUMOylation silences heterodimeric TASK potassium channels containing K2P1 subunits in cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Plant, Leigh D; Zuniga, Leandro; Araki, Dan; Marks, Jeremy D; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2012-11-20

    The standing outward K(+) current (IKso) governs the response of cerebellar granule neurons to natural and medicinal stimuli including volatile anesthetics. We showed that SUMOylation silenced half of IKso at the surface of cerebellar granule neurons because the underlying channels were heterodimeric assemblies of K2P1, a subunit subject to SUMOylation, and the TASK (two-P domain, acid-sensitive K(+)) channel subunits K2P3 or K2P9. The heterodimeric channels comprised the acid-sensitive portion of IKso and mediated its response to halothane. We anticipate that SUMOylation also influences sensation and homeostatic mechanisms in mammals through TASK channels formed with K2P1.

  7. Cloning and functional expression of a voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunit from jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, M C; Greenberg, R M; Clark, K S; Anderson, P A

    1998-08-28

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in vertebrates comprise at least seven molecular subtypes, each of which produces a current with distinct kinetics and pharmacology. Although several invertebrate Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunits have also been cloned, their functional characteristics remain unclear, as heterologous expression of a full-length invertebrate channel has not previously been reported. We have cloned a cDNA encoding the alpha1 subunit of a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel from the scyphozoan jellyfish Cyanea capillata, one of the earliest existing organisms to possess neural and muscle tissue. The deduced amino acid sequence of this subunit, named CyCaalpha1, is more similar to vertebrate L-type channels (alpha1S, alpha1C, and alpha1D) than to non-L-type channels (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1E) or low voltage-activated channels (alpha1G). Expression of CyCaalpha1 in Xenopus oocytes produces a high voltage-activated Ca2+ current that, unlike vertebrate L-type currents, is only weakly sensitive to 1,4-dihydropyridine or phenylalkylamine Ca2+ channel blockers and is not potentiated by the agonist S(-)-BayK 8644. In addition, the channel is less permeable to Ba2+ than to Ca2+ and is more permeable to Sr2+. CyCaalpha1 thus represents an ancestral L-type alpha1 subunit with significant functional differences from mammalian L-type channels.

  8. Probing the proton channels in subunit N of Complex I from Escherichia coli through intra-subunit cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Tursun, Ablat; Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2016-12-01

    Respiratory Complex I appears to have 4 sites for proton translocation, which are coupled to the oxidation of NADH and reduction of coenzyme Q. The proton pathways are thought to be made of offset half-channels that connect to the membrane surfaces, and are connected by a horizontal path through the center of the membrane. In this study of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, subunit N, containing one of the sites, was targeted. Pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into neighboring α-helices along the proposed proton pathways. In an effort to constrain conformational changes that might occur during proton translocation, we attempted to form disulfide bonds or methanethiosulfonate bridges between two engineered cysteine residues. Cysteine modification was inferred by the inability of PEG-maleimide to shift the electrophoretic mobility of subunit N, which will occur upon reaction with free sulfhydryl groups. After the cross-linking treatment, NADH oxidase and NADH-driven proton translocation were measured. Ten different pairs of cysteine residues showed evidence of cross-linking. The most significant loss of enzyme activity was seen for residues near the essential Lys 395. This residue is positioned between the proposed proton half-channel to the periplasm and the horizontal connection through subunit N, and is also near the essential Glu 144 of subunit M. The results suggest important conformational changes in this region for the delivery of protons to the periplasm, or for coupling the actions of subunit N to subunit M. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined single channel and single molecule detection identifies subunit composition of STIM1-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels.

    PubMed

    Asanov, Alexander; Sampieri, Alicia; Moreno, Claudia; Pacheco, Jonathan; Salgado, Alfonso; Sherry, Ryan; Vaca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium ion stores initiates a rapid cascade of events culminating with the activation of the so-called Store-Operated Channels (SOC) at the plasma membrane. Calcium influx via SOC is essential in the initiation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling and for the refilling of internal calcium stores, ensuring the regeneration of the signaling cascade. In spite of the significance of this evolutionary conserved mechanism, the molecular identity of SOC has been the center of a heated controversy spanning over the last 20 years. Initial studies positioned some members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel superfamily of channels (with the more robust evidence pointing to TRPC1) as a putative SOC. Recent evidence indicates that Stromal Interacting Molecule 1 (STIM1) activates some members from the TRPC family of channels. However, the exact subunit composition of TRPC channels remains undetermined to this date. To identify the subunit composition of STIM1-activated TRPC channels, we developed novel method, which combines single channel electrophysiological measurements based on the patch clamp technique with single molecule fluorescence imaging. We termed this method Single ion Channel Single Molecule Detection technique (SC-SMD). Using SC-SMD method, we have obtained direct evidence of the subunit composition of TRPC channels activated by STIM1. Furthermore, our electrophysiological-imaging SC-SMD method provides evidence at the molecular level of the mechanism by which STIM1 and calmodulin antagonize to modulate TRPC channel activity.

  10. Three homologous subunits form a high affinity peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Dürrnagel, Stefan; Kuhn, Anne; Tsiairis, Charisios D; Williamson, Michael; Kalbacher, Hubert; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Holstein, Thomas W; Gründer, Stefan

    2010-04-16

    Recently, three ion channel subunits of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene family have been cloned from the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata, the Hydra Na(+) channels (HyNaCs) 2-4. Two of them, HyNaC2 and HyNaC3, co-assemble to form an ion channel that is gated by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II. The HyNaC2/3 channel is so far the only cloned ionotropic receptor from cnidarians and, together with the related ionotropic receptor FMRFamide-activated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) from snails, the only known peptide-gated ionotropic receptor. The HyNaC2/3 channel has pore properties, like a low Na(+) selectivity and a low amiloride affinity, that are different from other channels of the DEG/ENaC gene family, suggesting that a component of the native Hydra channel might still be lacking. Here, we report the cloning of a new ion channel subunit from Hydra, HyNaC5. The new subunit is closely related to HyNaC2 and -3 and co-localizes with HyNaC2 and -3 to the base of the tentacles. Coexpression in Xenopus oocytes of HyNaC5 with HyNaC2 and -3 largely increases current amplitude after peptide stimulation and affinity of the channel to Hydra-RFamides I and II. Moreover, the HyNaC2/3/5 channel has altered pore properties and amiloride affinity, more similarly to other DEG/ENaC channels. Collectively, our results suggest that the three homologous subunits HyNaC2, -3, and -5 form a peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra that could contribute to fast synaptic transmission.

  11. SUR2A C-terminal fragments reduce KATP currents and ischaemic tolerance of rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, RD; Lodwick, D; Hudman, D; Davies, NW; Norman, RI; Standen, NB

    2004-01-01

    C-terminal fragments of the sulphonylurea receptor SUR2A can alter the functional expression of cloned ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP). To investigate the protective role of KATP channels during metabolic stress we transfected SUR2A fragments into adult rat cardiac myocytes. A fragment comprising residues 1294–1358, the A-fragment, reduced sarcolemmal KATP currents by over 85% after 2 days (pinacidil-activated current densities were: vector alone 7.04 ± 1.22; and A-fragment 0.94 ± 0.07 pA pF−1, n = 6,6, P < 0.001). An inactive fragment (1358–1545, current density 6.30 ± 0.85 pA pF−1, n = 6) was used as a control. During metabolic inhibition (CN and iodoacetate) of isolated myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz, the A-fragment delayed action potential shortening and contractile failure, but accelerated rigor contraction and increased Ca2+ loading. On reperfusion, A-fragment-transfected cells also showed increased intracellular Ca2+ and the proportion of cells recovering contractile function was reduced from 40.0 to 9.5% (P < 0.01). The protective effect of pretreatment with 2,4-dinitrophenol, measured from increased functional recovery and reduced Ca2+ loading, was abolished by the A-fragment. Our data are consistent with a role for KATP channels in causing action potential failure and reduced Ca2+ loading during metabolic stress, and with a major role in protection by preconditioning. The effects of the A-fragment may arise entirely from reduced expression of the sarcolemmal KATP channel, but we also discuss the possibility of mitochondrial effects. PMID:15020694

  12. Distinctive biophysical and pharmacological properties of class A (BI) calcium channel alpha 1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Sather, W A; Tanabe, T; Zhang, J F; Mori, Y; Adams, M E; Tsien, R W

    1993-08-01

    Transcripts for the class A Ca2+ channel alpha 1 subunit (also known as BI) are present at high levels in many parts of the mammalian CNS and are widely assumed to encode the P-type Ca2+ channel. To characterize the biophysical and pharmacological properties of alpha 1A channels, macroscopic and single-channel recordings were made in Xenopus oocytes injected with alpha 1A cRNA. alpha 1-specific properties were identified by making systematic comparisons with the more familiar class C alpha 1 subunit under the condition of a standard ancillary subunit (alpha 2/delta + beta) makeup. alpha 1A currents activate and inactivate more rapidly and display steeper voltage dependence of gating than alpha 1C currents. Unlike alpha 1C, alpha 1A channels are largely insensitive to dihydropyridines and FPL 64176, but respond to the cone snail peptide omega-CTx-MVIIC(SNX-230), a potent and fairly selective inhibitor. In comparison with P-type Ca2+ channels in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells, alpha 1A channels in oocytes are approximately 10(2)-fold less sensitive to omega-Aga-IVA and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to omega-CTx-MVIIC. alpha 1A channels are not inhibited by Bay K 8644 and inactivate much more rapidly than P-type Ca2+ channels. Thus, alpha 1A is capable of generating a Ca2+ channel phenotype quite different from P-type current.

  13. Functional protein expression of multiple sodium channel alpha- and beta-subunit isoforms in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Susann G; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Zechner, Christoph; Maass, Alexander H; Bischoff, Sebastian; Muck, Jenny; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Scheuer, Todd; Maier, Sebastian K G

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are composed of pore-forming alpha- and auxiliary beta-subunits and are responsible for the rapid depolarization of cardiac action potentials. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunits are expressed in the heart in addition to the predominant cardiac TTX-resistant Na(v)1.5 sodium channel alpha-subunit. These TTX-sensitive isoforms are preferentially localized in the transverse tubules of rodents. Since neonatal cardiomyocytes have yet to develop transverse tubules, we determined the complement of sodium channel subunits expressed in these cells. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were stained with antibodies specific for individual isoforms of sodium channel alpha- and beta-subunits. alpha-actinin, a component of the z-line, was used as an intracellular marker of sarcomere boundaries. TTX-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit isoforms Na(v)1.1, Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.3, Na(v)1.4 and Na(v)1.6 were detected in neonatal rat heart but at levels reduced compared to the predominant cardiac alpha-subunit isoform, Na(v)1.5. Each of the beta-subunit isoforms (beta1-beta4) was also expressed in neonatal cardiac cells. In contrast to adult cardiomyocytes, the alpha-subunits are distributed in punctate clusters across the membrane surface of neonatal cardiomyocytes; no isoform-specific subcellular localization is observed. Voltage clamp recordings in the absence and presence of 20 nM TTX provided functional evidence for the presence of TTX-sensitive sodium current in neonatal ventricular myocardium which represents between 20 and 30% of the current, depending on membrane potential and experimental conditions. Thus, as in the adult heart, a range of sodium channel alpha-subunits are expressed in neonatal myocytes in addition to the predominant TTX-resistant Na(v)1.5 alpha-subunit and they contribute to the total sodium current.

  14. Evans blue is a specific antagonist of the human epithelial Na+ channel delta-subunit.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hisao; Ugawa, Shinya; Ueda, Takashi; Shimada, Shoichi

    2005-11-01

    The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) regulates Na(+) homeostasis in cells and across epithelia. Four homologous ENaC subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) have been isolated in mammals. Combination of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits or delta-, beta-, and gamma-subunits forms fully functional channels. Amiloride is a well known blocker of the ENaC family that inhibits both channel complexes. However, no specific antagonists are currently known that distinguish them. Here, we show that Evans blue, a diagnostic aid for the measurement of blood volume and vascular permeability, inhibits the activity of the delta-subunit expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The inward currents at a holding potential of -60 mV in human ENaCdeltabetagamma-expressing oocytes were inhibited by the application of Evans blue in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 143 muM. Evans blue markedly inhibited the delta-subunit current but did not block the alpha-subunit current. In conclusion, Evans blue is the first known delta-subunit-specific antagonist of ENaC. This finding provides us with a key compound for elucidating the physiological and pathological functions of ENaCdelta in humans and for drug development in the ENaC family.

  15. Atypical properties of a conventional calcium channel beta subunit from the platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Recatalà, Vicenta; Schneider, Toni; Greenberg, Robert M

    2008-03-26

    The function of voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels greatly depends on coupling to cytoplasmic accessory beta subunits, which not only promote surface expression, but also modulate gating and kinetic properties of the alpha1 subunit. Schistosomes, parasitic platyhelminths that cause schistosomiasis, express two beta subunit subtypes: a structurally conventional beta subunit and a variant beta subunit with unusual functional properties. We have previously characterized the functional properties of the variant Cavbeta subunit. Here, we focus on the modulatory phenotype of the conventional Cavbeta subunit (SmCavbeta) using the human Cav2.3 channel as the substrate for SmCavbeta and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The conventional Schistosoma mansoni Cavbeta subunit markedly increases Cav2.3 currents, slows macroscopic inactivation and shifts steady state inactivation in the hyperpolarizing direction. However, currents produced by Cav2.3 in the presence of SmCavbeta run-down to approximately 75% of their initial amplitudes within two minutes of establishing the whole-cell configuration. This suppressive effect was independent of Ca2+, but dependent on intracellular Mg2+-ATP. Additional experiments revealed that SmCavbeta lends the Cav2.3/SmCavbeta complex sensitivity to Na+ ions. A mutant version of the Cavbeta subunit lacking the first forty-six amino acids, including a string of twenty-two acidic residues, no longer conferred sensitivity to intracellular Mg2+-ATP and Na+ ions, while continuing to show wild type modulation of current amplitude and inactivation of Cav2.3. The data presented in this article provide insights into novel mechanisms employed by platyhelminth Cavbeta subunits to modulate voltage-gated Ca2+ currents that indicate interactions between the Ca2+ channel complex and chelated forms of ATP as well as Na+ ions. These results have potentially important implications for understanding previously unknown mechanisms by which platyhelminths and

  16. Skeletal muscle sodium channel is affected by an epileptogenic beta1 subunit mutation.

    PubMed

    Moran, O; Conti, F

    2001-03-23

    The syndrome of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus type 1 (GEFS+) has been associated to the gene SCN1B coding for the sodium channel beta1 subunit (Wallace, R. H. et al. (1998) Nature Genetics 19, 366-370). In patients, a mutation of the cysteine 121 to trpyptophane (C121W) would cause a lack of modulatory activity of the beta1 subunit on sodium channels expressed in the brain, rendering neurons hyperexcitable. We have confirmed that the normal beta1-modulation of type-IIA adult brain alpha subunits (BIIA) expressed in frog oocytes is defective in C121W. We observed that the mixture of wild-type and mutant beta1 subunits is less effective than wild-type alone, suggesting that the mutant beta1 subunit does bind the alpha subunit. However, we also observed a similar lack of modulation by C121W of the in adult skeletal muscle alpha subunit (SkM1). This finding is in contrast with the simple idea that the mutational effect observed in the oocyte expression system is the principal physiopathological correlate of GEFS+, because no skeletal muscle symptoms have been reported in GEFS+ patients. We conclude that the manifestation of the pathological phenotype is conditioned by the presence of susceptibility genes and/or that the frog oocyte expression system is inadequate for the study of the mutant beta1 subunit physiopathology.

  17. Two classes of regulatory subunits coassemble in the same BK channel and independently regulate gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Vivian; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J.

    2015-09-01

    High resolution proteomics increasingly reveals that most native ion channels are assembled in macromolecular complexes. However, whether different partners have additive or cooperative functional effects, or whether some combinations of proteins may preclude assembly of others are largely unexplored topics. The large conductance Ca2+-and-voltage activated potassium channel (BK) is well-suited to discern nuanced differences in regulation arising from combinations of subunits. Here we examine whether assembly of two different classes of regulatory proteins, β and γ, in BK channels is exclusive or independent. Our results show that both γ1 and up to four β2-subunits can coexist in the same functional BK complex, with the gating shift caused by β2-subunits largely additive with that produced by the γ1-subunit(s). The multiplicity of β:γ combinations that can participate in a BK complex therefore allow a range of BK channels with distinct functional properties tuned by the specific stoichiometry of the contributing subunits.

  18. Multi-site Phosphorylation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel α Subunits from Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berendt, Frank J.; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of ion channels underlies cellular plasticity in mammalian neurons. Voltage-gated sodium or Nav channels underlie action potential initiation and propagation, dendritic excitability, and many other aspects of neuronal excitability. Various protein kinases have been suggested to phosphorylate the primary α subunit of Nav channels, affecting diverse aspects of channel function. Previous studies of Nav α subunit phosphorylation have led to the identification of a small set of phosphorylation sites important in meditating aspects of Nav channel function. Here we use nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS) on Nav α subunits affinity-purified from rat brain with two distinct monoclonal antibodies to identify 15 phosphorylation sites on Nav1.2, 12 of which have not been previously reported. We also found 3 novel phosphorylation sites on Nav1.1. In general, commonly used phosphorylation site prediction algorithms did not accurately predict these novel in vivo phosphorylation sites. Our results demonstrate that specific Nav α subunits isolated from rat brain are highly phosphorylated, and suggest extensive modulation of Nav channel activity in mammalian brain. Identification of phosphorylation sites using monoclonal antibody-based immunopurification and mass spectrometry is an effective approach to define the phosphorylation status of Nav channels and important membrane proteins in mammalian brain. PMID:20131913

  19. Science Signaling Podcast for 9 May 2017: Trafficking of BK channel subunits in arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Jaggar, Jonathan H; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2017-05-09

    This Podcast features a conversation with Jonathan Jaggar, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 9 May 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about trafficking of big potassium (BK) channel subunits in arterial myocytes. Depolarization of the arterial myocyte membrane causes a rise in intracellular calcium that stimulates the cell to contract, which leads to vasoconstriction. Membrane depolarization also activates BK channels, which allow potassium to flow out of the cell, thus repolarizing the membrane and promoting vasodilation. Leo et al found that a critical aspect of this negative feedback mechanism was the trafficking of the regulatory β1 BK channel subunit to the plasma membrane. Membrane depolarization caused the β1 subunit to translocate to the plasma membrane, where it associated with the pore-forming α subunit to increase the calcium sensitivity of the channel. These findings identify trafficking of regulatory subunits as a mode of regulation for multisubunit ion channels.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The brain-specific Beta4 subunit downregulates BK channel cell surface expression.

    PubMed

    Shruti, Sonal; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Fitzpatrick, James A; Brenner, Robert; Bruchez, Marcel P; Barth, Alison L

    2012-01-01

    The large-conductance K(+) channel (BK channel) can control neural excitability, and enhanced channel currents facilitate high firing rates in cortical neurons. The brain-specific auxiliary subunit β4 alters channel Ca(++)- and voltage-sensitivity, and β4 knock-out animals exhibit spontaneous seizures. Here we investigate β4's effect on BK channel trafficking to the plasma membrane. Using a novel genetic tag to track the cellular location of the pore-forming BKα subunit in living cells, we find that β4 expression profoundly reduces surface localization of BK channels via a C-terminal ER retention sequence. In hippocampal CA3 neurons from C57BL/6 mice with endogenously high β4 expression, whole-cell BK channel currents display none of the characteristic properties of BKα+β4 channels observed in heterologous cells. Finally, β4 knock-out animals exhibit a 2.5-fold increase in whole-cell BK channel current, indicating that β4 also regulates current magnitude in vivo. Thus, we propose that a major function of the brain-specific β4 subunit in CA3 neurons is control of surface trafficking.

  1. The Brain-Specific Beta4 Subunit Downregulates BK Channel Cell Surface Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shruti, Sonal; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Fitzpatrick, James A.; Brenner, Robert; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Barth, Alison L.

    2012-01-01

    The large-conductance K+ channel (BK channel) can control neural excitability, and enhanced channel currents facilitate high firing rates in cortical neurons. The brain-specific auxiliary subunit β4 alters channel Ca++- and voltage-sensitivity, and β4 knock-out animals exhibit spontaneous seizures. Here we investigate β4's effect on BK channel trafficking to the plasma membrane. Using a novel genetic tag to track the cellular location of the pore-forming BKα subunit in living cells, we find that β4 expression profoundly reduces surface localization of BK channels via a C-terminal ER retention sequence. In hippocampal CA3 neurons from C57BL/6 mice with endogenously high β4 expression, whole-cell BK channel currents display none of the characteristic properties of BKα+β4 channels observed in heterologous cells. Finally, β4 knock-out animals exhibit a 2.5-fold increase in whole-cell BK channel current, indicating that β4 also regulates current magnitude in vivo. Thus, we propose that a major function of the brain-specific β4 subunit in CA3 neurons is control of surface trafficking. PMID:22438928

  2. Scorpion toxin peptide action at the ion channel subunit level.

    PubMed

    Housley, David M; Housley, Gary D; Liddell, Michael J; Jennings, Ernest A

    2016-10-10

    This review categorizes functionally validated actions of defined scorpion toxin (SCTX) neuropeptides across ion channel subclasses, highlighting key trends in this rapidly evolving field. Scorpion envenomation is a common event in many tropical and subtropical countries, with neuropharmacological actions, particularly autonomic nervous system modulation, causing significant mortality. The primary active agents within scorpion venoms are a diverse group of small neuropeptides that elicit specific potent actions across a wide range of ion channel classes. The identification and functional characterisation of these SCTX peptides has tremendous potential for development of novel pharmaceuticals that advance knowledge of ion channels and establish lead compounds for treatment of excitable tissue disorders. This review delineates the unique specificities of 320 individual SCTX peptides that collectively act on 41 ion channel subclasses. Thus the SCTX research field has significant translational implications for pathophysiology spanning neurotransmission, neurohumoral signalling, sensori-motor systems and excitation-contraction coupling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bisphenol A activates BK channels through effects on α and β1 subunits

    PubMed Central

    Rottgen, Trey S; Fancher, Ibra S; Asano, Shinichi; Widlanski, Theodore S; Dick, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that BK (KCa1.1) channel activity (NPo) increases in response to bisphenol A (BPA). Moreover, BK channels containing regulatory β1 subunits were more sensitive to the stimulatory effect of BPA. How BPA increases BK channel NPo remains mostly unknown. Estradiol activates BK channels by binding to an extracellular site, but neither the existence nor location of a BPA binding site has been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that an extracellular binding site is responsible for activation of BK channels by BPA. We synthesized membrane-impermeant BPA-monosulfate (BPA-MS) and used patch clamp electrophysiology to study channels composed of α or α + β1 subunits in cell-attached (C-A), whole-cell (W-C), and inside-out (I-O) patches. In C-A patches, bath application of BPA-MS (100 μM) had no effect on the NPo of BK channels, regardless of their subunit composition. Importantly, however, subsequent addition of membrane-permeant BPA (100 μM) increased the NPo of both α and α + β1 channels in C-A patches. The C-A data indicate that in order to alter BK channel NPo, BPA must interact with the channel itself (or some closely associated partner) and diffusible messengers are not involved. In W-C patches, 100 μM BPA-MS activated current in cells expressing α subunits, whereas cells expressing α + β1 subunits responded similarly to a log-order lower concentration (10 μM). The W-C data suggest that an extracellular activation site exists, but do not eliminate the possibility that an intracellular site may also be present. In I-O patches, where the cytoplasmic face was exposed to the bath, BPA-MS had no effect on the NPo of BK α subunits, but BPA increased it. BPA-MS increased the NPo of α + β1 channels in I-O patches, but not as much as BPA. We conclude that BPA activates BK α via an extracellular site and that BPA-sensitivity is increased by the β1 subunit, which may also constitute part of an intracellular binding site. PMID

  4. Hydrophobic gating of mechanosensitive channel of large conductance evidenced by single-subunit resolution

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Jan Peter; Poolman, Bert; Koçer, Armağan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are membrane proteins that detect and respond to membrane tension in all branches of life. In bacteria, MS channels prevent cells from lysing upon sudden hypoosmotic shock by opening and releasing solutes and water. Despite the importance of MS channels and ongoing efforts to explain their functioning, the molecular mechanism of MS channel gating remains elusive and controversial. Here we report a method that allows single-subunit resolution for manipulating and monitoring “mechanosensitive channel of large conductance” from Escherichia coli. We gradually changed the hydrophobicity of the pore constriction in this homopentameric protein by modifying a critical pore residue one subunit at a time. Our experimental results suggest that both channel opening and closing are initiated by the transmembrane 1 helix of a single subunit and that the participation of each of the five identical subunits in the structural transitions between the closed and open states is asymmetrical. Such a minimal change in the pore environment seems ideal for a fast and energy-efficient response to changes in the membrane tension. PMID:22826215

  5. Molecular Architecture and Subunit Organization of TRPA1 Ion Channel Revealed by Electron Microscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkov, Teresa L.; Huynh, Kevin W.; Cohen, Matthew R.; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a non-selective ion channel, which is expressed in nociceptor sensory neurons and transduces chemical, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain signals. Numerous non-reactive compounds and electrophilic compounds, such as endogenous inflammatory mediators and exogenous pungent chemicals, can activate TRPA1. Here we report a 16-Å resolution structure of purified, functional, amphipol-stabilized TRPA1 analyzed by single-particle EM. Molecular models of the N and C termini of the channel were generated using the I-TASSER protein structure prediction server and docked into the EM density to provide insight into the TRPA1 subunit organization. This structural analysis suggests a location for critical N-terminal cysteine residues involved in electrophilic activation at the interface between neighboring subunits. Our results indicate that covalent modifications within this pocket may alter interactions between subunits and promote conformational changes that lead to channel activation. PMID:21908607

  6. Single Expressed Glycine Receptor Domains Reconstitute Functional Ion Channels without Subunit-specific Desensitization Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Meiselbach, Heike; Vogel, Nico; Langlhofer, Georg; Stangl, Sabine; Schleyer, Barbara; Bahnassawy, Lamia'a; Sticht, Heinrich; Breitinger, Hans-Georg; Becker, Cord-Michael; Villmann, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Cys loop receptors are pentameric arrangements of independent subunits that assemble into functional ion channels. Each subunit shows a domain architecture. Functional ion channels can be reconstituted even from independent, nonfunctional subunit domains, as shown previously for GlyRα1 receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this reconstitution is not restricted to α1 but can be transferred to other members of the Cys loop receptor family. A nonfunctional GlyR subunit, truncated at the intracellular TM3–4 loop by a premature stop codon, can be complemented by co-expression of the missing tail portion of the receptor. Compared with α1 subunits, rescue by domain complementation was less efficient when GlyRα3 or the GABAA/C subunit ρ1 was used. If truncation disrupted an alternative splicing cassette within the intracellular TM3–4 loop of α3 subunits, which also regulates receptor desensitization, functional rescue was not possible. When α3 receptors were restored by complementation using domains with and without the spliced insert, no difference in desensitization was found. In contrast, desensitization properties could even be transferred between α1/α3 receptor chimeras harboring or lacking the α3 splice cassette proving that functional rescue depends on the integrity of the alternative splicing cassette in α3. Thus, an intact α3 splicing cassette in the TM3–4 loop environment is indispensable for functional rescue, and the quality of receptor restoration can be assessed from desensitization properties. PMID:25143388

  7. Modulation of BK channel voltage gating by different auxiliary β subunits

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Gustavo F.; Neely, Alan; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are regulated by a multiplicity of signals. The prevailing view is that different BK gating mechanisms converge to determine channel opening and that these gating mechanisms are allosterically coupled. In most instances the pore forming α subunit of BK is associated with one of four alternative β subunits that appear to target specific gating mechanisms to regulate the channel activity. In particular, β1 stabilizes the active configuration of the BK voltage sensor having a large effect on BK Ca2+ sensitivity. To determine the extent to which β subunits regulate the BK voltage sensor, we measured gating currents induced by the pore-forming BK α subunit alone and with the different β subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes (β1, β2IR, β3b, and β4). We found that β1, β2, and β4 stabilize the BK voltage sensor in the active conformation. β3 has no effect on voltage sensor equilibrium. In addition, β4 decreases the apparent number of charges per voltage sensor. The decrease in the charge associated with the voltage sensor in α β4 channels explains most of their biophysical properties. For channels composed of the α subunit alone, gating charge increases slowly with pulse duration as expected if a significant fraction of this charge develops with a time course comparable to that of K+ current activation. In the presence of β1, β2, and β4 this slow component develops in advance of and much more rapidly than ion current activation, suggesting that BK channel opening proceeds in two steps. PMID:23112204

  8. Palmitoylation of the β4-Subunit Regulates Surface Expression of Large Conductance Calcium-activated Potassium Channel Splice Variants*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lie; Bi, Danlei; Tian, Lijun; McClafferty, Heather; Steeb, Franziska; Ruth, Peter; Knaus, Hans Guenther; Shipston, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory β-subunits of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels play an important role in generating functional diversity and control of cell surface expression of the pore forming α-subunits. However, in contrast to α-subunits, the role of reversible post-translational modification of intracellular residues on β-subunit function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the human β4-subunit is S-acylated (palmitoylated) on a juxtamembrane cysteine residue (Cys-193) in the intracellular C terminus of the regulatory β-subunit. β4-Subunit palmitoylation is important for cell surface expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of the β4-subunit alone. Importantly, palmitoylated β4-subunits promote the ER exit and surface expression of the pore-forming α-subunit, whereas β4-subunits that cannot be palmitoylated do not increase ER exit or surface expression of α-subunits. Strikingly, however, this palmitoylation- and β4-dependent enhancement of α-subunit surface expression was only observed in α-subunits that contain a putative trafficking motif (… REVEDEC) at the very C terminus of the α-subunit. Engineering this trafficking motif to other C-terminal α-subunit splice variants results in α-subunits with reduced surface expression that can be rescued by palmitoylated, but not depalmitoylated, β4-subunits. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which palmitoylated β4-subunit controls surface expression of BK channels through masking of a trafficking motif in the C terminus of the α-subunit. As palmitoylation is dynamic, this mechanism would allow precise control of specific splice variants to the cell surface. Our data provide new insights into how complex interplay between the repertoire of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms controls cell surface expression of BK channels. PMID:23504458

  9. Use of a purified and functional recombinant calcium-channel beta4 subunit in surface-plasmon resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Sandrine; Sandoz, Guillaume; Mabrouk, Kamel; Matavel, Alessandra; Marchot, Pascale; Hoshi, Toshinori; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Miquelis, Raymond; Lévêque, Christian; de Waard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Native high-voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit complexes comprising a pore-forming subunit Ca(v) and at least two auxiliary subunits alpha(2)delta and beta. The beta subunit facilitates cell-surface expression of the channel and contributes significantly to its biophysical properties. In spite of its importance, detailed structural and functional studies are hampered by the limited availability of native beta subunit. Here, we report the purification of a recombinant calcium-channel beta(4) subunit from bacterial extracts by using a polyhistidine tag. The purified protein is fully functional since it binds on the alpha1 interaction domain, its main Ca(v)-binding site, and regulates the activity of P/Q calcium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a similar way to the beta(4) subunit produced by cRNA injection. We took advantage of the functionality of the purified material to (i) develop an efficient surface-plasmon resonance assay of the interaction between two calcium channel subunits and (ii) measure, for the first time, the affinity of the recombinant His-beta(4) subunit for the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel. The availability of this purified material and the development of a surface-plasmon resonance assay opens two immediate research perspectives: (i) drug screening programmes applied to the Ca(v)/beta interaction and (ii) crystallographic studies of the calcium-channel beta(4) subunit. PMID:11988102

  10. Use of a purified and functional recombinant calcium-channel beta4 subunit in surface-plasmon resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Geib, Sandrine; Sandoz, Guillaume; Mabrouk, Kamel; Matavel, Alessandra; Marchot, Pascale; Hoshi, Toshinori; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Miquelis, Raymond; Lévêque, Christian; de Waard, Michel

    2002-05-15

    Native high-voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit complexes comprising a pore-forming subunit Ca(v) and at least two auxiliary subunits alpha(2)delta and beta. The beta subunit facilitates cell-surface expression of the channel and contributes significantly to its biophysical properties. In spite of its importance, detailed structural and functional studies are hampered by the limited availability of native beta subunit. Here, we report the purification of a recombinant calcium-channel beta(4) subunit from bacterial extracts by using a polyhistidine tag. The purified protein is fully functional since it binds on the alpha1 interaction domain, its main Ca(v)-binding site, and regulates the activity of P/Q calcium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a similar way to the beta(4) subunit produced by cRNA injection. We took advantage of the functionality of the purified material to (i) develop an efficient surface-plasmon resonance assay of the interaction between two calcium channel subunits and (ii) measure, for the first time, the affinity of the recombinant His-beta(4) subunit for the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel. The availability of this purified material and the development of a surface-plasmon resonance assay opens two immediate research perspectives: (i) drug screening programmes applied to the Ca(v)/beta interaction and (ii) crystallographic studies of the calcium-channel beta(4) subunit.

  11. Intracellular domains interactions and gated motions of IKS potassium channel subunits

    PubMed Central

    Haitin, Yoni; Wiener, Reuven; Shaham, Dana; Peretz, Asher; Cohen, Enbal Ben-Tal; Shamgar, Liora; Pongs, Olaf; Hirsch, Joel A; Attali, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels co-assemble with auxiliary β subunits to form macromolecular complexes. In heart, assembly of Kv7.1 pore-forming subunits with KCNE1 β subunits generates the repolarizing K+ current IKS. However, the detailed nature of their interface remains unknown. Mutations in either Kv7.1 or KCNE1 produce the life-threatening long or short QT syndromes. Here, we studied the interactions and voltage-dependent motions of IKS channel intracellular domains, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer combined with voltage-clamp recording and in vitro binding of purified proteins. The results indicate that the KCNE1 distal C-terminus interacts with the coiled-coil helix C of the Kv7.1 tetramerization domain. This association is important for IKS channel assembly rules as underscored by Kv7.1 current inhibition produced by a dominant-negative C-terminal domain. On channel opening, the C-termini of Kv7.1 and KCNE1 come close together. Co-expression of Kv7.1 with the KCNE1 long QT mutant D76N abolished the K+ currents and gated motions. Thus, during channel gating KCNE1 is not static. Instead, the C-termini of both subunits experience molecular motions, which are disrupted by the D76N causing disease mutation. PMID:19521339

  12. Intracellular domains interactions and gated motions of I(KS) potassium channel subunits.

    PubMed

    Haitin, Yoni; Wiener, Reuven; Shaham, Dana; Peretz, Asher; Cohen, Enbal Ben-Tal; Shamgar, Liora; Pongs, Olaf; Hirsch, Joel A; Attali, Bernard

    2009-07-22

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels co-assemble with auxiliary beta subunits to form macromolecular complexes. In heart, assembly of Kv7.1 pore-forming subunits with KCNE1 beta subunits generates the repolarizing K(+) current I(KS). However, the detailed nature of their interface remains unknown. Mutations in either Kv7.1 or KCNE1 produce the life-threatening long or short QT syndromes. Here, we studied the interactions and voltage-dependent motions of I(KS) channel intracellular domains, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer combined with voltage-clamp recording and in vitro binding of purified proteins. The results indicate that the KCNE1 distal C-terminus interacts with the coiled-coil helix C of the Kv7.1 tetramerization domain. This association is important for I(KS) channel assembly rules as underscored by Kv7.1 current inhibition produced by a dominant-negative C-terminal domain. On channel opening, the C-termini of Kv7.1 and KCNE1 come close together. Co-expression of Kv7.1 with the KCNE1 long QT mutant D76N abolished the K(+) currents and gated motions. Thus, during channel gating KCNE1 is not static. Instead, the C-termini of both subunits experience molecular motions, which are disrupted by the D76N causing disease mutation.

  13. Voltage‐gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Voltage‐gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore‐forming α1 subunit, the CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage‐gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and cell excitability, among many other processes. For the CaV1 and CaV2 channels, their ability to reach their required destinations in the cell membrane, their activation and the fine tuning of their biophysical properties are all dramatically influenced by the auxiliary subunits that associate with them. Furthermore, there are many diseases, both genetic and acquired, involving voltage‐gated calcium channels. This review will provide a general introduction and then concentrate particularly on the role of auxiliary α2δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target. PMID:27273705

  14. A marriage of convenience: beta-subunits and voltage-dependent K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yolima P; Morera, Francisco J; Carvacho, Ingrid; Latorre, Ramon

    2007-08-24

    The movement of ions across cell membranes is essential for a wide variety of fundamental physiological processes, including secretion, muscle contraction, and neuronal excitation. This movement is possible because of the presence in the cell membrane of a class of integral membrane proteins dubbed ion channels. Ion channels, thanks to the presence of aqueous pores in their structure, catalyze the passage of ions across the otherwise ion-impermeable lipid bilayer. Ion conduction across ion channels is highly regulated, and in the case of voltage-dependent K(+) channels, the molecular foundations of the voltage-dependent conformational changes leading to the their open (conducting) configuration have provided most of the driving force for research in ion channel biophysics since the pioneering work of Hodgkin and Huxley (Hodgkin, A. L., and Huxley, A. F. (1952) J. Physiol. 117, 500-544). The voltage-dependent K(+) channels are the prototypical voltage-gated channels and govern the resting membrane potential. They are responsible for returning the membrane potential to its resting state at the termination of each action potential in excitable membranes. The pore-forming subunits (alpha) of many voltage-dependent K(+) channels and modulatory beta-subunits exist in the membrane as one component of macromolecular complexes, able to integrate a myriad of cellular signals that regulate ion channel behavior. In this review, we have focused on the modulatory effects of beta-subunits on the voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel and on the large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent (BK(Ca)) channel.

  15. Sumoylation Silences Heterodimeric TASK Potassium Channels Containing K2P1 Subunits in Cerebellar Granule Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Leigh D.; Zuniga, Leandro; Araki, Dan; Marks, Jeremy D.; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The standing outward K+ current (IKso) governs the response of cerebellar granule neurons to natural and medicinal stimuli including volatile anesthetics. In this study, we showed that sumoylation silenced half of IKso at the surface of cerebellar granule neurons because the underlying channels were heterodimeric assemblies of K2P1, a subunit subject to sumoylation, and the two P domain, acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channel subunits, K2P3 or K2P9. The heteromeric channels comprised the acid-sensitive portion of IKso and mediated its response to halothane. We anticipate that sumoylation also influences sensation and homeostatic mechanisms in mammals through TASK channels formed with K2P1. PMID:23169818

  16. T-type calcium channel regulation by specific G-protein betagamma subunits.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Joshua T; Wang, Hongge; Howard, Jason; Garrison, James C; Barrett, Paula Q

    2003-07-10

    Low-voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels have a wide tissue distribution and have well-documented roles in the control of action potential burst generation and hormone secretion. In neurons of the central nervous system and secretory cells of the adrenal and pituitary, LVA channels are inhibited by activation of G-protein-coupled receptors that generate membrane-delimited signals, yet these signals have not been identified. Here we show that the inhibition of alpha1H (Ca(v)3.2), but not alpha(1G) (Ca(v)3.1) LVA Ca2+ channels is mediated selectively by beta2gamma2 subunits that bind to the intracellular loop connecting channel transmembrane domains II and III. This region of the alpha1H channel is crucial for inhibition, because its replacement abrogates inhibition and its transfer to non-modulated alpha1G channels confers beta2gamma2-dependent inhibition. betagamma reduces channel activity independent of voltage, a mechanism distinct from the established betagamma-dependent inhibition of non-L-type high-voltage-activated channels of the Ca(v)2 family. These studies identify the alpha1H channel as a new effector for G-protein betagamma subunits, and highlight the selective signalling roles available for particular betagamma combinations.

  17. Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Menegola, M; Misonou, H; Vacher, H; Trimmer, J S

    2008-06-26

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and potassium channel interacting protein (KChIP) 1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA1) neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mum rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with a unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs.

  18. Dynamic subunit stoichiometry confers a progressive continuum of pharmacological sensitivity by KCNQ potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Lin, Zhihong; Mattmann, Margrith E; Zou, Beiyan; Terrenoire, Cecile; Zhang, Hongkang; Wu, Meng; McManus, Owen B; Kass, Robert S; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Li, Min

    2013-05-21

    Voltage-gated KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) potassium channels are expressed abundantly in heart but they are also found in multiple other tissues. Differential coassembly with single transmembrane KCNE beta subunits in different cell types gives rise to a variety of biophysical properties, hence endowing distinct physiological roles for KCNQ1-KCNEx complexes. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes result in diseases in brain, heart, and the respiratory system. In addition to complexities arising from existence of five KCNE subunits, KCNE1 to KCNE5, recent studies in heterologous systems suggest unorthodox stoichiometric dynamics in subunit assembly is dependent on KCNE expression levels. The resultant KCNQ1-KCNE channel complexes may have a range of zero to two or even up to four KCNE subunits coassembling per KCNQ1 tetramer. These findings underscore the need to assess the selectivity of small-molecule KCNQ1 modulators on these different assemblies. Here we report a unique small-molecule gating modulator, ML277, that potentiates both homomultimeric KCNQ1 channels and unsaturated heteromultimeric (KCNQ1)4(KCNE1)n (n < 4) channels. Progressive increase of KCNE1 or KCNE3 expression reduces efficacy of ML277 and eventually abolishes ML277-mediated augmentation. In cardiomyocytes, the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current, or IKs, is believed to be a heteromultimeric combination of KCNQ1 and KCNE1, but it is not entirely clear whether IKs is mediated by KCNE-saturated KCNQ1 channels or by channels with intermediate stoichiometries. We found ML277 effectively augments IKs current of cultured human cardiomyocytes and shortens action potential duration. These data indicate that unsaturated heteromultimeric (KCNQ1)4(KCNE1)n channels are present as components of IKs and are pharmacologically distinct from KCNE-saturated KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels.

  19. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels.

    PubMed

    Aman, Teresa K; Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A; Isom, Lori L; Raman, Indira M

    2009-02-18

    The beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming alpha subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the beta4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected beta4 into HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells stably expressing Na(V)1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the beta4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length beta4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, beta4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of noninactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of beta1 or chimeric subunits including the beta1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Coexpressing Na(V)1.1 and beta4 with beta1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that beta1 overcomes the effects of beta4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, beta1(C121W), which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by beta4 and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with beta4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in beta4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that beta1 and beta4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation, and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted beta1 subunits.

  20. Membrane-localized β-subunits alter the PIP2 regulation of high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Suh, Byung-Chang; Kim, Dong-Il; Falkenburger, Björn H; Hille, Bertil

    2012-02-21

    The β-subunits of voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Ca(V)) channels regulate the functional expression and several biophysical properties of high-voltage-activated Ca(V) channels. We find that Ca(V) β-subunits also determine channel regulation by the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). When Ca(V)1.3, -2.1, or -2.2 channels are cotransfected with the β3-subunit, a cytosolic protein, they can be inhibited by activating a voltage-sensitive lipid phosphatase to deplete PIP(2). When these channels are coexpressed with a β2a-subunit, a palmitoylated peripheral membrane protein, the inhibition is much smaller. PIP(2) sensitivity could be increased by disabling the two palmitoylation sites in the β2a-subunit. To further test effects of membrane targeting of Ca(V) β-subunits on PIP(2) regulation, the N terminus of Lyn was ligated onto the cytosolic β3-subunit to confer lipidation. This chimera, like the Ca(V) β2a-subunit, displayed plasma membrane localization, slowed the inactivation of Ca(V)2.2 channels, and increased the current density. In addition, the Lyn-β3 subunit significantly decreased Ca(V) channel inhibition by PIP(2) depletion. Evidently lipidation and membrane anchoring of Ca(V) β-subunits compete with the PIP(2) regulation of high-voltage-activated Ca(V) channels. Compared with expression with Ca(V) β3-subunits alone, inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 channels by PIP(2) depletion could be significantly attenuated when β2a was coexpressed with β3. Our data suggest that the Ca(V) currents in neurons would be regulated by membrane PIP(2) to a degree that depends on their endogenous β-subunit combinations.

  1. β1-Subunit of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel regulates contractile activity of mouse urinary bladder smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Georgi V; Bonev, Adrian D; Heppner, Thomas J; Brenner, Robert; Aldrich, Richard W; Nelson, Mark T

    2001-01-01

    The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel plays an important role in controlling membrane potential and contractility of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). These channels are composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and an accessory, smooth muscle-specific, β1-subunit. Our aim was to determine the functional role of the β1-subunit of the BK channel in controlling the contractions of UBSM by using BK channel β1-subunit ‘knock-out’ (KO) mice. The β-galactosidase reporter (lacZ gene) was targeted to the β1 locus, which provided the opportunity to examine the expression of the β1-subunit in UBSM. Based on this approach, the β1-subunit is highly expressed in UBSM. BK channels lacking β1-subunits have reduced activity, consistent with a shift in BK channel voltage/Ca2+ sensitivity. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of BK channels, increased the amplitude and decreased the frequency of phasic contractions of UBSM strips from control mice. The effects of the β1-subunit deletion on contractions were similar to the effect of iberiotoxin on control mice. The UBSM strips from β1-subunit KO mice had elevated phasic contraction amplitude and decreased frequency when compared to control UBSM strips. Iberiotoxin increased the amplitude and frequency of phasic contractions, and UBSM tone of UBSM strips from β1-subunit KO mice, suggesting that BK channels still regulate contractions in the absence of the β1-subunit. The results indicate that the β1-subunit, by modulating BK channel activity, plays a significant role in the regulation of phasic contractions of the urinary bladder. PMID:11731577

  2. Subunit-specific mechanisms and proton sensitivity of NMDA receptor channel block.

    PubMed

    Dravid, Shashank M; Erreger, Kevin; Yuan, Hongjie; Nicholson, Katherine; Le, Phuong; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Almonte, Antoine; Murray, Ernest; Mosely, Cara; Barber, Jeremy; French, Adam; Balster, Robert; Murray, Thomas F; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2007-05-15

    We have compared the potencies of structurally distinct channel blockers at recombinant NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D receptors. The IC50 values varied with stereochemistry and subunit composition, suggesting that it may be possible to design subunit-selective channel blockers. For dizocilpine (MK-801), the differential potency of MK-801 stereoisomers determined at recombinant NMDA receptors was confirmed at native receptors in vitro and in vivo. Since the proton sensor is tightly linked both structurally and functionally to channel gating, we examined whether blocking molecules that interact in the channel pore with the gating machinery can differentially sense protonation of the receptor. Blockers capable of remaining trapped in the pore during agonist unbinding showed the strongest dependence on extracellular pH, appearing more potent at acidic pH values that promote channel closure. Determination of pK(a) values for channel blockers suggests that the ionization of ketamine but not of other blockers can influence its pH-dependent potency. Kinetic modelling and single channel studies suggest that the pH-dependent block of NR1/NR2A by (-)MK-801 but not (+)MK-801 reflects an increase in the MK-801 association rate even though protons reduce channel open probability and thus MK-801 access to its binding site. Allosteric modulators that alter pH sensitivity alter the potency of MK-801, supporting the interpretation that the pH sensitivity of MK-801 binding reflects the changes at the proton sensor rather than a secondary effect of pH. These data suggest a tight coupling between the proton sensor and the ion channel gate as well as unique subunit-specific mechanisms of channel block.

  3. Subunit-specific mechanisms and proton sensitivity of NMDA receptor channel block

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Shashank M; Erreger, Kevin; Yuan, Hongjie; Nicholson, Katherine; Le, Phuong; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Almonte, Antoine; Murray, Ernest; Mosely, Cara; Barber, Jeremy; French, Adam; Balster, Robert; Murray, Thomas F; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    We have compared the potencies of structurally distinct channel blockers at recombinant NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D receptors. The IC50 values varied with stereochemistry and subunit composition, suggesting that it may be possible to design subunit-selective channel blockers. For dizocilpine (MK-801), the differential potency of MK-801 stereoisomers determined at recombinant NMDA receptors was confirmed at native receptors in vitro and in vivo. Since the proton sensor is tightly linked both structurally and functionally to channel gating, we examined whether blocking molecules that interact in the channel pore with the gating machinery can differentially sense protonation of the receptor. Blockers capable of remaining trapped in the pore during agonist unbinding showed the strongest dependence on extracellular pH, appearing more potent at acidic pH values that promote channel closure. Determination of pKa values for channel blockers suggests that the ionization of ketamine but not of other blockers can influence its pH-dependent potency. Kinetic modelling and single channel studies suggest that the pH-dependent block of NR1/NR2A by (−)MK-801 but not (+)MK-801 reflects an increase in the MK-801 association rate even though protons reduce channel open probability and thus MK-801 access to its binding site. Allosteric modulators that alter pH sensitivity alter the potency of MK-801, supporting the interpretation that the pH sensitivity of MK-801 binding reflects the changes at the proton sensor rather than a secondary effect of pH. These data suggest a tight coupling between the proton sensor and the ion channel gate as well as unique subunit-specific mechanisms of channel block. PMID:17303642

  4. Subunit dependent oxidative stress sensitivity of LRRC8 volume regulated anion channels.

    PubMed

    Gradogna, Antonella; Gavazzo, Paola; Boccaccio, Anna; Pusch, Michael

    2017-08-25

    The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) is formed by heteromers of LRRC8 proteins containing the essential LRRC8A subunit and at least one among the LRRC8B-E subunits. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play physiological and pathophysiological roles and VRAC channels are highly ROS sensitive. However, it is unclear if ROS act directly on the channels or on molecules involved in the activation pathway. We used fluorescently tagged LRRC8 proteins that yield large constitutive currents to test direct effects of oxidation. We found that 8A/8E heteromers are dramatically potentiated (more than 10-fold) by oxidation of intracellular cysteine residues by chloramine-T or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Oxidation was, however, not necessary for hypotonicity induced activation. In contrast, 8A/8C and 8A/8D heteromers were strongly inhibited by oxidation. Endogenous VRAC currents in Jurkat T lymphocytes were similarly inhibited by oxidation, in agreement with the finding that LRRC8C and LRRC8D subunits were more abundantly expressed than LRRC8E in Jurkat cells. Our results show that LRRC8 channels are directly modulated by oxidation in a subunit dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Diverse roles for auxiliary subunits in phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mammalian brain voltage-gated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S

    2011-11-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are a diverse family of signaling proteins that mediate rapid electrical signaling events. Among these, voltage-gated potassium or Kv channels are the most diverse partly due to the large number of principal (or α) subunits and auxiliary subunits that can assemble in different combinations to generate Kv channel complexes with distinct structures and functions. The diversity of Kv channels underlies much of the variability in the active properties between different mammalian central neurons and the dynamic changes that lead to experience-dependent plasticity in intrinsic excitability. Recent studies have revealed that Kv channel α subunits and auxiliary subunits are extensively phosphorylated, contributing to additional structural and functional diversity. Here, we highlight recent studies that show that auxiliary subunits exert some of their profound effects on dendritic Kv4 and axonal Kv1 channels through phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms, either due to phosphorylation on the auxiliary subunit itself or by influencing the extent and/or impact of α subunit phosphorylation. The complex effects of auxiliary subunits and phosphorylation provide a potent mechanism to generate additional diversity in the structure and function of Kv4 and Kv1 channels, as well as allowing for dynamic reversible regulation of these important ion channels.

  6. Intracellular coiled-coil domain engaged in subunit interaction and assembly of melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel 2

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zhu-Zhong; Xia, Rong; Beech, David J; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    TRPM2 channels, activated by adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR) and related molecules, are assembled as oligomers and most likely tetramers. However, the molecular determinants driving the subunit interaction and assembly of the TRPM2 channels are not well defined. Here we examined, using site-directed mutagenesis in conjunction with co-immunoprecipitation and patch clamp recording, the role of a coiled-coil domain in the intracellular C-terminus of TRPM2 subunit in the subunit interaction and the channel assembly. Deletion of the coiled-coil domain resulted in severe disruption of the subunit interaction and substantial loss of the ADPR-evoked channel currents. Individual or combined mutations to glutamine of the hydrophobic residues at positions a and d of the abcdef heptad repeat, key residues for protein-protein interaction, significantly reduced the subunit interaction and the channel currents; the mutational effects on the subunit interaction and the channel currents were clearly correlated. Furthermore, deletion of the coiled-coil domain in a pore mutant subunit abolished its dominant negative phenotypic functional suppression. These results provide strong evidence that the coiled-coil domain is critically engaged in the TRPM2 subunit interaction and such interaction is required for assembly of functional TRPM2 channel. The coiled-coil domain, which is highly conserved within the TRPM subfamily, may serve as a general structural element governing the assembly of TRPM channels. PMID:17060318

  7. Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Menegola, Milena; Misonou, Hiroaki; Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and KChIP1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 μm rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs. PMID:18495361

  8. Aminopyridines potentiate synaptic and neuromuscular transmission by targeting the voltage-activated calcium channel beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Zhen; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2009-12-25

    Aminopyridines such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) are widely used as voltage-activated K(+) (Kv) channel blockers and can improve neuromuscular function in patients with spinal cord injury, myasthenia gravis, or multiple sclerosis. Here, we present novel evidence that 4-AP and several of its analogs directly stimulate high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (HVACCs) in acutely dissociated neurons. 4-AP, 4-(aminomethyl)pyridine, 4-(methylamino)pyridine, and 4-di(methylamino)pyridine profoundly increased HVACC, but not T-type, currents in dissociated neurons from the rat dorsal root ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, and hippocampus. The widely used Kv channel blockers, including tetraethylammonium, alpha-dendrotoxin, phrixotoxin-2, and BDS-I, did not mimic or alter the effect of 4-AP on HVACCs. In HEK293 cells expressing various combinations of N-type (Cav2.2) channel subunits, 4-AP potentiated Ca(2+) currents primarily through the intracellular beta(3) subunit. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on Cav3.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, blocking Kv channels did not mimic or change the potentiating effects of 4-AP on neurotransmitter release from sensory and motor nerve terminals. Thus, our findings challenge the conventional view that 4-AP facilitates synaptic and neuromuscular transmission by blocking Kv channels. Aminopyridines can directly target presynaptic HVACCs to potentiate neurotransmitter release independent of Kv channels.

  9. Calcium channel beta subunit promotes voltage-dependent modulation of alpha 1 B by G beta gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, A; Bell, D C; Stephens, G J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are heteromultimers composed of a pore-forming alpha1 subunit and auxiliary subunits, including the intracellular beta subunit, which has a strong influence on the channel properties. Voltage-dependent inhibitory modulation of neuronal VDCCs occurs primarily by activation of G-proteins and elevation of the free G beta gamma dimer concentration. Here we have examined the interaction between the regulation of N-type (alpha 1 B) channels by their beta subunits and by G beta gamma dimers, heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In contrast to previous studies suggesting antagonism of G protein inhibition by the VDCC beta subunit, we found a significantly larger G beta gamma-dependent inhibition of alpha 1 B channel activation when the VDCC alpha 1 B and beta subunits were coexpressed. In the absence of coexpressed VDCC beta subunit, the G beta gamma dimers, either expressed tonically or elevated via receptor activation, did not produce the expected features of voltage-dependent G protein modulation of N-type channels, including slowed activation and prepulse facilitation, while VDCC beta subunit coexpression restored all of the hallmarks of G beta gamma modulation. These results suggest that the VDCC beta subunit must be present for G beta gamma to induce voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels. PMID:10920007

  10. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome-Associated Mutations in the Sodium Channel Beta Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bi-Hua; Pundi, Kavitha N; Van Norstrand, David W; Valdivia, Carmen R; Tester, David J; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 10% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may stem from potentially lethal cardiac channelopathies, with approximately half of channelopathic SIDS involving the NaV1.5 cardiac sodium channel. Recently, NaV beta subunits have been implicated in various cardiac arrhythmias. Thus, the four genes encoding NaV beta subunits represent plausible candidate genes for SIDS. Objective To determine the spectrum, prevalence and functional consequences of sodium channel beta subunit mutations in a SIDS cohort. Methods In this IRB-approved study, mutational analysis of the 4 beta subunit genes: SCN1B – 4B was performed using PCR, DHPLC, and direct DNA sequencing of DNA derived from 292 SIDS cases. Engineered mutations were co-expressed with SCN5A in HEK 293 cells, and whole cell patch clamped. One of the putative SIDS-associated mutations was similarly studied in adenovirally transduced adult rat ventricular myocytes. Results 3 rare (absent in 200–800 reference alleles) missense mutations (β3-V36M, β3-V54G and β4-S206L) were identified in 3/292 SIDS cases. Compared to SCN5A+β3-WT, β3-V36M significantly decreased peak INa and increased late INa while β3-V54G resulted in a marked loss-of-function. β4-S206L accentuated late INa and positively shifted the midpoint of inactivation compared to SCN5A+β4-WT. In native cardiomyocytes, β4-S206L accentuated late INa and increased the ventricular action potential duration (APD) compared to β4-WT. Conclusion This study provides the first molecular and functional evidence to implicate the NaV beta subunits in SIDS pathogenesis. Altered NaV1.5 sodium channel function due to beta subunit mutations may account for the molecular pathogenic mechanism underlying approximately 1% of SIDS. PMID:20226894

  11. Distribution of Kv3.3 potassium channel subunits in distinct neuronal populations of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su Ying; Zagha, Edward; Kwon, Elaine S; Ozaita, Andres; Bobik, Marketta; Martone, Maryann E; Ellisman, Mark H; Heintz, Nathaniel; Rudy, Bernardo

    2007-06-20

    Kv3.3 proteins are pore-forming subunits of voltage-dependent potassium channels, and mutations in the gene encoding for Kv3.3 have recently been linked to human disease, spinocerebellar ataxia 13, with cerebellar and extracerebellar symptoms. To understand better the functions of Kv3.3 subunits in brain, we developed highly specific antibodies to Kv3.3 and analyzed immunoreactivity throughout mouse brain. We found that Kv3.3 subunits are widely expressed, present in important forebrain structures but particularly prominent in brainstem and cerebellum. In forebrain and midbrain, Kv3.3 expression was often found colocalized with parvalbumin and other Kv3 subunits in inhibitory neurons. In brainstem, Kv3.3 was strongly expressed in auditory and other sensory nuclei. In cerebellar cortex, Kv3.3 expression was found in Purkinje and granule cells. Kv3.3 proteins were observed in axons, terminals, somas, and, unlike other Kv3 proteins, also in distal dendrites, although precise subcellular localization depended on cell type. For example, hippocampal dentate granule cells expressed Kv3.3 subunits specifically in their mossy fiber axons, whereas Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex strongly expressed Kv3.3 subunits in axons, somas, and proximal and distal, but not second- and third-order, dendrites. Expression in Purkinje cell dendrites was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Kv3 channels have been demonstrated to rapidly repolarize action potentials and support high-frequency firing in various neuronal populations. In this study, we identified additional populations and subcellular compartments that are likely to sustain high-frequency firing because of the expression of Kv3.3 and other Kv3 subunits.

  12. Extensive editing of mRNAs for the squid delayed rectifier K+ channel regulates subunit tetramerization.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2002-05-30

    We report the extensive editing of mRNAs that encode the classical delayed rectifier K+ channel (SqK(v)1.1A) in the squid giant axon. Using a quantitative RNA editing assay, 14 adenosine to guanine transitions were identified, and editing efficiency varied tremendously between positions. Interestingly, half of the sites are targeted to the T1 domain, important for subunit assembly. Other sites occur in the channel's transmembrane spans. The effects of editing on K+ channel function are elaborate. Edited codons affect channel gating, and several T1 sites regulate functional expression as well. In particular, the edit R87G, a phylogenetically conserved position, reduces expression close to 50-fold by regulating the channel's ability to form tetramers. These data suggest that RNA editing plays a dynamic role in regulating action potential repolarization in the giant axon.

  13. Voltage-gated sodium channel β subunits: The power outside the pore in brain development and disease.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jacob M; Isom, Lori L

    2017-09-16

    Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSCs) were first identified in terms of their role in the upstroke of the action potential. The underlying proteins were later identified as saxitoxin and scorpion toxin receptors consisting of α and β subunits. We now know that VGSCs are heterotrimeric complexes consisting of a single pore forming α subunit joined by two β subunits; a noncovalently linked β1 or β3 and a covalently linked β2 or β4 subunit. VGSC α subunits contain all the machinery necessary for channel cell surface expression, ion conduction, voltage sensing, gating, and inactivation, in one central, polytopic, transmembrane protein. VGSC β subunits are more than simple accessories to α subunits. In the more than two decades since the original cloning of β1, our knowledge of their roles in physiology and pathophysiology has expanded immensely. VGSC β subunits are multifunctional. They confer unique gating mechanisms, regulate cellular excitability, affect brain development, confer distinct channel pharmacology, and have functions that are independent of the α subunits. The vast array of functions of these proteins stems from their special station in the channelome: being the only known constituents that are cell adhesion and intra/extracellular signaling molecules in addition to being part of channel complexes. This functional trifecta and how it goes awry demonstrates the power outside the pore in ion channel signaling complexes, broadening the term channelopathy beyond defects in ion conduction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Alcohol modulation of BK channel gating depends on β subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Dopico, Alex M

    2016-11-01

    In most mammalian tissues, Ca(2+)i/voltage-gated, large conductance K(+) (BK) channels consist of channel-forming slo1 and auxiliary (β1-β4) subunits. When Ca(2+)i (3-20 µM) reaches the vicinity of BK channels and increases their activity at physiological voltages, β1- and β4-containing BK channels are, respectively, inhibited and potentiated by intoxicating levels of ethanol (50 mM). Previous studies using different slo1s, lipid environments, and Ca(2+)i concentrations-all determinants of the BK response to ethanol-made it impossible to determine the specific contribution of β subunits to ethanol action on BK activity. Furthermore, these studies measured ethanol action on ionic current under a limited range of stimuli, rendering no information on the gating processes targeted by alcohol and their regulation by βs. Here, we used identical experimental conditions to obtain single-channel and macroscopic currents of the same slo1 channel ("cbv1" from rat cerebral artery myocytes) in the presence and absence of 50 mM ethanol. First, we assessed the role five different β subunits (1,2,2-IR, 3-variant d, and 4) in ethanol action on channel function. Thus, two phenotypes were identified: (1) ethanol potentiated cbv1-, cbv1+β3-, and cbv1+β4-mediated currents at low Ca(2+)i while inhibiting current at high Ca(2+)i, the potentiation-inhibition crossover occurring at 20 µM Ca(2+)i; (2) for cbv1+β1, cbv1+wt β2, and cbv1+β2-IR, this crossover was shifted to ∼3 µM Ca(2+)i Second, applying Horrigan-Aldrich gating analysis on both phenotypes, we show that ethanol fails to modify intrinsic gating and the voltage-dependent parameters under examination. For cbv1, however, ethanol (a) drastically increases the channel's apparent Ca(2+) affinity (nine-times decrease in Kd) and (b) very mildly decreases allosteric coupling between Ca(2+) binding and channel opening (C). The decreased Kd leads to increased channel activity. For cbv1+β1, ethanol (a) also decreases Kd

  15. The Evolution of the Four Subunits of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels: Ancient Roots, Increasing Complexity, and Multiple Losses

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Zakon, Harold H.

    2014-01-01

    The alpha subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs) are large transmembrane proteins responsible for crucial physiological processes in excitable cells. They are assisted by three auxiliary subunits that can modulate their electrical behavior. Little is known about the evolution and roles of the various subunits of Cavs in nonbilaterian animals and in nonanimal lineages. For this reason, we mapped the phyletic distribution of the four channel subunits and reconstructed their phylogeny. Although alpha subunits have deep evolutionary roots as ancient as the split between plants and opistokonths, beta subunits appeared in the last common ancestor of animals and their close-relatives choanoflagellates, gamma subunits are a bilaterian novelty and alpha2/delta subunits appeared in the lineage of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. We note that gene losses were extremely common in the evolution of Cavs, with noticeable losses in multiple clades of subfamilies and also of whole Cav families. As in vertebrates, but not protostomes, Cav channel genes duplicated in Cnidaria. We characterized by in situ hybridization the tissue distribution of alpha subunits in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a nonbilaterian animal possessing all three Cav subfamilies common to Bilateria. We find that some of the alpha subunit subtypes exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns. Further, all six sea anemone alpha subunit subtypes are conserved in stony corals, which separated from anemones 500 MA. This unexpected conservation together with the expression patterns strongly supports the notion that these subtypes carry unique functional roles. PMID:25146647

  16. Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels by sequestration of beta subunits.

    PubMed

    Cuchillo-Ibañez, Inmaculada; Aldea, Marcos; Brocard, Jacques; Albillos, Almudena; Weiss, Norbert; Garcia, Antonio G; De Waard, Michel

    2003-11-28

    The auxiliary Ca(v)beta subunit is essential for functional expression of high-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels. Here, we describe a lure sequence designed to sequester the Ca(v)beta subunits in transfected bovine chromaffin cells. This sequence is composed of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the alpha chain of the human CD8, the I-II loop of Ca(v)2.1 subunit, and EGFP. We showed that expressing the CD8-I-II-EGFP sequence in chromaffin cells led to a >50% decrease in overall Ca(2+) current density. Although this decrease involved all the Ca(2+) channel types (L, N, P/Q, R), the proportion of each type supporting the remaining current was altered. A similar effect was observed after transfection when measuring the functional role of Ca(2+) channels in catecholamine release by chromaffin cells: global decrease of release and change of balance between the different channel types supporting it. Possible explanations for this apparent discrepancy are further discussed.

  17. Cardiac small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel subunits form heteromultimers via the coiled-coil domains in the C termini of the channels.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Dipika; Rafizadeh, Sassan; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Wang, Shuyun; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Ning; Mateo, Robertino K; Singapuri, Anil; Young, J Nilas; Knowlton, Anne A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2010-10-01

    Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels are present in a wide variety of cells. We have previously reported the presence of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK or K(Ca)) channels in human and mouse cardiac myocytes that contribute functionally toward the shape and duration of cardiac action potentials. Three isoforms of SK channel subunits (SK1, SK2, and SK3) are found to be expressed. Moreover, there is differential expression with more abundant SK channels in the atria and pacemaking tissues compared with the ventricles. SK channels are proposed to be assembled as tetramers similar to other K(+) channels, but the molecular determinants driving their subunit interaction and assembly are not defined in cardiac tissues. To investigate the heteromultimeric formation and the domain necessary for the assembly of 3 SK channel subunits (SK1, SK2, and SK3) into complexes in human and mouse hearts. Here, we provide evidence to support the formation of heteromultimeric complexes among different SK channel subunits in native cardiac tissues. SK1, SK2, and SK3 subunits contain coiled-coil domains (CCDs) in the C termini. In vitro interaction assay supports the direct interaction between CCDs of the channel subunits. Moreover, specific inhibitory peptides derived from CCDs block the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in atrial myocytes, which is important for cardiac repolarization. The data provide evidence for the formation of heteromultimeric complexes among different SK channel subunits in atrial myocytes. Because SK channels are predominantly expressed in atrial myocytes, specific ligands of the different isoforms of SK channel subunits may offer a unique therapeutic opportunity to directly modify atrial cells without interfering with ventricular myocytes.

  18. Adaptation of the Mitochondrial Genome in Cephalopods: Enhancing Proton Translocation Channels and the Subunit Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mt genes) encode subunits forming complexes of crucial cellular pathways, including those involved in the vital process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite the vital role of the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) in the survival of organisms, little is known with respect to its adaptive implications within marine invertebrates. The molluscan Class Cephalopoda is represented by a marine group of species known to occupy contrasting environments ranging from the intertidal to the deep sea, having distinct metabolic requirements, varied body shapes and highly advanced visual and nervous systems that make them highly competitive and successful worldwide predators. Thus, cephalopods are valuable models for testing natural selection acting on their mitochondrial subunits (mt subunits). Here, we used concatenated mt genes from 17 fully sequenced mt genomes of diverse cephalopod species to generate a robust mitochondrial phylogeny for the Class Cephalopoda. We followed an integrative approach considering several branches of interest–covering cephalopods with distinct morphologies, metabolic rates and habitats–to identify sites under positive selection and localize them in the respective protein alignment and/or tridimensional structure of the mt subunits. Our results revealed significant adaptive variation in several mt subunits involved in the energy production pathway of cephalopods: ND5 and ND6 from Complex I, CYTB from Complex III, COX2 and COX3 from Complex IV, and in ATP8 from Complex V. Furthermore, we identified relevant sites involved in protein-interactions, lining proton translocation channels, as well as disease/deficiencies related sites in the aforementioned complexes. A particular case, revealed by this study, is the involvement of some positively selected sites, found in Octopoda lineage in lining proton translocation channels (site 74 from ND5) and in interactions between subunits (site 507 from ND5) of

  19. Adaptation of the Mitochondrial Genome in Cephalopods: Enhancing Proton Translocation Channels and the Subunit Interactions.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mt genes) encode subunits forming complexes of crucial cellular pathways, including those involved in the vital process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite the vital role of the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) in the survival of organisms, little is known with respect to its adaptive implications within marine invertebrates. The molluscan Class Cephalopoda is represented by a marine group of species known to occupy contrasting environments ranging from the intertidal to the deep sea, having distinct metabolic requirements, varied body shapes and highly advanced visual and nervous systems that make them highly competitive and successful worldwide predators. Thus, cephalopods are valuable models for testing natural selection acting on their mitochondrial subunits (mt subunits). Here, we used concatenated mt genes from 17 fully sequenced mt genomes of diverse cephalopod species to generate a robust mitochondrial phylogeny for the Class Cephalopoda. We followed an integrative approach considering several branches of interest-covering cephalopods with distinct morphologies, metabolic rates and habitats-to identify sites under positive selection and localize them in the respective protein alignment and/or tridimensional structure of the mt subunits. Our results revealed significant adaptive variation in several mt subunits involved in the energy production pathway of cephalopods: ND5 and ND6 from Complex I, CYTB from Complex III, COX2 and COX3 from Complex IV, and in ATP8 from Complex V. Furthermore, we identified relevant sites involved in protein-interactions, lining proton translocation channels, as well as disease/deficiencies related sites in the aforementioned complexes. A particular case, revealed by this study, is the involvement of some positively selected sites, found in Octopoda lineage in lining proton translocation channels (site 74 from ND5) and in interactions between subunits (site 507 from ND5) of Complex I.

  20. Kv8.1, a new neuronal potassium channel subunit with specific inhibitory properties towards Shab and Shaw channels.

    PubMed Central

    Hugnot, J P; Salinas, M; Lesage, F; Guillemare, E; de Weille, J; Heurteaux, C; Mattéi, M G; Lazdunski, M

    1996-01-01

    Outward rectifier K+ channels have a characteristic structure with six transmembrane segments and one pore region. A new member of this family of transmembrane proteins has been cloned and called Kv8.1. Kv8.1 is essentially present in the brain where it is located mainly in layers II, IV and VI of the cerebral cortex, in hippocampus, in CA1-CA4 pyramidal cell layer as well in granule cells of the dentate gyrus, in the granule cell layer and in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The Kv8.1 gene is in the 8q22.3-8q24.1 region of the human genome. Although Kv8.1 has the hallmarks of functional subunits of outward rectifier K+ channels, injection of its cRNA in Xenopus oocytes does not produce K+ currents. However Kv8.1 abolishes the functional expression of members of the Kv2 and Kv3 subfamilies, suggesting that the functional role of Kv8.1 might be to inhibit the function of a particular class of outward rectifier K+ channel types. Immunoprecipitation studies have demonstrated that inhibition occurs by formation of heteropolymeric channels, and results obtained with Kv8.1 chimeras have indicated that association of Kv8.1 with other types of subunits is via its N-terminal domain. Images PMID:8670833

  1. Congenital myasthenia–related AChR δ subunit mutation interferes with intersubunit communication essential for channel gating

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin-Ming; Fukuda, Taku; Ohno, Kinji; Sine, Steven M.; Engel, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    Congenital myasthenias (CMs) arise from defects in neuromuscular junction–associated proteins. Deciphering the molecular bases of the CMs is required for therapy and illuminates structure-function relationships in these proteins. Here, we analyze the effects of a mutation in 1 of 4 homologous subunits in the AChR from a CM patient, a Leu to Pro mutation at position 42 of the δ subunit. The mutation is located in a region of contact between subunits required for rapid opening of the AChR channel and impedes the rate of channel opening. Substitutions of Gly, Lys, or Asp for δL42, or substitutions of Pro along the local protein chain, also slowed channel opening. Substitution of Pro for Leu in the ε subunit slowed opening, whereas this substitution had no effect in the β subunit and actually sped opening in the α subunit. Analyses of energetic coupling between residues at the subunit interface showed that δL42 is functionally linked to αT127, a key residue in the adjacent α subunit required for rapid channel opening. Thus, δL42 is part of an intersubunit network that enables ACh binding to rapidly open the AChR channel, which may be compromised in patients with CM. PMID:18398509

  2. MiRP3 acts as an accessory subunit with the BK potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Daniel I.; Wanderling, Sherry; Biemesderfer, Daniel; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2008-01-01

    MinK-related peptides (MiRPs) are single-span membrane proteins that assemble with specific voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel α-subunits to establish gating kinetics, unitary conductance, expression level, and pharmacology of the mixed complex. MiRP3 (encoded by the KCNE4 gene) has been shown to alter the behavior of some Kv α-subunits in vitro but its natural partners and physiologic functions are unknown. Seeking in vivo partners for MiRP3, immunohistochemistry was used to localize its expression to a unique subcellular site, the apical membrane of renal intercalated cells, where one potassium channel type has been recorded, the calcium- and voltage-gated channel BK. Overlapping staining of these two proteins was found in rabbit intercalated cells, and MiRP3 and BK subunits expressed in tissue culture cells were found to form detergent-stable complexes. Electrophysiologic and biochemical evaluation showed MiRP3 to act on BK to reduce current density in two fashions: shifting the current-voltage relationship to more depolarized voltages in a calcium-dependent fashion (∼10 mV at normal intracellular calcium levels) and accelerating degradation of MiRP3-BK complexes. The findings suggest a role for MiRP3 modulation of BK-dependent urinary potassium excretion. PMID:18463315

  3. Cloning and expression of a jellyfish calcium channel beta subunit reveal functional conservation of the alpha1-beta interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, M C; Greenberg, R M; Anderson, P A

    1999-01-01

    In high voltage-activated calcium channels, the binding between the pore-forming alpha1 subunit and the modulatory beta subunit is mediated by interaction domains in each molecule that are highly conserved among most known subunits. However, the interaction domain within CyCaalpha1, an alpha1 subunit cloned from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata, matches the canonical sequence of the alpha1 interaction domain at only four of nine sites. We have now cloned a cDNA from Cyanea neuromuscular tissue that encodes a Ca2+ channel beta subunit. The subunit, named CyCabeta, shares 47-54% identity with vertebrate beta subunit isoforms, but is most highly conserved within its interaction domain. Coexpression of CyCabeta with CyCaalpha1 in Xenopus oocytes increases the amplitude of the CyCaalpha1 current and shifts its activation to more hyperpolarized potentials. These responses are mimicked by coexpression of the rat beta2a subunit, demonstrating that the alpha1 beta interaction is functionally conserved between cnidarians and mammals. CyCabeta also markedly accelerates the rate of recovery of CyCaalpha1 from inactivation, an action that is modestly duplicated by beta2a and may represent an additional mechanism by which beta subunit isoforms differentially modulate alpha1 subunits. These findings establish that limited conservation within the alpha1 interaction domain is sufficient to allow full modulation by a beta subunit, as well as altered regulation by different beta isoforms.

  4. Mixing and matching TREK/TRAAK subunits generate heterodimeric K2P channels with unique properties

    PubMed Central

    Blin, Sandy; Ben Soussia, Ismail; Kim, Eun-Jin; Brau, Frédéric; Kang, Dawon; Lesage, Florian; Bichet, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    The tandem of pore domain in a weak inwardly rectifying K+ channel (Twik)-related acid-arachidonic activated K+ channel (TRAAK) and Twik-related K+ channels (TREK) 1 and TREK2 are active as homodimers gated by stretch, fatty acids, pH, and G protein-coupled receptors. These two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels are broadly expressed in the nervous system where they control excitability. TREK/TRAAK KO mice display altered phenotypes related to nociception, neuroprotection afforded by polyunsaturated fatty acids, learning and memory, mood control, and sensitivity to general anesthetics. These channels have emerged as promising targets for the development of new classes of anesthetics, analgesics, antidepressants, neuroprotective agents, and drugs against addiction. Here, we show that the TREK1, TREK2, and TRAAK subunits assemble and form active heterodimeric channels with electrophysiological, regulatory, and pharmacological properties different from those of homodimeric channels. Heteromerization occurs between all TREK variants produced by alternative splicing and alternative translation initiation. These results unveil a previously unexpected diversity of K2P channels that will be challenging to analyze in vivo, but which opens new perspectives for the development of clinically relevant drugs. PMID:27035965

  5. Two distinct effects of PIP2 underlie auxiliary subunit-dependent modulation of Slo1 BK channels

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Florian; Xu, Rong; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hou, Shangwei

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) plays a critical role in modulating the function of numerous ion channels, including large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-dependent K+ (BK, Slo1) channels. Slo1 BK channel complexes include four pore-forming Slo1 (α) subunits as well as various regulatory auxiliary subunits (β and γ) that are expressed in different tissues. We examined the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the effects of brain-derived PIP2 on human Slo1 BK channel complexes with different subunit compositions that were heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. PIP2 inhibited macroscopic currents through Slo1 channels without auxiliary subunits and through Slo1 + γ1 complexes. In contrast, PIP2 markedly increased macroscopic currents through Slo1 + β1 and Slo1 + β4 channel complexes and failed to alter macroscopic currents through Slo1 + β2 and Slo1 + β2 Δ2–19 channel complexes. Results obtained at various membrane potentials and divalent cation concentrations suggest that PIP2 promotes opening of the ion conduction gate in all channel types, regardless of the specific subunit composition. However, in the absence of β subunits positioned near the voltage-sensor domains (VSDs), as in Slo1 and probably Slo1 + γ1, PIP2 augments the negative surface charge on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, thereby shifting the voltage dependence of VSD-mediated activation in the positive direction. When β1 or β4 subunits occupy the space surrounding the VSDs, only the stimulatory effect of PIP2 is evident. The subunit compositions of native Slo1 BK channels differ in various cell types; thus, PIP2 may exert distinct tissue- and divalent cation–dependent modulatory influences. PMID:25825171

  6. Two distinct effects of PIP2 underlie auxiliary subunit-dependent modulation of Slo1 BK channels.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yutao; Ullrich, Florian; Xu, Rong; Heinemann, Stefan H; Hou, Shangwei; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) plays a critical role in modulating the function of numerous ion channels, including large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent K(+) (BK, Slo1) channels. Slo1 BK channel complexes include four pore-forming Slo1 (α) subunits as well as various regulatory auxiliary subunits (β and γ) that are expressed in different tissues. We examined the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying the effects of brain-derived PIP2 on human Slo1 BK channel complexes with different subunit compositions that were heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. PIP2 inhibited macroscopic currents through Slo1 channels without auxiliary subunits and through Slo1 + γ1 complexes. In contrast, PIP2 markedly increased macroscopic currents through Slo1 + β1 and Slo1 + β4 channel complexes and failed to alter macroscopic currents through Slo1 + β2 and Slo1 + β2 Δ2-19 channel complexes. Results obtained at various membrane potentials and divalent cation concentrations suggest that PIP2 promotes opening of the ion conduction gate in all channel types, regardless of the specific subunit composition. However, in the absence of β subunits positioned near the voltage-sensor domains (VSDs), as in Slo1 and probably Slo1 + γ1, PIP2 augments the negative surface charge on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, thereby shifting the voltage dependence of VSD-mediated activation in the positive direction. When β1 or β4 subunits occupy the space surrounding the VSDs, only the stimulatory effect of PIP2 is evident. The subunit compositions of native Slo1 BK channels differ in various cell types; thus, PIP2 may exert distinct tissue- and divalent cation-dependent modulatory influences. © 2015 Tian et al.

  7. A mechanism for combinatorial regulation of electrical activity: Potassium channel subunits capable of functioning as Src homology 3-dependent adaptors.

    PubMed

    Nitabach, M N; Llamas, D A; Araneda, R C; Intile, J L; Thompson, I J; Zhou, Y I; Holmes, T C

    2001-01-16

    It is an open question how ion channel subunits that lack protein-protein binding motifs become targeted and covalently modified by cellular signaling enzymes. Here, we show that Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) bind to heteromultimeric Shaker-family voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels by interactions between the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and the proline-rich SH3 domain ligand sequence in the Shaker-family subunit Kv1.5. Once bound to Kv1.5, Src-family PTKs phosphorylate adjacent subunits in the Kv channel heteromultimer that lack proline-rich SH3 domain ligand sequences. This SH3-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation contributes to significant suppression of voltage-evoked currents flowing through the heteromultimeric channel. These results demonstrate that Kv1.5 subunits function as SH3-dependent adaptor proteins that marshal Src-family kinases to heteromultimeric potassium channel signaling complexes, and thereby confer functional sensitivity upon coassembled channel subunits that are themselves not bound directly to Src-family kinases by allowing their phosphorylation. This is a mechanism for information transfer between subunits in heteromultimeric ion channels that is likely to underlie the generation of combinatorial signaling diversity in the control of cellular electrical excitability.

  8. Kainate receptor pore‐forming and auxiliary subunits regulate channel block by a novel mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Aurousseau, Mark R. P.; Musgaard, Maria; Biggin, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Kainate receptor heteromerization and auxiliary subunits, Neto1 and Neto2, attenuate polyamine ion‐channel block by facilitating blocker permeation.Relief of polyamine block in GluK2/GluK5 heteromers results from a key proline residue that produces architectural changes in the channel pore α‐helical region.Auxiliary subunits exert an additive effect to heteromerization, and thus relief of polyamine block is due to a different mechanism.Our findings have broad implications for work on polyamine block of other cation‐selective ion channels. Abstract Channel block and permeation by cytoplasmic polyamines is a common feature of many cation‐selective ion channels. Although the channel block mechanism has been studied extensively, polyamine permeation has been considered less significant as it occurs at extreme positive membrane potentials. Here, we show that kainate receptor (KAR) heteromerization and association with auxiliary proteins, Neto1 and Neto2, attenuate polyamine block by enhancing blocker permeation. Consequently, polyamine permeation and unblock occur at more negative and physiologically relevant membrane potentials. In GluK2/GluK5 heteromers, enhanced permeation is due to a single proline residue in GluK5 that alters the dynamics of the α‐helical region of the selectivity filter. The effect of auxiliary proteins is additive, and therefore the structural basis of polyamine permeation and unblock is through a different mechanism. As native receptors are thought to assemble as heteromers in complex with auxiliary proteins, our data identify an unappreciated impact of polyamine permeation in shaping the signalling properties of neuronal KARs and point to a structural mechanism that may be shared amongst other cation‐selective ion channels. PMID:26682513

  9. Subunit-selective role of the M3 transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in channel gating.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, María José; Corradi, Jeremías; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2008-02-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) can be either hetero-pentameric, composed of alpha and non-alpha subunits, or homo-pentameric, composed of alpha7 subunits. To explore the subunit-selective contributions of transmembrane domains to channel gating we analyzed single-channel activity of chimeric muscle AChRs. We exchanged M3 between alpha1 and epsilon or alpha7 subunits. The replacement of M3 in alpha1 by epsilonM3 significantly alters activation properties. Channel activity appears as bursts of openings whose durations are 20-fold longer than those of wild-type AChRs. In contrast, 7-fold briefer openings are observed in AChRs containing the reverse epsilon chimeric subunit. The duration of the open state decreases with the increase in the number of alpha1M3 segments, indicating additive contributions of M3 of all subunits to channel closing. Each alpha1M3 segment decreases the energy barrier of the closing process by approximately 0.8 kcal/mol. Partial chimeric subunits show that small stretches of the M3 segment contribute additively to the open duration. The replacement of alpha1 sequence by alpha7 in M3 leads to 3-fold briefer openings whereas in M1 it leads to 10-fold prolonged openings, revealing that the subunit-selective role is unique to each transmembrane segment.

  10. β Subunits Functionally Differentiate Human Kv4.3 Potassium Channel Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    The human ventricular cardiomyocyte transient outward K+ current (Ito) mediates the initial phase of myocyte repolarization and its disruption is implicated in Brugada Syndrome and heart failure (HF). Human cardiac Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S, diverging only by a C-terminal, S6-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L), which are differentially remodeled in HF, but considered functionally alike at baseline. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by β subunits including KChIP2b and KCNEs, but their effects were previously assumed to be Kv4.3 isoform-independent. Here, this assumption was tested experimentally using two-electrode voltage-clamp analysis of human subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Unexpectedly, Kv4.3L-KChIP2b channels exhibited up to 8-fold lower current augmentation, 40% slower inactivation, and 5 mV-shifted steady-state inactivation compared to Kv4.3S-KChIP2b. A synthetic peptide mimicking the 19-residue stretch diminished these differences, reinforcing the importance of this segment in mediating Kv4.3 regulation by KChIP2b. KCNE subunits induced further functional divergence, including a 7-fold increase in Kv4.3S-KCNE4-KChIP2b current compared to Kv4.3L-KCNE4-KChIP2b. The discovery of β-subunit-dependent functional divergence in human Kv4.3 splice variants suggests a C-terminal signaling hub is crucial to governing β-subunit effects upon Kv4.3, and demonstrates the potential significance of differential Kv4.3 gene-splicing and β subunit expression in myocyte physiology and pathobiology. PMID:28228734

  11. Conformational Flip of Nonactivated HCN2 Channel Subunits Evoked by Cyclic Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Thon, Susanne; Schulz, Eckhard; Kusch, Jana; Benndorf, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels are tetrameric proteins that evoke electrical rhythmicity in specialized neurons and cardiomyocytes. The channels are activated by hyperpolarizing voltage but are also receptors for the intracellular ligand adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) that enhances activation but is unable to activate the channels alone. Using fcAMP, a fluorescent derivative of cAMP, we analyzed the effect of ligand binding on HCN2 channels not preactivated by voltage. We identified a conformational flip of the channel as an intermediate state following the ligand binding and quantified it kinetically. Globally fitting the time courses of ligand binding and unbinding revealed modest cooperativity among the subunits in the conformational flip. The intensity of this cooperativity, however, was only moderate compared to channels preactivated by hyperpolarizing voltage. These data provide kinetic information about conformational changes proceeding in nonactivated HCN2 channels when cAMP binds. Moreover, our approach bears potential for analyzing the function of any other membrane receptor if a potent fluorescent ligand is available. PMID:26636938

  12. Expression of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel α2δ4 Subunits in the Mouse and Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    De Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez; Liu, Janelle; Solomon, Alexander; Rodriguez, Allen; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    High-voltage activated Ca channels participate in multiple cellular functions, including transmitter release, excitation, and gene transcription. Ca channels are heteromeric proteins consisting of a pore-forming α1 subunit and auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. Although there are reports of α2δ4 subunit mRNA in the mouse retina and localization of the α2δ4 subunit immunoreactivity to salamander photoreceptor terminals, there is a limited overall understanding of its expression and localization in the retina. α2δ4 subunit expression and distribution in the mouse and rat retina were evaluated by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry with specific primers and a well-characterized antibody to the α2δ4 subunit. α2δ4 subunit mRNA and protein are present in mouse and rat retina, brain, and liver homogenates. Immunostaining for the α2δ4 subunit is mainly localized to Müller cell processes and endfeet, photoreceptor terminals, and photoreceptor outer segments. This subunit is also expressed in a few displaced ganglion cells and bipolar cell dendrites. These findings suggest that the α2δ4 subunit participates in the modulation of L-type Ca2+ current regulating neurotransmitter release from photoreceptor terminals and Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways in bipolar and Müller cells. PMID:23296739

  13. Subunit stoichiometry and arrangement in a heteromeric glutamate-gated chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Degani-Katzav, Nurit; Gortler, Revital; Gorodetzki, Lilach; Paas, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride-selective receptors (GluClRs) are ion channels serving as targets for ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat human parasitic diseases like river blindness and lymphatic filariasis. The native GluClR is a heteropentamer consisting of α and β subunit types, with yet unknown subunit stoichiometry and arrangement. Based on the recent crystal structure of a homomeric GluClαR, we introduced mutations at the intersubunit interfaces where Glu (the neurotransmitter) binds. By electrophysiological characterization of these mutants, we found heteromeric assemblies with two equivalent Glu-binding sites at β/α intersubunit interfaces, where the GluClβ and GluClα subunits, respectively, contribute the “principal” and “complementary” components of the putative Glu-binding pockets. We identified a mutation in the IVM-binding site (far away from the Glu-binding sites), which significantly increased the sensitivity of the heteromeric mutant receptor to both Glu and IVM, and improved the receptor subunits’ cooperativity. We further characterized this heteromeric GluClR mutant as a receptor having a third Glu-binding site at an α/α intersubunit interface. Altogether, our data unveil heteromeric GluClR assemblies having three α and two β subunits arranged in a counterclockwise β-α-β-α-α fashion, as viewed from the extracellular side, with either two or three Glu-binding site interfaces. PMID:26792524

  14. Expression and Purification of the Alpha Subunit of the Epithelial Sodium Channel, ENaC

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Bharat G.; Dai, Qun; McNicholas, Carmel M.; Fuller, Catherine M.; Kappes, John C.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a critical role in maintaining Na+ homeostasis in various tissues throughout the body. An understanding of the structure of the ENaC subunits has been developed from homology modeling based on the related acid sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) protein structure, as well as electrophysiological approaches. However, ENaC has several notable functional differences compared to ASIC1, thereby providing justification for determination of its three-dimensional structure. Unfortunately, this goal remains elusive due to several experimental challenges. Of the subunits that comprise a physiological hetero-trimeric αβγENaC, the α-subunit is unique in that it is capable of forming a homo-trimeric structure that conducts Na+ ions. Despite functional and structural interest in αENaC, a key factor complicating structural studies has been its interaction with multiple other proteins, disrupting its homogeneity. In order to address this issue, a novel protocol was used to reduce the number of proteins that associate and co-purify with αENaC. In this study, we describe a novel expression system coupled with a two-step affinity purification approach using NiNTA, followed by a GFP antibody column as a rapid procedure to improve the purity and yield of rat αENaC. PMID:26394093

  15. Regulation of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel function, trafficking, and membrane stability by auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Felix, Ricardo; Calderón-Rivera, Aida; Andrade, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels mediate Ca(2+) ions influx into cells in response to depolarization of the plasma membrane. They are responsible for initiation of excitation-contraction and excitation-secretion coupling, and the Ca(2+) that enters cells through this pathway is also important in the regulation of protein phosphorylation, gene transcription, and many other intracellular events. Initial electrophysiological studies divided CaV channels into low-voltage-activated (LVA) and high-voltage-activated (HVA) channels. The HVA CaV channels were further subdivided into L, N, P/Q, and R-types which are oligomeric protein complexes composed of an ion-conducting CaVα1 subunit and auxiliary CaVα2δ, CaVβ, and CaVγ subunits. The functional consequences of the auxiliary subunits include altered functional and pharmacological properties of the channels as well as increased current densities. The latter observation suggests an important role of the auxiliary subunits in membrane trafficking of the CaVα1 subunit. This includes the mechanisms by which CaV channels are targeted to the plasma membrane and to appropriate regions within a given cell. Likewise, the auxiliary subunits seem to participate in the mechanisms that remove CaV channels from the plasma membrane for recycling and/or degradation. Diverse studies have provided important clues to the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of CaV channels by the auxiliary subunits, and the roles that these proteins could possibly play in channel targeting and membrane Stabilization.

  16. Cortisone dissociates voltage-dependent K+ channel from its beta subunit

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yaping; Weng, Jun; Kabaleeswaran, Venkataraman; Li, Huiguang; Cao, Yu; Bhosle, Rahul C.; Zhou, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The Shaker family voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv1) are expressed in a wide variety of cells and essential for cellular excitability. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of Kv1 channels lead to hyperexcitability and are directly linked to episodic ataxia and atrial fibrillation. All Kv1 channels assemble with beta subunits (Kvβ) and certain Kvβs, for example Kvβ1, have an N-terminal segment that closes a channel by the N-type inactivation mechanism. In principle dissociation of Kvβ1, although never reported, should eliminate inactivation and thus potentiate Kv1 current. We found that cortisone increases mammalian (rat) Kv1 channel activity by binding to Kvβ1. A crystal structure of the Kvβ-cortisone complex was solved to 1.82 Å resolution and revealed novel cortisone binding sites. Further studies demonstrated that cortisone promotes dissociation of Kvβ. The new mode of channel modulation may be explored by native or synthetic ligands to fine tune cellular excitability. PMID:18806782

  17. Cortisone Dissociates the Shaker Family K Channels from their Beta Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.; Weng, J; Kabaleeswaran, V; Li, H; Cao, Y; Bholse, R; Zhou, M

    2008-01-01

    The Shaker family voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv1) are expressed in a wide variety of cells and are essential for cellular excitability. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of Kv1 channels lead to hyperexcitability and are directly linked to episodic ataxia and atrial fibrillation. All Kv1 channels assemble with {Beta} subunits (Kv{Beta}s), and certain Kv{Beta}s, for example Kv{Beta}1, have an N-terminal segment that closes the channel by the N-type inactivation mechanism. In principle, dissociation of Kv{Beta}1, although never reported, should eliminate inactivation and thus potentiate Kv1 current. We found that cortisone increases rat Kv1 channel activity by binding to Kv{Beta}1. A crystal structure of the K{Beta}v-cortisone complex was solved to 1.82-{angstrom}resolution and revealed novel cortisone binding sites. Further studies demonstrated that cortisone promotes dissociation of Kv{Beta}. The new mode of channel modulation may be explored by native or synthetic ligands to fine-tune cellular excitability.

  18. The molecular basis for T-type Ca2+ channel inhibition by G protein β2γ2 subunits

    PubMed Central

    DePuy, Seth D.; Yao, Junlan; Hu, Changlong; McIntire, William; Bidaud, Isabelle; Lory, Philippe; Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Gonzalez, Carlos; Garrison, James C.; Barrett, Paula Q.

    2006-01-01

    Gβγ, a ubiquitous second messenger, relays external signals from G protein-coupled receptors to networks of intracellular effectors, including voltage-dependent calcium channels. Unlike high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, the inhibition of low-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels is subtype-dependent and mediated selectively by Gβ2-containing dimers. Yet, the molecular basis for this exquisite selectivity remains unknown. Here, we used pure recombinant Gβγ subunits to establish that the Gβ2γ2 dimer can selectively reconstitute the inhibition of α1H channels in isolated membrane patches. This inhibition is the result of a reduction in channel open probability that is not accompanied by a change in channel expression or an alteration in active-channel gating. By exchanging residues between the active Gβ2 subunit and the inactive Gβ1 subunit, we identified a cluster of amino acids that functionally distinguish Gβ2 from other Gβ subunits. These amino acids on the β-torus identify a region that is distinct from those regions that contact the Gα subunit or other effectors. PMID:16973746

  19. AtKC1, a silent Arabidopsis potassium channel α-subunit modulates root hair K+ influx

    PubMed Central

    Reintanz, Birgit; Szyroki, Alexander; Ivashikina, Natalya; Ache, Peter; Godde, Matthias; Becker, Dirk; Palme, Klaus; Hedrich, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    Ion channels in roots allow the plant to gain access to nutrients. The composition of the individual ion channels and the functional contribution of different α-subunits is largely unknown. Focusing on K+-selective ion channels, we have characterized AtKC1, a new α-subunit from the Arabidopsis shaker-like ion channel family. Promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) studies identified AtKC1 expression predominantly in root hairs and root endodermis. Specific antibodies recognized AtKC1 at the plasma membrane. To analyze further the abundance and the functional contribution of the different K+ channels α-subunits in root cells, we performed real-time reverse transcription–PCR and patch-clamp experiments on isolated root hair protoplasts. Studying all shaker-like ion channel α-subunits, we only found the K+ inward rectifier AtKC1 and AKT1 and the K+ outward rectifier GORK to be expressed in this cell type. Akt1 knockout plants essentially lacked inward rectifying K+ currents. In contrast, inward rectifying K+ currents were present in AtKC1 knockout plants, but fundamentally altered with respect to gating and cation sensitivity. This indicates that the AtKC1 α-subunit represents an integral component of functional root hair K+ uptake channels. PMID:11904452

  20. Evans Blue is not a suitable inhibitor of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit.

    PubMed

    Perniss, Alexander; Wolf, Annemarie; Wichmann, Lukas; Schönberger, Matthias; Althaus, Mike

    2015-10-23

    The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) is a heterotrimeric ion channel which can be either formed by assembly of its α-, β- and γ-subunits or, alternatively, its δ-, β- and γ-subunits. The physiological function of αβγ-ENaC is well established, but the function of δβγ-ENaC remains elusive. The azo-dye Evans Blue (EvB) has been routinely used to discriminate between the two channel isoforms by decreasing transmembrane currents and amiloride-sensitive current fractions of δβγ-ENaC expressing Xenopus oocytes. Even though these results could be reproduced, it was found by precipitation experiments and spectroscopic methods that the cationic amiloride and the anionic EvB directly interact in solution, forming a strong complex. Thereby a large amount of pharmacologically available amiloride is removed from physiological buffer solutions and the effective amiloride concentration is reduced. This interaction did not occur in the presence of albumin. In microelectrode recordings, EvB was able to abrogate the block of δβγ-ENaC by amiloride or its derivative benzamil. In sum, EvB reduces amiloride-sensitive ion current fractions in electrophysiological experiments. This is not a result of a specific inhibition of δβγ-ENaC but rather represents a pharmacological artefact. EvB should therefore not be used as an inhibitor of δ-ENaC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cotranslational association of mRNA encoding subunits of heteromeric ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Jones, David K.; de Lange, Willem J.; Robertson, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Oligomers of homomeric voltage-gated potassium channels associate early in biogenesis as the nascent proteins emerge from the polysome. Less is known about how proteins emerging from different polysomes associate to form hetero-oligomeric channels. Here, we report that alternate mRNA transcripts encoding human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) 1a and 1b subunits, which assemble to produce ion channels mediating cardiac repolarization, are physically associated during translation. We show that shRNA specifically targeting either hERG 1a or 1b transcripts reduced levels of both transcripts, but only when they were coexpressed heterologously. Both transcripts could be copurified with an Ab against the nascent hERG 1a N terminus. This interaction occurred even when translation of 1b was prevented, indicating the transcripts associate independent of their encoded proteins. The association was also demonstrated in cardiomyocytes, where levels of both hERG transcripts were reduced by either 1a or 1b shRNA, but native KCNE1 and ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) transcripts were unaffected. Changes in protein levels and membrane currents mirrored changes in transcript levels, indicating the targeted transcripts were undergoing translation. The physical association of transcripts encoding different subunits provides the spatial proximity required for nascent proteins to interact during biogenesis, and may represent a general mechanism facilitating assembly of heteromeric protein complexes involved in a range of biological processes. PMID:27078096

  2. Mutation E87Q of the β1-subunit impairs the maturation of the cardiac voltage-dependent sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Debora; Picco, Cristiana; Moran, Oscar

    2017-09-06

    Voltage-dependent sodium channels are responsible of the rising phase of the action potential in excitable cells. These membrane integral proteins are composed by a pore-forming α-subunit, and one or more auxiliary β subunits. Mutation E87Q of the β1 subunit is correlated with Brugada syndrome, a genetic disease characterised by ventricular fibrillation, right precordial ST segment elevation on ECG and sudden cardiac death. Heterologous expression of E87Q-β1 subunit in CHO cells determines a reduced sodium channel functional expression. The effect the E87Q mutation of the β1 subunit on sodium currents and α protein expression is correlated with a reduced availability of the mature form of the α subunit in the plasma membrane. This finding offers a new target for the treatment of the Brugada syndrome, based on protein maturation management. This work highlights the role played by the β1 subunit in the maturation and expression of the entire sodium channel complex and underlines how the defective interaction between the sodium channel constituents could lead to a disabling pathological condition.

  3. Distribution of glutamate-gated chloride channel subunits in the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Virginia; Jagannathan, Suchitra; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2003-07-21

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) are related to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptors and are the target sites for the avermectin/milbemycin (A/M) anthelmintics, drugs that cause paralysis of the somatic and pharyngeal muscles in nematodes. We have previously identified four GluCl subunits, HcGluClalpha, HcGluClbeta, HcGluClalpha3A, and HcGluClalpha3B from the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus. We raised specific antisera against all of these subunits and used them in immunofluorescence experiments on adult parasites. All of the subunits were expressed in the motor nervous system, especially motor neuron commissures. Double-immunostaining experiments suggested that HcGluClalpha and HcGluClbeta were expressed on the same commissures; these were also stained with an anti-GABA antibody, suggesting that they may be inhibitory motor neurons. The HcGluClbeta subunit was also detected in lateral and sublateral nerve cords. The HcGluClalpha3A and -B subunits, products of an alternatively spliced gene, were expressed in different neurons. We found HcGluClalphaA in a pair of sensory, possibly amphid, neurons in the head, in addition to the motor neuron commissures. HcGluClalpha3B was detected in three cell bodies, probably of pharyngeal neurons, and to ventral and lateral cords. These results indicate that the GluCl are widely distributed in the H. contortus nervous system and suggest that they have critical roles controlling locomotion, pharyngeal function, and possibly sensory processing in parasitic nematodes. They also provide an explanation for the observed effects of the A/M anthelmintics. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Structural requirement of the calcium-channel subunit alpha2delta for gabapentin binding.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Offord, J; Oxender, D L; Su, T Z

    1999-01-01

    Gabapentin [Neurontin, 1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid] is a novel anticonvulsant drug with a high binding affinity for the Ca(2+)-channel subunit alpha(2)delta. In this study, the gabapentin-binding properties of wild-type and mutated porcine brain alpha(2)delta proteins were investigated. Removal of the disulphide bonds between the alpha(2) and the delta subunits did not result in a significant loss of gabapentin binding, suggesting that the disulphide linkage between the two subunits is not required for binding. Singly expressed alpha(2) protein remained membrane associated. However, alpha(2) alone was unable to bind gabapentin, unless the cells were concurrently transfected with the expression vector for delta, suggesting that both alpha(2) and delta are required for gabapentin binding. Using internal deletion mutagenesis, we mapped two regions [amino acid residues 339-365 (DeltaF) and 875-905 (DeltaJ)] within the alpha(2) subunit that are not required for gabapentin binding. Further, deletion of three other individual regions [amino acid residues 206-222 (DeltaD), 516-537 (DeltaH) and 583-603 (DeltaI)] within the alpha(2) subunit disrupted gabapentin binding, suggesting the structural importance of these regions. Using alanine to replace four to six amino acid residues in each of these regions abolished gabapentin binding. These results demonstrate that region D, between the N-terminal end and the first putative transmembrane domain of alpha(2), and regions H and I, between the putative splicing acceptor sites (Gln(511) and Ser(601)), may play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity for gabapentin binding. Further single amino acid replacement mutagenesis within these regions identified Arg(217) as critical for gabapentin binding. PMID:10455017

  5. Functional and Structural Divergence in Human TRPV1 Channel Subunits by Oxidative Cysteine Modification*

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Nozomi; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Fujiwara, Kenji; Polat, Onur Kerem; Badr, Heba; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a tetrameric protein that acts as a sensor for noxious stimuli such as heat and for diverse inflammatory mediators such as oxidative stress to mediate nociception in a subset of sensory neurons. In TRPV1 oxidation sensing, cysteine (Cys) oxidation has been considered as the principle mechanism; however, its biochemical basis remains elusive. Here, we characterize the oxidative status of Cys residues in differential redox environments and propose a model of TRPV1 activation by oxidation. Through employing a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE, electrophysiology, and mass spectrometry we have identified the formation of subunit dimers carrying a stable intersubunit disulfide bond between Cys-258 and Cys-742 of human TRPV1 (hTRPV1). C258S and C742S hTRPV1 mutants have a decreased protein half-life, reflecting the role of the intersubunit disulfide bond in supporting channel stability. Interestingly, the C258S hTRPV1 mutant shows an abolished response to oxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis of Cys residues of hTRPV1 treated with hydrogen peroxide shows that Cys-258 is highly sensitive to oxidation. Our results suggest that Cys-258 residues are heterogeneously modified in the hTRPV1 tetrameric complex and comprise Cys-258 with free thiol for oxidation sensing and Cys-258, which is involved in the disulfide bond for assisting subunit dimerization. Thus, the hTRPV1 channel has a heterogeneous subunit composition in terms of both redox status and function. PMID:26702055

  6. Functional and Structural Divergence in Human TRPV1 Channel Subunits by Oxidative Cysteine Modification.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Nozomi; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Fujiwara, Kenji; Polat, Onur Kerem; Badr, Heba; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-02-19

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a tetrameric protein that acts as a sensor for noxious stimuli such as heat and for diverse inflammatory mediators such as oxidative stress to mediate nociception in a subset of sensory neurons. In TRPV1 oxidation sensing, cysteine (Cys) oxidation has been considered as the principle mechanism; however, its biochemical basis remains elusive. Here, we characterize the oxidative status of Cys residues in differential redox environments and propose a model of TRPV1 activation by oxidation. Through employing a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE, electrophysiology, and mass spectrometry we have identified the formation of subunit dimers carrying a stable intersubunit disulfide bond between Cys-258 and Cys-742 of human TRPV1 (hTRPV1). C258S and C742S hTRPV1 mutants have a decreased protein half-life, reflecting the role of the intersubunit disulfide bond in supporting channel stability. Interestingly, the C258S hTRPV1 mutant shows an abolished response to oxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis of Cys residues of hTRPV1 treated with hydrogen peroxide shows that Cys-258 is highly sensitive to oxidation. Our results suggest that Cys-258 residues are heterogeneously modified in the hTRPV1 tetrameric complex and comprise Cys-258 with free thiol for oxidation sensing and Cys-258, which is involved in the disulfide bond for assisting subunit dimerization. Thus, the hTRPV1 channel has a heterogeneous subunit composition in terms of both redox status and function.

  7. Kv3.4 subunits enhance the repolarizing efficiency of Kv3.1 channels in fast-spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Gytis; Tkatch, Tatiana; Nagata, Keiichi; Yeh, Jay Z; Surmeier, D James

    2003-03-01

    Neurons with the capacity to discharge at high rates--'fast-spiking' (FS) neurons--are critical participants in central motor and sensory circuits. It is widely accepted that K+ channels with Kv3.1 or Kv3.2 subunits underlie fast, delayed-rectifier (DR) currents that endow neurons with this FS ability. Expression of these subunits in heterologous systems, however, yields channels that open at more depolarized potentials than do native Kv3 family channels, suggesting that they differ. One possibility is that native channels incorporate a subunit that modifies gating. Molecular, electrophysiological and pharmacological studies reported here suggest that a splice variant of the Kv3.4 subunit coassembles with Kv3.1 subunits in rat brain FS neurons. Coassembly enhances the spike repolarizing efficiency of the channels, thereby reducing spike duration and enabling higher repetitive spike rates. These results suggest that manipulation of K3.4 subunit expression could be a useful means of controlling the dynamic range of FS neurons.

  8. β1-subunit-induced structural rearrangements of the Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan P; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jorge E; Hyde, H Clark; Zaelzer, Cristian A; Aguayo, Daniel; Sepúlveda, Romina V; Luk, Louis Y P; Kent, Stephen B H; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando D; Bezanilla, Francisco; Latorre, Ramón

    2016-06-07

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels are involved in a large variety of physiological processes. Regulatory β-subunits are one of the mechanisms responsible for creating BK channel diversity fundamental to the adequate function of many tissues. However, little is known about the structure of its voltage sensor domain. Here, we present the external architectural details of BK channels using lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer (LRET). We used a genetically encoded lanthanide-binding tag (LBT) to bind terbium as a LRET donor and a fluorophore-labeled iberiotoxin as the LRET acceptor for measurements of distances within the BK channel structure in a living cell. By introducing LBTs in the extracellular region of the α- or β1-subunit, we determined (i) a basic extracellular map of the BK channel, (ii) β1-subunit-induced rearrangements of the voltage sensor in α-subunits, and (iii) the relative position of the β1-subunit within the α/β1-subunit complex.

  9. Functional Expression Profile of Voltage-Gated K(+) Channel Subunits in Rat Small Mesenteric Arteries.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert H; Fromme, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Multiple K v channel complexes contribute to total K v current in numerous cell types and usually subserve different physiological functions. Identifying the complete compliment of functional K v channel subunits in cells is a prerequisite to understanding regulatory function. It was the goal of this work to determine the complete K v subunit compliment that contribute to functional K v currents in rat small mesenteric artery (SMA) myocytes as a prelude to studying channel regulation. Using RNA prepared from freshly dispersed myocytes, high levels of K v 1.2, 1.5, and 2.1 and lower levels of K v 7.4 α-subunit expressions were demonstrated by quantitative PCR and confirmed by Western blotting. Selective inhibitors correolide (K v 1; COR), stromatoxin (K v 2.1; ScTx), and linopirdine (K v 7.4; LINO) decreased K v current at +40 mV in SMA by 46 ± 4, 48 ± 4, and 6.5 ± 2 %, respectively, and K v current in SMA was insensitive to α-dendrotoxin. Contractions of SMA segments pretreated with 100 nmol/L phenylephrine were enhanced by 27 ± 3, 30 ± 8, and 7 ± 3 % of the response to 120 mmol/L KCl by COR, ScTX, and LINO, respectively. The presence of K v 6.1, 9.3, β1.1, and β1.2 was demonstrated by RT-PCR using myocyte RNA with expressions of K vβ1.2 and K v 9.3 about tenfold higher than K vβ1.1 and K v 6.1, respectively. Selective inhibitors of K v 1.3, 3.4, 4.1, and 4.3 channels also found at the RNA and/or protein level had no significant effect on K v current or contraction. These results suggest that K v current in rat SMA myocytes are dominated equally by two major components consisting of K v 1.2-1.5-β1.2 and K v 2.1-9.3 channels along with a smaller contribution from K v 7.4 channels but differences in voltage dependence of activation allows all three to provide significant contributions to SMA function at physiological voltages.

  10. Prostasin interacts with the epithelial Na+ channel and facilitates cleavage of the γ-subunit by a second protease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Gunhild M.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Frindt, Gustavo; Rued, Anna C.; Hughey, Rebecca P.; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    During maturation, the α- and γ-subunits of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) undergo proteolytic processing by furin. Cleavage of the γ-subunit by furin at the consensus site γRKRR143 and subsequent cleavage by a second protease at a distal site strongly activate the channel. For example, coexpression of prostasin with ENaC increases both channel function and cleavage at the γRKRK186 site. We generated a polyclonal antibody that recognizes the region 144–186 in the γ-subunit (anti-γ43) to determine whether prostasin promotes the release of the intervening tract between the putative furin and γRKRK186 cleavage sites. Anti-γ43 precipitated both full-length (93 kDa) and furin-processed (83 kDa) γ-subunits from extracts obtained from oocytes expressing αβHA-γ-V5 channels, but only the full-length (93 kDa) γ-subunit from oocytes expressing αβHA-γ-V5 channels and either wild-type or a catalytically inactive prostasin. Although both wild-type and catalytically inactive prostasin activated ENaCs in an aprotinin-sensitive manner, only wild-type prostasin bound to aprotinin beads, suggesting that catalytically inactive prostasin facilitates the cleavage of the γ-subunit by an endogenous protease in Xenopus oocytes. As dietary salt restriction increases cleavage of the renal γ-subunit, we assessed release of the 43-mer inhibitory tract on rats fed a low-Na+ diet. We found that a low-Na+ diet increased γ-subunit cleavage detected with the anti-γ antibody and dramatically reduced the fraction precipitated with the anti-γ43 antibody. Our results suggest that the inhibitory tract dissociates from the γ-subunit in kidneys from rats on a low-Na+ diet. PMID:25209858

  11. Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; He, Ye; Gorczyca, David; Xiang, Yang; Cheng, Li E.; Meltzer, Shan; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    Touch sensation is essential for behaviours ranging from environmental exploration to social interaction; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown1. In Drosophila larvae, two types of sensory neurons, class III and class IV dendritic arborization neurons, tile the body wall. The mechanotransduction channel PIEZO in class IV neurons is essential for sensing noxious mechanical stimuli but is not involved in gentle touch2. On the basis of electrophysiological-recording, calcium-imaging and behavioural studies, here we report that class III dendritic arborization neurons are touch sensitive and contribute to gentle-touch sensation. We further identify NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels, as a mechanotransduction channel for gentle touch. NOMPC is highly expressed in class III neurons and is required for their mechanotransduction. Moreover, ectopic NOMPC expression confers touch sensitivity to the normally touch-insensitive class IV neurons. In addition to the critical role of NOMPC in eliciting gentle-touch-mediated behavioural responses, expression of this protein in the Drosophila S2 cell line also gives rise to mechanosensitive channels in which ion selectivity can be altered by NOMPC mutation, indicating that NOMPC is a pore-forming subunit of a mechanotransduction channel. Our study establishes NOMPC as a bona fide mechanotransduction channel that satisfies all four criteria proposed for a channel to qualify as a transducer of mechanical stimuli3 and mediates gentle-touch sensation. Our study also suggests that different mechanosensitive channels may be used to sense gentle touch versus noxious mechanical stimuli. PMID:23222543

  12. α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBUNIT STOICHIOMETRY AND FUNCTION AT THE SINGLE CHANNEL LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, Simone; Bermudez, Isabel; Sine, Steven M

    2017-02-17

    Acetylcholine receptors comprising α4 and β2 subunits are the most abundant class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the brain. They contribute to cognition, reward, mood, and nociception and are implicated in a range of neurological disorders. Previous measurements of whole-cell macroscopic currents showed that α4 and β2 subunits assemble in two predominant pentameric stoichiometries, which differ in their sensitivity to agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators. Here we compare agonist-elicited single channel currents from receptors assembled with an excess of either the α4 or β2 subunit, forming receptor populations biased toward one or the other stoichiometry, with currents from receptors composed of five concatemeric subunits in which the subunit stoichiometry is predetermined. Our results associate each subunit stoichiometry with a unique single channel conductance, mean open channel lifetime, and sensitivity to the allosteric potentiator 3-[3-(3-pyridinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS-9283). Receptors with the composition (α4β2)2α4 exhibit high single channel conductance, brief mean open lifetime, and strong potentiation by NS-9283, whereas receptors with the composition (α4β2)2β2 exhibit low single channel conductance and long mean open lifetime and are not potentiated by NS-9283. Thus single channel current measurements reveal bases for the distinct functional and pharmacological properties endowed by different stoichiometries of α4 and β2 subunits and establish pentameric concatemers as a means to delineate interactions between subunits that confer these properties.

  13. Fly DPP10 acts as a channel ancillary subunit and possesses peptidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Yohei; Muto, Tomohiro; Zhang, Zhili; Baihaqie, Ahmad; Yoshizawa, Takamasa; Lee, Hye-in J.; Park, Eulsoon; Tsukiji, Shinya; Takimoto, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian DPP6 (DPPX) and DPP10 (DPPY) belong to a family of dipeptidyl peptidases, but lack enzyme activity. Instead, these proteins form complexes with voltage-gated K+ channels in Kv4 family to control their gating and other properties. Here, we find that the fly DPP10 ortholog acts as an ancillary subunit of Kv4 channels and digests peptides. Similarly to mammalian DPP10, the fly ortholog tightly binds to rat Kv4.3 protein. The association causes negative shifts in voltage dependence of channel activation and steady state inactivation. It also results in faster inactivation and recovery from inactivation. In addition to its channel regulatory role, fly DPP10 exhibits significant dipeptidyl peptidase activity with Gly-Pro-MCA (glycyl-L-proline 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide) as a substrate. Heterologously expressed Flag-tagged fly DPP10 and human DPP4 show similar Km values towards this substrate. However, fly DPP10 exhibits approximately a 6-times-lower relative kcat value normalized with anti-Flag immunoreactivity than human DPP4. These results demonstrate that fly DPP10 is a dual functional protein, controlling Kv4 channel gating and removing bioactive peptides. PMID:27198182

  14. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in cardiac and skeletal muscle membranes: studies with antibodies against the. cap alpha. subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Catterall, W.A.

    1987-08-25

    Polyclonal antibodies (PAC-2) against the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel were prepared and shown to be directed against ..cap alpha.. subunits of this protein by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. These polypeptides have an apparent molecular weight of 162,000 without reduction of disulfide bonds. Under conditions where the functional properties of the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel are retained, ..beta.. subunits (M/sub r/ 50,000) and lambda subunits (M/sub r/ 33,000) are coprecipitated, demonstrating specific noncovalent association of these three polypeptides in the purified skeletal muscle channel. PAC-2 immunoprecipitated cardiac calcium channels labeled with (/sup 3/H)isopropyl 4-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-(methoxycarbonyl)pyridine-3-carboxylate ((/sup 3/H)PN200-110) at a 3-fold higher concentration than skeletal muscle channels. Preincubation with cardiac calcium channels blocked only 49% of the immunoreactivity of PAC-2 toward skeletal muscle channels, indicating that these two proteins have both homologous and distinct epitopes. The immunoreactive component of the cardiac calcium channel was identified by immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 170,000 before reduction of disulfide bonds and 141,000 after reduction, in close analogy with the properties of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ subunits of the skeletal muscle channel. The calcium channels were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and /sup 125/I. It is concluded that these two calcium channels have a homologous, but distinct, ..cap alpha.. subunit as a major polypeptide component.

  15. Acetylcholine receptor δ subunit mutations underlie a fast-channel myasthenic syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

    PubMed Central

    Brownlow, Sharon; Webster, Richard; Croxen, Rebecca; Brydson, Martin; Neville, Brian; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, Angela; Newsom-Davis, John; Beeson, David

    2001-01-01

    Limitation of movement during fetal development may lead to multiple joint contractures in the neonate, termed arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Neuromuscular disorders are among the many different causes of reduced fetal movement. Many congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are due to mutations of the adult-specific ε subunit of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and, thus, functional deficits do not arise until late in gestation. However, an earlier effect on the fetus might be predicted with some defects of other AChR subunits. We studied a child who presented at birth with joint contractures and was subsequently found to have a CMS. Mutational screening revealed heteroallelic mutation within the AChR δ subunit gene, δ756ins2 and δE59K. Expression studies demonstrate that δ756ins2 is a null mutation. By contrast, both fetal and adult AChR containing δE59K have shorter than normal channel activations that predict fast decay of endplate currents. Thus, δE59K causes dysfunction of fetal as well as the adult AChR and would explain the presence of joint contractures on the basis of reduced fetal movement. This is the first report of the association of AChR gene mutations with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. It is probable that mutations that severely disrupt function of fetal AChR will underlie additional cases. PMID:11435464

  16. Regulatory-auxiliary subunits of CLC chloride channel-transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Barrallo-Gimeno, Alejandro; Gradogna, Antonella; Zanardi, Ilaria; Pusch, Michael; Estévez, Raúl

    2015-09-15

    The CLC family of chloride channels and transporters is composed by nine members, but only three of them, ClC-Ka/b, ClC-7 and ClC-2, have been found so far associated with auxiliary subunits. These CLC regulatory subunits are small proteins that present few common characteristics among them, both structurally and functionally, and their effects on the corresponding CLC protein are different. Barttin, a protein with two transmembrane domains, is essential for the membrane localization of ClC-K proteins and their activity in the kidney and inner ear. Ostm1 is a protein with a single transmembrane domain and a highly glycosylated N-terminus. Unlike the other two CLC auxiliary subunits, Ostm1 shows a reciprocal relationship with ClC-7 for their stability. The subcellular localization of Ostm1 depends on ClC-7 and not the other way around. ClC-2 is active on its own, but GlialCAM, a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule with two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, regulates its subcellular localization and activity in glial cells. The common theme for these three proteins is their requirement for a proper homeostasis, since their malfunction leads to distinct diseases. We will review here their properties and their role in normal chloride physiology and the pathological consequences of their improper function.

  17. Functional Significance of K+ Channel β-Subunit KCNE3 in Auditory Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenying; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Lee, Jeong-Han; Wong, Victor; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Lv, Ping; Perez Flores, Maria Cristina; Mousavi-Nik, Atefeh; Doyle, Karen Jo; Xu, Yanfang; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

    2014-01-01

    The KCNE3 β-subunit interacts with and regulates the voltage-dependent gating, kinetics, and pharmacology of a variety of Kv channels in neurons. Because a single neuron may express multiple KCNE3 partners, it is impossible to predict the overall functional relevance of the single transmembrane domain peptide on the pore-forming K+ channel subunits with which it associates. In the inner ear, the role of KCNE3 is undefined, despite its association with Meniere disease and tinnitus. To gain insights on the functional significance of KCNE3 in auditory neurons, we examined the properties of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in Kcne3 null mutant neurons relative to their age-matched controls. We demonstrate that null deletion of Kcne3 abolishes characteristic wide variations in the resting membrane potentials of SGNs and yields age-dependent alterations in action potential and firing properties of neurons along the contour of the cochlear axis, in comparison with age-matched wild-type neurons. The properties of basal SGNs were markedly altered in Kcne3−/− mice compared with the wild-type controls; these include reduced action potential latency, amplitude, and increased firing frequency. Analyses of the underlying conductance demonstrate that null mutation of Kcne3 results in enhanced outward K+ currents, which is sufficient to explain the ensuing membrane potential changes. Additionally, we have demonstrated that KCNE3 may regulate the activity of Kv4.2 channels in SGNs. Finally, there were developmentally mediated compensatory changes that occurred such that, by 8 weeks after birth, the electrical properties of the null mutant neurons were virtually indistinguishable from the wild-type neurons, suggesting that ion channel remodeling in auditory neurons progresses beyond hearing onset. PMID:24727472

  18. AMIGO is an auxiliary subunit of the Kv2.1 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Marjaana A; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Lauri, Sari E; Taira, Tomi; Rauvala, Heikki

    2011-12-01

    Kv2.1 is a potassium channel α-subunit abundantly expressed throughout the brain. It is a main component of delayed rectifier current (I(K)) in several neuronal types and a regulator of excitability during high-frequency firing. Here we identify AMIGO (amphoterin-induced gene and ORF), a neuronal adhesion protein with leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobin domains, as an integral part of the Kv2.1 channel complex. AMIGO shows extensive spatial and temporal colocalization and association with Kv2.1 in the mouse brain. The colocalization of AMIGO and Kv2.1 is retained even during stimulus-induced changes in Kv2.1 localization. AMIGO increases Kv2.1 conductance in a voltage-dependent manner in HEK cells. Accordingly, inhibition of endogenous AMIGO suppresses neuronal I(K) at negative membrane voltages. In conclusion, our data indicate AMIGO as a function-modulating auxiliary subunit for Kv2.1 and thus provide new insights into regulation of neuronal excitability.

  19. AMIGO is an auxiliary subunit of the Kv2.1 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Marjaana A; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Lauri, Sari E; Taira, Tomi; Rauvala, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Kv2.1 is a potassium channel α-subunit abundantly expressed throughout the brain. It is a main component of delayed rectifier current (IK) in several neuronal types and a regulator of excitability during high-frequency firing. Here we identify AMIGO (amphoterin-induced gene and ORF), a neuronal adhesion protein with leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobin domains, as an integral part of the Kv2.1 channel complex. AMIGO shows extensive spatial and temporal colocalization and association with Kv2.1 in the mouse brain. The colocalization of AMIGO and Kv2.1 is retained even during stimulus-induced changes in Kv2.1 localization. AMIGO increases Kv2.1 conductance in a voltage-dependent manner in HEK cells. Accordingly, inhibition of endogenous AMIGO suppresses neuronal IK at negative membrane voltages. In conclusion, our data indicate AMIGO as a function-modulating auxiliary subunit for Kv2.1 and thus provide new insights into regulation of neuronal excitability. PMID:22056818

  20. Allostery between two binding sites in the ion channel subunit TRIP8b confers binding specificity to HCN channels.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Kyle A; Han, Ye; Heuermann, Robert J; Cheng, Xiangying; Kurz, Jonathan E; Lyman, Reagan E; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Chetkovich, Dane M

    2017-09-08

    Tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains are ubiquitous structural motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions. For example, the TPR domains in the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5 enable binding to a range of type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) motifs. A homolog of PEX5, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b), binds to and functions as an auxiliary subunit of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. Given the similarity between TRIP8b and PEX5, this difference in function raises the question of what mechanism accounts for their binding specificity. In this report, we found that the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) and the C-terminus of the HCN channel are critical for conferring specificity to TRIP8b binding. We show that TRIP8b binds the HCN CNBD through a 37-residue domain and the HCN C-terminus through the TPR domains. Using a combination of fluorescence polarization and co-immunoprecipitation based assays, we establish that binding at either site increases affinity at the other. Thus, allosteric coupling of the TRIP8b TPR domains both promotes binding to HCN channels and limits binding to PTS1 substrates. These results raise the possibility that other TPR domains may similarly be influenced by allosteric mechanisms as a general feature of protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Cloning and functional characterization of a putative sodium channel auxiliary subunit gene from the house fly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Smith, T J; Ingles, P J; Soderlund, D M

    2000-06-01

    The functional expression of cloned Drosophila melanogaster and house fly (Musca domestica) voltage-sensitive sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes is enhanced, and the inactivation kinetics of the expressed channels are accelerated, by coexpression with the tipE protein, a putative sodium channel auxiliary subunit encoded by the tipE gene of D. melanogaster. These results predict the existence of a tipE ortholog in the house fly. Using a PCR-based homology probing approach, we isolated cDNA clones encoding an ortholog of tipE (designated Vssc beta) from adult house fly heads. Clones comprising 3444 bp of cDNA sequence contained a 1317 bp open-reading frame encoding a 438 amino acid protein. The predicted Vssc beta protein exhibited 72% amino acid sequence identity to the entire D. melanogaster tipE protein sequence and 97% identity within the two hydrophobic segments identified as probable transmembrane domains. Coexpression of Vssc beta with the house fly sodium channel alpha subunit (Vssc1) in oocytes enhanced the level of sodium current expression five-fold and accelerated the rate of sodium current inactivation 2.2-fold. Both of these effects were significantly larger in magnitude than the corresponding effects of the D. melanogaster tipE protein on the expression and kinetics of Vssc1 sodium channels. These results identify a second example of a putative sodium channel auxiliary subunit from an insect having functional but not structural homology to vertebrate sodium channel beta subunits.

  2. Western blot analysis of BK channel β1-subunit expression should be interpreted cautiously when using commercially available antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Fernandes, Roxanne; Kadrofske, Mark M; Lockwood, Lizbeth R; Galligan, James J; Xu, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels consist of pore-forming α- and accessory β-subunits. There are four β-subunit subtypes (β1-β4), BK β1-subunit is specific for smooth muscle cells (SMC). Reduced BK β1-subunit expression is associated with SMC dysfunction in animal models of human disease, because downregulation of BK β1-subunit reduces channel activity and increases SMC contractility. Several anti-BK β1-subunit antibodies are commercially available; however, the specificity of most antibodies has not been tested or confirmed in the tissues from BK β1-subunit knockout (KO) mice. In this study, we tested the specificity and sensitivity of six commercially available antibodies from five manufacturers. We performed western blot analysis on BK β1-subunit enriched tissues (mesenteric arteries and colons) and non-SM tissue (cortex of kidney) from wild-type (WT) and BK β1-KO mice. We found that antibodies either detected protein bands of the appropriate molecular weight in tissues from both WT and BK β1-KO mice or failed to detect protein bands at the appropriate molecular weight in tissues from WT mice, suggesting that these antibodies may lack specificity for the BK β1-subunit. The absence of BK β1-subunit mRNA expression in arteries, colons, and kidneys from BK β1-KO mice was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. We conclude that these commercially available antibodies might not be reliable tools for studying BK β1-subunit expression in murine tissues under the denaturing conditions that we have used. Data obtained using commercially available antibodies should be interpreted cautiously. Our studies underscore the importance of proper negative controls in western blot analyses. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human voltage-gated calcium channel alpha(2)delta-4 subunit.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning; Yagel, Susan; Momplaisir, Mary-Lou; Codd, Ellen E; D'Andrea, Michael R

    2002-09-01

    The voltage-gated calcium channel is composed of a pore-forming alpha(1) subunit and several regulatory subunits: alpha(2)delta, beta, and gamma. We report here the identification of a novel alpha(2)delta subunit, alpha(2)delta-4, from the expressed sequence tag database followed by its cloning and characterization. The novel alpha(2)delta-4 subunit gene contains 39 exons spanning about 130 kilobases and is co-localized with the CHCNA1C gene (alpha(1C) subunit) on human chromosome 12p13.3. Alternative splicing of the alpha(2)delta-4 gene gives rise to four potential variants, a through d. The open reading frame of human alpha(2)delta-4a is composed of 3363 base pairs encoding a protein with 1120 residues and a calculated molecular mass of 126 kDa. The alpha(2)delta-4a subunit shares 30, 32, and 61% identity with the human calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1, alpha(2)delta-2, and alpha(2)delta-3 subunits, respectively. Primary sequence comparison suggests that alpha(2)delta-4 lacks the gabapentin binding motifs characterized for alpha(2)delta-1 and alpha(2)delta-2; this was confirmed by a [(3)H]gabapentin-binding assay. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, the alpha(2)delta-4 subunit associated with Ca(V)1.2 and beta(3) subunits and significantly increased Ca(V)1.2/beta(3)-mediated Ca(2+) influx. Immunohistochemical study revealed that the alpha(2)delta-4 subunit has limited distribution in special cell types of the pituitary, adrenal gland, colon, and fetal liver. Whether the alpha(2)delta-4 subunit plays a distinct physiological role in select endocrine tissues remains to be demonstrated.

  4. Evidence for two concentration-dependent processes for beta-subunit effects on alpha1B calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Cantí, C; Davies, A; Berrow, N S; Butcher, A J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2001-01-01

    beta-Subunits of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels regulate both their expression and biophysical properties. We have injected a range of concentrations of beta3-cDNA into Xenopus oocytes, with a fixed concentration of alpha1B (Ca(V)2.2) cDNA, and have quantified the corresponding linear increase of beta3 protein. The concentration dependence of a number of beta3-dependent processes has been studied. First, the dependence of the a1B maximum conductance on beta3-protein occurs with a midpoint around the endogenous concentration of beta3 (approximately 17 nM). This may represent the interaction of the beta-subunit, responsible for trafficking, with the I-II linker of the nascent channel. Second, the effect of beta3-subunits on the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation provides evidence for two channel populations, interpreted as representing alpha1B without or with a beta3-subunit, bound with a lower affinity of 120 nM. Third, the effect of beta3 on the facilitation rate of G-protein-modulated alpha1B currents during a depolarizing prepulse to +100 mV provides evidence for the same two populations, with the rapid facilitation rate being attributed to Gbetagamma dissociation from the beta-subunit-bound alpha1B channels. The data are discussed in terms of two hypotheses, either binding of two beta-subunits to the alpha1B channel or a state-dependent alteration in affinity of the channel for the beta-subunit. PMID:11509358

  5. Assembly of ROMK1 (Kir 1.1a) inward rectifier K+ channel subunits involves multiple interaction sites.

    PubMed

    Koster, J C; Bentle, K A; Nichols, C G; Ho, K

    1998-04-01

    The ROMK1 (Kir 1.1a) channel is formed by a tetrameric complex of subunits, each characterized by cytoplasmic N- and C-termini and a core region of two transmembrane helices flanking a pore-forming segment. To delineate the general regions mediating the assembly of ROMK1 subunits we constructed epitope-tagged N-terminal, C-terminal, and transmembrane segment deletion mutants. Nonfunctional subunits with N-terminal, core region, and C-terminal deletions had dominant negative effects when coexpressed with wild-type ROMK1 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, coexpression of these nonfunctional subunits with Kv 2.1 (DRK1) did not suppress Kv 2.1 currents in control oocytes. Interactions between epitope-tagged mutant and wild-type ROMK1 subunits were studied in parallel by immunoprecipitating [35S]-labeled oocyte membrane proteins. Complexes containing both wild-type and mutant subunits that retained H5, M2, and C-terminal regions were coimmunoprecipitated to a greater extent than complexes consisting of wild-type and mutant subunits with core region and/or C-terminal deletions. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple interaction sites located in the core region and cytoplasmic termini of ROMK1 subunits mediate homomultimeric assembly.

  6. Assembly of ROMK1 (Kir 1.1a) inward rectifier K+ channel subunits involves multiple interaction sites.

    PubMed Central

    Koster, J C; Bentle, K A; Nichols, C G; Ho, K

    1998-01-01

    The ROMK1 (Kir 1.1a) channel is formed by a tetrameric complex of subunits, each characterized by cytoplasmic N- and C-termini and a core region of two transmembrane helices flanking a pore-forming segment. To delineate the general regions mediating the assembly of ROMK1 subunits we constructed epitope-tagged N-terminal, C-terminal, and transmembrane segment deletion mutants. Nonfunctional subunits with N-terminal, core region, and C-terminal deletions had dominant negative effects when coexpressed with wild-type ROMK1 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, coexpression of these nonfunctional subunits with Kv 2.1 (DRK1) did not suppress Kv 2.1 currents in control oocytes. Interactions between epitope-tagged mutant and wild-type ROMK1 subunits were studied in parallel by immunoprecipitating [35S]-labeled oocyte membrane proteins. Complexes containing both wild-type and mutant subunits that retained H5, M2, and C-terminal regions were coimmunoprecipitated to a greater extent than complexes consisting of wild-type and mutant subunits with core region and/or C-terminal deletions. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple interaction sites located in the core region and cytoplasmic termini of ROMK1 subunits mediate homomultimeric assembly. PMID:9545044

  7. The atypical M2 segment of the beta subunit confers picrotoxinin resistance to inhibitory glycine receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Pribilla, I; Takagi, T; Langosch, D; Bormann, J; Betz, H

    1992-01-01

    Purified preparations of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) contain alpha and beta subunits, which share homologous primary structures and a common transmembrane topology with other members of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Here, a beta subunit-specific antiserum was shown to precipitate the [3H]strychnine binding sites localized on alpha subunits from membrane extracts of both rat spinal cord and mammalian cells co-transfected with alpha and beta cDNAs. Further, inhibition of alpha homo-oligomeric GlyRs by picrotoxinin, a non-competitive blocker of ion flow, was reduced 50- to 200-fold for alpha/beta hetero-oligomeric receptors generated by cotransfection. Site-directed mutagenesis identified residues within the second predicted transmembrane segment (M2) of the beta subunit as major determinants of picrotoxinin resistance. These data implicate the M2 segment in blocker binding to and lining of the GlyR chloride channel. PMID:1385113

  8. Subunit constituent of the porin trimers that form the permeability channels in the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, J; Nakae, T

    1980-01-01

    The polypeptide composition of the functional porin trimers that produced the permeability channels in the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium was examined on two-dimensional slab gels. The results suggested that the majority of porin trimers from strains producing mixed species of porin polypeptides consisted of homologous subunit polypeptides. The present results do not exclude the possibility that a small fraction of porin trimer is constructed from heterologous subunit polypeptides. Images PMID:6246065

  9. Single-Channel Monitoring of Reversible L-Type Ca2+ Channel CaVα1-CaVβ Subunit Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Kuzmenkina, Elza; Böhnke, Ann Kristin; Herzig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are heteromultimers of CaVα1 (pore), CaVβ- and CaVα2δ-subunits. The stoichiometry of this complex, and whether it is dynamically regulated in intact cells, remains controversial. Fortunately, CaVβ-isoforms affect gating differentially, and we chose two extremes (CaVβ1a and CaVβ2b) regarding single-channel open probability to address this question. HEK293α1C cells expressing the CaV1.2 subunit were transiently transfected with CaVα2δ1 alone or with CaVβ1a, CaVβ2b, or (2:1 or 1:1 plasmid ratio) combinations. Both CaVβ-subunits increased whole-cell current and shifted the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation to hyperpolarization. Time-dependent inactivation was accelerated by CaVβ1a-subunits but not by CaVβ2b-subunits. Mixtures induced intermediate phenotypes. Single channels sometimes switched between periods of low and high open probability. To validate such slow gating behavior, data were segmented in clusters of statistically similar open probability. With CaVβ1a-subunits alone, channels mostly stayed in clusters (or regimes of alike clusters) of low open probability. Increasing CaVβ2b-subunits (co-)expressed (1:2, 1:1 ratio or alone) progressively enhanced the frequency and total duration of high open probability clusters and regimes. Our analysis was validated by the inactivation behavior of segmented ensemble averages. Hence, a phenotype consistent with mutually exclusive and dynamically competing binding of different CaVβ-subunits is demonstrated in intact cells. PMID:22261054

  10. Differential expression of genes encoding neuronal ion-channel subunits in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: implications for pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Smolin, Bella; Karry, Rachel; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2012-08-01

    Evidence concerning ion-channel abnormalities in the pathophysiology of common psychiatric disorders is still limited. Given the significance of ion channels in neuronal activity, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity we hypothesized that the expression patterns of genes encoding different ion channels may be altered in schizophrenia, bipolar and unipolar disorders. Frozen samples of striatum including the nucleus accumbens (Str-NAc) and the lateral cerebellar hemisphere of 60 brains from depressed (MDD), bipolar (BD), schizophrenic and normal subjects, obtained from the Stanley Foundation Brain Collection, were assayed. mRNA of 72 different ion-channel subunits were determined by qRT-PCR and alteration in four genes were verified by immunoblotting. In the Str-NAc the prominent change was observed in the MDD group, in which there was a significant up-regulation in genes encoding voltage-gated potassium-channel subunits. However, in the lateral cerebellar hemisphere (cerebellum), the main change was observed in schizophrenia specimens, as multiple genes encoding various ion-channel subunits were significantly down-regulated. The impaired expression of genes encoding ion channels demonstrates a disease-related neuroanatomical pattern. The alterations observed in Str-NAc of MDD may imply electrical hypo-activity of this region that could be of relevance to MDD symptoms and treatment. The robust unidirectional alteration of both excitatory and inhibitory ion channels in the cerebellum may suggests cerebellar general hypo-transcriptional activity in schizophrenia.

  11. Influence of channel subunit composition on L-type Ca2+ current kinetics and cardiac wave stability.

    PubMed

    Gudzenko, Vadim; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Savalli, Nicoletta; Vyas, Roshni; Weiss, James N; Olcese, Riccardo

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the slope of the function relating the action potential duration (APD) and the diastolic interval, known as the APD restitution curve, plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of ventricular fibrillation. Since the APD restitution slope critically depends on the kinetics of the L-type Ca(2+) current, we hypothesized that manipulation of the subunit composition of these channels may represent a powerful strategy to control cardiac arrhythmias. We studied the kinetic properties of the human L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(v)1.2) coexpressed with the alpha(2)delta-subunit alone (alpha(1C) + alpha(2)delta) or in combination with beta(2a), beta(2b), or beta(3) subunits (alpha(1C) + alpha(2)delta + beta), using Ca(2+) as the charge carrier. We then incorporated the kinetic properties observed experimentally into the L-type Ca(2+) current mathematical model of the cardiac action potential to demonstrate that the APD restitution slope can be selectively controlled by altering the subunit composition of the Ca(2+) channel. Assuming that beta(2b) most closely resembles the native cardiac L-type Ca(2+) current, the absence of beta, as well as the coexpression of beta(2a), was found to flatten restitution slope and stabilize spiral waves. These results imply that subunit modification of L-type Ca(2+) channels can potentially be used as an antifibrillatory strategy.

  12. Mechanism of functional interaction between potassium channel Kv1.3 and sodium channel NavBeta1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Tomoya; Correa, Ana M.; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel subfamily A member 3 (Kv1.3) dominantly expresses on T cells and neurons. Recently, the interaction between Kv1.3 and NavBeta1 subunits has been explored through ionic current measurements, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We explored the functional interaction between Kv1.3 and NavBeta1 through gating current measurements using the Cut-open Oocyte Voltage Clamp (COVC) technique. We showed that the N-terminal 1–52 sequence of hKv1.3 disrupts the channel expression on the Xenopus oocyte membrane, suggesting a potential role as regulator of hKv1.3 expression in neurons and lymphocytes. Our gating currents measurements showed that NavBeta1 interacts with the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of Kv1.3 through W172 in the transmembrane segment and modifies the gating operation. The comparison between G-V and Q-V with/without NavBeta1 indicates that NavBeta1 may strengthen the coupling between hKv1.3-VSD movement and pore opening, inducing the modification of kinetics in ionic activation and deactivation. PMID:28349975

  13. Diclofenac Distinguishes among Homomeric and Heteromeric Potassium Channels Composed of KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 SubunitsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Mackie, Alexander R.; Martin, Jody L.; Cribbs, Leanne L.

    2011-01-01

    KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 potassium channel subunits are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, although it remains uncertain how these subunits assemble to form functional channels. Using patch-clamp techniques, we compared the electrophysiological characteristics and effects of diclofenac, a known KCNQ channel activator, on human KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 channels expressed individually or together in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. The conductance curves of the overexpressed channels were fitted by a single Boltzmann function in each case (V0.5 values: −31, −44, and −38 mV for KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and KCNQ4/5, respectively). Diclofenac (100 μM) inhibited KCNQ5 channels, reducing maximum conductance by 53%, but increased maximum conductance of KCNQ4 channels by 38%. The opposite effects of diclofenac on KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 could not be attributed to the presence of a basic residue (lysine) in the voltage-sensing domain of KCNQ5, because mutation of this residue to neutral glycine (the residue present in KCNQ4) resulted in a more effective block of the channel. Differences in deactivation rates and distinct voltage-dependent effects of diclofenac on channel activation and deactivation observed with each of the subunit combinations (KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and KCNQ4/5) were used as diagnostic tools to evaluate native KCNQ currents in vascular smooth muscle cells. A7r5 cells express only KCNQ5 channels endogenously, and their responses to diclofenac closely resembled those of the overexpressed KCNQ5 currents. In contrast, mesenteric artery myocytes, which express both KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 channels, displayed whole-cell KCNQ currents with properties and diclofenac responses characteristic of overexpressed heteromeric KCNQ4/5 channels. PMID:20876743

  14. The β Subunit Increases the Ca2+ Sensitivity of Large Conductance Ca2+-activated Potassium Channels by Retaining the Gating in the Bursting States

    PubMed Central

    Nimigean, Crina M.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    Coexpression of the β subunit (KV,Caβ) with the α subunit of mammalian large conductance Ca2+- activated K+ (BK) channels greatly increases the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. Using single-channel analysis to investigate the mechanism for this increase, we found that the β subunit increased open probability (Po) by increasing burst duration 20–100-fold, while having little effect on the durations of the gaps (closed intervals) between bursts or on the numbers of detected open and closed states entered during gating. The effect of the β subunit was not equivalent to raising intracellular Ca2+ in the absence of the beta subunit, suggesting that the β subunit does not act by increasing all the Ca2+ binding rates proportionally. The β subunit also inhibited transitions to subconductance levels. It is the retention of the BK channel in the bursting states by the β subunit that increases the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. In the presence of the β subunit, each burst of openings is greatly amplified in duration through increases in both the numbers of openings per burst and in the mean open times. Native BK channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were found to have bursting kinetics similar to channels expressed from alpha subunits alone. PMID:10051518

  15. Pronounced differences between the native K+ channels and KAT1 and KST1 alpha-subunit homomers of guard cells.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, L; Dietrich, P; Dreyer, I; Hedrich, R

    1999-01-01

    Stomatal opening is the result of K(+)-salt accumulation in guard cells. Potassium uptake in these motor cells is mediated by voltage-dependent, K(+)-selective ion channels. Here we compare the invitro properties of two guard-cell K(+)-channel alpha-subunits from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (KAT1) and Solanum tuberosum L. (KST1) after heterologous expression with the respective K(+)-transport characteristics in their mother cell. The KAT1 and KST1 subunits when expressed in Xenopus oocytes shared the basic features of the K(+)-uptake channels in the corresponding guard cells, including voltage dependence and single-channel conductance. Besides these similarities, the electrophysiological comparison of K+ channels in the homologous and the heterologous expression systems revealed pronounced differences with respect to modulation and block by extracellular cations. In the presence of 1 mM Cs+, 50% of the guard-cell K(+)-uptake channels (GCKClin) in A. thaliana and S. tuberosum, were inhibited upon hyperpolarization to -90 mV. For a similar effect on KAT1 and KST1 in oocytes, voltages as negative as -155 mV were required. In contrast, compared to the K+ channels in vivo the functional alpha-subunit homomers almost lacked a voltage-dependent block by extracellular Ca2+. Similar to the block by Cs+ and Ca2+, the acid activation of the alpha-homomers was less pronounced in oocytes. Upon acidification the voltage-dependence shifted by 82 and 90 mV for GCKCLin in A. thaliana and S. tuberosum, respectively, but only by 25 mV for KAT1 and KST1. From the differences in K(+)-channel modulation in vivo and after heterologous expression we conclude that the properties of functional guard-cell K(+)-uptake channels result either from the heterometric assembly of different alpha-subunits or evolve from cell-type specific posttranslational modification.

  16. Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome with a novel acetylcholine receptor mutation at the α-ε subunit interface.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard; Liu, Wei-Wei; Chaouch, Amina; Lochmüller, Hanns; Beeson, David

    2014-02-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) result from the failure to achieve muscle depolarisation due to disorders in the structure and/or function of the neuromuscular synapse. Mutations of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) form a major subset of CMS. We describe a patient who presented with recurrent apnoeic crises in the neonatal period requiring ventilator support. Electromyography revealed compound muscle action potential decrement upon repetitive stimulation. Sequencing of nAChR subunit genes revealed two missense mutations. One previously reported null mutation p.εTyr15His, and a second novel missense mutation, p.εThr38Lys, that is well expressed in mammalian cell culture and thus likely to exert its effect via alteration of ion channel kinetics. Functional analysis revealed abbreviated ion channel bursts characteristic of a fast channel CMS. The mutation p.εThr38Lys occurs at the interface between the α and ε subunits of the nAChR pentamer and leads to instability of the open channel. The effects of this mutation on channel function were investigated in relation to other fast channel mutants at an analogous subunit interface within the nAChR pentamer. Fast channel syndromes are frequently characterised by severe myasthenic weakness with apnoeic crises; knowledge of the underlying mutation and its functional consequences can be vital for appropriate therapy and patient management.

  17. T-type and N-type calcium channels of Xenopus oocytes: evidence for specific interactions with beta subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, A E; Perez-Reyes, E; Wei, X; Castellano, A; Brown, A M

    1994-01-01

    We used amplifying effects of calcium channel beta subunits to identify endogenous calcium channels in Xenopus oocytes. Expression of rat brain beta 4 increased macroscopic endogenous current magnitude with a small effect on kinetics. In contrast, expression of rat brain/cardiac beta 2 produced a much larger increase in current magnitude and dramatically slowed current decay. Low concentrations of omega-conotoxin GVIA irreversibly blocked currents in both uninjected and beta 2-injected oocytes. Single channel recordings revealed both T- and N-type calcium channels with conductances of 9 and 18 pS, respectively, in uninjected oocytes and in oocytes expressing either beta subunit. Expression of either beta subunit slowed average current decay of T-type single channels. Slowing of T-type current decay by expression of beta 2 was due to reopening of the channels. N-type single channel average current decay showed little change with expression of beta 4, whereas expression of beta 2 slowed average current decay. PMID:8075321

  18. The actions of chloride channel blockers, barbiturates and a benzodiazepine on Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate- and ivermectin-gated chloride channel subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bush, Elizabeth; Foreman, Richard; Walker, Robert J; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2009-12-01

    The pharmacology of Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride (GluCl) channels was determined by making intracellular voltage-clamp recordings from Xenopus oocytes expressing GluCl subunits. As previously reported (Cully et al. 1994), GluClalpha1beta responded to glutamate (in a picrotoxin sensitive manner) and ivermectin, while GluClbeta responded only to glutamate and GluClalpha1 only to ivermectin. This assay was used to further investigate the action of chloride channel compounds. The arylaminobenzoate, NPPB, reduced the action of glutamate on the heteromeric GluClalpha1beta channel (IC(50) 6.03 +/- 0.81 microM). The disulphonate stilbene, DNDS, blocked the effect of both glutamate and ivermectin on GluClalpha1beta channels, the action of glutamate on GluClbeta subunits, and the effect of ivermectin on GluClalpha1 subunits (IC(50)s 1.58-3.83 microM). Surprisingly, amobarbital and pentobarbital, otherwise known as positive allosteric modulators of ligand-gated chloride channels, acted as antagonists. Both compounds reduced the action of glutamate on the GluClalpha1beta heteromer (IC(50)s of 2.04 +/- 0.5 and 17.56 +/- 2.16 microM, respectively). Pentobarbital reduced the action of glutamate on the GluClbeta homomeric subunit with an IC(50) of 0.59 +/- 0.09 microM, while reducing the responses to ivermectin on both GluClalpha1beta and GluClalpha1 with IC(50)s of 8.7 +/- 0.5 and 12.9 +/- 2.5 microM, respectively. For all the antagonists, the mechanism is apparently non-competitive. The benzodiazepine, flurazepam had no apparent effect on these glutamate- and ivermectin-gated chloride channel subunits. Thus, arylaminobenzoates, disulphonate stilbenes, and barbiturates are non-competitive antagonists of C. elegans GluCl channels.

  19. Expression of Calcium Channel Subunit Variants in Small Mesenteric Arteries of WKY and SHR

    PubMed Central

    Fromme, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enhanced function of dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels (CaV) in hypertensive arterial myocytes (HAM) is well accepted. Increased protein expression of pore forming α1-subunits contributes to this effect, but cannot explain all of the differences in CaV properties in HAM. We hypothesized that differences in expression of CaV subunits and/or their splice variants also contribute. METHODS RNA, protein, and myocytes were isolated from small mesenteric arteries (SMA) of 20-week-old male WKY and SHR and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, immunoblotting, and patch clamp methods. RESULTS Cav1.2 α1, β2c, and α2δ1d were the dominant subunits expressed in both WKY and SHR with a smaller amount of β3a. Real-time PCR indicated that the mRNA abundance of β3a and α2δ1 but not total Cav1.2 α1 or β2c were significantly larger in SHR. Analysis of alternative splicing of Cav1.2 α1 showed no differences in abundance of mutually exclusive exons1b, 8, 21 and 32 or alternative exons33 and 45. However, inclusion of exon9* was higher and a 73 nucleotide (nt) deletion in exon15 (exon15Δ73) was lower in SHR. Immunoblot analysis showed higher protein levels of Cav1.2 α1 (1.61±0.05), β3 (1.80±0.32), and α2δ1 (1.80±0.24) but not β2 in SHR. CONCLUSIONS The lower abundance of exon15Δ73 transcripts in SHR results in a larger fraction of total Cav1.2 mRNA coding for full-length CaV protein, and the higher abundance of exon9* transcripts and CaVβ3a protein likely contribute to differences in gating and kinetics of CaV currents in SHR. Functional studies of Ca2+ currents in native SMA myocytes and HEK cells transiently transfected with CaV subunits support these conclusions. PMID:25820242

  20. LRP1 influences trafficking of N-type calcium channels via interaction with the auxiliary α2δ-1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Kadurin, Ivan; Rothwell, Simon W.; Lana, Beatrice; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit, which determines the main functional and pharmacological attributes of the channel. The CaV1 and CaV2 channels are associated with auxiliary β- and α2δ-subunits. The molecular mechanisms involved in α2δ subunit trafficking, and the effect of α2δ subunits on trafficking calcium channel complexes remain poorly understood. Here we show that α2δ-1 is a ligand for the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1), a multifunctional receptor which mediates trafficking of cargoes. This interaction with LRP1 is direct, and is modulated by the LRP chaperone, Receptor-Associated Protein (RAP). LRP1 regulates α2δ binding to gabapentin, and influences calcium channel trafficking and function. Whereas LRP1 alone reduces α2δ-1 trafficking to the cell-surface, the LRP1/RAP combination enhances mature glycosylation, proteolytic processing and cell-surface expression of α2δ-1, and also increase plasma-membrane expression and function of CaV2.2 when co-expressed with α2δ-1. Furthermore RAP alone produced a small increase in cell-surface expression of CaV2.2, α2δ-1 and the associated calcium currents. It is likely to be interacting with an endogenous member of the LDL receptor family to have these effects. Our findings now provide a key insight and new tools to investigate the trafficking of calcium channel α2δ subunits. PMID:28256585

  1. Four novel sequences in Drosophila melanogaster homologous to the auxiliary Para sodium channel subunit TipE.

    PubMed

    Derst, Christian; Walther, Christian; Veh, Rüdiger W; Wicher, Dieter; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2006-01-20

    TipE is an auxiliary subunit of the Drosophila Para sodium channel. Here we describe four sequences, TEH1-4, homologous to TipE in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, harboring all typical structures of both TipE and the beta-Subunit family of big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels: short cytosolic N- and C-terminal stretches, two transmembrane domains, and a large extracellular loop with two disulfide bonds. Whereas TEH1 and TEH2 lack the TipE-specific extension in the extracellular loop, both TEH3 and TEH4 possess two extracellular EGF-like domains. A CNS-specific expression was found for TEH1, while TEH2-4 were more widely expressed. The genes for TEH2-4 are localized close to the tipE gene on chromosome 3L. Coexpression of TEH subunits with Para in Xenopus oocytes showed a strong (30-fold, TEH1), medium (5- to 10-fold, TEH2 and TEH3), or no (TEH4) increase in sodium current amplitude, while TipE increased the current 20-fold. In addition, steady-state inactivation and the recovery from fast inactivation were altered by coexpression of Para with TEH1. We conclude that members of the TEH-family are auxiliary subunits for Para sodium channels and possibly other ion channels.

  2. The alpha1H Ca2+ channel subunit is expressed in mouse jejunal interstitial cells of Cajal and myocytes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Simon J; Strege, Peter R; Lei, Sha; Roeder, Jaime L; Mazzone, Amelia; Ou, Yijun; Rich, Adam; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2009-01-01

    T-type Ca(2+) currents have been detected in cells from the external muscular layers of gastrointestinal smooth muscles and appear to contribute to the generation of pacemaker potentials in interstitial cells of Cajal from those tissues. However, the Ca(2+) channel alpha subunit responsible for these currents has not been determined. We established that the alpha subunit of the alpha(1H) Ca(2+) channel is expressed in single myocytes and interstitial cells of Cajal using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction from whole tissue, laser capture microdissected tissue and single cells isolated from the mouse jejunum. Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings demonstrated that a nifedipine and Cd(2+) resistant, mibefradil-sensitive current is present in myocytes dissociated from the jejunum. Electrical recordings from the circular muscle layer demonstrated that mibefradil reduced the frequency and initial rate of rise of the electrical slow wave. Gene targeted knockout of both alleles of the cacna1h gene, which encodes the alpha(1H) Ca(2+) channel subunit, resulted in embryonic lethality because of death of the homozygous knockouts prior to E13.5 days in utero. We conclude that a channel with the pharmacological and molecular characteristics of the alpha(1H) Ca(2+) channel subunit is expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal and myocytes from the mouse jejunum, and that ionic conductances through the alpha(1H) Ca(2+) channel contribute to the upstroke of the pacemaker potential. Furthermore, the survival of mice that do not express the alpha(1H) Ca(2+) channel protein is dependent on the genetic background and targeting approach used to generate the knockout mice.

  3. The α1H Ca2+ channel subunit is expressed in mouse jejunal interstitial cells of Cajal and myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Simon J; Strege, Peter R; Lei, Sha; Roeder, Jaime L; Mazzone, Amelia; Ou, Yijun; Rich, Adam; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2009-01-01

    T-type Ca2+ currents have been detected in cells from the external muscular layers of gastrointestinal smooth muscles and appear to contribute to the generation of pacemaker potentials in interstitial cells of Cajal from those tissues. However, the Ca2+ channel α subunit responsible for these currents has not been determined. We established that the α subunit of the α1H Ca2+ channel is expressed in single myocytes and interstitial cells of Cajal using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction from whole tissue, laser capture microdissected tissue and single cells isolated from the mouse jejunum. Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings demonstrated that a nifedipine and Cd2+ resistant, mibefradil-sensitive current is present in myocytes dissociated from the jejunum. Electrical recordings from the circular muscle layer demonstrated that mibefradil reduced the frequency and initial rate of rise of the electrical slow wave. Gene targeted knockout of both alleles of the cacna1h gene, which encodes the α1H Ca2+ channel subunit, resulted in embryonic lethality because of death of the homozygous knockouts prior to E13.5 days in utero. We conclude that a channel with the pharmacological and molecular characteristics of the α1H Ca2+ channel subunit is expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal and myocytes from the mouse jejunum, and that ionic conductances through the α1H Ca2+ channel contribute to the upstroke of the pacemaker potential. Furthermore, the survival of mice that do not express the α1H Ca2+ channel protein is dependent on the genetic background and targeting approach used to generate the knockout mice. PMID:19413888

  4. Tanshinone II-A sodium sulfonate (DS-201) enhances human BKCa channel activity by selectively targeting the pore-forming α subunit

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiao-qiu; Cheng, Xiu-li; Yang, Yan; Yan, Li; Gu, Jing-li; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiao-rong; Cao, Ji-min

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tanshinone II-A sodium sulfonate (DS-201), a water-soluble derivative of Tanshinone II-A, has been found to induce vascular relaxation and activate BKCa channels. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the action of DS-201 on BKCa channels. Methods: Human BKCa channels containing α subunit alone or α plus β1 subunits were expressed in HEK293 cells. BKCa currents were recorded from the cells using patch-clamp technique. The expression and trafficking of BKCa subunits in HEK293 cells or vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were detected by Western blotting, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Results: DS-201 (40–160 μmol/L) concentration-dependently increased the total open probability of BKCa channels in HEK293 cells, associated with enhancements of Ca2+ and voltage dependence as well as a delay in deactivation. Coexpression of β1 subunit did not affect the action of DS-201: the values of EC50 for BKCa channels containing α subunit alone and α plus β1 subunit were 66.6±1.5 and 62.0±1.1 μmol/L, respectively. In both HEK293 cells and VSMCs, DS-201 (80 μmol/L) markedly increased the expression of α subunit without affecting β1 subunit. In HEK293 cells, DS-201 enriched the membranous level of α subunit, likely by accelerating the trafficking and suppressing the internalization of α subunit. In both HEK293 cells and VSMCs, DS-201 (≥320 μmol/L) induced significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: DS-201 selectively targets the pore-forming α subunit of human BKCa channels, thus enhancing the channel activities and increasing the subunit expression and trafficking, whereas the β1 subunit does not contribute to the action of DS-201. PMID:25345746

  5. Tanshinone II-A sodium sulfonate (DS-201) enhances human BKCa channel activity by selectively targeting the pore-forming α subunit.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-qiu; Cheng, Xiu-li; Yang, Yan; Yan, Li; Gu, Jing-li; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiao-rong; Cao, Ji-min

    2014-11-01

    Tanshinone II-A sodium sulfonate (DS-201), a water-soluble derivative of Tanshinone II-A, has been found to induce vascular relaxation and activate BKCa channels. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the action of DS-201 on BKCa channels. Human BKCa channels containing α subunit alone or α plus β1 subunits were expressed in HEK293 cells. BKCa currents were recorded from the cells using patch-clamp technique. The expression and trafficking of BKCa subunits in HEK293 cells or vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were detected by Western blotting, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. DS-201 (40-160 μmol/L) concentration-dependently increased the total open probability of BKCa channels in HEK293 cells, associated with enhancements of Ca(2+) and voltage dependence as well as a delay in deactivation. Coexpression of β1 subunit did not affect the action of DS-201: the values of EC50 for BKCa channels containing α subunit alone and α plus β1 subunit were 66.6±1.5 and 62.0±1.1 μmol/L, respectively. In both HEK293 cells and VSMCs, DS-201 (80 μmol/L) markedly increased the expression of α subunit without affecting β1 subunit. In HEK293 cells, DS-201 enriched the membranous level of α subunit, likely by accelerating the trafficking and suppressing the internalization of α subunit. In both HEK293 cells and VSMCs, DS-201 (≥320 μmol/L) induced significant cytotoxicity. DS-201 selectively targets the pore-forming α subunit of human BKCa channels, thus enhancing the channel activities and increasing the subunit expression and trafficking, whereas the β1 subunit does not contribute to the action of DS-201.

  6. Intron retention in mRNA encoding ancillary subunit of insect voltage-gated sodium channel modulates channel expression, gating regulation and drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Céline M; Moignot, Bénédicte; Wang, Lingxin; Murillo, Laurence; Juchaux, Marjorie; Quinchard, Sophie; Lapied, Bruno; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Dong, Ke; Legros, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+) currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1) strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3'UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1) co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280) in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280). PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be modulated by an

  7. Intron Retention in mRNA Encoding Ancillary Subunit of Insect Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Modulates Channel Expression, Gating Regulation and Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, Céline M.; Moignot, Bénédicte; Wang, Lingxin; Murillo, Laurence; Juchaux, Marjorie; Quinchard, Sophie; Lapied, Bruno; Guérineau, Nathalie C.; Dong, Ke; Legros, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation “temperature-induced-paralysis locus E.” The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na+ currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1) strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3′UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1) co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280) in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280). PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be modulated by

  8. Characterization of specific allosteric effects of the Na(+) channel β1 subunit on the Nav1.4 isoform.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Solano, Alfredo; Islas, Angel A; Scior, Thomas; Paiz-Candia, Bertin; Millan-PerezPeña, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanon, Eduardo M

    2016-12-23

    The mechanism of inactivation of mammalian voltage-gated Na(+) channels involves transient interactions between intracellular domains resulting in direct pore occlusion by the IFM motif and concomitant extracellular interactions with the β1 subunit. Navβ1 subunits constitute single-pass transmembrane proteins that form protein-protein associations with pore-forming α subunits to allosterically modulate the Na(+) influx into the cell during the action potential of every excitable cell in vertebrates. Here, we explored the role of the intracellular IFM motif of rNav1.4 (skeletal muscle isoform of the rat Na(+) channel) on the α-β1 functional interaction and showed for the first time that the modulation of β1 is independent of the IFM motif. We found that: (1) Nav1.4 channels that lack the IFM inactivation particle can undergo a "C-type-like inactivation" albeit in an ultraslow gating mode; (2) β1 can significantly accelerate the inactivation of Nav1.4 channels in the absence of the IFM motif. Previously, we identified two residues (T109 and N110) on the β1 subunit that disrupt the α-β1 allosteric modulation. We further characterized the electrophysiological effects of the double alanine substitution of these residues demonstrating that it decelerates inactivation and recovery from inactivation, abolishes the modulation of steady-state inactivation and induces a current rundown upon repetitive stimulation, thus causing a general loss of function. Our results contribute to delineating the process of the mammalian Na(+) channel inactivation. These findings may be relevant to the design of pharmacological strategies, targeting β subunits to treat pathologies associated to Na(+) current dysfunction.

  9. Heterogeneity and Function of KATP Channels in Canine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Silva, Jonathan R.; Lin, Yu-Wen; Verbsky, John W.; Lee, Urvi S.; Kanter, Evelyn M.; Yamada, Kathryn A.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The concept that pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory SUR2A subunits form cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels is challenged by recent reports that SUR1 is predominant in mouse atrial KATP channels. Objective To assess SUR subunit composition of KATP channels and consequence of KATP activation for action potential duration (APD) in dog heart. Methods Patch-clamp techniques were used on isolated dog cardiomyocytes to investigate KATP channel properties. Dynamic current-clamp, by injection of a linear K+ conductance to simulate activation of the native current, was employed to study consequences of KATP activation on APD. Results Metabolic inhibitor (MI)-activated current was not significantly different from pinacidil (SUR2A-specific)-activated current, and both currents were larger than diazoxide (SUR1- specific)-activated current, in both atrium and ventricle. Mean KATP conductance (activated by MI) did not differ significantly between chambers although, within the ventricle, both MI-induced and pinacidil-induced currents tended to decrease from epicardium to endocardium. Dynamic current-clamp results indicate that myocytes with longer baseline APDs are more susceptible to injected “KATP” current, a result reproduced in silico using a canine AP model to simulate Epi and Endo (HRd). Conclusions Even a small fraction of KATP activation significantly shortens APD in a manner that depends on existing heterogeneity in KATP current and APD. PMID:23871704

  10. avr-15 encodes a chloride channel subunit that mediates inhibitory glutamatergic neurotransmission and ivermectin sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dent, J A; Davis, M W; Avery, L

    1997-10-01

    Ivermectin is a widely used anthelmintic drug whose nematocidal mechanism is incompletely understood. We have used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system to understand ivermectin's effects. We found that the M3 neurons of the C.elegans pharynx form fast inhibitory glutamatergic neuromuscular synapses. avr-15, a gene that confers ivermectin sensitivity on worms, is necessary postsynaptically for a functional M3 synapse and for the hyperpolarizing effect of glutamate on pharyngeal muscle. avr-15 encodes two alternatively spliced channel subunits that share ligand binding and transmembrane domains and are members of the family of glutamate-gated chloride channel subunits. An avr-15-encoded subunit forms a homomeric channel that is ivermectin-sensitive and glutamate-gated. These results indicate that: (i) an ivermectin-sensitive chloride channel mediates fast inhibitory glutamatergic neuromuscular transmission; and (ii) a nematocidal property of ivermectin derives from its activity as an agonist of glutamate-gated chloride channels in essential excitable cells such as those of the pharynx.

  11. Mass spectrometry-based identification of native cardiac Nav1.5 channel α subunit phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Lichti, Cheryl F; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Charpentier, Flavien; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Townsend, R Reid; Mérot, Jean

    2012-12-07

    Cardiac voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are key determinants of action potential waveforms, refractoriness and propagation, and Nav1.5 is the main Nav pore-forming (α) subunit in the mammalian heart. Although direct phosphorylation of the Nav1.5 protein has been suggested to modulate various aspects of Nav channel physiology and pathophysiology, native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites have not been identified. In the experiments here, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach was developed to identify native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites directly. Using an anti-NavPAN antibody, Nav channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. The MS analyses revealed that this antibody immunoprecipitates several Nav α subunits in addition to Nav1.5, as well as several previously identified Nav channel associated/regulatory proteins. Label-free comparative and data-driven phosphoproteomic analyses of purified cardiac Nav1.5 protein identified 11 phosphorylation sites, 8 of which are novel. All the phosphorylation sites identified except one in the N-terminus are in the first intracellular linker loop, suggesting critical roles for this region in phosphorylation-dependent cardiac Nav channel regulation. Interestingly, commonly used prediction algorithms did not reliably predict these newly identified in situ phosphorylation sites. Taken together, the results presented provide the first in situ map of basal phosphorylation sites on the mouse cardiac Nav1.5 α subunit.

  12. The Interface between Membrane-Spanning and Cytosolic Domains in Ca2+-Dependent K+ Channels Is Involved in β Subunit Modulation of Gating

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaohui; Shi, Jingyi; Delaloye, Kelli; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Guohui

    2013-01-01

    Large-conductance, voltage-, and Ca2+-dependent K+ (BK) channels are broadly expressed in various tissues to modulate neuronal activity, smooth muscle contraction, and secretion. BK channel activation depends on the interactions among the voltage sensing domain (VSD), the cytosolic domain (CTD), and the pore gate domain (PGD) of the Slo1 α-subunit, and is further regulated by accessory β subunits (β1–β4). How β subunits fine-tune BK channel activation is critical to understand the tissue-specific functions of BK channels. Multiple sites in both Slo1 and the β subunits have been identified to contribute to the interaction between Slo1 and the β subunits. However, it is unclear whether and how the interdomain interactions among the VSD, CTD, and PGD are altered by the β subunits to affect channel activation. Here we show that human β1 and β2 subunits alter interactions between bound Mg2+ and gating charge R213 and disrupt the disulfide bond formation at the VSD–CTD interface of mouse Slo1, indicating that the β subunits alter the VSD–CTD interface. Reciprocally, mutations in the Slo1 that alter the VSD–CTD interaction can specifically change the effects of the β1 subunit on the Ca2+ activation and of the β2 subunit on the voltage activation. Together, our data suggest a novel mechanism by which the β subunits modulated BK channel activation such that a β subunit may interact with the VSD or the CTD and alter the VSD–CTD interface of the Slo1, which enables the β subunit to have effects broadly on both voltage and Ca2+-dependent activation. PMID:23825428

  13. The Ca2+ Channel β4c Subunit Interacts with Heterochromatin Protein 1 via a PXVXL Binding Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingfu; Lee, Yoon J.; Holm, Johanna B.; Terry, Mark D.; Oswald, Robert E.; Horne, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The β subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are best known for their roles in regulating surface expression and gating of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel α1 subunits. Recent evidence, however, indicates that these proteins have a variety of Ca2+ channel-independent functions. For example, on the molecular level, they regulate gene expression, and on the whole animal level, they regulate early cell movements in zebrafish development. In the present study, an alternatively spliced, truncated β4 subunit (β4c) is identified in the human brain and shown to be highly expressed in nuclei of vestibular neurons. Pull-down assays, nuclear magnetic resonance, and isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrate that the protein interacts with the chromo shadow domain (CSD) of heterochromatin protein 1γ. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that the primary CSD interaction occurs through a β4c C-terminal PXVXL consensus motif, adding the β4c subunit to a growing PXVXL protein family with epigenetic responsibilities. These proteins have multiple nuclear functions, including transcription regulation (TIF1α) and nucleosome assembly (CAF1). An NMR-based two-site docking model of β4c in complex with dimerized CSD is presented. Possible roles for the interaction are discussed. PMID:21220418

  14. Developmental expression of potassium-channel subunit Kv3.2 within subpopulations of mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneurons.

    PubMed

    Tansey, Emily Phillips; Chow, Alan; Rudy, Bernardo; McBain, Chris J

    2002-01-01

    The developmental expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv3.2, and its localization within specific mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneuron populations were determined using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical techniques. Using immunoblotting techniques, the Kv3.2 protein was weakly detected at postnatal age day 7 (P7), and full expression was attained at P21 in tissue extracts from homogenized hippocampal preparations. A similar developmental profile was observed using immunohistochemical techniques in hippocampal tissue sections. Kv3.2 protein expression was clustered on the somata and proximal dendrites of presumed inhibitory interneurons. Using double immunofluorescence, Kv3.2 subunit expression was detected on subpopulations of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. Kv3.2 was detected in approximately 100% of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, 86% of interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase, and approximately 50% of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells. Kv3.2 expression was absent from both calbindin- and calretinin-containing interneurons. Using immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrate that Kv3.2 and its related subunit Kv3.1b are coexpressed within the same protein complexes in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that potassium channel subunit Kv3.2 expression is developmentally regulated in a specific set of interneurons. The vast majority of these interneuron subpopulations possess a "fast-spiking" phenotype, consistent with a role for currents through Kv3.2 containing channels in determining action potential kinetics in these cells.

  15. Conformational changes in the C terminus of Shaker K+ channel bound to the rat Kvβ2-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Olga; Accardi, Alessio; Gutierrez, David; Lau, Adrian; Rigney, Mike; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2003-01-01

    We studied the structure of the C terminus of the Shaker potassium channel. The 3D structures of the full-length and a C-terminal deletion (ΔC) mutant of Shaker were determined by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The difference map between the full-length and the truncated channels clearly shows a compact density, located on the sides of the T1 domain, that corresponds to a large part of the C terminus. We also expressed and purified both WT and ΔC Shaker, assembled with the rat Kvβ2-subunit. By using a difference map between the full-length and truncated Shaker α–β complexes, a conformational change was identified that shifts a large part of the C terminus away from the membrane domain and into close contact with the β-subunit. This conformational change, induced by the binding of the Kvβ2-subunit, suggests a possible mechanism for the modulation of the K+ voltage-gated channel function by its β-subunit. PMID:14569011

  16. Diabetes downregulates large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium beta 1 channel subunit in retinal arteriolar smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    McGahon, Mary K; Dash, Durga P; Arora, Aruna; Wall, Noreen; Dawicki, Jennine; Simpson, David A; Scholfield, C Norman; McGeown, J Graham; Curtis, Tim M

    2007-03-16

    Retinal vasoconstriction and reduced retinal blood flow precede the onset of diabetic retinopathy. The pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie increased retinal arteriolar tone during diabetes remain unclear. Normally, local Ca(2+) release events (Ca(2+)-sparks), trigger the activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)(BK)-channels which hyperpolarize and relax vascular smooth muscle cells, thereby causing vasodilatation. In the present study, we examined BK channel function in retinal vascular smooth muscle cells from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The BK channel inhibitor, Penitrem A, constricted nondiabetic retinal arterioles (pressurized to 70mmHg) by 28%. The BK current evoked by caffeine was dramatically reduced in retinal arterioles from diabetic animals even though caffeine-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) release was unaffected. Spontaneous BK currents were smaller in diabetic cells, but the amplitude of Ca(2+)-sparks was larger. The amplitudes of BK currents elicited by depolarizing voltage steps were similar in control and diabetic arterioles and mRNA expression of the pore-forming BKalpha subunit was unchanged. The Ca(2+)-sensitivity of single BK channels from diabetic retinal vascular smooth muscle cells was markedly reduced. The BKbeta1 subunit confers Ca(2+)-sensitivity to BK channel complexes and both transcript and protein levels for BKbeta1 were appreciably lower in diabetic retinal arterioles. The mean open times and the sensitivity of BK channels to tamoxifen were decreased in diabetic cells, consistent with a downregulation of BKbeta1 subunits. The potency of blockade by Pen A was lower for BK channels from diabetic animals. Thus, changes in the molecular composition of BK channels could account for retinal hypoperfusion in early diabetes, an idea having wider implications for the pathogenesis of diabetic hypertension.

  17. Forskolin Regulates L-Type Calcium Channel through Interaction between Actinin 4 and β3 Subunit in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Li, Fangping; Guo, Lin; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Peng, Wen; Cai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels that permit cellular calcium influx are essential in calcium-mediated modulation of cellular signaling. Although the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels is linked to many factors including cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the detailed mechanisms underlying the regulation in osteoblasts. Our present study investigated the modulation of L-type calcium channel activities through the effects of forskolin on actin reorganization and on its functional interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4. The results showed that forskolin did not significantly affect the trafficking of pore forming α1c subunit and its interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4, whereas it significantly increased the expression of β3 subunit and its interaction with actinin 4 in osteoblast cells as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down assay, and immunostaining. Further mapping showed that the ABD and EF domains of actinin 4 were interaction sites. This interaction is independent of PKA phosphorylation. Knockdown of actinin 4 significantly decreased the activities of L-type calcium channels. Our study revealed a new aspect of the mechanisms by which the forskolin activation of adenylyl cyclase - cAMP cascade regulates the L-type calcium channel in osteoblast cells, besides the PKA mediated phosphorylation of the channel subunits. These data provide insight into the important role of interconnection among adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, PKA, the actin cytoskeleton, and the channel proteins in the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cells.

  18. Functional Properties of a New Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel α2δ Auxiliary Subunit Gene (CACNA2D2)*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Boning; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Maximov, Anton; Saad, Mohamad; Forgacs, Eva; Latif, Farida; Wei, Ming H.; Lerman, Michael; Lee, Jung-Ha; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Minna, John D.

    2012-01-01

    We have positionally cloned and characterized a new calcium channel auxiliary subunit, α2δ-2 (CACNA2D2), which shares 56% amino acid identity with the known α2δ-1 subunit. The gene maps to the critical human tumor suppressor gene region in chromosome 3p21.3, showing very frequent allele loss and occasional homozygous deletions in lung, breast, and other cancers. The tissue distribution of α2δ-2 expression is different from α2δ-1, and α2δ-2 mRNA is most abundantly expressed in lung and testis and well expressed in brain, heart, and pancreas. In contrast, α2δ-1 is expressed predominantly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. When co-expressed (via cRNA injections) with α1B and β3 subunits in Xenopus oocytes, α2δ-2 increased peak size of the N-type Ca2+ currents 9-fold, and when co-expressed with α1C or α1G subunits in Xenopus oocytes increased peak size of L-type channels 2-fold and T-type channels 1.8-fold, respectively. Anti-peptide antibodies detect the expression of a 129-kDa α2δ-2 polypeptide in some but not all lung tumor cells. We conclude that the α2δ-2 gene encodes a functional auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Because of its chromosomal location and expression patterns, CACNA2D2 needs to be explored as a potential tumor suppressor gene linking Ca2+ signaling and lung, breast, and other cancer pathogenesis. The homologous location on mouse chromosome 9 is also the site of the mouse neurologic mutant ducky (du), and thus, CACNA2D2 is also a candidate gene for this inherited idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. PMID:10766861

  19. A Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunit is required for male response to female pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heping; Mann, Kevin J.; Starostina, Elena; Kinser, Ronald D.; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2005-01-01

    Odorants and pheromones as well as sweet- and bitter-tasting small molecules are perceived through activation of G protein-coupled chemosensory receptors. In contrast, gustatory detection of salty and sour tastes may involve direct gating of sodium channels of the DEG/ENaC family by sodium and hydrogen ions, respectively. We have found that ppk25, a Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding a DEG/ENaC channel subunit, is expressed at highest levels in the male appendages responsible for gustatory and olfactory detection of female pheromones: the legs, wings, and antennae. Mutations in the ppk25 gene reduce or even abolish male courtship response to females in the dark, conditions under which detection of female pheromones is an essential courtship-activating sensory input. In contrast, the same mutations have no effect on other behaviors tested. Importantly, ppk25 mutant males that show no response to females in the dark execute all of the normal steps of courtship behavior in the presence of visible light, suggesting that ppk25 is required for activation of courtship behavior by chemosensory perception of female pheromones. Finally, a ppk25 mutant allele predicted to encode a truncated protein has dominant-negative properties, suggesting that the normal Ppk25 protein acts as part of a multiprotein complex. Together, these results indicate that ppk25 is necessary for response to female pheromones by D. melanogaster males, and suggest that members of the DEG/ENaC family of genes play a wider role in chemical senses than previously suspected. PMID:16129837

  20. Subunit dissociation of TRPC3 ion channel under high-salt condition.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Toshihiko; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Mori, Yasuo; Sato, Chikara

    2007-06-01

    Single particle analysis is a computer-aided method for determining protein structure using particle images obtained by electron microscopy. This technique has great advantages, especially for analyzing fragile membrane-integrated proteins including ion channels, transporters, and receptors, and for analyzing large complexes difficult to crystallize. It is also useful in the analysis of dynamic conformational changes. We previously determined the structure of TRPC3 (canonical transient receptor potential-3) from negatively stained specimens and from ice-embedded specimens using single particle analysis (BBRC 333: 768-777, 2005; JMB 367: 373-383, 2007). These analyses revealed TRPC3's unique structural features, as well as demonstrating the first visual evidence of the tetramer structure. In establishing the purification procedure, we noticed that the stability of the tetrameric assembly of TRPC3 subunits is largely dependent on the cation concentration in the solution. Here, we report that the TRPC3 tetramer dissociates to monomers under high-salt conditions. It was demonstrated as a delay of elution in size exclusion chromatography, or as a loss of tetrameric protein bands in cross-linking experiments. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained specimens demonstrated that the large tetrameric TRPC3 (200 A in width and 240 A in height) dissociates to round-shaped monomer particles (100 A in diameter) in an ion-strength-dependent manner. These results also suggested that electron microscopy is highly effective when used in the "quality check" of the specimen in each purification step.

  1. Mutations in SCN9A, encoding a sodium channel alpha subunit, in patients with primary erythermalgia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Wang, Y; Li, S; Xu, Z; Li, H; Ma, L; Fan, J; Bu, D; Liu, B; Fan, Z; Wu, G; Jin, J; Ding, B; Zhu, X; Shen, Y

    2004-03-01

    Primary erythermalgia is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterised by intermittent burning pain with redness and heat in the extremities. A previous study established the linkage of primary erythermalgia to a 7.94 cM interval on chromosome 2q, but the causative gene was not identified. We performed linkage analysis in a Chinese family with primary erythermalgia, and screened the mutations in the two candidate genes, SCN9A and GCA, in the family and a sporadic patient. Linkage analysis yielded a maximum lod score of 2.11 for both markers D2S2370 and D2S2330. Based on critical recombination events in two patients in the family, we further limited the genetic region to 5.98 cM between D2S2370 and D2S2345. We then identified two missense mutations in SCN9A in the family (T2573A) and the sporadic patient (T2543C). Our data suggest that mutations in SCN9A cause primary erythermalgia. SCN9A, encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit predominantly expressed in sensory and sympathetic neurones, may play an important role in nociception and vasomotor regulation.

  2. Graded activation of CRAC channel by binding of different numbers of STIM1 to Orai1 subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengzheng; Liu, Lin; Deng, Yongqiang; Ji, Wei; Du, Wen; Xu, Pingyong; Chen, Liangyi; Xu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel pore is formed by Orai1 and gated by STIM1 after intracellular Ca2+ store depletion. To resolve how many STIM1 molecules are required to open a CRAC channel, we fused different numbers of Orai1 subunits with functional two-tandem cytoplasmic domains of STIM1 (residues 336-485, designated as S domain). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of these chimeric molecules revealed that CRAC current reached maximum at a stoichiometry of four Orai1 and eight S domains. Further experiments indicate that two-tandem S domains specifically interact with the C-terminus of one Orai1 subunit, and CRAC current can be gradually increased as more Orai1 subunits can interact with S domains or STIM1 proteins. Our data suggest that maximal opening of one CRAC channel requires eight STIM1 molecules, and support a model that the CRAC channel activation is not in an “all-or-none” fashion but undergoes a graded process via binding of different numbers of STIM1. PMID:20838418

  3. Sodium channel from rat brain: role of the. beta. 1 and. beta. 2 subunits in saxitoxin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    Procedures are described for the selective removal of the ..beta..1 or the ..beta..2 subunits from the detergent-solubilized channel from rat brain, and the functional integrity of the resulting protein complex is examined. Treatment of the channel with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ followed by sedimentation through sucrose gradients results in complete separation of ..beta..1 from the ..cap alpha..-..beta..2 complex and complete loss of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin (STX) binding activity. At intermediate MgCl/sub 2/ concentrations, the loss of ..beta..1 and the loss of (/sup 3/H)STX binding activity are closely correlated. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) quantitatively stabilizes the solubilized complex against both the loss of ..beta..1 and the loss of (/sup 3/H)STX binding activity. This indicates that association of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..1 subunits is required to maintain the STX/TTX binding site in a conformation with high affinity for STX and TTX in the detergent-solubilized state. Treatment of the solubilized sodium channel with dithiothreitol in the presence of TTX causes specific release of the ..beta..2 subunit, without significantly removing ..beta..1. There is little or no correlation between the amount of ..beta..2 in the sodium channel complex and the ability of the preparation to bind (/sup 3/H)STX.

  4. Functional contribution of the α5 subunit to neuronal nicotinic channels expressed by chick sympathetic ganglion neurones

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C Ron; Role, Lorna W

    1998-01-01

    Heterologous expression studies of the α5 subunit of the neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene family have demonstrated that it can participate in the function of ACh-gated channels if co-expressed with another α- and a β-subunit. Previous studies also indicate prominent expression of α5 in both central and peripheral nervous systems. The participation of α5 in native nAChRs and its functional role in these channels is, however, unknown. In this study, we present evidence that α5 has a role in at least two distinct subtypes of nAChR complexes expressed by embryonic chick sympathetic neurones. α5 contributes not only to agonist but also to antagonist sensitivity of natively expressed nAChR channels. Functional deletion of the α5 subunit by antisense oligonucleotide treatment removes the nAChRs with relatively low affinity to ACh and cytisine. Deletion of α5 also eliminates channels that are blocked by the α7-specific antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) while increasing the percentage of current carried by nAChRs that are sensitive to α-bungarotoxin (α-BgTx). Single channel analyses indicate that functional deletion of α5 results in the deletion of both the ‘brief’ and ‘long’ open duration, 50 pS subtypes of nAChR channels while increasing the expression of the 18 pS, α-BgTx-sensitive native nAChRs normally detected in sympathetic neurones at later developmental stages. The biophysical and pharmacological profiles of native nAChRs revealed by this study and previous work are discussed in the context of a proposed model of the nAChR channels expressed by chick sympathetic neurones throughout development. PMID:9596790

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channel Subunits from Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Vanessa; Beech, Robin N.; Wever, Claudia; Dent, Joseph A.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate fast ionotropic neurotransmission. They are proven drug targets in nematodes and arthropods, but are poorly characterized in flatworms. In this study, we characterized the anion-selective, non-acetylcholine-gated Cys-loop LGICs from Schistosoma mansoni. Full-length cDNAs were obtained for SmGluCl-1 (Smp_096480), SmGluCl-2 (Smp_015630) and SmGluCl-3 (Smp_104890). A partial cDNA was retrieved for SmGluCl-4 (Smp_099500/Smp_176730). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that SmGluCl-1, SmGluCl-2, SmGluCl-3 and SmGluCl-4 belong to a novel clade of flatworm glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) that includes putative genes from trematodes and cestodes. The flatworm GluCl clade was distinct from the nematode-arthropod and mollusc GluCl clades, and from all GABA receptors. We found no evidence of GABA receptors in S. mansoni. SmGluCl-1, SmGluCl-2 and SmGluCl-3 subunits were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) in Xenopus oocytes, and shown to encode Cl−-permeable channels gated by glutamate. SmGluCl-2 and SmGluCl-3 produced functional homomers, while SmGluCl-1 formed heteromers with SmGluCl-2. Concentration-response relationships revealed that the sensitivity of SmGluCl receptors to L-glutamate is among the highest reported for GluCl receptors, with EC50 values of 7–26 µM. Chloride selectivity was confirmed by current-voltage (I/V) relationships. SmGluCl receptors are insensitive to 1 µM ivermectin (IVM), indicating that they do not belong to the highly IVM-sensitive GluClα subtype group. SmGluCl receptors are also insensitive to 10 µM meclonazepam, a schistosomicidal benzodiazepine. These results provide the first molecular evidence showing the contribution of GluCl receptors to L-glutamate signaling in S. mansoni, an unprecedented finding in parasitic flatworms. Further work is needed to elucidate the roles of GluCl receptors in schistosomes and to explore their potential as drug targets. PMID:24009509

  6. Molecular Basis of the Membrane Interaction of the β2e Subunit of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Il; Kang, Mooseok; Kim, Sangyeol; Lee, Juhwan; Park, Yongsoo; Chang, Iksoo; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary β subunit plays an important role in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Recently, it was revealed that β2e associates with the plasma membrane through an electrostatic interaction between N-terminal basic residues and anionic phospholipids. However, a molecular-level understanding of β-subunit membrane recruitment in structural detail has remained elusive. In this study, using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, liposome-binding assays, and multiscale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation, we developed a physical model of how the β2e subunit is recruited electrostatically to the plasma membrane. In a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay with liposomes, binding of the N-terminal peptide (23 residues) to liposome was significantly increased in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). A mutagenesis analysis suggested that two basic residues proximal to Met-1, Lys-2 (K2) and Trp-5 (W5), are more important for membrane binding of the β2e subunit than distal residues from the N-terminus. Our MD simulations revealed that a stretched binding mode of the N-terminus to PS is required for stable membrane attachment through polar and nonpolar interactions. This mode obtained from MD simulations is consistent with experimental results showing that K2A, W5A, and K2A/W5A mutants failed to be targeted to the plasma membrane. We also investigated the effects of a mutated β2e subunit on inactivation kinetics and regulation of CaV channels by PIP2. In experiments with voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP), a double mutation in the N-terminus of β2e (K2A/W5A) increased the PIP2 sensitivity of CaV2.2 and CaV1.3 channels by ∼3-fold compared with wild-type β2e subunit. Together, our results suggest that membrane targeting of the β2e subunit is initiated from the nonspecific electrostatic insertion of N-terminal K2 and W5 residues into the membrane. The PS-β2e interaction observed here

  7. Molecular Basis of the Membrane Interaction of the β2e Subunit of Voltage-Gated Ca(2+) Channels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Il; Kang, Mooseok; Kim, Sangyeol; Lee, Juhwan; Park, Yongsoo; Chang, Iksoo; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-09-01

    The auxiliary β subunit plays an important role in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Recently, it was revealed that β2e associates with the plasma membrane through an electrostatic interaction between N-terminal basic residues and anionic phospholipids. However, a molecular-level understanding of β-subunit membrane recruitment in structural detail has remained elusive. In this study, using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, liposome-binding assays, and multiscale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation, we developed a physical model of how the β2e subunit is recruited electrostatically to the plasma membrane. In a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay with liposomes, binding of the N-terminal peptide (23 residues) to liposome was significantly increased in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). A mutagenesis analysis suggested that two basic residues proximal to Met-1, Lys-2 (K2) and Trp-5 (W5), are more important for membrane binding of the β2e subunit than distal residues from the N-terminus. Our MD simulations revealed that a stretched binding mode of the N-terminus to PS is required for stable membrane attachment through polar and nonpolar interactions. This mode obtained from MD simulations is consistent with experimental results showing that K2A, W5A, and K2A/W5A mutants failed to be targeted to the plasma membrane. We also investigated the effects of a mutated β2e subunit on inactivation kinetics and regulation of CaV channels by PIP2. In experiments with voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP), a double mutation in the N-terminus of β2e (K2A/W5A) increased the PIP2 sensitivity of CaV2.2 and CaV1.3 channels by ∼3-fold compared with wild-type β2e subunit. Together, our results suggest that membrane targeting of the β2e subunit is initiated from the nonspecific electrostatic insertion of N-terminal K2 and W5 residues into the membrane. The PS-β2e interaction observed here

  8. Two Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunits have distinct functions in gustatory neurons that activate male courtship

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Vijayan, Vinoy; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2012-01-01

    Trimeric sodium channels of the DEG/ENaC family have important roles in neurons, but the specific functions of different subunits present in heteromeric channels are poorly understood. We previously reported that the Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit Ppk25 is essential in a small subset of gustatory neurons for activation of male courtship behavior, likely through detection of female pheromones. Here we show that, like mutations in ppk25, mutations in another Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit, nope, specifically impair male courtship of females. nope regulatory sequences drive reporter gene expression in gustatory neurons of the labellum, wings and legs, including all gustatory neurons in which ppk25 function is required for male courtship of females. In addition, gustatory-specific knockdown of nope impairs male courtship. Further, the impaired courtship response of nope mutant males to females is rescued by targeted expression of nope in the subset of gustatory neurons in which ppk25 functions. However, nope and ppk25 have non-redundant functions, as targeted expression of ppk25 does not compensate for the lack of nope and vice versa. Moreover, Nope and Ppk25 form specific complexes when co-expressed in cultured cells. Together, these data indicate that the Nope and Ppk25 subunits have specific, non-redundant functions in a subset of gustatory neurons required for activation of male courtship in response to females, and suggest the hypothesis that Nope and Ppk25 function as subunits of a heteromeric DEG/ENaC channel required for gustatory detection of female pheromones. PMID:22915128

  9. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the α1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Alan; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. PMID:24917826

  10. Functional properties of cardiac L-type calcium channels transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Roles of alpha 1 and beta subunits

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel was transiently expressed in HEK293 cells by transfecting the rabbit cardiac calcium channel alpha 1 subunit (alpha 1C) alone or in combination with the rabbit calcium channel beta subunit cloned from skeletal muscle. Transfection with alpha 1C alone leads to the expression of inward, voltage-activated, calcium or barium currents that exhibit dihydropyridine sensitivity and voltage- as well as calcium-dependent inactivation. Coexpression of the skeletal muscle beta subunit increases current density and the number of high-affinity dihydropyridine binding sites and also affects the macroscopic kinetics of the current. Recombinant alpha 1C beta channels exhibit a slowing of activation and a faster inactivation rate when either calcium or barium carries the charge. Our data suggest that both an increase in the number of channels as well as modulatory effects on gating underlie the modifications observed upon beta subunit coexpression. PMID:7539049

  11. Large Conductance Voltage- and Ca2+-gated Potassium (BK) Channel β4 Subunit Influences Sensitivity and Tolerance to Alcohol by Altering Its Response to Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Marrero, Cristina; Seale, Garrett E.; Treistman, Steven N.; Martin, Gilles E.

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance is a well described component of alcohol abuse and addiction. The large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-gated potassium channel (BK) has been very useful for studying molecular tolerance. The influence of association with the β4 subunit can be observed at the level of individual channels, action potentials in brain slices, and finally, drinking behavior in the mouse. Previously, we showed that 50 mm alcohol increases both α and αβ4 BK channel open probability, but only α BK develops acute tolerance to this effect. Currently, we explore the possibility that the influence of the β4 subunit on tolerance may result from a striking effect of β4 on kinase modulation of the BK channel. We examine the influence of the β4 subunit on PKA, CaMKII, and phosphatase modulation of channel activity, and on molecular tolerance to alcohol. We record from human BK channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells composed of its core subunit, α alone (Insertless), or co-expressed with the β4 BK auxiliary subunit, as well as, acutely dissociated nucleus accumbens neurons using the cell-attached patch clamp configuration. Our results indicate that BK channels are strongly modulated by activation of specific kinases (PKA and CaMKII) and phosphatases. The presence of the β4 subunit greatly influences this modulation, allowing a variety of outcomes for BK channel activity in response to acute alcohol. PMID:25190810

  12. Functional assessment of three Rem residues identified as critical for interactions with Ca(2+) channel β subunits.

    PubMed

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F; Filipova, Dilyana; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Bannister, Roger A

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Rem, Rem2, Rad, Gem/Kir (RGK) family of small GTP-binding proteins inhibit high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels through interactions with both the principal α1 and the auxiliary β subunits of the channel complex. Three highly conserved residues of Rem (R200, L227, and H229) have been shown in vitro to be critical for interactions with β subunits. However, the functional significance of these residues is not known. To investigate the contributions of R200, L227, and H229 to β subunit-mediated RGK protein-dependent inhibition of HVA channels, we introduced alanine substitutions into all three positions of Venus fluorescent protein-tagged Rem (V-Rem AAA) and made three other V-Rem constructs with an alanine introduced at only one position (V-Rem R200A, V-Rem L227A, and V-Rem H229A). Confocal imaging and immunoblotting demonstrated that each Venus-Rem mutant construct had comparable expression levels to Venus-wild-type Rem when heterologously expressed in tsA201 cells. In electrophysiological experiments, V-Rem AAA failed to inhibit N-type Ca(2+) currents in tsA201 cells coexpressing CaV2.2 α1B, β3, and α2δ-1 channel subunits. The V-Rem L227A single mutant also failed to reduce N-type currents conducted by coexpressed CaV2.2 channels, a finding consistent with the previous observation that a leucine at position 227 is critical for Rem-β interactions. Rem-dependent inhibition of CaV2.2 channels was impaired to a much lesser extent by the R200A substitution. In contrast to the earlier work demonstrating that Rem H229A was unable to interact with β3 subunits in vitro, V-Rem H229A produced nearly complete inhibition of CaV2.2-mediated currents.

  13. Functional exofacially tagged N-type calcium channels elucidate the interaction with auxiliary α2δ-1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, John S; Ferron, Laurent; Kadurin, Ivan; Pratt, Wendy S; Dolphin, Annette C

    2014-06-17

    CaV1 and CaV2 voltage-gated calcium channels are associated with β and α2δ accessory subunits. However, examination of cell surface-associated CaV2 channels has been hampered by the lack of antibodies to cell surface-accessible epitopes and of functional exofacially tagged CaV2 channels. Here we report the development of fully functional CaV2.2 constructs containing inserted surface-accessible exofacial tags, which allow visualization of only those channels at the plasma membrane, in both a neuronal cell line and neurons. We first examined the effect of the auxiliary subunits. Although α2δ subunits copurify with CaV2 channels, it has recently been suggested that this interaction is easily disrupted and nonquantitative. We have now tested whether α2δ subunits are associated with these channels at the cell surface. We found that, whereas α2δ-1 is readily observed at the plasma membrane when expressed alone, it appears absent when coexpressed with CaV2.2/β1b, despite our finding that α2δ-1 increases plasma-membrane CaV2.2 expression. However, this was due to occlusion of the antigenic epitope by association with CaV2.2, as revealed by antigen retrieval; thus, our data provide evidence for a tight interaction between α2δ-1 and the α1 subunit at the plasma membrane. We further show that, although CaV2.2 cell-surface expression is reduced by gabapentin in the presence of wild-type α2δ-1 (but not a gabapentin-insensitive α2δ-1 mutant), the interaction between CaV2.2 and α2δ-1 is not disrupted by gabapentin. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CaV2.2 and α2δ-1 are intimately associated at the plasma membrane and allow us to infer a region of interaction.

  14. Proteolytic cleavage of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel α2δ subunit: structural and functional features

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Arturo; Sandoval, Alejandro; Oviedo, Norma; De Waard, Michel; Elias, David; Felix, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    By mediating depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels control a variety of cellular events. These heteromultimeric proteins are composed of an ion-conducting (α1) and three auxiliary (α2δ, β and γ) subunits. The α2δ subunit enhances the trafficking of the channel complex to the cell surface and increases channel open probability. To exert these effects, α2δ must undergo important post-translational modifications including a proteolytic cleavage that separates the extracellular α2 from its transmembrane δ domain. After this proteolysis both domains remain linked by disulfide bonds. In spite of its central role in determining the final conformation of the fully mature α2δ almost nothing is known about the physiological implications of this structural modification. In the current report, by using site-directed mutagenesis, the proteolytic site of α2δ was mapped to amino acid residues Arg-941 and Val-946. Substitution of these residues renders the protein insensitive to proteolytic cleavage as evidenced by the lack of molecular weight shift upon treatment with a disulfide reducing agent. Interestingly, these mutations significantly decreased whole-cell patch clamp currents without affecting the voltage-dependence or kinetics of the channels, suggesting a reduction in the number of channels targeted to the plasma membrane. PMID:17408426

  15. β Subunit M2–M3 Loop Conformational Changes Are Uncoupled from α1 β Glycine Receptor Channel Gating: Implications for Human Hereditary Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Qiang; Han, Lu; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary hyperekplexia, or startle disease, is a neuromotor disorder caused mainly by mutations that either prevent the surface expression of, or modify the function of, the human heteromeric α1 β glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channel. There is as yet no explanation as to why hyperekplexia mutations that modify channel function are almost exclusively located in the α1 to the exclusion of β subunit. The majority of these mutations are identified in the M2–M3 loop of the α1 subunit. Here we demonstrate that α1 β GlyR channel function is less sensitive to hyperekplexia-mimicking mutations introduced into the M2–M3 loop of the β than into the α1 subunit. This suggests that the M2–M3 loop of the α subunit dominates the β subunit in gating the α1 β GlyR channel. A further attempt to determine the possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon by using the voltage-clamp fluorometry technique revealed that agonist-induced conformational changes in the β subunit M2–M3 loop were uncoupled from α1 β GlyR channel gating. This is in contrast to the α subunit, where the M2–M3 loop conformational changes were shown to be directly coupled to α1 β GlyR channel gating. Finally, based on analysis of α1 β chimeric receptors, we demonstrate that the structural components responsible for this are distributed throughout the β subunit, implying that the β subunit has evolved without the functional constraint of a normal gating pathway within it. Our study provides a possible explanation of why hereditary hyperekplexia-causing mutations that modify α1 β GlyR channel function are almost exclusively located in the α1 to the exclusion of the β subunit. PMID:22132222

  16. Up-regulation of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Ester; Noé, Véronique; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Lluis, Carmen; Ferrer, Isidre; Ciudad, Carlos J; Franco, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    Gene expression throughout the different stages of Alzheimer's disease was analysed in samples from cerebral cortex. The gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 was already overexpressed in early stages of the disease, and in advanced stages Kv3.4 was present at high levels in neurodegenerative structures. This subunit regulates delayed-rectifier currents, which are primary determinants of spike repolarization in neurones. In unique samples from a patient with Alzheimer's disease whose amount of amyloid plaques was decreased by beta amyloid immunization, Kv3.4 was overexpressed. The channel subunit was expressed in the neuropil, in the remaining conventional plaques in the frontal cortex and in collapsed plaques in the orbitary cortex. Therefore, amyloid deposition in plaques does not seem to be responsible for the increase in Kv3.4 levels. Nevertheless, Kv3.4 up-regulation is related to amyloid pathology, given that transgenic mice with the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein showed increased expression of Kv3.4. Up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits alters potassium currents in neurones and leads to altered synaptic activity that may underlie the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, Kv3.4 likely represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  17. XE991 and Linopirdine Are State-Dependent Inhibitors for Kv7/KCNQ Channels that Favor Activated Single Subunits.

    PubMed

    Greene, Derek L; Kang, Seungwoo; Hoshi, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    M-channel inhibitors, especially XE991, are being used increasingly in animal experiments; however, insufficient characterization of XE991 at times confounds the interpretation of results when using this compound. Here, we demonstrate that XE991 and linopirdine are state-dependent inhibitors that favor the activated-subunit of neuronal Kv7/KCNQ channels. We performed patch-clamp experiments on homomeric Kv7.2 or heteromeric Kv7.2/3 channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to characterize XE991 and linopirdine. Neither inhibitor was efficacious around the resting membrane potential of cells in physiologic conditions. Inhibition of Kv7.2 and Kv7.2/3 channels by XE991 was closely related with channel activation. When the voltage dependence of activation was left-shifted by retigabine or right-shifted by the mutation, Kv7.2(R214D), the shift in half-activation voltage proportionally coincided with the shift in the half-effective potential for XE991 inhibition. Inhibition kinetics during XE991 wash-in was facilitated at depolarized potentials. Ten-minute washout of XE991 resulted in ∼30% current recovery, most of which was attributed to surface transport of Kv7.2 channels. Linopirdine also exhibited similar inhibition characteristics, with the exception of near- complete current recovery after washout at depolarized potentials. Inhibition kinetics of both XE991 and linopirdine was not as sensitive to changes in voltage as would be predicted by open- channel inhibition. Instead, they were well explained by binding to a single activated subunit. The characteristics of XE991 and linopirdine should be taken into account when these M-channel inhibitors are used in experiments. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Probability Fluxes and Transition Paths in a Markovian Model Describing Complex Subunit Cooperativity in HCN2 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, Klaus; Kusch, Jana; Schulz, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels are voltage-gated tetrameric cation channels that generate electrical rhythmicity in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Activation can be enhanced by the binding of adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to an intracellular cyclic nucleotide binding domain. Based on previously determined rate constants for a complex Markovian model describing the gating of homotetrameric HCN2 channels, we analyzed probability fluxes within this model, including unidirectional probability fluxes and the probability flux along transition paths. The time-dependent probability fluxes quantify the contributions of all 13 transitions of the model to channel activation. The binding of the first, third and fourth ligand evoked robust channel opening whereas the binding of the second ligand obstructed channel opening similar to the empty channel. Analysis of the net probability fluxes in terms of the transition path theory revealed pronounced hysteresis for channel activation and deactivation. These results provide quantitative insight into the complex interaction of the four structurally equal subunits, leading to non-equality in their function. PMID:23093920

  19. Mutations in the extracellular domains of glutamate-gated chloride channel alpha3 and beta subunits from ivermectin-resistant Cooperia oncophora affect agonist sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Njue, Annete I; Hayashi, Jon; Kinne, Lyle; Feng, Xiao-Peng; Prichard, Roger K

    2004-06-01

    Two full-length glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) cDNAs, encoding GluClalpha3 and GluClbeta subunits, were cloned from ivermectin-susceptible (IVS) and -resistant (IVR) Cooperia oncophora adult worms. The IVS and IVR GluClalpha3 subunits differ at three amino acid positions, while the IVS and IVR GluClbeta subunits differ at two amino acid positions. The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in the IVR subunits affect agonist sensitivity. The subunits were expressed singly and in combination in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Electrophysiological whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that mutations in the IVR GluClalpha3 caused a modest but significant threefold loss of sensitivity to glutamate, the natural ligand for GluCl receptors. As well, a significant decrease in sensitivity to the anthelmintics ivermectin and moxidectin was observed in the IVR GluClalpha3 receptor. Mutations in the IVR GluClbeta subunit abolished glutamate sensitivity. Co-expressing the IVS GluClalpha3 and GluClbeta subunits resulted in heteromeric channels that were more sensitive to glutamate than the respective homomeric channels, demonstrating co-assembly of the subunits. In contrast, the heteromeric IVR channels were less sensitive to glutamate than the homomeric IVR GluClalpha3 channels. The heteromeric IVS channels were significantly more sensitive to glutamate than the heteromeric IVR channels. Of the three amino acids distinguishing the IVS and IVR GluClalpha3 subunits, only one of them, L256F, accounted for the differences in response between the IVS and IVR GluClalpha3 homomeric channels.

  20. Use of concatemers of ligand-gated ion channel subunits to study mechanisms of steroid potentiation.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Joe Henry; Akk, Gustav

    2011-12-01

    Synaptic receptors of the nicotinic receptor gene family are pentamers of subunits. This modular structure creates problems in studies of drug actions, related to the number of copies of a subunit that are present and their position. A separate issue concerns the mechanism of action of many anesthetics, which involves potentiation of responses to neurotransmitters. Potentiation requires an interaction between a transmitter and a potentiator, mediated through the target receptor. We have studied the mechanism by which neurosteroids potentiate transmitter responses, using concatemers of covalently linked subunits to control the number and position of subunits in the assembled receptor and to selectively introduce mutations into positionally defined copies of a subunit. We found that the steroid needs to interact with only one site to produce potentiation, that the native sites for steroid interaction have indistinguishable properties, and that steroid potentiation appears to result from a global effect on receptor function.

  1. Developmental analysis reveals mismatches in the expression of K+ channel alpha subunits and voltage-gated K+ channel currents in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In the experiments here, the developmental expression of the functional Ca(2+)-independent, depolarization-activated K+ channel currents, Ito and IK, and of the voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) alpha subunits, Kv1.2, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, and Kv4.2 in rat ventricular myocytes were examined quantitatively. Using the whole-cell patch clamp recording method, the properties and the densities of Ito and IK in ventricular myocytes isolated from postnatal day 5 (P5), 10 (P10), 15 (P15), 20 (P20), 25 (P25), 30 (P30), and adult (8-12 wk) rats were characterized and compared. These experiments revealed that mean Ito densities increase fourfold between birth and P30, whereas IK densities vary only slightly. Neither the time- nor the voltage-dependent properties of the currents vary measurably, suggesting that the subunits underlying functional Ito and IK channels are the same throughout postnatal development. In parallel experiments, the developmental expression of each of the voltage-gated K+ channel alpha subunits, Kv1.2, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, and Kv4.2, was examined quantitatively at the mRNA and protein levels using subunit-specific probes. RNase protection assays revealed that Kv1.4 message levels are high at birth, increase between P0 and P10, and subsequently decrease to very low levels in adult rat ventricles. The decrease in message is accompanied by a marked reduction in Kv1.4 protein, consistent with our previous suggestion that Kv1.4 does not contribute to the formation of functional K+ channels in adult rat ventricular myocytes. In contrast to Kv1.4, the mRNA levels of Kv1.2, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, and Kv4.2 increase (three- to five- fold) between birth and adult. Western analyses, however, revealed that the expression patterns of these subunits proteins vary in distinct ways: Kv1.2 and Kv4.2, for example, increase between P5 and adult, whereas Kv1.5 remains constant and Kv2.1 decreases. Throughout development, therefore, there is a mismatch between the numbers of Kv alpha

  2. The structures of the human calcium channel {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACNL1A2) and {beta} subunit (CACNLB3) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Li, Qing

    1995-05-20

    Calcium influx in pancreatic {beta}-cells is regulated mainly by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and triggers insulin secretion. The {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACN4) and the {beta} subunit ({beta}{sub 3}) of VDCCs, both of which are expressed in pancreatic islets, are major components for the VDCC activity, and so they may play a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion. The authors have determined the structures of the human CACN4 (CACNL1A2) and the human {beta}{sub 3} (CACNLB3) genes. The CACNL1A2 gene spans more than 155 kb and has 49 exons. Most of the positions interrupted by introns are well conserved between the CACNL1A2 gene and the previously reported L-type VDCC {alpha}{sub 1} subunit, CACNL1A1, gene. On the other hand, the CACNLB3 gene distributes in {approximately} 8 kb and comprises 13 exons, most of which are located together within {approximately} 5 kb. Comparisons of the genomic sequences of CACNL1A2 with the previously reported cDNA sequences indicate that there are a number of polymorphisms in the human CACNL1A2 gene. In addition, the PCR-SSCP procedure of exon 1 of CACNL1A2 revealed a change from 7 to 8 ATG trinucleotide repeats in a patient with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), resulting in an addition of methionine at the amino-terminus of CACN4. The determination of the structures of the human CACNL1A2 and CACNLB3 genes should facilitate study of the role of these genes in the development of NIDDM and also other genetic diseases such as long QT syndrome. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. β1- and β3- voltage-gated sodium channel subunits modulate cell surface expression and glycosylation of Nav1.7 in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Laedermann, Cédric J; Syam, Ninda; Pertin, Marie; Decosterd, Isabelle; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are glycoproteins composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and associated β-subunits that regulate Nav α-subunit plasma membrane density and biophysical properties. Glycosylation of the Nav α-subunit also directly affects Navs gating. β-subunits and glycosylation thus comodulate Nav α-subunit gating. We hypothesized that β-subunits could directly influence α-subunit glycosylation. Whole-cell patch clamp of HEK293 cells revealed that both β1- and β3-subunits coexpression shifted V ½ of steady-state activation and inactivation and increased Nav1.7-mediated I Na density. Biotinylation of cell surface proteins, combined with the use of deglycosydases, confirmed that Nav1.7 α-subunits exist in multiple glycosylated states. The α-subunit intracellular fraction was found in a core-glycosylated state, migrating at ~250 kDa. At the plasma membrane, in addition to the core-glycosylated form, a fully glycosylated form of Nav1.7 (~280 kDa) was observed. This higher band shifted to an intermediate band (~260 kDa) when β1-subunits were coexpressed, suggesting that the β1-subunit promotes an alternative glycosylated form of Nav1.7. Furthermore, the β1-subunit increased the expression of this alternative glycosylated form and the β3-subunit increased the expression of the core-glycosylated form of Nav1.7. This study describes a novel role for β1- and β3-subunits in the modulation of Nav1.7 α-subunit glycosylation and cell surface expression.

  4. Subunit-specific coupling between gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and P2X2 receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Toulmé, Estelle; Emerit, Michel B; Garret, Maurice

    2004-12-10

    ATP and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two fast neurotransmitters co-released at central synapses, where they co-activate excitatory P2X and inhibitory GABAA (GABA type A) receptors. We report here that co-activation of P2X2 and various GABAA receptors, co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, leads to a functional cross-inhibition dependent on GABAA subunit composition. Sequential applications of GABA and ATP revealed that alphabeta- or alphabetagamma-containing GABAA receptors inhibited P2X2 channels, whereas P2X2 channels failed to inhibit gamma-containing GABAA receptors. This functional cross-talk is independent of membrane potential, changes in current direction, and calcium. Non-additive responses observed between cation-selective GABAA and P2X2 receptors further indicate the chloride independence of this process. Overexpression of minigenes encoding either the C-terminal fragment of P2X2 or the intracellular loop of the beta3 subunit disrupted the functional cross-inhibition. We previously demonstrated functional and physical cross-talk between rho1 and P2X2 receptors, which induced a retargeting of rho1 channels to surface clusters when co-expressed in hippocampal neurons (Boue-Grabot, E., Emerit, M. B., Toulme, E., Seguela, P., and Garret, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6967-6975). Co-expression of P2X2 and chimeric rho1 receptors with the C-terminal sequences of alpha2, beta3, or gamma2 subunits indicated that only rho1-beta3 and P2X2 channels exhibit both functional cross-inhibition in Xenopus oocytes and co-clustering/retargeting in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, the C-terminal domain of P2X2 and the intracellular loop of beta GABAA subunits are required for the functional interaction between ATP- and GABA-gated channels. This gamma subunit-dependent cross-talk may contribute to the regulation of synaptic activity.

  5. The Sodium Channel β4 Auxiliary Subunit Selectively Controls Long-Term Depression in Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Gao, Guangping; Lasek, Amy W.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Guildford, Melissa; Tapper, Andrew R.; Martin, Gilles E.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for generating the initial rapid depolarization of neuronal membrane potential during action potentials (APs) that enable cell-to-cell communication, the propagation of signals throughout the brain, and the induction of synaptic plasticity. Although all brain neurons express one or several variants coding for the core pore-forming sodium channel α subunit, the expression of the β (β1–4) auxiliary subunits varies greatly. Of particular interest is the β4 subunit, encoded by the Scn4b gene, that is highly expressed in dorsal and ventral (i.e., nucleus accumbens – NAc) striata compared to other brain regions, and that endows sodium channels with unique gating properties. However, its role on neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behaviors related to drugs of abuse remains poorly understood. Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with two-photon calcium imaging in Scn4b knockout (KO) and knockdown mice, we found that Scn4b altered the properties of APs in core accumbens medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These alterations are associated with a reduction of the probability of MSNs to evoke spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD) and a reduced ability of backpropagating APs to evoke dendritic calcium transients. In contrast, long-term potentiation (tLTP) remained unaffected. Interestingly, we also showed that amphetamine-induced locomotor activity was significantly reduced in male Scn4b KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that the Scn4b subunit selectively controls tLTD by modulating dendritic calcium transients evoked by backpropagating APs. PMID:28243192

  6. THE PRESENCE OF A B SUBUNIT INCREASES SENSITIVITY OF SODIUM CHANNEL NAV1.3, BUT NOT NAV1.2, TO TYPE II PYRETHROIDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are a primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. VSSCs are comprised of a pore-forming ¿ and auxillary ß subunits, and multiple isoforms of both subunit types exist. The sensitivity of different isoform combinations to pyrethroids has not...

  7. An uncoupling channel within the c-subunit ring of the F1FO ATP synthase is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    PubMed

    Alavian, Kambiz N; Beutner, Gisela; Lazrove, Emma; Sacchetti, Silvio; Park, Han-A; Licznerski, Pawel; Li, Hongmei; Nabili, Panah; Hockensmith, Kathryn; Graham, Morven; Porter, George A; Jonas, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-22

    Mitochondria maintain tight regulation of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) permeability to sustain ATP production. Stressful events cause cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) dysregulation followed by rapid loss of IMM potential known as permeability transition (PT), which produces osmotic shifts, metabolic dysfunction, and cell death. The molecular identity of the mitochondrial PT pore (mPTP) was previously unknown. We show that the purified reconstituted c-subunit ring of the FO of the F1FO ATP synthase forms a voltage-sensitive channel, the persistent opening of which leads to rapid and uncontrolled depolarization of the IMM in cells. Prolonged high matrix Ca(2+) enlarges the c-subunit ring and unhooks it from cyclophilin D/cyclosporine A binding sites in the ATP synthase F1, providing a mechanism for mPTP opening. In contrast, recombinant F1 beta-subunit applied exogenously to the purified c-subunit enhances the probability of pore closure. Depletion of the c-subunit attenuates Ca(2+)-induced IMM depolarization and inhibits Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death whereas increasing the expression or single-channel conductance of the c-subunit sensitizes to death. We conclude that a highly regulated c-subunit leak channel is a candidate for the mPTP. Beyond cell death, these findings also imply that increasing the probability of c-subunit channel closure in a healthy cell will enhance IMM coupling and increase cellular metabolic efficiency.

  8. ALLOSTERY AND SUBSTRATE CHANNELING IN THE TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE BIENZYME COMPLEX: EVIDENCE FOR TWO SUBUNIT CONFORMATIONS AND FOUR QUATERNARY STATES

    PubMed Central

    Niks, Dimitri; Hilario, Eduardo; Dierkers, Adam; Ngo, Huu; Borchardt, Dan; Neubauer, Thomas J.; Fan, Li; Mueller, Leonard J.; Dunn, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The allosteric regulation of substrate channeling in tryptophan synthase involves ligand-mediated allosteric signaling that switches the α- and β-subunits between open (low activity) and closed (high activity) conformations. This switching prevents the escape of the common intermediate, indole, and synchronizes the α- and β-catalytic cycles. 19F NMR studies of bound α-site substrate analogues, N-(4’-trifluoromethoxybenzoyl)-2-aminoethyl phosphate (F6) and N-(4’-trifluoromethoxybenzenesulfonyl)-2-aminoethyl phosphate (F9), were found to be sensitive NMR probes of β-subunit conformation. Both the internal and external aldimine F6 complexes gave a single bound peak at the same chemical shift, while α-aminoacrylate and quinonoid F6 complexes all gave a different bound peak shifted by +1.07 ppm. The F9 complexes exhibited similar behavior, but with a corresponding shift of -0.12 ppm. X-ray crystal structures show the F6 and F9 CF3 groups located at the α-β subunit interface and report changes in both the ligand conformation and the surrounding protein microenvironment. Ab initio computational modeling suggests that the change in 19F chemical shift results primarily from changes in the α-site ligand conformation. Structures of α-aminoacrylate F6 and F9 complexes and quinonoid F6 and F9 complexes show the α- and β-subunits have closed conformations wherein access of ligands into the α- and β-sites from solution is blocked. Internal and external aldimine structures show the α- and β-subunits with closed and open global conformations, respectively. These results establish that β-subunits exist in two global conformation states, designated open, where the β-sites are freely accessible to substrates, and closed, where the β-site portal into solution is blocked. Switching between these conformations is critically important for the αβ-catalytic cycle. PMID:23952479

  9. Selective Changes of GABAA Channel Subunit mRNAs in the Hippocampus and Orbitofrontal Cortex but not in Prefrontal Cortex of Human Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhe; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Korpi, Esa R.; Bakalkin, Georgy; Birnir, Bryndis

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a common chronic relapsing disorder. The development of alcohol dependence has been associated with changes in brain GABAA channel-mediated neurotransmission and plasticity. We have examined mRNA expression of the GABAA channel subunit genes in three brain regions in individuals with or without alcohol dependence using quantitative real-time PCR assay. The levels of selective GABAA channel subunit mRNAs were altered in specific brain regions in alcoholic subjects. Significant increase in the α1, α4, α5, β1, and γ1 subunit mRNAs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region, and decrease in the β2 and δ subunit mRNAs in the orbitofrontal cortex were identified whereas no changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were detected. The data increase our understanding of the role of GABAA channels in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:22319468

  10. GIRK Channels Modulate Opioid-Induced Motor Activity in a Cell Type- and Subunit-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kotecki, Lydia; Hearing, Matthew; McCall, Nora M.; Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Ezequiel; Pravetoni, Marco; Arora, Devinder; Victoria, Nicole C.; Munoz, Michaelanne B.; Xia, Zhilian; Slesinger, Paul A.; Weaver, C. David

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK/Kir3) channel activation underlies key physiological effects of opioids, including analgesia and dependence. GIRK channel activation has also been implicated in the opioid-induced inhibition of midbrain GABA neurons and consequent disinhibition of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Drug-induced disinhibition of VTA DA neurons has been linked to reward-related behaviors and underlies opioid-induced motor activation. Here, we demonstrate that mouse VTA GABA neurons express a GIRK channel formed by GIRK1 and GIRK2 subunits. Nevertheless, neither constitutive genetic ablation of Girk1 or Girk2, nor the selective ablation of GIRK channels in GABA neurons, diminished morphine-induced motor activity in mice. Moreover, direct activation of GIRK channels in midbrain GABA neurons did not enhance motor activity. In contrast, genetic manipulations that selectively enhanced or suppressed GIRK channel function in midbrain DA neurons correlated with decreased and increased sensitivity, respectively, to the motor-stimulatory effect of systemic morphine. Collectively, these data support the contention that the unique GIRK channel subtype in VTA DA neurons, the GIRK2/GIRK3 heteromer, regulates the sensitivity of the mouse mesolimbic DA system to drugs with addictive potential. PMID:25948263

  11. Developmental regulation of G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK/KIR3) channel subunits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alacid, Laura; Watanabe, Masahiko; Molnár, Elek; Wickman, Kevin; Luján, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK/family 3 of inwardly-rectifying K+) channels are coupled to neurotransmitter action and can play important roles in modulating neuronal excitability. We investigated the temporal and spatial expression of GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 subunits in the developing and adult rodent brain using biochemical, immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic techniques. At all ages analysed, the overall distribution patterns of GIRK1-3 were very similar, with high expression levels in the neocortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus. Focusing on the hippocampus, histoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed that GIRK1-3 protein levels increased with age, and this was accompanied by a shift in the subcellular localization of the subunits. Early in development (postnatal day 5), GIRK subunits were predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the pyramidal cells, but by postnatal day 60 they were mostly found along the plasma membrane. During development, GIRK1 and GIRK2 were found primarily at postsynaptic sites, whereas GIRK3 was predominantly detected at presynaptic sites. In addition, GIRK1 and GIRK2 expression on the spine plasma membrane showed identical proximal-to-distal gradients that differed from GIRK3 distribution. Furthermore, although GIRK1 was never found within the postsynaptic density (PSD), the level of GIRK2 in the PSD progressively increased and GIRK3 did not change in the PSD during development. Together, these findings shed new light on the developmental regulation and subcellular diversity of neuronal GIRK channels, and support the contention that distinct subpopulations of GIRK channels exert separable influences on neuronal excitability. The ability to selectively target specific subpopulations of GIRK channels may prove effective in the treatment of disorders of excitability. PMID:22098295

  12. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 activation by arachidonylcyclopropylamide in rat aortic rings causes vasorelaxation involving calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 and calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pastor, E; Andrade, F; Sánchez-Pastor, J M; Elizalde, A; Huerta, M; Virgen-Ortiz, A; Trujillo, X; Rodríguez-Hernández, A

    2014-04-15

    Cannabinoids are key regulators of vascular tone, some of the mechanisms involved include the activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB); the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1); and non-(CB(1))/non-CB2 receptors. Here, we used the potent, selective CB(1) agonist arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) to elucidate the mechanism underlying vascular tone regulation. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that CB(1) was expressed in smooth muscle and endothelial cells in rat aorta. We performed isometric tension recordings in aortic rings that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine. In these conditions, ACPA caused vasorelaxation in an endothelium-independent manner. To confirm that the effect of ACPA was mediated by CB(1) receptor, we repeated the experiment after blocking these receptors with a selective antagonist, AM281. In these conditions, ACPA did not cause vasorelaxation. We explored the role of K(+) channels in the effect of ACPA by applying high-K(+) solution to induce contraction in aortic rings. In these conditions, the ACPA-induced vasorelaxation was about half that observed with phenylephrine-induced contraction. Thus, K(+) channels were involved in the ACPA effect. Furthermore, the vasorelaxation effect was similarly reduced when we specifically blocked calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 (KCa1.1) (MaxiK; BKCa) prior to adding ACPA. Finally, ACPA-induced vasorelaxation was also diminished when we specifically blocked the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (Ca(v)1.2). These results showed that ACPA activation of CB(1) in smooth muscle caused vasorelaxation of aortic rings through a mechanism involving the activation of K(Ca)1.1 and the inhibition of Ca(v)1.2.

  13. Subcellular localization of the K+ channel subunit Kv3.1b in selected rat CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Sekirnjak, C; Martone, M E; Weiser, M; Deerinck, T; Bueno, E; Rudy, B; Ellisman, M

    1997-08-22

    Voltage-gated potassium channels constitute the largest group of heteromeric ion channels discovered to date. Over 20 genes have been isolated, encoding different channel subunit proteins which form functional tetrameric K+ channels. We have analyzed the subcellular localization of subunit Kv3.1b, a member of the Kv3 (Shaw-like) subfamily, in rat brain at the light and electron microscopic level, using immunocytochemical detection. Detailed localization was carried out in specific neurons of the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The identity of Kv3.1b-positive neurons was established using double labeling with markers for specific neuronal populations. In the neocortex, the Kv3.1b subunit was expressed in most parvalbumin-containing bipolar, basket or chandelier cells, and in some bipolar or double bouquet neurons containing calbindin. In the hippocampus, Kv3.1b was expressed in many parvalbumin-containing basket cells, as well as in calbindin-positive neurons in the stratum oriens, and in a small number of interneurons that did not stain for either parvalbumin or calbindin. Kv3.1b protein was not present in pyramidal cells in the neocortex and the hippocampus, but these cells were outlined by labeled presynaptic terminals from interneuron axons that surround the postsynaptic cell. In the cerebellar cortex, granule cells were the only population expressing the channel protein. Careful examination of individual granule cells revealed a non-uniform distribution of Kv3.1 staining on the somata: circular bands of labeling were present in the vicinity of the axon hillock. In cortical and hippocampal interneurons, as well as in cerebellar granule cells, the Kv3.1b subunit was present in somatic and unmyelinated axonal membranes and adjacent cytoplasm, as well as in the most proximal portion of dendritic processes, but not throughout most of the dendrite. Labeling was also seen in the terminals of labeled axons, but not at a higher concentration than in other parts

  14. Local and global structure of the monomeric subunit of the potassium channel KcsA probed by NMR.

    PubMed

    Chill, Jordan H; Louis, John M; Delaglio, Frank; Bax, Ad

    2007-12-01

    KcsA is a homotetrameric 68-kDa membrane-associated potassium channel which selectively gates the flux of potassium ions across the membrane. The channel is known to undergo a pH-dependent open-to-closed transition. Here we describe an NMR study of the monomeric subunit of the channel (KcsAM), solubilized in SDS micelles. Chemical shift, solvent exchange, backbone 15N relaxation and residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data show the TM1 helix to remain intact, but the TM2 helix contains a distinct kink, which is subject to concentration-independent but pH-dependent conformational exchange on a microsecond time scale. The kink region, centered at G99, was previously implicated in the gating of the tetrameric KcsA channel. An RDC-based model of KcsAM at acidic pH orients TM1 and the two helical segments of the kinked TM2 in a configuration reminiscent of the open conformation of the channel. Thus, the transition between states appears to be an inherent capability of the monomer, with the tetrameric assembly exerting a modulatory effect upon the transition which gives the channel its physiological gating profile.

  15. Structural Basis for Calcium and Magnesium Regulation of a Large Conductance Calcium-activated Potassium Channel with β1 Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao-Wen; Hou, Pan-Pan; Guo, Xi-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Wen; Hu, Bin; Li, Xia; Wang, Lu-Yang; Ding, Jiu-Ping; Wang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels, composed of pore-forming α subunits and auxiliary β subunits, play important roles in diverse physiological activities. The β1 is predominately expressed in smooth muscle cells, where it greatly enhances the Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels for proper regulation of smooth muscle tone. However, the structural basis underlying dynamic interaction between BK mSlo1 α and β1 remains elusive. Using macroscopic ionic current recordings in various Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, we identified two binding sites on the cytosolic N terminus of β1, namely the electrostatic enhancing site (mSlo1(K392,R393)-β1(E13,T14)), increasing the calcium sensitivity of BK channels, and the hydrophobic site (mSlo1(L906,L908)-β1(L5,V6,M7)), passing the physical force from the Ca2+ bowl onto the enhancing site and S6 C-linker. Dynamic binding of these sites affects the interaction between the cytosolic domain and voltage-sensing domain, leading to the reduction of Mg2+ sensitivity. A comprehensive structural model of the BK(mSlo1 α-β1) complex was reconstructed based on these functional studies, which provides structural and mechanistic insights for understanding BK gating. PMID:24764303

  16. A distinct three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 inhibits Iks channels by interacting with the KCNE1 auxiliary subunit

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peibei; Wu, Fangming; Wen, Ming; Yang, Xingwang; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Yiming; He, Shufang; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    KCNE1 is a single-span transmembrane auxiliary protein that modulates the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1. The KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex in cardiomyocytes exhibited slow activated potassium (Iks) currents. Recently, a novel 47-residue polypeptide toxin SSD609 was purified from Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani venom and showed Iks current inhibition. Here, chemically synthesized SSD609 was shown to exert Iks inhibition in extracted guinea pig cardiomyocytes and KCNQ1/KCNE1 current attenuation in CHO cells. The K+ current attenuation of SSD609 showed decent selectivity among different auxiliary subunits. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of SSD609 revealed a distinctive three-helix conformation that was stabilized by a new disulfide bonding pattern as well as segregated surface charge distribution. Structure-activity studies demonstrated that negatively charged Glu19 in the amphipathic extracellular helix of KCNE1 was the key residue that interacted with SSD609. The distinctive three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 is known to be the first polypeptide toxin acting on channel auxiliary subunit KCNE1, which suggests a new type of pharmacological regulation for ion channels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26307551

  17. Inter-Subunit Interactions across the Upper Voltage Sensing-Pore Domain Interface Contribute to the Concerted Pore Opening Transition of Kv Channels

    PubMed Central

    Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Irit, Orr; Yifrach, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels. PMID:24340010

  18. Effects of the novel BK (KCa1.1) channel opener GoSlo-SR-5-130 are dependent on the presence of BKβ subunits

    PubMed Central

    Large, R J; Kshatri, A; Webb, T I; Roy, S; Akande, A; Bradley, E; Sergeant, G P; Thornbury, K D; McHale, N G; Hollywood, M A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose GoSlo-SR compounds are efficacious BK (KCa1.1) channel openers, but little is known about their mechanism of action or effect on bladder contractility. We examined the effects of two closely related compounds on BK currents and bladder contractions. Experimental Approach A combination of electrophysiology, molecular biology and synthetic chemistry was used to examine the effects of two novel channel agonists on BK channels from bladder smooth muscle cells and in HEK cells expressing BKα alone or in combination with either β1 or β4 subunits. Key Results GoSlo-SR-5-6 shifted the voltage required for half maximal activation (V1/2) of BK channels approximately −100 mV, irrespective of the presence of regulatory β subunits. The deaminated derivative, GoSlo-SR-5-130, also shifted the activation V1/2 in smooth muscle cells by approximately −100 mV; however, this was reduced by ∼80% in HEK cells expressing only BKα subunits. When β1 or β4 subunits were co-expressed with BKα, efficacy was restored. GoSlo-SR-5-130 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in spontaneous bladder contraction amplitude and this was abolished by iberiotoxin, consistent with an effect on BK channels. Conclusions and Implications GoSlo-SR-5-130 required β1 or β4 subunits to mediate its full effects, whereas GoSlo-SR-5-6 worked equally well in the absence or presence of β subunits. GoSlo-SR-5-130 inhibited spontaneous bladder contractions by activating BK channels. The novel BK channel opener, GoSlo-SR-5-130, is approximately fivefold more efficacious on BK channels with regulatory β subunits and may be a useful scaffold in the development of drugs to treat diseases such as overactive bladder. PMID:25598230

  19. Expression of the alpha(2)delta subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of the accessory alpha(2)delta subunit on the voltage-dependent facilitation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels (alpha(1C)). alpha(1C) Channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with beta(3) and alpha(2)delta calcium channel subunits. In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the amplitude of the ionic current (measured during pulses to 10 mV) was in average approximately 1.9-fold larger after the application of a 200-ms prepulse to +80 mV. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as voltage-dependent facilitation, was not observed when alpha(2)delta was coexpressed with alpha(1C) + beta(3). In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the prepulse produced a left shift ( approximately 40 mV) of the activation curve. Instead, the activation curve for alpha(1C) + beta(3) + alpha(2)delta was minimally affected by the prepulse and had a voltage dependence very similar to the G-V curve of the alpha(1C) + beta(3) channel facilitated by the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta with alpha(1C) + beta(3) seems to mimic the prepulse effect by shifting the activation curve toward more negative potentials, leaving little room for facilitation. The facilitation of alpha(1C) + beta(3) was associated with an increase of the charge movement. In the presence of alpha(2)delta, the charge remained unaffected after the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta seems to set all the channels in a conformational state from where the open state can be easily reached, even without prepulse. PMID:10827975

  20. Inhibition of the cardiac Na⁺ channel α-subunit Nav1.5 by propofol and dexmedetomidine.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Carsten; Reuter, Svenja; Doll, Thorben; Foadi, Nilufar; Wegner, Florian; Leffler, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Propofol and dexmedetomidine are very commonly used sedative agents. However, several case reports demonstrated cardiovascular adverse effects of these two sedatives. Both substances were previously demonstrated to quite potently inhibit neuronal voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Thus, a possible molecular mechanism for some of their cardiac side effects is an inhibition of cardiac voltage gated Na(+) channels. In this study, we therefore explored the effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine on the cardiac predominant Na(+) channel α-subunit Nav1.5. Effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine were investigated on constructs of the human α-subunit Nav1.5 stably expressed in HEK-293 cells by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Both agents induced a concentration-dependent tonic inhibition of Nav1.5. The calculated IC50 value for propofol was 228 ± 10 μM, and for dexmedetomidine 170 ± 20 μM. Tonic block only marginally increased on inactivated channels, and a weak use-dependent block at 10 Hz was observed for dexmedetomidine (16 ± 2 % by 100 μM). The voltage dependencies of fast and slow inactivation as well as the time course of recovery from inactivation were shifted by both propofol and dexmedetomidine. Propofol (IC50 126 ± 47 μM) and dexmedetomidine (IC50 182 ± 27 μM) blocked the persistent sodium current induced by veratradine. Finally, the local-anesthetic (LA)-insensitive mutant Nav1.5-F1760A exhibited reduced tonic and use-dependent block by both substances. Dexmedetomidine was generally more potent as compared to propofol. Propofol and dexmedetomidine seem to interact with the LA-binding site to inhibit the cardiac Na(+) channel Nav1.5 in a state-dependent manner. These data suggest that Nav1.5 is a hitherto unrecognized molecular component of some cardiovascular side effects of these sedative agents.

  1. KChIPs and Kv4 alpha subunits as integral components of A-type potassium channels in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kenneth J; Carroll, Karen I; Sung, M Amy; Doliveira, Lisa C; Monaghan, Michael M; Burke, Sharon L; Strassle, Brian W; Buchwalder, Lynn; Menegola, Milena; Cao, Jie; An, W Frank; Trimmer, James S

    2004-09-08

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels from the Kv4, or Shal-related, gene family underlie a major component of the A-type potassium current in mammalian central neurons. We recently identified a family of calcium-binding proteins, termed KChIPs (Kv channel interacting proteins), that bind to the cytoplasmic N termini of Kv4 family alpha subunits and modulate their surface density, inactivation kinetics, and rate of recovery from inactivation (An et al., 2000). Here, we used single and double-label immunohistochemistry, together with circumscribed lesions and coimmunoprecipitation analyses, to examine the regional and subcellular distribution of KChIPs1-4 and Kv4 family alpha subunits in adult rat brain. Immunohistochemical staining using KChIP-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that the KChIP polypeptides are concentrated in neuronal somata and dendrites where their cellular and subcellular distribution overlaps, in an isoform-specific manner, with that of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3. For example, immunoreactivity for KChIP1 and Kv4.3 is concentrated in the somata and dendrites of hippocampal, striatal, and neocortical interneurons. Immunoreactivity for KChIP2, KChIP4, and Kv4.2 is concentrated in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells. Double-label immunofluorescence labeling revealed that throughout the forebrain, KChIP2 and KChIP4 are frequently colocalized with Kv4.2, whereas in cortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons, KChIP1 is frequently colocalized with Kv4.3. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that all KChIPs coassociate with Kv4 alpha subunits in brain membranes, indicating that KChIPs 1-4 are integral components of native A-type Kv channel complexes and are likely to play a major role as modulators of somatodendritic excitability.

  2. An endoplasmic reticulum trafficking signal regulates surface expression of β4 subunit of a voltage- and Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel.

    PubMed

    Cox, N; Toro, B; Pacheco-Otalora, L F; Garrido-Sanabria, E R; Zarei, M M

    2014-03-17

    Voltage-dependent and calcium-activated K⁺ (MaxiK, BK) channels are widely expressed in many tissues and organs where they play various physiological roles. Here we report discovery of a functional trafficking signal in MaxiK channel accessory β4 subunit that could regulate activity of MaxiK α subunit (hSlo) on the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that β4 is mostly retained within the cell and removal or mutation of β4 trafficking signal significantly enhances its surface expression in HEK293T expression system. In hippocampal slices and cultured neurons we also observed significant β4 expressions within the neurons. Finally, we show that unlike SV1 and β1 subunits, β4 shows no dominant-negative effect on MaxiK channel α subunit. Taken together, we propose β4 subunit of MaxiK channel is mostly retained within the cells without interfering with other subunits. Removal of β4 retention signal increases its surface expression that may lead to reduction of the MaxiK channel activity and neuronal excitability.

  3. Concatemers of brain Kv1 channel alpha subunits that give similar K+ currents yield pharmacologically distinguishable heteromers.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Maxim V; Shamotienko, Oleg; Dhochartaigh, Sorcha Ní; Sack, Jon T; Dolly, J Oliver

    2007-08-01

    At least five subtypes of voltage-gated (Kv1) channels occur in neurons as tetrameric combinations of different alpha subunits. Their involvement in controlling cell excitability and synaptic transmission make them potential targets for neurotherapeutics. As a prerequisite for this, we established herein how the characteristics of hetero-oligomeric K(+) channels can be influenced by alpha subunit composition. Since the three most prevalent Kv1 subunits in brain are Kv1.2, 1.1 and 1.6, new Kv1.6-1.2 and Kv1.1-1.2 concatenated constructs in pIRES-EGFP were stably expressed in HEK cells and the biophysical plus pharmacological properties of their K(+) currents determined relative to those for the requisite homo-tetramers. These heteromers yielded delayed-rectifier type K(+) currents whose activation, deactivation and inactivation parameters are fairly similar although substituting Kv1.1 with Kv1.6 led to a small negative shift in the conductance-voltage relationship, a direction unexpected from the characteristics of the parental homo-tetramers. Changes resulting from swapping Kv1.6 for Kv1.1 in the concatemers were clearly discerned with two pharmacological agents, as measured by inhibition of the K(+) currents and Rb(+) efflux. alphaDendrotoxin and 4-aminopyridine gave a similar blockade of both hetero-tetramers, as expected. Most important for pharmacological dissection of channel subtypes, dendrotoxin(k) and tetraethylammonium readily distinguished the susceptible Kv1.1-1.2 containing oligomers from the resistant Kv1.6-1.2 channels. Moreover, the discriminating ability of dendrotoxin(k) was further confirmed by its far greater ability to displace (125)I-labelled alphadendrotoxin binding to Kv1.1-1.2 than Kv1.6-1.2 channels. Thus, due to the profiles of these two channel subtypes being found to differ, it seems that only multimers corresponding to those present in the nervous system provide meaningful targets for drug development.

  4. Mechanism of the modulation of BK potassium channel complexes with different auxiliary subunit compositions by the omega-3 fatty acid DHA.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Toshinori; Tian, Yutao; Xu, Rong; Heinemann, Stefan H; Hou, Shangwei

    2013-03-19

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels are well known for their functional versatility, which is bestowed in part by their rich modulatory repertoire. We recently showed that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in oily fish lower blood pressure by activating vascular BK channels made of Slo1+β1 subunits. Here we examined the action of DHA on BK channels with different auxiliary subunit compositions. Neuronal Slo1+β4 channels were just as well activated by DHA as vascular Slo1+β1 channels. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of DHA was much smaller in Slo1+β2, Slo1+LRRC26 (γ1), and Slo1 channels without auxiliary subunits. Mutagenesis of β1, β2, and β4 showed that the large effect of DHA in Slo1+β1 and Slo1+β4 is conferred by the presence of two residues, one in the N terminus and the other in the first transmembrane segment of the β1 and β4 subunits. Transfer of this amino acid pair from β1 or β4 to β2 introduces a large response to DHA in Slo1+β2. The presence of a pair of oppositely charged residues at the aforementioned positions in β subunits is associated with a large response to DHA. The Slo1 auxiliary subunits are expressed in a highly tissue-dependent fashion. Thus, the subunit composition-dependent stimulation by DHA demonstrates that BK channels are effectors of omega-3 fatty acids with marked tissue specificity.

  5. Mechanism of the modulation of BK potassium channel complexes with different auxiliary subunit compositions by the omega-3 fatty acid DHA

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Toshinori; Tian, Yutao; Xu, Rong; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2013-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels are well known for their functional versatility, which is bestowed in part by their rich modulatory repertoire. We recently showed that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in oily fish lower blood pressure by activating vascular BK channels made of Slo1+β1 subunits. Here we examined the action of DHA on BK channels with different auxiliary subunit compositions. Neuronal Slo1+β4 channels were just as well activated by DHA as vascular Slo1+β1 channels. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of DHA was much smaller in Slo1+β2, Slo1+LRRC26 (γ1), and Slo1 channels without auxiliary subunits. Mutagenesis of β1, β2, and β4 showed that the large effect of DHA in Slo1+β1 and Slo1+β4 is conferred by the presence of two residues, one in the N terminus and the other in the first transmembrane segment of the β1 and β4 subunits. Transfer of this amino acid pair from β1 or β4 to β2 introduces a large response to DHA in Slo1+β2. The presence of a pair of oppositely charged residues at the aforementioned positions in β subunits is associated with a large response to DHA. The Slo1 auxiliary subunits are expressed in a highly tissue-dependent fashion. Thus, the subunit composition-dependent stimulation by DHA demonstrates that BK channels are effectors of omega-3 fatty acids with marked tissue specificity. PMID:23487786

  6. A potassium channel beta subunit related to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily is encoded by the Drosophila hyperkinetic locus.

    PubMed Central

    Chouinard, S W; Wilson, G F; Schlimgen, A K; Ganetzky, B

    1995-01-01

    Genetic and physiological studies of the Drosophila Hyperkinetic (Hk) mutant revealed defects in the function or regulation of K+ channels encoded by the Shaker (Sh) locus. The Hk polypeptide, determined from analysis of cDNA clones, is a homologue of mammalian K+ channel beta subunits (Kv beta). Coexpression of Hk with Sh in Xenopus oocytes increases current amplitudes and changes the voltage dependence and kinetics of activation and inactivation, consistent with predicted functions of Hk in vivo. Sequence alignments show that Hk, together with mammalian Kv beta, represents an additional branch of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. These results are relevant to understanding the function and evolutionary origin of Kv beta. PMID:7542775

  7. Effect of NIP-142 on potassium channel alpha-subunits Kv1.5, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, and mouse atrial repolarization.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hikaru; Namekata, Iyuki; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Kawamura, Taro; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Takahara, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Effects of NIP-142, a benzopyran compound which terminates experimental atrial arrhythmia, on potassium channel alpha-subunits and mouse atrial repolarization were examined. NIP-142 concentration-dependently blocked the outward current through potassium channel alpha subunits Kv1.5, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In isolated mouse atrial myocardia, NIP-142 prolonged the action potential duration and effective refractory period, and increased the contractile force. These results suggest that NIP-142 blocks the potassium channels underlying the transient and sustained outward currents, which may contribute to its antiarrhythmic activity.

  8. Molecular diversity of Ca2+ channel alpha 1 subunits from the marine ray Discopyge ommata.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, W A; Ellinor, P T; Inman, I; Zhou, M; Tsien, R W; Schwarz, T L

    1993-01-01

    In many neurons, transmitter release from presynaptic terminals is triggered by Ca2+ entry via dihydropyridine-insensitive Ca2+ channels. We have looked for cDNAs for such channels in the nervous system of the marine ray Discopyge ommata. One cDNA (doe-2) is similar to dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type channels, and two cDNAs (doe-1 and doe-4) are similar to the subfamily of dihydropyridine-insensitive non-L-type channels. doe-4, which encodes a protein of 2326 aa, most closely resembles a previously cloned N-type channel. doe-1, which encodes a protein of 2223 aa, is a member of a separate branch of the non-L-type channels. Northern blot analysis reveals that doe-1 is abundant in the forebrain. doe-4 is more plentiful in the electric lobe and, therefore, may control neurotransmitter release in motor nerve terminals. These results show that the familial pattern of Ca(2+)-channel genes has been preserved from a stage in evolution before the divergence of higher and lower vertebrates > 400 million years ago. The cloning of these channels may be a useful starting point for elucidating the role of the Ca2+ channels in excitation-secretion coupling in nerve terminals. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7683405

  9. Polarized Axonal Surface Expression of Neuronal KCNQ Potassium Channels Is Regulated by Calmodulin Interaction with KCNQ2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwan Young; Kim, Edward H.; Issema, Rodal S.; Chung, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    KCNQ potassium channels composed of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 subunits give rise to the M-current, a slow-activating and non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium current that limits repetitive firing of action potentials. KCNQ channels are enriched at the surface of axons and axonal initial segments, the sites for action potential generation and modulation. Their enrichment at the axonal surface is impaired by mutations in KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail that cause benign familial neonatal convulsion and myokymia, suggesting that their correct surface distribution and density at the axon is crucial for control of neuronal excitability. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating enrichment of KCNQ channels at the neuronal axon remain elusive. Here, we show that enrichment of KCNQ channels at the axonal surface of dissociated rat hippocampal cultured neurons is regulated by ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin. Using immunocytochemistry and the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) membrane protein as a trafficking reporter, we demonstrate that fusion of KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail is sufficient to target CD4 protein to the axonal surface whereas inhibition of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 abolishes axonal surface expression of CD4 fusion proteins by retaining them in the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 also impairs enrichment of heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels at the axonal surface by blocking their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the axon. Consistently, hippocampal neuronal excitability is dampened by transient expression of wild-type KCNQ2 but not mutant KCNQ2 deficient in calmodulin binding. Furthermore, coexpression of mutant calmodulin, which can interact with KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels but not calcium, reduces but does not abolish their enrichment at the axonal surface, suggesting that apo calmodulin but not calcium-bound calmodulin is necessary for their preferential targeting to the axonal surface. These findings

  10. Dynamic expression of genes encoding subunits of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongxia; Statler, Bethanie-Michelle; Calkins, Travis L; Alfaro, Edna; Esquivel, Carlos J; Rouhier, Matthew F; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

    2017-02-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play fundamental roles in neuromuscular, epithelial, and endocrine function in mammals. Recent research in insects suggests that Kir channels play critical roles in the development, immune function, and excretory physiology of fruit flies and/or mosquitoes. Moreover, our group has demonstrated that mosquito Kir channels may serve as valuable targets for the development of novel insecticides. Here we characterize the molecular expression of 5 mRNAs encoding Kir channel subunits in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Kir1, Kir2A-c, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We demonstrate that 1) Kir mRNA expression is dynamic in whole mosquitoes, Malpighian tubules, and the midgut during development from 4th instar larvae to adult females, 2) Kir2B and Kir3 mRNA levels are reduced in 4th instar larvae when reared in water containing an elevated concentration (50mM) of KCl, but not NaCl, and 3) Kir mRNAs are differentially expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut, and ovaries within 24h after blood feeding. Furthermore, we provide the first characterization of Kir mRNA expression in the anal papillae of 4th instar larval mosquitoes, which indicates that Kir2A-c is the most abundant. Altogether, the data provide the first comprehensive characterization of Kir mRNA expression in Ae. aegypti and offer insights into the putative physiological roles of Kir subunits in this important disease vector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Silent S-Type Anion Channel Subunit SLAH1 Gates SLAH3 Open for Chloride Root-to-Shoot Translocation.

    PubMed

    Cubero-Font, Paloma; Maierhofer, Tobias; Jaslan, Justyna; Rosales, Miguel A; Espartero, Joaquín; Díaz-Rueda, Pablo; Müller, Heike M; Hürter, Anna-Lena; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer; Colmenero-Flores, José M; Geiger, Dietmar

    2016-08-22

    Higher plants take up nutrients via the roots and load them into xylem vessels for translocation to the shoot. After uptake, anions have to be channeled toward the root xylem vessels. Thereby, xylem parenchyma and pericycle cells control the anion composition of the root-shoot xylem sap [1-6]. The fact that salt-tolerant genotypes possess lower xylem-sap Cl(-) contents compared to salt-sensitive genotypes [7-10] indicates that membrane transport proteins at the sites of xylem loading contribute to plant salinity tolerance via selective chloride exclusion. However, the molecular mechanism of xylem loading that lies behind the balance between NO3(-) and Cl(-) loading remains largely unknown. Here we identify two root anion channels in Arabidopsis, SLAH1 and SLAH3, that control the shoot NO3(-)/Cl(-) ratio. The AtSLAH1 gene is expressed in the root xylem-pole pericycle, where it co-localizes with AtSLAH3. Under high soil salinity, AtSLAH1 expression markedly declined and the chloride content of the xylem sap in AtSLAH1 loss-of-function mutants was half of the wild-type level only. SLAH3 anion channels are not active per se but require extracellular nitrate and phosphorylation by calcium-dependent kinases (CPKs) [11-13]. When co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, however, the electrically silent SLAH1 subunit gates SLAH3 open even in the absence of nitrate- and calcium-dependent kinases. Apparently, SLAH1/SLAH3 heteromerization facilitates SLAH3-mediated chloride efflux from pericycle cells into the root xylem vessels. Our results indicate that under salt stress, plants adjust the distribution of NO3(-) and Cl(-) between root and shoot via differential expression and assembly of SLAH1/SLAH3 anion channel subunits.

  12. Decreased (45)Ca(2)(+) uptake in P/Q-type calcium channels in homozygous lethargic (Cacnb4lh) mice is associated with increased beta3 and decreased beta4 calcium channel subunit mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, F; Barun, S; Lutz, C M; Wang, Y; Hosford, D A

    1999-07-23

    The mutated gene in the lethargic (Cacnb4lh) mouse model of absence seizures encodes the beta4 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), leading to decreased mRNA expression of a beta4 subunit that is truncated and cannot bind to alpha1 subunits of VGCCs. In this study we accomplished two goals. First, we studied the functional consequence of altered VGCCs by examining the effects of a selective P/Q-type channel antagonist on KCl-induced (45)Ca(2)(+) uptake in brain synaptosomes from Cacnb4lh homozygotes and non-epileptic controls (designated by +/+). We found that depolarization-induced (45)Ca(2)(+) uptake was significantly reduced in the brains of Cacnb4lh homozygotes, and that the reduced uptake was completely accounted for by reduced function of P/Q-type calcium channel. Second, we examined VGCC subunit composition to determine if other subunits were altered in addition to the mutation affecting beta4 subunits in Cacnb4lh homozygotes; when alterations were found, we determined if they were regional or global. We used in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) to analyze the neuro-anatomic distribution of beta4, beta1b, beta2, beta3, alpha1A, alpha1B, alpha1C, alpha1E, and alpha1G subunit mRNAs in brain sections from matched Cacnb4lh homozygotes and +/+ controls. Our results indicated that expression of beta4 subunit mRNA is globally reduced throughout the brains of Cacnb4lh homozygotes, in contrast to a small but significant global increase in the expression of beta3 subunit mRNA. There were no significant differences in expression of the other VGCC subunit mRNAs examined. Together, these findings indicate that a host of changes in VGCC subunit composition accompany reduced function of P/Q-type channels in homozygous lethargic mice. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. GlialCAM, a CLC-2 Cl(-) channel subunit, activates the slow gate of CLC chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Jeworutzki, Elena; Lagostena, Laura; Elorza-Vidal, Xabier; López-Hernández, Tania; Estévez, Raúl; Pusch, Michael

    2014-09-02

    GlialCAM, a glial cell adhesion molecule mutated in megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, targets the CLC-2 Cl(-) channel to cell contacts in glia and activates CLC-2 currents in vitro and in vivo. We found that GlialCAM clusters all CLC channels at cell contacts in vitro and thus studied GlialCAM interaction with CLC channels to investigate the mechanism of functional activation. GlialCAM slowed deactivation kinetics of CLC-Ka/barttin channels and increased CLC-0 currents opening the common gate and slowing its deactivation. No functional effect was seen for common gate deficient CLC-0 mutants. Similarly, GlialCAM targets the common gate deficient CLC-2 mutant E211V/H816A to cell contacts, without altering its function. Thus, GlialCAM is able to interact with all CLC channels tested, targeting them to cell junctions and activating them by stabilizing the open configuration of the common gate. These results are important to better understand the physiological role of GlialCAM/CLC-2 interaction.

  14. A Novel Biological Activity of Praziquantel Requiring Voltage-Operated Ca2+ Channel β Subunits: Subversion of Flatworm Regenerative Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Taisaku; Zhang, Dan; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately 200 million people worldwide harbour parasitic flatworm infections that cause schistosomiasis. A single drug—praziquantel (PZQ)—has served as the mainstay pharmacotherapy for schistosome infections since the 1980s. However, the relevant in vivo target(s) of praziquantel remain undefined. Methods and Findings Here, we provide fresh perspective on the molecular basis of praziquantel efficacy in vivo consequent to the discovery of a remarkable action of PZQ on regeneration in a species of free-living flatworm (Dugesia japonica). Specifically, PZQ caused a robust (100% penetrance) and complete duplication of the entire anterior-posterior axis during flatworm regeneration to yield two-headed organisms with duplicated, integrated central nervous and organ systems. Exploiting this phenotype as a readout for proteins impacting praziquantel efficacy, we demonstrate that PZQ-evoked bipolarity was selectively ablated by in vivo RNAi of voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) β subunits, but not by knockdown of a VOCC α subunit. At higher doses of PZQ, knockdown of VOCC β subunits also conferred resistance to PZQ in lethality assays. Conclusions This study identifies a new biological activity of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel on regenerative polarity in a species of free-living flatworm. Ablation of the bipolar regenerative phenotype evoked by PZQ via in vivo RNAi of VOCC β subunits provides the first genetic evidence implicating a molecular target crucial for in vivo PZQ activity and supports the ‘VOCC hypothesis’ of PZQ efficacy. Further, in terms of regenerative biology and Ca2+ signaling, these data highlight a novel role for voltage-operated Ca2+ entry in regulating in vivo stem cell differentiation and regenerative patterning. PMID:19554083

  15. Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNE1 are associated with early-onset familial atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. The potassium current IKs is essential for cardiac repolarization. Gain-of-function mutations in KV7.1, the pore-forming α-subunit of the IKs channel, have been associated with AF. We hypothesized that early-onset lone AF is associated with mutations in the IKs channel regulatory subunit KCNE1. Methods In 209 unrelated early-onset lone AF patients (< 40 years) the entire coding sequence of KCNE1 was bidirectionally sequenced. We analyzed the identified KCNE1 mutants electrophysiologically in heterologous expression systems. Results Two non-synonymous mutations G25V and G60D were found in KCNE1 that were not present in the control group (n = 432 alleles) and that have not previously been reported in any publicly available databases or in the exom variant server holding exom data from more than 10.000 alleles. Proband 1 (female, age 45, G25V) had onset of paroxysmal AF at the age of 39 years. Proband 2 (G60D) was diagnosed with lone AF at the age of 33 years. The patient has inherited the mutation from his mother, who also has AF. Both probands had no mutations in genes previously associated with AF. In heterologous expression systems, both mutants showed significant gain-of-function for IKs both with respect to steady-state current levels, kinetic parameters, and heart rate-dependent modulation. Conclusions Mutations in KV7.1 leading to gain-of-function of IKs current have previously been described in lone AF, yet this is the first time a mutation in the beta-subunit KCNE1 is associated with the disease. This finding further supports the hypothesis that increased potassium current enhances AF susceptibility. PMID:22471742

  16. N-terminal transmembrane domain of the SUR controls trafficking and gating of Kir6 channel subunits

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim W.; Zhang, Hailin; Logothetis, Diomedes E.

    2003-01-01

    The sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, assembles with a potassium channel subunit (Kir6) to form the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) complex. Although SUR is an important regulator of Kir6, the specific SUR domain that associates with Kir6 is still unknown. All functional ABC proteins contain two transmembrane domains but some, including SUR and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), contain an extra N-terminal transmembrane domain called TMD0. The functions of any TMD0s are largely unclear. Using Xenopus oocytes to coexpress truncated SUR constructs with Kir6, we demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, single-oocyte chemiluminescence and electrophysiological measurements that the TMD0 of SUR1 strongly associated with Kir6.2 and modulated its trafficking and gating. Two TMD0 mutations, A116P and V187D, previously correlated with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, were found to disrupt the association between TMD0 and Kir6.2. These results underscore the importance of TMD0 in KATP channel function, explaining how specific mutations within this domain result in disease, and suggest how an ABC protein has evolved to regulate a potassium channel. PMID:12881418

  17. Slo1 Tail Domains, but Not the Ca2+ Bowl, Are Required for the β1 Subunit to Increase the Apparent Ca2+ Sensitivity of BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiang; Nimigean, Crina M.; Niu, Xiaowei; Moss, Brenda L.; Magleby, Karl L.

    2002-01-01

    Functional large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels can be assembled from four α subunits (Slo1) alone, or together with four auxiliary β1 subunits to greatly increase the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. We examined the structural features involved in this modulation with two types of experiments. In the first, the tail domain of the α subunit, which includes the RCK2 (regulator of K+ conductance) domain and Ca2+ bowl, was replaced with the tail domain of Slo3, a BK-related channel that lacks both a Ca2+ bowl and high affinity Ca2+ sensitivity. In the second, the Ca2+ bowl was disrupted by mutations that greatly reduce the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity. We found that the β1 subunit increased the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of Slo1 channels, independently of whether the α subunits were expressed as separate cores (S0-S8) and tails (S9-S10) or full length, and this increase was still observed after the Ca2+ bowl was mutated. In contrast, β1 subunits no longer increased Ca2+ sensitivity when Slo1 tails were replaced by Slo3 tails. The β1 subunits were still functionally coupled to channels with Slo3 tails, as DHS-I and 17 β-estradiol activated these channels in the presence of β1 subunits, but not in their absence. These findings indicate that the increase in apparent Ca2+ sensitivity induced by the β1 subunit does not require either the Ca2+ bowl or the linker between the RCK1 and RCK2 domains, and that Slo3 tails cannot substitute for Slo1 tails. The β1 subunit also induced a decrease in voltage sensitivity that occurred with either Slo1 or Slo3 tails. In contrast, the β1 subunit–induced increase in apparent Ca2+ sensitivity required Slo1 tails. This suggests that the allosteric activation pathways for these two types of actions of the β1 subunit may be different. PMID:12451052

  18. A regulatory calcium-binding site at the subunit interface of CLC-K kidney chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Gradogna, Antonella; Babini, Elena; Picollo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    The two human CLC Cl− channels, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb, are almost exclusively expressed in kidney and inner ear epithelia. Mutations in the genes coding for ClC-Kb and barttin, an essential CLC-K channel β subunit, lead to Bartter syndrome. We performed a biophysical analysis of the modulatory effect of extracellular Ca2+ and H+ on ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb in Xenopus oocytes. Currents increased with increasing [Ca2+]ext without full saturation up to 50 mM. However, in the absence of Ca2+, ClC-Ka currents were still 20% of currents in 10 mM [Ca2+]ext, demonstrating that Ca2+ is not strictly essential for opening. Vice versa, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb were blocked by increasing [H+]ext with a practically complete block at pH 6. Ca2+ and H+ act as gating modifiers without changing the single-channel conductance. Dose–response analysis suggested that two protons are necessary to induce block with an apparent pK of ∼7.1. A simple four-state allosteric model described the modulation by Ca2+ assuming a 13-fold higher Ca2+ affinity of the open state compared with the closed state. The quantitative analysis suggested separate binding sites for Ca2+ and H+. A mutagenic screen of a large number of extracellularly accessible amino acids identified a pair of acidic residues (E261 and D278 on the loop connecting helices I and J), which are close to each other but positioned on different subunits of the channel, as a likely candidate for forming an intersubunit Ca2+-binding site. Single mutants E261Q and D278N greatly diminished and the double mutant E261Q/D278N completely abolished modulation by Ca2+. Several mutations of a histidine residue (H497) that is homologous to a histidine that is responsible for H+ block in ClC-2 did not yield functional channels. However, the triple mutant E261Q/D278N/H497M completely eliminated H+ -induced current block. We have thus identified a protein region that is involved in binding these physiologically important ligands and that is likely undergoing

  19. Cavbeta-subunit displacement is a key step to induce the reluctant state of P/Q calcium channels by direct G protein regulation.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Lopez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Grunwald, Didier; Bichet, Delphine; Altafaj, Xavier; Weiss, Norbert; Ronjat, Michel; Dupuis, Alain; De Waard, Michel

    2004-04-20

    P/Q Ca(2+) channel activity is inhibited by G protein-coupled receptor activation. Channel inhibition requires a direct Gbetagamma binding onto the pore-forming subunit, Ca(v)2.1. It is characterized by biophysical changes, including current amplitude reduction, activation kinetic slowing, and an I-V curve shift, which leads to a reluctant mode. Here, we have characterized the contribution of the auxiliary beta(3)-subunit to channel regulation by G proteins. The shift in I-V to a P/Q reluctant mode is exclusively observed in the presence of beta(3). Along with the observation that Gbetagamma has no effect on the I-V curve of Ca(v)2.1 alone, we propose that the reluctant mode promoted by Gbetagamma corresponds to a state in which the beta(3)-subunit has been displaced from its channel-binding site. We validate this hypothesis with a beta(3)-I-II(2.1) loop chimera construct. Gbetagamma binding onto the I-II(2.1) loop portion of the chimera releases the beta(3)-binding domain and makes it available for binding onto the I-II loop of Ca(v)1.2, a G protein-insensitive channel. This finding is extended to the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Gbetagamma injection into Xenopus oocytes displaces a Cy3-labeled beta(3)-subunit from a GFP-tagged Ca(v)2.1 channel. We conclude that beta-subunit dissociation from the channel complex constitutes a key step in P/Q calcium channel regulation by G proteins that underlies the reluctant state and is an important process for modulating neurotransmission through G protein-coupled receptors.

  20. The C-terminal coiled-coil of the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel NaChBac is not essential for tetramer formation, but stabilizes subunit-to-subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Mio, Muneyo; Arisaka, Fumio; Sato, Masahiko; Sato, Chikara

    2010-09-01

    The NaChBac is a prokaryotic homologue of the voltage-gated sodium channel found in the genome of the alkalophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125. Like a repeating cassette of mammalian sodium channel, the NaChBac possesses hydrophobic domains corresponding to six putative transmembrane segments and a pore loop, and exerts channel function by forming a tetramer although detailed mechanisms of subunit assembly remain unclear. We generated truncated mutants from NaChBac, and investigated their ability to form tetramers in relation to their channel functions. A mutant that deletes almost all of the C-terminal coiled-coil structure lost its voltage-dependent ion permeability, although it was properly translocated to the cell surface. The mutant protein was purified as a tetramer using a reduced concentration of detergent, but the association between the subunits was shown to be much weaker than the wild type. The chemical cross-linking, blue native PAGE, sedimentation velocity experiments, size exclusion chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and electron microscopy all supported its tetrameric assembly. We further purified the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain alone and confirmed its self-oligomerization. These data suggest that the C-terminal coiled-coil structure stabilizes subunit-to-subunit interactions of NaChBac, but is not critical for their tetramer formation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A critical GxxxA motif in the gamma6 calcium channel subunit mediates its inhibitory effect on Cav3.1 calcium current.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zuojun; Witschas, Katja; Garcia, Thomas; Chen, Ren-Shiang; Hansen, Jared P; Sellers, Zachary M; Kuzmenkina, Elza; Herzig, Stefan; Best, Philip M

    2008-11-15

    The eight members of the calcium channel gamma subunit family are integral membrane proteins that regulate the expression and behaviour of voltage and ligand gated ion channels. While a subgroup consisting of gamma(2), gamma(3), gamma(4) and gamma(8) (the TARPs) modulate AMPA receptor localization and function, the gamma(1) and gamma(6) subunits conform to the original description of these proteins as regulators of voltage gated calcium channels. We have previously shown that the gamma(6) subunit is highly expressed in atrial myocytes and that it is capable of acting as a negative modulator of low voltage activated calcium current. In this study we extend our understanding of gamma(6) subunit modulation of low voltage activated calcium current. Using engineered chimeric constructs, we demonstrate that the first transmembrane domain (TM1) of gamma(6) is necessary for its inhibitory effect on Cav3.1 current. Mutational analysis is then used to identify a unique GxxxA motif within TM1 that is required for the function of the subunit strongly suggesting the involvement of helix-helix interactions in its effects. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm a physical association of gamma(6) with the Cav3.1 channel in both HEK cells and atrial myocytes. Single channel analysis reveals that binding of gamma(6) reduces channel availability for activation. Taken together, the results of this study provide both a molecular and a mechanistic framework for understanding the unique ability of the gamma(6) calcium channel subunit to modulate low voltage activated (Cav3.1) calcium current density.

  2. A critical GxxxA motif in the γ6 calcium channel subunit mediates its inhibitory effect on Cav3.1 calcium current

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zuojun; Witschas, Katja; Garcia, Thomas; Chen, Ren-Shiang; Hansen, Jared P; Sellers, Zachary M; Kuzmenkina, Elza; Herzig, Stefan; Best, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The eight members of the calcium channel γ subunit family are integral membrane proteins that regulate the expression and behaviour of voltage and ligand gated ion channels. While a subgroup consisting of γ2, γ3, γ4 and γ8 (the TARPs) modulate AMPA receptor localization and function, the γ1 and γ6 subunits conform to the original description of these proteins as regulators of voltage gated calcium channels. We have previously shown that the γ6 subunit is highly expressed in atrial myocytes and that it is capable of acting as a negative modulator of low voltage activated calcium current. In this study we extend our understanding of γ6 subunit modulation of low voltage activated calcium current. Using engineered chimeric constructs, we demonstrate that the first transmembrane domain (TM1) of γ6 is necessary for its inhibitory effect on Cav3.1 current. Mutational analysis is then used to identify a unique GxxxA motif within TM1 that is required for the function of the subunit strongly suggesting the involvement of helix–helix interactions in its effects. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm a physical association of γ6 with the Cav3.1 channel in both HEK cells and atrial myocytes. Single channel analysis reveals that binding of γ6 reduces channel availability for activation. Taken together, the results of this study provide both a molecular and a mechanistic framework for understanding the unique ability of the γ6 calcium channel subunit to modulate low voltage activated (Cav3.1) calcium current density. PMID:18818244

  3. The B3 Subunit of the Cone Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel Regulates the Light Responses of Cones and Contributes to the Channel Structural Flexibility*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xi-Qin; Thapa, Arjun; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Jianhua; Elliott, Michael H.; Rodgers, Karla K.; Smith, Marci L.; Wang, Jin-Shan; Pittler, Steven J.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2016-01-01

    Cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in cone phototransduction, which is a process essential for daylight vision, color vision, and visual acuity. Mutations in the cone channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with human cone diseases, including achromatopsia, cone dystrophies, and early onset macular degeneration. Mutations in CNGB3 alone account for 50% of reported cases of achromatopsia. This work investigated the role of CNGB3 in cone light response and cone channel structural stability. As cones comprise only 2–3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, we used Cngb3−/−/Nrl−/− mice with CNGB3 deficiency on a cone-dominant background in our study. We found that, in the absence of CNGB3, CNGA3 was able to travel to the outer segments, co-localize with cone opsin, and form tetrameric complexes. Electroretinogram analyses revealed reduced cone light response amplitude/sensitivity and slower response recovery in Cngb3−/−/Nrl−/− mice compared with Nrl−/− mice. Absence of CNGB3 expression altered the adaptation capacity of cones and severely compromised function in bright light. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that CNGA3 channels lacking CNGB3 were more resilient to proteolysis than CNGA3/CNGB3 channels, suggesting a hindered structural flexibility. Thus, CNGB3 regulates cone light response kinetics and the channel structural flexibility. This work advances our understanding of the biochemical and functional role of CNGB3 in cone photoreceptors. PMID:26893377

  4. Pregabalin action at a model synapse: binding to presynaptic calcium channel alpha2-delta subunit reduces neurotransmission in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Indu; Taylor, Charles P

    2006-12-28

    Pregabalin, ((S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid, also known as (S)-3-isobutyl GABA, Lyricatrade mark) is approved for treatment of certain types of peripheral neuropathic pain and as an adjunctive therapy for partial seizures of epilepsy both the EU and the USA and also for generalized anxiety disorder in the EU. Though pregabalin binds selectively to the alpha(2)-delta (alpha(2)-delta) auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, the cellular details of pregabalin action are unclear. The high density of alpha(2)-delta in skeletal muscle fibers raises the question of whether pregabalin alters excitation-contraction coupling. We used the mouse soleus neuromuscular junction from mice containing an artificially mutated alpha(2)-delta Type 1 protein (R217A) as a model to examine the effect of pregabalin. Pregabalin reduced nerve-evoked muscle contractions by 16% at a clinically relevant concentration of 10 muM in wildtype mice. When acetylcholine receptors were blocked with curare, pregabalin had no effect on contraction from direct stimulation of muscle, suggesting a lack of drug effects on contraction coupling. Our data are consistent with pregabalin having no effect on striated muscle L-type calcium channel function. However, in mice expressing mutant (R217A) alpha(2)-delta Type 1, there was no significant effect of pregabalin on nerve-evoked muscle contraction. We propose that pregabalin reduces presynaptic neurotransmitter release without altering postsynaptic receptors or contraction coupling and that these effects require high affinity binding to alpha(2)-delta Type 1 auxiliary subunit of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels.

  5. Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 channel subunit expression in murine spinal dorsal horn GABAergic interneurones.

    PubMed

    Nowak, A; Mathieson, H R; Chapman, R J; Janzsó, G; Yanagawa, Y; Obata, K; Szabo, G; King, A E

    2011-09-01

    GABAergic interneurones, including those within spinal dorsal horn, contain one of the two isoforms of the synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), either GAD65 or GAD67. The physiological significance of these two GABAergic phenotypes is unknown but a more detailed anatomical and functional characterization may help resolve this issue. In this study, two transgenic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) knock-in murine lines, namely GAD65-GFP and GAD67-GFP (Δneo) mice, were used to profile expression of Shaw-related Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 K(+)-channel subunits in dorsal horn interneurones. Neuronal expression of these subunits confers specific biophysical characteristic referred to as 'fast-spiking'. Immuno-labelling for Kv3.1b or Kv3.3 revealed the presence of both of these subunits across the dorsal horn, most abundantly in laminae I-III. Co-localization studies in transgenic mice indicated that Kv3.1b but not Kv3.3 was associated with GAD65-GFP and GAD67-GFP immunopositive neurones. For comparison the distributions of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 K(+)-channel subunits which are linked to an excitatory neuronal phenotype were characterized. No co-localization was found between GAD-GFP +ve neurones and Kv4.2 or Kv4.3. In functional studies to evaluate whether either GABAergic population is activated by noxious stimulation, hindpaw intradermal injection of capsaicin followed by c-fos quantification in dorsal horn revealed co-expression c-fos and GAD65-GFP (quantified as 20-30% of GFP +ve population). Co-expression was also detected for GAD67-GFP +ve neurones and capsaicin-induced c-fos but at a much reduced level of 4-5%. These data suggest that whilst both GAD65-GFP and GAD67-GFP +ve neurones express Kv3.1b and therefore may share certain biophysical traits, their responses to peripheral noxious stimulation are distinct.

  6. The dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 is an integral voltage sensor-interacting beta-subunit of neuronal K(V)4.2 channels.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Kevin; Tu, Liwei; Deutsch, Carol; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary beta-subunits dictate the physiological properties of voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in excitable tissues. In many instances, however, the underlying mechanisms of action are poorly understood. The dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) is a specific beta-subunit of neuronal K(V)4 channels, which may promote gating through interactions between the single transmembrane segment of DPP6 and the channel's voltage sensing domain (VSD). A combination of gating current measurements and protein biochemistry (in-vitro translation and co-immunoprecipitations) revealed preferential physical interaction between the isolated K(V)4.2-VSD and DPP6. Significantly weaker interactions were detected between DPP6 and K(V)1.3 channels or the K(V)4.2 pore domain. More efficient gating charge movement resulting from a direct interaction between DPP6 and the K(V)4.2-VSD is unique among the known actions of K(V) channel beta-subunits. This study shows that the modular VSD of a K(V) channel can be directly regulated by transmembrane protein-protein interactions involving an extrinsic beta-subunit. Understanding these interactions may shed light on the pathophysiology of recently identified human disorders associated with mutations affecting the dpp6 gene.

  7. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis in TM2 of the GABAA receptor α subunit: effects on channel gating and regulation by ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Susumu; Lin, Audrey; Nikolaeva, Natalia; Trudell, James R; Mihic, S John; Harris, R Adron; Harrison, Neil L

    2000-01-01

    Each residue in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of the human GABAA receptor α2 subunit was individually mutated to tryptophan. The wild-type or mutant α2 subunits were expressed with the wild-type human GABAA receptor β2 subunit in Xenopus oocytes, and the effects of these mutations were investigated using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Four mutations (V257W, T262W, T265W and S270W) produced receptors which were active in the absence of agonist, and this spontaneous open channel activity was blocked by both picrotoxin and bicuculline, except in the α2(V257W)β2 mutant receptor, which was not sensitive to picrotoxin. Six mutations (V257W, V260W, T262W, T267W, S270W and A273W) enhanced the agonist sensitivity of the receptor, by 10–100 times compared with the wild-type α2β2 receptor. Other mutations (T261W, V263W, L269W, I271W and S272W) had little or no effect on the apparent affinity of the receptor to GABA. Eight of the tryptophan mutations (R255, T256, F258, G259, L264, T265, M266 or T268) resulted in undetectable GABA-induced currents. The S270W mutation eliminated potentiation of GABA by ethanol, whereas T261W markedly increased the action of ethanol. The T262W mutation produced direct activation (10% of maximal GABA response) by ethanol in the absence of GABA, while other mutations did not alter the action of ethanol significantly. These results are consistent with a unique role for S270 in the action of ethanol within the TM2 region, and with models of GABAA receptor channel function, in which specific residues within TM2 are critical for the regulation of channel gating (S270, L264), while other residues (L269, I271 and S272) have little effect on these functions and may be non-critical structural residues. PMID:10991923

  8. Calcium activated K⁺ channels in the electroreceptor of the skate confirmed by cloning. Details of subunits and splicing.

    PubMed

    King, Benjamin L; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T

    2016-03-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intra-cellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Cyclooctadepsipeptide Anthelmintic Emodepside Differentially Modulates Nematode, Insect and Human Calcium-Activated Potassium (SLO) Channel Alpha Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Schoenhense, Eva; Harder, Achim; Raming, Klaus; O’Kelly, Ita; Ndukwe, Kelechi; O’Connor, Vincent; Walker, Robert J.; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2015-01-01

    The anthelmintic emodepside paralyses adult filarial worms, via a mode of action distinct from previous anthelmintics and has recently garnered interest as a new treatment for onchocerciasis. Whole organism data suggest its anthelmintic action is underpinned by a selective activation of the nematode isoform of an evolutionary conserved Ca2+-activated K+ channel, SLO-1. To test this at the molecular level we compared the actions of emodepside at heterologously expressed SLO-1 alpha subunit orthologues from nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), Drosophila melanogaster and human using whole cell voltage clamp. Intriguingly we found that emodepside modulated nematode (Ce slo-1), insect (Drosophila, Dm slo) and human (hum kcnma1)SLO channels but that there are discrete differences in the features of the modulation that are consistent with its anthelmintic efficacy. Nematode SLO-1 currents required 100 μM intracellular Ca2+ and were strongly facilitated by emodepside (100 nM; +73.0 ± 17.4%; n = 9; p<0.001). Drosophila Slo currents on the other hand were activated by emodepside (10 μM) in the presence of 52 nM Ca2+ but were inhibited in the presence of 290 nM Ca2+ and exhibited a characteristic loss of rectification. Human Slo required 300nM Ca2+ and emodepside transiently facilitated currents (100nM; +33.5 ± 9%; n = 8; p<0.05) followed by a sustained inhibition (-52.6 ± 9.8%; n = 8; p<0.001). This first cross phyla comparison of the actions of emodepside at nematode, insect and human channels provides new mechanistic insight into the compound’s complex modulation of SLO channels. Consistent with whole organism behavioural studies on C. elegans, it indicates its anthelmintic action derives from a strong activation of SLO current, not observed in the human channel. These data provide an important benchmark for the wider deployment of emodepside as an anthelmintic treatment. PMID:26437177

  10. Calcium Activated K+ Channels in The Electroreceptor of the Skate Confirmed by Cloning. Details of Subunits and Splicing

    PubMed Central

    King, Benjamin L.; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K+ channels, first described in l974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intracellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted˜ in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. PMID:26687710

  11. Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Cavβ1a subunit in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Taylor, Jackson; Jiang, Yang; Pereyra, Andrea S; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-08-15

    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β1a subunit (Cavβ1a) plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Cavβ1a subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160-244 aa) and Cavβ1a NH2-terminus (1-99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Cavβ1a/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Cavβ1a subunit in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Taylor, Jackson; Jiang, Yang; Pereyra, Andrea S.; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β1a subunit (Cavβ1a) plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Cavβ1a subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160-244 aa) and Cavβ1a NH2-terminus (1-99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Cavβ1a/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation. PMID:25981458

  13. ASIC2 Subunits Target Acid-Sensing Ion Channels to the Synapse via an Association with PSD-95

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Xiang-ming; Costa, Vivian; Harding, Anne Marie S.; Reznikov, Leah; Benson, Christopher J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel-1a (ASIC1a) mediates H+-gated current to influence normal brain physiology and impact several models of disease. Although ASIC2 subunits are widely expressed in brain and modulate ASIC1a current, their function remains poorly understood. We identified ASIC2a in dendrites, dendritic spines, and brain synaptosomes. This localization largely relied on ASIC2a binding to PSD-95 and matched that of ASIC1a, which does not co-immunoprecipitate with PSD-95. We found that ASIC2 and ASIC1a associated in brain, and through its interaction with PSD-95, ASIC2 increased ASIC1a localization in dendritic spines. Consistent with earlier work showing that acidic pH elevated spine [Ca2+]i by activating ASIC1a, loss of ASIC2 decreased the percentage of spines responding to acid. Moreover, like a reduction of ASIC1a, the number of spine synapses fell in ASIC2-/- neurons. These results indicate that ASIC2 facilitates ASIC1a localization and function in dendritic spines and suggest that the two subunits work in concert to regulate neuronal function. PMID:19571134

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Regulatory Subunit of cAMP-Dependent PKA and Anion Channel Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Merckx, Anaïs; Nivez, Marie-Paule; Bouyer, Guillaume; Alano, Pietro; Langsley, Gordon; Deitsch, Kirk; Thomas, Serge; Doerig, Christian; Egée, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Malaria symptoms occur during Plasmodium falciparum development into red blood cells. During this process, the parasites make substantial modifications to the host cell in order to facilitate nutrient uptake and aid in parasite metabolism. One significant alteration that is required for parasite development is the establishment of an anion channel, as part of the establishment of New Permeation Pathways (NPPs) in the red blood cell plasma membrane, and we have shown previously that one channel can be activated in uninfected cells by exogenous protein kinase A. Here, we present evidence that in P. falciparum-infected red blood cells, a cAMP pathway modulates anion conductance of the erythrocyte membrane. In patch-clamp experiments on infected erythrocytes, addition of recombinant PfPKA-R to the pipette in vitro, or overexpression of PfPKA-R in transgenic parasites lead to down-regulation of anion conductance. Moreover, this overexpressing PfPKA-R strain has a growth defect that can be restored by increasing the levels of intracellular cAMP. Our data demonstrate that the anion channel is indeed regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway in P. falciparum-infected red blood cells. The discovery of a parasite regulatory pathway responsible for modulating anion channel activity in the membranes of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells represents an important insight into how parasites modify host cell permeation pathways. These findings may also provide an avenue for the development of new intervention strategies targeting this important anion channel and its regulation. PMID:18248092

  15. N-terminal isoforms of the large-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel are differentially modulated by the auxiliary β1-subunit.

    PubMed

    Lorca, Ramón A; Stamnes, Susan J; Pillai, Meghan K; Hsiao, Jordy J; Wright, Michael E; England, Sarah K

    2014-04-04

    The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel is essential for maintaining the membrane in a hyperpolarized state, thereby regulating neuronal excitability, smooth muscle contraction, and secretion. The BK(Ca) α-subunit has three predicted initiation codons that generate proteins with N-terminal ends starting with the amino acid sequences MANG, MSSN, or MDAL. Because the N-terminal region and first transmembrane domain of the α-subunit are required for modulation by auxiliary β1-subunits, we examined whether β1 differentially modulates the N-terminal BK(Ca) α-subunit isoforms. In the absence of β1, all isoforms had similar single-channel conductances and voltage-dependent activation. However, whereas β1 did not modulate the voltage-activation curve of MSSN, β1 induced a significant leftward shift of the voltage activation curves of both the MDAL and MANG isoforms. These shifts, of which the MDAL was larger, occurred at both 10 μM and 100 μM Ca(2+). The β1-subunit increased the open dwell times of all three isoforms and decreased the closed dwell times of MANG and MDAL but increased the closed dwell times of MSSN. The distinct modulation of voltage activation by the β1-subunit may be due to the differential effect of β1 on burst duration and interburst intervals observed among these isoforms. Additionally, we observed that the related β2-subunit induced comparable leftward shifts in the voltage-activation curves of all three isoforms, indicating that the differential modulation of these isoforms was specific to β1. These findings suggest that the relative expression of the N-terminal isoforms can fine-tune BK(Ca) channel activity in cells, highlighting a novel mechanism of BK(Ca) channel regulation.

  16. Lower Gene Expression for KCNS3 Potassium Channel Subunit in Parvalbumin-Containing Neurons in the Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Danko; Arion, Dominique; Enwright, John F.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Minabe, Yoshio; Corradi, John P.; Lewis, David A.; Hashimoto, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Objective In schizophrenia, alterations in markers of cortical GABA neurotransmission are prominent in parvalbumin-containing neurons. Parvalbumin neurons selectively express KCNS3, the gene encoding the Kv9.3 potassium channel α-subunit. Kv9.3 subunits are present in voltage-gated potassium channels that contribute to the precise detection of coincident excitatory synaptic inputs to parvalbumin neurons. This distinctive feature of parvalbumin neurons appears important for the synchronization of cortical neural networks in γ-oscillations. Because impaired prefrontal cortical γ-oscillations are thought to underlie the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, the authors investigated whether KCNS3 mRNA levels are altered in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia subjects. Method KCNS3 mRNA expression was evaluated by in situ hybridization in 22 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects and by microarray analyses of pooled samples of individually dissected neurons that were labeled with Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), a parvalbumin neuron-selective marker, in a separate cohort of 14 pairs. Effects of chronic antipsychotic treatments on KCNS3 expression were tested in the prefrontal cortex of antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. Results By in situ hybridization, KCNS3 mRNA levels were 23% lower in schizophrenia subjects. At the cellular level, both KCNS3 mRNA-expressing neuron density and KCNS3 mRNA level per neuron were significantly lower. By microarray, KCNS3 mRNA levels were lower by 40% in VVA-labeled neurons from schizophrenia subjects. KCNS3 mRNA levels were not altered in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. Conclusions These findings reveal lower KCNS3 expression in prefrontal cortical parvalbumin neurons in schizophrenia, providing a molecular basis for compromised detection of coincident synaptic inputs to parvalbumin neurons that could contribute to altered γ-oscillations and impaired cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:24170294

  17. Voltage gating by molecular subunits of Na+ and K+ ion channels: higher-dimensional cubic kinetics, rate constants, and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The structural similarity between the primary molecules of voltage-gated Na and K channels (alpha subunits) and activation gating in the Hodgkin-Huxley model is brought into full agreement by increasing the model's sodium kinetics to fourth order (m3 → m4). Both structures then virtually imply activation gating by four independent subprocesses acting in parallel. The kinetics coalesce in four-dimensional (4D) cubic diagrams (16 states, 32 reversible transitions) that show the structure to be highly failure resistant against significant partial loss of gating function. Rate constants, as fitted in phase plot data of retinal ganglion cell excitation, reflect the molecular nature of the gating transitions. Additional dimensions (6D cubic diagrams) accommodate kinetically coupled sodium inactivation and gating processes associated with beta subunits. The gating transitions of coupled sodium inactivation appear to be thermodynamically irreversible; response to dielectric surface charges (capacitive displacement) provides a potential energy source for those transitions and yields highly energy-efficient excitation. A comparison of temperature responses of the squid giant axon (apparently Arrhenius) and mammalian channel gating yields kinetic Q10 = 2.2 for alpha unit gating, whose transitions are rate-limiting at mammalian temperatures; beta unit kinetic Q10 = 14 reproduces the observed non-Arrhenius deviation of mammalian gating at low temperatures; the Q10 of sodium inactivation gating matches the rate-limiting component of activation gating at all temperatures. The model kinetics reproduce the physiologically large frequency range for repetitive firing in ganglion cells and the physiologically observed strong temperature dependence of recovery from inactivation. PMID:25867741

  18. Voltage gating by molecular subunits of Na+ and K+ ion channels: higher-dimensional cubic kinetics, rate constants, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Fohlmeister, Jürgen F

    2015-06-01

    The structural similarity between the primary molecules of voltage-gated Na and K channels (alpha subunits) and activation gating in the Hodgkin-Huxley model is brought into full agreement by increasing the model's sodium kinetics to fourth order (m(3) → m(4)). Both structures then virtually imply activation gating by four independent subprocesses acting in parallel. The kinetics coalesce in four-dimensional (4D) cubic diagrams (16 states, 32 reversible transitions) that show the structure to be highly failure resistant against significant partial loss of gating function. Rate constants, as fitted in phase plot data of retinal ganglion cell excitation, reflect the molecular nature of the gating transitions. Additional dimensions (6D cubic diagrams) accommodate kinetically coupled sodium inactivation and gating processes associated with beta subunits. The gating transitions of coupled sodium inactivation appear to be thermodynamically irreversible; response to dielectric surface charges (capacitive displacement) provides a potential energy source for those transitions and yields highly energy-efficient excitation. A comparison of temperature responses of the squid giant axon (apparently Arrhenius) and mammalian channel gating yields kinetic Q10 = 2.2 for alpha unit gating, whose transitions are rate-limiting at mammalian temperatures; beta unit kinetic Q10 = 14 reproduces the observed non-Arrhenius deviation of mammalian gating at low temperatures; the Q10 of sodium inactivation gating matches the rate-limiting component of activation gating at all temperatures. The model kinetics reproduce the physiologically large frequency range for repetitive firing in ganglion cells and the physiologically observed strong temperature dependence of recovery from inactivation.

  19. Dysfunction of the Voltage-Gated K+ Channel β2 Subunit in a Familial Case of Brugada Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portero, Vincent; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Burel, Sophie; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Bonnaud, Stéphanie; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Simonet, Floriane; Violleau, Jade; Baron, Estelle; Moreau, Eléonore; Scott, Carol; Chatel, Stéphanie; Loussouarn, Gildas; O'Hara, Thomas; Mabo, Philippe; Dina, Christian; Le Marec, Hervé; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Probst, Vincent; Baró, Isabelle; Marionneau, Céline; Charpentier, Flavien; Redon, Richard

    2016-06-10

    The Brugada syndrome is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia associated with high risk of sudden death. Although 20% of patients with Brugada syndrome carry mutations in SCN5A, the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition are still largely unknown. We combined whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis to identify the genetic variant likely causing Brugada syndrome in a pedigree for which SCN5A mutations had been excluded. This approach identified 6 genetic variants cosegregating with the Brugada electrocardiographic pattern within the pedigree. In silico gene prioritization pointed to 1 variant residing in KCNAB2, which encodes the voltage-gated K(+) channel β2-subunit (Kvβ2-R12Q). Kvβ2 is widely expressed in the human heart and has been shown to interact with the fast transient outward K(+) channel subunit Kv4.3, increasing its current density. By targeted sequencing of the KCNAB2 gene in 167 unrelated patients with Brugada syndrome, we found 2 additional rare missense variants (L13F and V114I). We then investigated the physiological effects of the 3 KCNAB2 variants by using cellular electrophysiology and biochemistry. Patch-clamp experiments performed in COS-7 cells expressing both Kv4.3 and Kvβ2 revealed a significant increase in the current density in presence of the R12Q and L13F Kvβ2 mutants. Although biotinylation assays showed no differences in the expression of Kv4.3, the total and submembrane expression of Kvβ2-R12Q were significantly increased in comparison with wild-type Kvβ2. Altogether, our results indicate that Kvβ2 dysfunction can contribute to the Brugada electrocardiographic pattern. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Does the KdpA subunit from the high affinity K(+)-translocating P-type KDP-ATPase have a structure similar to that of K(+) channels?

    PubMed Central

    Durell, S R; Bakker, E P; Guy, H R

    2000-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the transmembrane KdpA subunit of the high affinity K(+)-translocating P-type Kdp-ATPase is evolutionarily derived from the superfamily of 2TM-type K(+) channels in bacteria. This extends a previous study relating the K(+) channels to the KtrAB, Trk, Trk1,2, and HKT1 K(+) symporter superfamily of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the channels are formed by four single-MPM motif subunits, the transmembrane KdpA subunit and the transmembrane subunit of the symporter proteins are postulated to have four corresponding MPM motifs within a single sequence. Analysis of 17 KdpA sequences reveals a pattern of residue conservation similar to that of the symporters and channels, and consistent with the crystal structure of the KcsA K(+) channel. In addition, the most highly conserved residues between the families, specifically the central glycines of the P2 segments, are those previously identified as crucial for the property of K(+)-selectivity that is common to each protein. This hypothesis is consistent with an experimental study of mutations that alter K(+) binding affinity of the Kdp transporter. Although most of the results of a previous study of the transmembrane topology of KdpA are consistent with the 4-MPM model, the one deviation can be explained by a plausible change in the structure due to the experimental method. PMID:10620285

  1. Effects of MiRP1 and DPP6 β-subunits on the blockade induced by flecainide of KV4.3/KChIP2 channels

    PubMed Central

    Radicke, S; Vaquero, M; Caballero, R; Gómez, R; Núñez, L; Tamargo, J; Ravens, U; Wettwer, E; Delpón, E

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The human cardiac transient outward potassium current (Ito) is believed to be composed of the pore-forming KV4.3 α-subunit, coassembled with modulatory β-subunits as KChIP2, MiRP1 and DPP6 proteins. β-Subunits can alter the pharmacological response of Ito; therefore, we analysed the effects of flecainide on KV4.3/KChIP2 channels coassembled with MiRP1 and/or DPP6 β-subunits. Experimental approach: Currents were recorded in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing KV4.3/KChIP2 channels, and transiently transfected with either MiRP1, DPP6 or both, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key results: In control conditions, KV4.3/KChIP2/MiRP1 channels exhibited the slowest activation and inactivation kinetics and showed an ‘overshoot' in the time course of recovery from inactivation. The midpoint values (Vh) of the activation and inactivation curves for KV4.3/KChIP2/DPP6 and KV4.3/KChIP2/MiRP1/DPP6 channels were ≈10 mV more negative than Vh values for KV4.3/KChIP2 and KV4.3/KChIP2/MiRP1 channels. Flecainide (0.1–100 μM) produced a similar concentration-dependent blockade of total integrated current flow (IC50 ≈10 μM) in all the channel complexes. However, the IC50 values for peak current amplitude and inactivated channel block were significantly different. Flecainide shifted the Vh values of both the activation and inactivation curves to more negative potentials and apparently accelerated inactivation kinetics in all channels. Moreover, flecainide slowed recovery from inactivation in all the channel complexes and suppressed the ‘overshoot' in KV4.3/KChIP2/MiRP1 channels. Conclusions and implications: Flecainide directly binds to the KV4.3 α-subunit when the channels are in the open and inactivated state and the presence of the β-subunits modulates the blockade by altering the gating function. PMID:18536731

  2. The Ca2+ channel β subunit determines whether stimulation of Gq-coupled receptors enhances or inhibits N current

    PubMed Central

    Heneghan, John F.; Mitra-Ganguli, Tora; Stanish, Lee F.; Liu, Liwang; Zhao, Rubing

    2009-01-01

    In superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons, stimulation of M1 receptors (M1Rs) produces a distinct pattern of modulation of N-type calcium (N-) channel activity, enhancing currents elicited with negative test potentials and inhibiting currents elicited with positive test potentials. Exogenously applied arachidonic acid (AA) reproduces this profile of modulation, suggesting AA functions as a downstream messenger of M1Rs. In addition, techniques that diminish AA's concentration during M1R stimulation minimize N-current modulation. However, other studies suggest depletion of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during M1R stimulation suffices to elicit modulation. In this study, we used an expression system to examine the physiological mechanisms regulating modulation. We found the β subunit (CaVβ) acts as a molecular switch regulating whether modulation results in enhancement or inhibition. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, stimulation of M1Rs or neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1Rs) inhibited activity of N channels formed by CaV2.2 and coexpressed with CaVβ1b, CaVβ3, or CaVβ4 but enhanced activity of N channels containing CaVβ2a. Exogenously applied AA produced the same pattern of modulation. Coexpression of CaVβ2a, CaVβ3, and CaVβ4 recapitulated the modulatory response previously seen in SCG neurons, implying heterogeneous association of CaVβ with CaV2.2. Further experiments with mutated, chimeric CaVβ subunits and free palmitic acid revealed that palmitoylation of CaVβ2a is essential for loss of inhibition. The data presented here fit a model in which CaVβ2a blocks inhibition, thus unmasking enhancement. Our discovery that the presence or absence of palmitoylated CaVβ2a toggles M1R- or NK-1R–mediated modulation of N current between enhancement and inhibition identifies a novel role for palmitoylation. Moreover, these findings predict that at synapses, modulation of N-channel activity by M1Rs or NK-1Rs will fluctuate between enhancement and

  3. Analysis of the protective effects of the α2/δ subunit of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yeon; Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2017-01-15

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are comprised of α1, α2/δ, β, and γ subunits. The pore-forming α1 subunit is essential for the proper functioning of Ca(2+) channels, while the α2/δ subunit interacts with components of the extracellular matrix. The α2/δ subunit is related in many neuropathological symptoms, including epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia. We previously reported that the mutant Cav.2.1α1 subunit has protective effects following brain injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the α2/δ subunit inhibition alone and in combination with the inhibition of the Cav.2.1α1 subunit following brain injury by injecting Gabapentin using Cav.2.1α1 mutant heterozygous rolling Nagoya (rol/+) and wild-type (+/+) mice. Gabapentin binds to the α2/δ subunit and leads to Ca(2+) flow disturbance. A cryogenic method was used to induce brain injury. The mice pretreated with 100mg/kg Gabapentin exhibited a decrease in lesion size, while the 40mg/kg Gabapentin injection was effective in rol/+ mice but not +/+ mice. The administration of 100mg/kg Gabapentin also attenuated reactive astrocyte activity and neuronal degeneration; the pattern of results was similar to that for lesion size. An analysis of phosphorylated p38 (pp38) expression revealed that Gabapentin suppressed the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade by interrupting glutamate-signaling induced by the inhibition of VGCCs. The present findings demonstrated that the administration of the α2/δ subunit inhibitor, Gabapentin, had neuroprotective effects following brain injury.

  4. Subunit composition of a DEG/ENaC mechanosensory channel of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yushu; Bharill, Shashank; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch in the six touch receptor neurons (TRNs) using a mechanotransduction complex that contains the pore-forming degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) proteins MEC-4 and MEC-10. Past work has suggested these proteins interact with the paraoxonase-like MEC-6 and the cholesterol-binding stomatin-like MEC-2 proteins. Using single molecule optical imaging in Xenopus oocytes, we found that MEC-4 forms homotrimers and MEC-4 and MEC-10 form 4:4:10 heterotrimers. MEC-6 and MEC-2 do not associate tightly with these trimers and do not influence trimer stoichiometry, indicating that they are not part of the core channel transduction complex. Consistent with the in vitro data, MEC-10, but not MEC-6, formed puncta in TRN neurites that colocalize with MEC-4 when MEC-4 is overexpressed in the TRNs. PMID:26324944

  5. Disruption of the potassium channel regulatory subunit KCNE2 causes iron-deficient anemia

    PubMed Central

    Salsbury, Grace; Cambridge, Emma L.; McIntyre, Zoe; Arends, Mark J.; Karp, Natasha A.; Isherwood, Christopher; Shannon, Carl; Hooks, Yvette; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Adams, David J.; White, Jacqueline K.; Speak, Anneliese O.

    2014-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is a dynamic process that is tightly controlled to balance iron uptake, storage, and export. Reduction of dietary iron from the ferric to the ferrous form is required for uptake by solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 2 (Slc11a2) into the enterocytes. Both processes are proton dependent and have led to the suggestion of the importance of acidic gastric pH for the absorption of dietary iron. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E, member 2 (KCNE2), in combination with potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1), form a gastric potassium channel essential for gastric acidification. Deficiency of either Kcne2 or Kcnq1 results in achlorhydia, gastric hyperplasia, and neoplasia, but the impact on iron absorption has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. Here we report that Kcne2-deficient mice, in addition to the previously reported phenotypes, also present with iron-deficient anemia. Interestingly, impaired function of KCNQ1 results in iron-deficient anemia in Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome patients. We speculate that impaired function of KCNE2 could result in the same clinical phenotype. PMID:25127743

  6. Voltage-dependent regulation of CaV2.2 channels by Gq-coupled receptor is facilitated by membrane-localized β subunit.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dongil; Baek, Christina; Kim, Dong-Il; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal through molecular messengers, such as Gβγ, Ca(2+), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), to modulate N-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV2.2) channels, playing a crucial role in regulating synaptic transmission. However, the cellular pathways through which GqPCRs inhibit CaV2.2 channel current are not completely understood. Here, we report that the location of CaV β subunits is key to determining the voltage dependence of CaV2.2 channel modulation by GqPCRs. Application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M to tsA-201 cells expressing M1 receptors, together with CaV N-type α1B, α2δ1, and membrane-localized β2a subunits, shifted the current-voltage relationship for CaV2.2 activation 5 mV to the right and slowed current activation. Muscarinic suppression of CaV2.2 activity was relieved by strong depolarizing prepulses. Moreover, when the C terminus of β-adrenergic receptor kinase (which binds Gβγ) was coexpressed with N-type channels, inhibition of CaV2.2 current after M1 receptor activation was markedly reduced and delayed, whereas the delay between PIP2 hydrolysis and inhibition of CaV2.2 current was decreased. When the Gβγ-insensitive CaV2.2 α1C-1B chimera was expressed, voltage-dependent inhibition of calcium current was virtually abolished, suggesting that M1 receptors act through Gβγ to inhibit CaV2.2 channels bearing membrane-localized CaV β2a subunits. Expression of cytosolic β subunits such as β2b and β3, as well as the palmitoylation-negative mutant β2a(C3,4S), reduced the voltage dependence of M1 muscarinic inhibition of CaV2.2 channels, whereas it increased inhibition mediated by PIP2 depletion. Together, our results indicate that, with membrane-localized CaV β subunits, CaV2.2 channels are subject to Gβγ-mediated voltage-dependent inhibition, whereas cytosol-localized β subunits confer more effective PIP2-mediated voltage-independent regulation. Thus, the voltage dependence of

  7. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K+ currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 >> Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. PMID:26700561

  8. The β1a subunit regulates the functional properties of adult frog and mouse L-type Ca2+ channels of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    García, Rubén; Carrillo, Elba; Rebolledo, Santiago; García, María C; Sánchez, Jorge A

    2002-01-01

    The β1a subunit, one of the auxiliary subunits of CaV1.1 channels, was expressed in COS-1 cells, purified by electroelution and electrodialysis techniques and identified by Western blot using monoclonal antibodies. The purified β1a subunit strongly interacted in vitro with the alpha interaction domain (AID) of CaV1.1 channels. The actions of the purified β1a subunit on CaV1.1 channel currents were assessed in whole cell voltage clamp experiments performed in vesicles derived from frog and mouse adult skeletal muscle plasma membranes. L-type inward currents were recorded in solutions containing Ba2+ (IBa). Values of peak IBa were doubled by the β1a subunit in frog and mouse muscle vesicles and the amplitude of the slow component of tail currents was greatly increased. The actions of the β1a subunit on CaV1.1 channel currents reached a steady state within 20 min. The β1a subunit had no effect on the time courses of activation or inactivation of IBa or shifted the current-voltage relation. Non-linear capacitive currents were recorded in solutions that contained mostly impermeant ions. Charge movement depended on voltage with average Boltzmann parameters: Qmax + 28.0 ± 6.6 nC μF−1, V + −58.0 ± 2.0 mV and k + 15.3 ± 1.1 mV (n = 24). In the presence of the β1a subunit, these parameters remained unchanged: Qmax + 29.8 ± 3.5 nC μF−1, V + −54.5 ± 2.2 mV and k + 16.4 ± 1.3 mV (n = 21). Overall, the work describes a novel preparation to explore in situ the role of the β1a subunit on the function of adult CaV1.1 channels. PMID:12456821

  9. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K; Mayer, Mark L

    2015-11-03

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. We hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.

  10. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    DOE PAGES

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; ...

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysismore » reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.« less

  11. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K.; Mayer, Mark L.

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.

  12. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K.; Mayer, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. We hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species. PMID:26460032

  13. The Ca2+ Channel Subunit β2 Regulates Ca2+ Channel Abundance and Function in Inner Hair Cells and Is Required for Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Jakob; Gehrt, Anna; Bulankina, Anna V.; Meyer, Alexander C.; Riedel, Dietmar; Gregg, Ronald G.; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Hearing relies on Ca2+ influx-triggered exocytosis in cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs). Here we studied the role of the Ca2+ channel subunit CaVβ2 in hearing. Of the CaVβ1–4 mRNAs, IHCs predominantly contained CaVβ2. Hearing was severely impaired in mice lacking CaVβ2 in extracardiac tissues (CaVβ2−/−). This involved deficits in cochlear amplification and sound encoding. Otoacoustic emissions were reduced or absent in CaVβ2−/− mice, which showed strongly elevated auditory thresholds in single neuron recordings and auditory brainstem response measurements. CaVβ2−/− IHCs showed greatly reduced exocytosis (by 68%). This was mostly attributable to a decreased number of membrane-standing CaV1.3 channels. Confocal Ca2+ imaging revealed presynaptic Ca2+ microdomains albeit with much lower amplitudes, indicating synaptic clustering of fewer CaV1.3 channels. The coupling of the remaining Ca2+ influx to IHC exocytosis appeared unaffected. Extracellular recordings of sound-evoked spiking in the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve revealed reduced spike rates in the CaVβ2−/− mice. Still, sizable onset and adapted spike rates were found during suprathreshold stimulation in CaVβ2−/− mice. This indicated that residual synaptic sound encoding occurred, although the number of presynaptic CaV1.3 channels and exocytosis were reduced to one-third. The normal developmental upregulation, clustering, and gating of large-conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channels in IHCs were impaired in the absence of CaVβ2. Moreover, we found the developmental efferent innervation to persist in CaVβ2-deficient IHCs. In summary, CaVβ2 has an essential role in regulating the abundance and properties of CaV1.3 channels in IHCs and, thereby, is critical for IHC development and synaptic encoding of sound. PMID:19710324

  14. Integrative Approach for Computationally Inferring Interactions between the Alpha and Beta Subunits of the Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (BK): a Docking Study.

    PubMed

    González, Janneth; Gálvez, Angela; Morales, Ludis; Barreto, George E; Capani, Francisco; Sierra, Omar; Torres, Yolima

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of the alpha- and beta-1 subunits of the calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) were predicted by threading modeling. A recursive approach comprising of sequence alignment and model building based on three templates was used to build these models, with the refinement of non-conserved regions carried out using threading techniques. The complex formed by the subunits was studied by means of docking techniques, using 3D models of the two subunits, and an approach based on rigid-body structures. Structural effects of the complex were analyzed with respect to hydrogen-bond interactions and binding-energy calculations. Potential interaction sites of the complex were determined by referencing a study of the difference accessible surface area (DASA) of the protein subunits in the complex.

  15. Integrative Approach for Computationally Inferring Interactions between the Alpha and Beta Subunits of the Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (BK): a Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    González, Janneth; Gálvez, Angela; Morales, Ludis; Barreto, George E.; Capani, Francisco; Sierra, Omar; Torres, Yolima

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of the alpha- and beta-1 subunits of the calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) were predicted by threading modeling. A recursive approach comprising of sequence alignment and model building based on three templates was used to build these models, with the refinement of non-conserved regions carried out using threading techniques. The complex formed by the subunits was studied by means of docking techniques, using 3D models of the two subunits, and an approach based on rigid-body structures. Structural effects of the complex were analyzed with respect to hydrogen-bond interactions and binding-energy calculations. Potential interaction sites of the complex were determined by referencing a study of the difference accessible surface area (DASA) of the protein subunits in the complex. PMID:23492851

  16. Immunoreactivity to neurofilaments in the rodent anterior pituitary is associated with the expression of alpha 1A protein subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Fiordelisio, T; Jiménez, N; Baba, S; Shiba, K; Hernández-Cruz, A

    2007-11-01

    We recently reported that rodent anterior pituitary (AP) cells (with the exception of corticotrophs and melanotrophs) express neuronal markers, including 68-kDa neurofilaments (NF68) in an oestrogen-dependent manner. The functional significance of neurofilament (NF) expression in the AP is unknown, but recent data in myelinated nerve fibres from NF-null mice suggest that NFs can regulate ion channel function. Because Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels is required for hormone secretion in AP cells, and oestrogen regulates the expression of Ca(2+) channels in AP cells, the present study examined the expression of alpha1 subunits of voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in relation to that of NF68. Using quantitative immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that alpha 1C and alpha 1D subunits are abundantly expressed in female AP cells, alpha 1A subunits are moderately expressed, and alpha 1G and alpha 1B subunits are expressed at the lowest levels. Double-immunostaining showed that NF68 expression is not correlated with that of alpha 1C, alpha 1D or alpha 1B. Expression of alpha 1G and NF68 appear to be mutually exclusive from each other. Moreover, alpha 1A subunit and NF68 expression are significantly correlated and alpha 1A immunoreactivity is sexually dimorphic (i.e. low in males and high in females) and its levels of expression vary during the oestrous cycle, similar to NF68. Finally, omega-agatoxin IVA, a specific blocker of P/Q type Ca(2+) currents that are a result of the activity of alpha 1A subunits, inhibited to a greater extent spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) fluctuations in AP cells from females in oestrous and dioestrous, whereas cells from females in pro-oestrous and males were less affected by this toxin. These results suggest a preferential participation of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels and hence alpha 1A subunits, in regulating spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in AP cells under conditions where the proportion of NF68-expressing cells is high. It remains to be

  17. Regulation of KChIP2 potassium channel beta subunit gene expression underlies the gradient of transient outward current in canine and human ventricle.

    PubMed

    Rosati, B; Pan, Z; Lypen, S; Wang, H S; Cohen, I; Dixon, J E; McKinnon, D

    2001-05-15

    Expression of four members of the KChIP family of potassium channel beta subunits was examined in canine heart. Only one member of the gene family, KChIP2, was expressed in heart. There was a steep gradient of KChIP2 mRNA expression across the canine ventricular free wall. KChIP2 mRNA was 25-fold more abundant in the epicardium than in the endocardium, and this gradient paralleled the gradient in transient outward current (Ito) expression. In contrast, Kv4.3 potassium channel alpha subunit mRNA was expressed at equal levels across the ventricular wall. There was no difference in the pharmacological sensitivity of epicardial and endocardial Ito channels to flecainide, suggesting that the current is produced by the same channel in the two tissues. A similar gradient of KChIP2 expression was found across the ventricular wall of human heart, but not rat heart. It is concluded that transcriptional regulation of the KChIP2 beta subunit gene, rather than the Kv4.3 [alpha] subunit gene, is the primary determinant regulating the transmural gradient of Ito expression in the ventricular free wall of canine and human heart.

  18. Effect of Bay K 8644 (−) and the β2a Subunit on Ca2+-dependent Inactivation in α1C Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Noceti, Francesca; Olcese, Riccardo; Qin, Ning; Zhou, Jianming; Stefani, Enrico

    1998-01-01

    Ca2+ currents recorded from Xenopus oocytes expressing only the α1C pore-forming subunit of the cardiac Ca2+ channel show Ca2+-dependent inactivation with a single exponential decay. This current-dependent inactivation is not detected for inward Ba2+ currents in external Ba2+. Facilitation of pore opening speeds up the Ca2+-dependent inactivation process and makes evident an initial fast rate of decay. Facilitation can be achieved by (a) coexpression of the β2a subunit with the α1C subunit, or (b) addition of saturating Bay K 8644 (−) concentration to α1C channels. The addition of Bay K 8644 (−) to α1Cβ2a channels makes both rates of inactivation faster. All these maneuvers do not induce inactivation in Ba2+ currents in our expression system. These results support the hypothesis of a mechanism for the Ca2+-dependent inactivation process that is sensitive to both Ca2+ flux (single channel amplitude) and open probability. We conclude that the Ca2+ site for inactivation is in the α1C pore-forming subunit and we propose a kinetic model to account for the main features of α1Cβ2a Ca2+ currents. PMID:9482712

  19. Subunit-specific inhibition of acid sensing ion channels by stomatin-like protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kozlenkov, Alexey; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Lewin, Gary R; Smith, Ewan St John

    2014-01-01

    There are five mammalian stomatin-domain genes, all of which encode peripheral membrane proteins that can modulate ion channel function. Here we examined the ability of stomatin-like protein 1 (STOML1) to modulate the proton-sensitive members of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family. STOML1 profoundly inhibits ASIC1a, but has no effect on the splice variant ASIC1b. The inactivation time constant of ASIC3 is also accelerated by STOML1. We examined STOML1 null mutant mice with a β-galactosidase-neomycin cassette gene-trap reporter driven from the STOML1 gene locus, which indicated that STOML1 is expressed in at least 50% of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. Patch clamp recordings from mouse DRG neurones identified a trend for larger proton-gated currents in neurones lacking STOML1, which was due to a contribution of effects upon both transient and sustained currents, at different pH, a finding consistent with an endogenous inhibitory function for STOML1. PMID:24247984

  20. Low-voltage-activated calcium channel subunit expression in a genetic model of absence epilepsy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Talley, E M; Solórzano, G; Depaulis, A; Perez-Reyes, E; Bayliss, D A

    2000-01-10

    The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are an inbred strain of rats that display many of the characteristics of human absence epilepsy. In these rats, reciprocal thalamocortical projections play a critical role in the generation of spike-and-wave discharges that characterize absence seizures. When compared to those of the non-epileptic control strain, juvenile animals of the GAERS strain reportedly possess higher-amplitude T-type calcium currents in neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt). We hypothesized that differences in calcium currents seen between GAERS and controls result from differences in expression of genes for low-voltage-activated calcium channels. Quantitative in situ hybridization was used to compare expression of alpha1G, alpha1H, alpha1I, and alpha1E calcium channel subunit mRNAs from adult and juvenile animals of the two strains. We found higher levels of alpha1H mRNA expression in nRt neurons of juvenile animals (34.9+/-2. 3 vs. 28.4+/-1.8 grains/10(3) pixels, p<0.05), perhaps accounting in part for earlier reports of elevated T-type current amplitude in those cells. In adult GAERS animals, we found elevated levels of alpha1G mRNA in neurons of the ventral posterior thalamic relay nuclei (64.8+/-3.5 vs. 53.5+/-1.7 grains/10(3) pixels, p<0.05), as well as higher levels of alpha1H mRNA in nRt neurons (32.6+/-0.8 vs. 28.2+/-1.6 grains/10(3) pixels, p<0.05). These results suggest that the epileptic phenotype apparent in adult GAERS may result in part from these significant, albeit small ( approximately 15-25%), elevations in T-type calcium channel mRNA levels.

  1. Catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity of the beta-subunit of the voltage-gated potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Tipparaju, Srinivas M; Barski, Oleg A; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-08-26

    The beta-subunits of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. These proteins regulate inactivation and membrane localization of Kv1 and Kv4 channels. The Kvbeta proteins bind to pyridine nucleotides with high affinity; however, their catalytic properties remain unclear. Here we report that recombinant rat Kvbeta2 catalyzes the reduction of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones. The rate of catalysis was slower (0.06-0.2 min(-1)) than those of most other AKRs but displayed the expected hyperbolic dependence on substrate concentration, with no evidence of allosteric cooperativity. Catalysis was prevented by site-directed substitution of Tyr-90 with phenylalanine, indicating that the acid-base catalytic residue, identified in other AKRs, has a conserved function in Kvbeta2. The protein catalyzed the reduction of a broad range of carbonyls, including aromatic carbonyls, electrophilic aldehydes and prostaglandins, phospholipids, and sugar aldehydes. Little or no activity was detected with carbonyl steroids. Initial velocity profiles were consistent with an ordered bi-bi rapid equilibrium mechanism in which NADPH binding precedes carbonyl binding. Significant primary kinetic isotope effects (2.0-3.1) were observed under single- and multiple-turnover conditions, indicating that the bond-breaking chemical step is rate-limiting. Structure-activity relationships with a series of para-substituted benzaldehydes indicated that the electronic interactions predominate during substrate binding and that no significant charge develops during the transition state. These data strengthen the view that Kvbeta proteins are catalytically active AKRs that impart redox sensitivity to Kv channels.

  2. Control of channel activity through a unique amino acid residue of a G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channel  subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim W.; Sui, Jin-Liang; Vivaudou, Michel; Logothetis, Diomedes E.

    1996-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels, which are important regulators of membrane excitability both in heart and brain, appear to function as heteromultimers. GIRK1 is unique in the GIRK channel family in that although it is by itself inactive, it can associate with the other family members (GIRK2–GIRK5) to enhance their activity and alter their single-channel characteristics. By generating a series of chimeras, we identified a phenylalanine residue, F137, in the pore region of GIRK1 that critically controls channel activity. F137 is found only in GIRK1, while the remaining GIRK channels possess a conserved serine residue in the analogous position. The single-point mutant GIRK4(S143F) behaved as a GIRK1 analog, forming multimers with GIRK2, GIRK4, or GIRK5 channels that exhibited prolonged single-channel open-time duration and enhanced activity compared with that of homomultimers. Expression of the corresponding GIRK1(F137S) mutant alone resulted in appreciable channel activity with novel characteristics that was further enhanced upon coexpression with other GIRK subunits. Thus, although the F137 residue renders the GIRK1 subunit inactive, when combined with other GIRK heteromeric partners it alters their gating and contributes to their enhanced activity. PMID:8943083

  3. Deletion of the HCN channel auxiliary subunit TRIP8b impairs hippocampal Ih localization and function and promotes antidepressant behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Alan S.; Vaidya, Sachin P.; Blaiss, Cory A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Stoub, Travis R.; Brager, Darrin H.; Chen, Xiangdong; Bender, Roland A.; Estep, Chad M.; Popov, Andrey B.; Kang, Catherine E.; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Nicholson, Daniel A.; Powell, Craig M.; Johnston, Daniel; Chetkovich, Dane M.

    2011-01-01

    Output properties of neurons are greatly shaped by voltage-gated ion channels, whose biophysical properties and localization within axodendritic compartments serve to significantly transform the original input. The hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, is mediated by HCN channels and plays a fundamental role in influencing neuronal excitability by regulating both membrane potential and input resistance. In neurons such as cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, the subcellular localization of HCN channels plays critical functional role, yet mechanisms controlling HCN channel trafficking are not fully understood. Because ion channel function and localization are often influenced by interacting proteins, we generated a knockout mouse lacking the HCN channel auxiliary subunit, TRIP8b. Eliminating expression of TRIP8b dramatically reduced Ih expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Loss of Ih-dependent membrane voltage properties was attributable to reduction of HCN channels on the neuronal surface, and there was a striking disruption of the normal expression pattern of HCN channels in pyramidal neuron dendrites. In heterologous cells and neurons, absence of TRIP8b increased HCN subunit targeting to and degradation by lysosomes. Mice lacking TRIP8b demonstrated motor learning deficits and enhanced resistance to multiple tasks of behavioral despair with high predictive validity for antidepressant efficacy. We observed similar resistance to behavioral despair in distinct mutant mice lacking HCN1 or HCN2. These data demonstrate that interaction with the auxiliary subunit TRIP8b is a major mechanism underlying proper expression of HCN channels and Ih in vivo, and suggest that targeting Ih may provide a novel approach to treatment of depression. PMID:21593326

  4. Underlying mechanisms preserving coronary basal tone and NO-mediated relaxation in obesity: Involvement of β1 subunit-mediated upregulation of BKCa channels.

    PubMed

    Climent, Belén; Sánchez, Ana; Moreno, Laura; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; García-Sacristán, Albino; Rivera, Luis; Prieto, Dolores

    2017-08-01

    The impact of obesity on vasomotor regulation of coronary arteries and its underlying mechanisms are not completely understood and, in particular, the role of BKCa channels in the NO-mediated coronary vasodilation in obesity remains to be elucidated. The effects of selective blockade of BKCa channel was tested on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilator responses of coronary arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats (LZR and OZR, respectively) by means of simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence and tension in endothelium-denuded coronary arteries mounted in microvascular myographs. BKCa channel subunits expression was measured by Western blot. The selective BKCa channel blocker iberitoxin largely reduced the relaxations and decreases in [Ca(2+)]i induced by a NO donor in coronary arteries from OZR. Iberitoxin increased to a great extent both basal [Ca(2+)]i and tone in OZR. The agonist of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channels Bay K8644 induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i and tone that was significantly smaller in arteries from OZR, which was restored to control levels in LZR after BKCa channel inhibition. Caffeine- and ryanodine-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and BKCa channel β1 subunit expression were increased in arteries from OZR. The present study suggests that an enhanced activity of VSM BKCa channels, associated with up-regulation of channel β1 subunit and with a higher intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, contributes to the preserved NO-mediated vasodilatation and basal tone of coronary arteries in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential expression of Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 potassium channel subunits in interneurons of the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A J; Mascagni, F

    2006-01-01

    The expression of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 voltage-gated potassium channel subunits appears to be critical for high-frequency firing of many neuronal populations. In the cortex these subunits are mainly associated with fast-firing GABAergic interneurons containing parvalbumin or somatostatin. Since the basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala contains similar interneurons, it is of interest to determine if these potassium channel subunits are expressed in these same interneuronal subpopulations. To investigate this issue, peroxidase and dual-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to determine which interneuronal subpopulations in the basolateral nuclear complex of the rat amygdala express Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 subunits. Antibodies to parvalbumin, somatostatin, calretinin, and cholecystokinin were used to label separate subsets of basolateral amygdalar interneurons. Examination of immunoperoxidase preparations suggested that the expression of both channels was restricted to nonpyramidal interneurons in the basolateral amygdala. Somata and proximal dendrites were intensely-stained, and axon terminals arising from presumptive basket cells and chandelier cells were lightly stained. Immunofluorescence observations revealed that parvalbumin+ neurons were the main interneuronal subpopulation expressing the Kv3.1b potassium channel subunit in the basolateral amygdala. More than 92-96% of parvalbumin+ neurons were Kv3.1b+, depending on the nucleus. These parvalbumin+/Kv3.1b+ double-labeled cells constituted 90-99% of all Kv3.1b+ neurons. Parvalbumin+ neurons were also the main interneuronal subpopulation expressing the Kv3.2 potassium channel subunit. More than 67-78% of parvalbumin+ neurons were Kv3.2+, depending on the nucleus. However, these parvalbumin+/Kv3.2+ double-labeled cells constituted only 71-81% of all Kv3.2+ neurons. Most of the remaining neurons with significant levels of the Kv3.2 subunit were somatostatin

  6. Knockout of the BK β4-subunit promotes a functional coupling of BK channels and ryanodine receptors that mediate a fAHP-induced increase in excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Bugay, Vladislav; Ling, Ling; Chuang, Hui-Hsui; Jaffe, David B.

    2016-01-01

    BK channels are large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels with diverse properties. Knockout of the accessory BK β4-subunit in hippocampus dentate gyrus granule neurons causes BK channels to change properties from slow-gated type II channels to fast-gated type I channels that sharpen the action potential, increase the fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) amplitude, and increase spike frequency. Here we studied the calcium channels that contribute to fast-gated BK channel activation and increased excitability of β4 knockout neurons. By using pharmacological blockers during current-clamp recording, we find that BK channel activation during the fAHP is dependent on ryanodine receptor activation. In contrast, L-type calcium channel blocker (nifedipine) affects the BK channel-dependent repolarization phase of the action potential but has no effect on the fAHP. Reducing BK channel activation during the repolarization phase with nifedipine, or during the fAHP with ryanodine, indicated that it is the BK-mediated increase of the fAHP that confers proexcitatory effects. The proexcitatory role of the fAHP was corroborated using dynamic current clamp. Increase or decrease of the fAHP amplitude during spiking revealed an inverse relationship between fAHP amplitude and interspike interval. Finally, we show that the seizure-prone ryanodine receptor gain-of-function (R2474S) knockin mice have an unaltered repolarization phase but larger fAHP and increased AP frequency compared with their control littermates. In summary, these results indicate that an important role of the β4-subunit is to reduce ryanodine receptor-BK channel functional coupling during the fAHP component of the action potential, thereby decreasing excitability of dentate gyrus neurons. PMID:27146987

  7. Central venous hypoxemia is a determinant of human atrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression: evidence for a novel hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha-Forkhead box class O signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Raeis, Véronique; Philip-Couderc, Pierre; Roatti, Angela; Habre, Walid; Sierra, Jorge; Kalangos, Afksendyios; Beghetti, Maurice; Baertschi, Alex J

    2010-05-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels couple cell excitability to energy metabolism, thereby providing life-saving protection of stressed cardiomyocytes. The signaling for ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression is still unknown. We tested involvement of biochemical and biophysical parameters and potential transcription factors Forkhead box (FOX) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha). Right atrial tissues were obtained during surgery from 28 children with heart disease. Expression of K(+)-inward-rectifier subunits Kir6.1/Kir6.2; sulfonyl urea receptors (SURs) SUR1A/B and SUR2A/B; and FOX class O (FOXO) 1, FOXO3, FOXF2, and HIF-1alpha were related to 31 parameters, including personal data, blood chemistry, and echocardiography. Venous hypoxemia (but not other ischemia indicators, such as venous hypercapnia or low glucose) predicts increased Kir6.1 (P<0.003) and Kir6.2 (P<0.03) protein. Kir6.1 associates with SUR2A/B mRNA (P<0.05) and correlates with FOXOs (P<0.002). FOXOs correlate with HIF-1alpha (P<0.01) and HIF-1alpha with venous hypoxemia (P<0.003). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays suggest causal links among hypoxia, HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and Kir6.1. To mimic mild ischemia encountered in some patients, cultured rat atrial myocytes were tested in hypoxia, hypercapnia, or low glucose, with normal conditions serving as the control. Mild hypoxia (24-hour) increases expression of HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 in culture (P<0.01), whereas hypercapnia and low glucose have no or opposite effects. Gene knockdown of HIF-1alpha or FOXO1 by small-interfering RNAs abolishes hypoxia-induced expression of FOXO1 and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1. These results suggest that low tissue oxygen determines increased expression of the atrial SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 gene via activation of HIF-1alpha-FOXO1. Because increased SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 has known survival benefits, this pathway offers novel therapeutic targets for children with heart disease.

  8. Sensory Transduction Channel Subunits, tax-4 and tax-2, Modify Presynaptic Molecular Architecture in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Andrew B.; Shen, Kang

    2011-01-01

    During development, neural activity is important for forming proper connections in neural networks. The effect of activity on the gross morphology and synaptic strength of neurons has been well documented, but little is known about how activity affects different molecular components during development. Here, we examine the localization of four fluorescently-tagged presynaptic proteins, RAB-3, SNG-1/synaptogyrin, SYD-2/Liprin-α, and SAD-1/SAD kinase, in the C. elegans thermosensory neuron AFD. We show that tax-4 and tax-2, two genes that encode the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel necessary for sensory transduction in AFD, disrupt the localization of all four proteins. In wild-type animals, the synaptic vesicle (SV) markers RAB-3 and SNG-1 and the active zone markers SYD-2 and SAD-1 localize in a stereotyped, punctate pattern in the AFD axon. In tax-4 and tax-2 mutants, SV and SYD-2 puncta are more numerous and less intense. Interestingly, SAD-1 puncta are also less intense but do not increase in number. The change in puncta number can be rescued cell-autonomously in AFD. These results suggest that sensory transduction genes tax-4 and tax-2 are necessary for the proper assembly of presynapses. PMID:21915351

  9. Frequency-dependent regulation of rat hippocampal somato-dendritic excitability by the K+ channel subunit Kv2.1

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Haak, Laurel L; Phillips-Tansey, Emily; Russell, James T; McBain, Chris J

    2000-01-01

    The voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv2.1 is widely expressed throughout the mammalian CNS and is clustered primarily on the somata and proximal dendrites, but not axons, of both principal neurones and inhibitory interneurones of the cortex and hippocampus. This expression pattern suggests that Kv2.1-containing channels may play a role in the regulation of pyramidal neurone excitability. To test this hypothesis and to determine the functional role of Kv2.1-containing channels, cultured hippocampal slices were incubated with antisense oligonucleotides directed against Kv2.1 mRNA.Western blot analysis demonstrated that Kv2.1 protein content of cultured slices decreased > 90 % following 2 weeks of treatment with antisense oligonucleotides, when compared with either control missense-treated or untreated cultures. Similarly, Kv2.1 immunostaining was selectively decreased in antisense-treated cultures.Sustained outward potassium currents, recorded in both whole-cell and outside-out patch configurations, demonstrated a selective reduction of amplitude only in antisense-treated CA1 pyramidal neurones.Under current-clamp conditions, action potential durations were identical in antisense-treated, control missense-treated and untreated slices when initiated by low frequency stimulation (0.2 Hz). In contrast, spike repolarization was progressively prolonged during higher frequencies of stimulation (1 Hz) only in cells from antisense-treated slices. Similarly, action potentials recorded during electrographic interictal activity in the ‘high [K+]o’ model of epilepsy demonstrated pronounced broadening of their late phase only in cells from antisense-treated slices.Consistent with the frequency-dependent spike broadening, calcium imaging experiments from single CA1 pyramidal neurones revealed that high frequency Schaffer collateral stimulation resulted in a prolonged elevation of dendritic [Ca2+]i transients only in antisense-treated neurones.These studies

  10. NMR structure and functional characteristics of the hydrophilic N terminus of the potassium channel beta-subunit Kvbeta1.1.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, R; Baukrowitz, T; Kalbacher, H; Kalbitzer, H R; Ruppersberg, J P; Pongs, O; Antz, C; Fakler, B

    1999-12-10

    Rapid N-type inactivation of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels controls membrane excitability and signal propagation in central neurons and is mediated by protein domains (inactivation gates) occluding the open channel pore from the cytoplasmic side. Inactivation domains (ID) are donated either by the pore-forming alpha-subunit or certain auxiliary beta-subunits. Upon coexpression, Kvbeta1.1 was found to endow non-inactivating members of the Kv1alpha family with fast inactivation via its unique N terminus. Here we investigated structure and functional properties of the Kvbeta1.1 N terminus (amino acids 1-62, betaN-(1-62)) using NMR spectroscopy and patch clamp recordings. betaN-(1-62) showed all hallmarks of N-type inactivation: it inactivated non-inactivating Kv1.1 channels when applied to the cytoplasmic side as a synthetic peptide, and its interaction with the alpha-subunit was competed with tetraethylammonium and displayed an affinity in the lower micromolar range. In aequous and physiological salt solution, betaN-(1-62) showed no well defined three-dimensional structure, it rather existed in a fast equilibrium of multiple weakly structured states. These structural and functional properties of betaN-(1-62) closely resemble those of the "unstructured" ID from Shaker B, but differ markedly from those of the compactly folded ID of the Kv3.4 alpha-subunit.

  11. Role of Nedd4-2 and polyubiquitination in epithelial sodium channel degradation in untransfected renal A6 cells expressing endogenous ENaC subunits.

    PubMed

    Malik, B; Yue, Q; Yue, G; Chen, X J; Price, S R; Mitch, W E; Eaton, D C

    2005-07-01

    Amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are responsible for transepithelial Na(+) transport in the kidney, lung, and colon. The channel consists of three subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma). In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with all three ENaC subunits, neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein (Nedd4-2) promotes ubiquitin conjugation of ENaC. For native proteins in some cells, ubiquitin conjugation is a signal for their degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, whereas in other cell types ubiquitin conjugation is a signal for endocytosis and lysosomal protein degradation. When ENaC are transfected into MDCK cells, ubiquitin conjugation leads to lysosomal degradation. In this paper, we characterize the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in the regulation of functional ENaC in untransfected renal A6 cells expressing native ENaC subunits. In contrast to transfected cells, we show that total cellular alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits are polyubiquitinated and that ubiquitin conjugation of subunits increases when the cells are treated with a proteasome inhibitor. We show that Nedd4-2 is associated with alpha- and beta-subunits and is associated with the apical membrane. We also show the Nedd4-2 can regulate the number of functional ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The results reported here suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway is an important determinant of ENaC function in untransfected renal cells expressing endogenous ENaC.

  12. Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) α-subunit splice variants in resistance arteries from rat cerebral and skeletal muscle vasculature.

    PubMed

    Nourian, Zahra; Li, Min; Leo, M Dennis; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Braun, Andrew P; Hill, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies report functional differences in large conductance Ca2+ activated-K+ channels (BKCa) of smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from rat cerebral and cremaster muscle resistance arteries. The present studies aimed to determine if this complexity in BKCa activity may, in part, be due to splice variants in the pore-forming α-subunit. BKCa variants in the intracellular C terminus of the α-subunit, and their relative expression to total α-subunit, were examined by qPCR. Sequencing of RT-PCR products showed two α-subunit variants, ZERO and STREX, to be identical in cremaster and cerebral arteries. Levels of STREX mRNA expression were, however, significantly higher in cremaster VSMCs (28.9±4.2% of total α-BKCa) compared with cerebral vessels (16.5±0.9%). Further, a low level of BKCa SS4 α-subunit variant was seen in cerebral arteries, while undetectable in cremaster arteries. Protein biotinylation assays, in expression systems and arterial preparations, were used to determine whether differences in splice variant mRNA expression affect surface membrane/cytosolic location of the channel. In AD-293 and CHO-K1 cells, rat STREX was more likely to be located at the plasma membrane compared to ZERO, although the great majority of channel protein was in the membrane in both cases. Co-expression of β1-BKCa subunit with STREX or ZERO did not influence the dominant membrane expression of α-BKCa subunits, whereas in the absence of α-BKCa, a significant proportion of β1-subunit remained cytosolic. Biotinylation assays of cremaster and cerebral arteries showed that differences in STREX/ZERO expression do not alter membrane/cytosolic distribution of the channel under basal conditions. These data, however, revealed that the amount of α-BKCa in cerebral arteries is approximately 20X higher than in cremaster vessels. Thus, the data support the major functional differences in BKCa activity in cremaster, as compared to cerebral VSMCs, being related to total

  13. Cloning of the human skeletal muscle {alpha}{sub 1} subunit of the dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel (CACNL1A3)

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, K.; Powers, P.A.; Gregg, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is initiated by release of calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to membrane depolarization transduced by the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) present in the transverse tubule. The L-type VDCC purified from rabbit skeletal muscle transverse tubules is a pentamer composed of {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {Beta},{delta}, and {gamma} subunits. Here, we report the sequence of the human {alpha}{sub 1} subunit. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish. PMID:26602918

  15. The epithelial sodium channel γ-subunit gene and blood pressure: family based association, renal gene expression, and physiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Büsst, Cara J; Bloomer, Lisa D S; Scurrah, Katrina J; Ellis, Justine A; Barnes, Timothy A; Charchar, Fadi J; Braund, Peter; Hopkins, Paul N; Samani, Nilesh J; Hunt, Steven C; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Harrap, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Variants in the gene encoding the γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1G) are associated with both Mendelian and quantitative effects on blood pressure. Here, in 4 cohorts of 1611 white European families composed of a total of 8199 individuals, we undertook staged testing of candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms for SCNN1G (supplemented with imputation based on data from the 1000 Genomes Project) followed by a meta-analysis in all of the families of the strongest candidate. We also examined relationships between the genotypes and relevant intermediate renal phenotypes, as well as expression of SCNN1G in human kidneys. We found that an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism of SCNN1G (rs13331086) was significantly associated with age-, sex-, and body mass index-adjusted blood pressure in each of the 4 populations (P<0.05). In an inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis of this single-nucleotide polymorphism in all 4 of the populations, each additional minor allele copy was associated with a 1-mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure and 0.52-mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (SE=0.33, P=0.002 for systolic blood pressure; SE=0.21, P=0.011 for diastolic blood pressure). The same allele was also associated with higher 12-hour overnight urinary potassium excretion (P=0.04), consistent with increased epithelial sodium channel activity. Renal samples from hypertensive subjects showed a nonsignificant (P=0.07) 1.7-fold higher expression of SCNN1G compared with normotensive controls. These data provide genetic and phenotypic evidence in support of a role for a common genetic variant of SCNN1G in blood pressure determination.

  16. GARP2 accelerates retinal degeneration in rod cGMP-gated cation channel β-subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Marci L.; Stacks, Delores A.; Zhang, Youwen; Huisingh, Carrie E.; McGwin, Gerald; Pittler, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    The Cngb1 locus-encoded β-subunit of rod cGMP-gated cation channel and associated glutamic acid rich proteins (GARPs) are required for phototransduction, disk morphogenesis, and rod structural integrity. To probe individual protein structure/function of the GARPs, we have characterized several transgenic mouse lines selectively restoring GARPs on a Cngb1 knockout (X1−/−) mouse background. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electroretinography (ERG) were used to analyze 6 genotypes including WT at three and ten weeks postnatal. Comparison of aligned histology/OCT images demonstrated that GARP2 accelerates the rate of degeneration. ERG results are consistent with the structural analyses showing the greatest attenuation of function when GARP2 is present. Even 100-fold or more overexpression of GARP1 could not accelerate degeneration as rapidly as GARP2, and when co-expressed GARP1 attenuated the structural and functional deficits elicited by GARP2. These results indicate that the GARPs are not fully interchangeable and thus, likely have separate and distinct functions in the photoreceptor. We also present a uniform murine OCT layer naming nomenclature system that is consistent with human retina layer designations to standardize murine OCT, which will facilitate data evaluation across different laboratories. PMID:28198469

  17. Proteolytic processing of the L-type Ca (2+) channel alpha 11.2 subunit in neurons.

    PubMed

    Buonarati, Olivia R; Henderson, Peter B; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Horne, Mary C; Hell, Johannes W

    2017-01-01

    Background: The L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 is a prominent regulator of neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and gene expression. The central element of Cav1.2 is the pore-forming α 11.2 subunit. It exists in two major size forms, whose molecular masses have proven difficult to precisely determine. Recent work suggests that α 11.2 is proteolytically cleaved between the second and third of its four pore-forming domains (Michailidis et al,. 2014). Methods: To better determine the apparent molecular masses (M R)of the α 11.2 size forms, extensive systematic immunoblotting of brain tissue as well as full length and C-terminally truncated α 11.2 expressed in HEK293 cells was conducted using six different region-specific antibodies against α 11.2. Results: The full length form of α 11.2 migrated, as expected, with an apparent M R of ~250 kDa. A shorter form of comparable prevalence with an apparent M R of ~210 kDa could only be detected in immunoblots probed with antibodies recognizing α 11.2 at an epitope 400 or more residues upstream of the C-terminus. Conclusions: The main two size forms of α 11.2 are the full length form and a shorter form, which lacks ~350 distal C-terminal residues. Midchannel cleavage as suggested by Michailidis et al. (2014) is at best minimal in brain tissue.

  18. The R563Q mutation of the epithelial sodium channel beta-subunit is associated with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jones, E S; Owen, E P; Davidson, J S; Van Der Merwe, L; Rayner, B L

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence of the R563Q mutation of the epithelial sodium channel β-subunit has been reported in South African hypertensives compared with unrelated normotensive controls. To delineate the effects of this mutation against a more uniform genetic background, this study investigated the association of the mutation with hypertension within affected kindreds. Forty-five index patients and members of their kindreds were studied. Blood pressure, serum potassium and the presence of the R563Q mutation were determined. Of the 136 individuals studied, 89 were heterozygous for the R563Q mutation and 47 homozygous RR. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the R563Q heterozygous group (p = 0.005) after adjusting for gender, race, age and kindred membership. Of the R563Q heterozygous subjects, 71 (80%) had hypertension, while 17 (36%) of the R563Q homozygous RR subjects were hypertensive. Six R563Q heterozygous subjects had hypokalaemia and one R563Q homozygous RR subject had hypokalaemia, but the difference was not statistically significant. Two heterozygous patients had Liddle's syndrome, both occurring during pregnancy. The R563Q mutation of β-ENaC is associated with hypertension within affected kindreds, but does not usually cause the full Liddle's syndrome phenotype.

  19. Deletion of GIRK2 Subunit of GIRK Channels Alters the 5-HT1A Receptor-Mediated Signaling and Results in a Depression-Resistant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Llamosas, Nerea; Bruzos-Cidón, Cristina; Rodríguez, José Julio; Ugedo, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeting dorsal raphe 5-HT1A receptors, which are coupled to G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, has revealed their contribution not only to behavioral and functional aspects of depression but also to the clinical response to its treatment. Although GIRK channels containing GIRK2 subunits play an important role controlling excitability of several brain areas, their impact on the dorsal raphe activity is still unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the involvement of GIRK2 subunit-containing GIRK channels in depression-related behaviors and physiology of serotonergic neurotransmission. Methods: Behavioral, functional, including in vivo extracellular recordings of dorsal raphe neurons, and neurogenesis studies were carried out in wild-type and GIRK2 mutant mice. Results: Deletion of the GIRK2 subunit promoted a depression-resistant phenotype and determined the behavioral response to the antidepressant citalopram without altering hippocampal neurogenesis. In dorsal raphe neurons of GIRK2 knockout mice, and also using GIRK channel blocker tertiapin-Q, the basal firing rate was higher than that obtained in wild-type animals, although no differences were observed in other firing parameters. 5-HT1A receptors were desensitized in GIRK2 knockout mice, as demonstrated by a lower sensitivity of dorsal raphe neurons to the inhibitory effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, and the antidepressant citalopram. Conclusions: Our results indicate that GIRK channels formed by GIRK2 subunits determine depression-related behaviors as well as basal and 5-HT1A receptor-mediated dorsal raphe neuronal activity, becoming alternative therapeutic targets for psychiatric diseases underlying dysfunctional serotonin transmission. PMID:25956878

  20. Protein Kinase C (PKC) Activity Regulates Functional Effects of Kvβ1.3 Subunit on KV1.5 Channels

    PubMed Central

    David, Miren; Macías, Álvaro; Moreno, Cristina; Prieto, Ángela; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Vicente, Rubén; González, Teresa; Felipe, Antonio; Tamkun, Michael M.; Valenzuela, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Kv1.5 channels are the primary channels contributing to the ultrarapid outward potassium current (IKur). The regulatory Kvβ1.3 subunit converts Kv1.5 channels from delayed rectifiers with a modest degree of slow inactivation to channels with both fast and slow inactivation components. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of PKC with calphostin C abolishes the fast inactivation induced by Kvβ1.3. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon using electrophysiological, biochemical, and confocal microscopy approaches. To achieve this, we used HEK293 cells (which lack Kvβ subunits) transiently cotransfected with Kv1.5+Kvβ1.3 and also rat ventricular and atrial tissue to study native α-β subunit interactions. Immunocytochemistry assays demonstrated that these channel subunits colocalize in control conditions and after calphostin C treatment. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that Kv1.5 and Kvβ1.3 remain associated after PKC inhibition. After knocking down all PKC isoforms by siRNA or inhibiting PKC with calphostin C, Kvβ1.3-induced fast inactivation at +60 mV was abolished. However, depolarization to +100 mV revealed Kvβ1.3-induced inactivation, indicating that PKC inhibition causes a dramatic positive shift of the inactivation curve. Our results demonstrate that calphostin C-mediated abolishment of fast inactivation is not due to the dissociation of Kv1.5 and Kvβ1.3. Finally, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry experiments revealed an association between Kv1.5, Kvβ1.3, the receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), PKCβI, PKCβII, and PKCθ in HEK293 cells. A very similar Kv1.5 channelosome was found in rat ventricular tissue but not in atrial tissue. PMID:22547057

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel sodium channel TipE-like auxiliary subunit from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Céline M; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Murillo, Laurence; Quinchard, Sophie; Dong, Ke; Legros, Christian

    2015-11-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the functions of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are modulated by TipE and its orthologs. Here, we describe a novel TipE homolog of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, called PaTipE. Like DmTipE, PaTipE mRNAs are ubiquitously expressed. Surprisingly, PaTipE mRNA was undetectable in neurosecretory cells identified as dorsal unpaired median neurons. Phylogenetic analysis placed this new sequence in TipE clade, indicating an independent evolution from a common ancestor. Contrary to previous reports, our data indicate that the auxiliary subunits of insect Nav channels are very distant from the mammalian BKCa auxiliary subunits. To decipher the functional roles of PaTipE, we characterized the gating properties of DmNav1-1 channels co-expressed with DmTipE or PaTipE, in Xenopus oocytes. Compared to DmTipE, PaTipE increased Na(+) currents by a 4.2-fold. The voltage-dependence of steady-state fast inactivation of DmNav1-1/PaTipE channels was shifted by 5.8 mV to more negative potentials than that of DmNav1-1/DmTipE channels. DmNav1-1/PaTipE channels recovered 3.2-fold slower from the fast-inactivated state than DmNav1-1/DmTipE channels. In conclusion, this study supports that the insect Nav auxiliary subunits share functional features with their mammalian counterparts, although structurally and phylogenetically distant.

  2. Relating proton pumps with gap junctions: colocalization of ductin, the channel-forming subunit c of V-ATPase, with subunit a and with innexins 2 and 3 during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lautemann, Julia; Bohrmann, Johannes

    2016-07-13

    Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions. We, therefore, investigated the stage-specific distribution patterns of V-ATPase components in relation to gap-junction proteins. We analysed the localization of the V-ATPase components ductin (subunit c) and subunit a, and the gap-junction components innexins 2 and 3, especially in polar cells, border cells, stalk cells and centripetally migrating cells. These types of follicle cells had previously been shown to exhibit characteristic patterns of membrane channels as well as membrane potential and intracellular pH. Stage-specifically, ductin and subunit a were found either colocalized or separately enriched in different regions of soma and germ-line cells. While ductin was often more prominent in plasma membranes, subunit a was more prominent in cytoplasmic and nuclear vesicles. Particularly, ductin was enriched in polar cells, stalk cells, and nurse-cell membranes, whereas subunit a was enriched in the cytoplasm of border cells, columnar follicle cells and germ-line cells. Comparably, ductin and both innexins 2 and 3 were either colocalized or separately enriched in different cellular regions. While ductin often showed a continuous membrane distribution, the distribution of both innexins was mostly punctate. Particularly, ductin was enriched in polar cells and stalk cells, whereas innexin 2 was enriched in the oolemma, and innexin 3 in centripetally migrating follicle cells. In lateral follicle-cell membranes, the three proteins were found colocalized as well as

  3. A Mutation in the β3 Subunit of the Cardiac Sodium Channel Associated with Brugada ECG Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Barajas-Martinez, Hector; Burashnikov, Elena; Springer, Michael; Wu, Yuesheng; Varro, Andras; Pfeiffer, Ryan; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Guerchicoff, Alejandra; Pollevick, Guido D.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background Brugada Syndrome (BrS), characterized by ST segment elevation in the right precordial ECG leads and the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, has been associated with mutations in six different genes. Here, we identify and characterize a mutation in a new gene. Methods and Results A 64-year-old Caucasian male displayed a Type-1 ST segment elevation in V1 and V2 during procainamide challenge. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based direct sequencing was performed using a candidate gene approach. A missense mutation (L10P) was detected in exon 1 of SCN3B, the β3 subunit of the cardiac sodium channel, but not in any other gene known to be associated with BrS or in 296 controls. Wild type (WT) and mutant genes were expressed in TSA201 cells and studied using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Co-expression of SCN5A/WT+SCN1B/WT+SCN3B/L10P resulted in an 82.6% decrease in peak sodium current density, accelerated inactivation, slowed reactivation and a -9.6 mV shift of half-inactivation voltage compared to SCN5A/WT+SCN1B/WT+SCN3B/WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that SCN5A/WT channels tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to the cell surface when co-expressed with WT SCN1B and SCN3B, but remain trapped in intracellular organelles when co-expressed with SCN1B/WT and SCN3B/L10P. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of NaVβ3 in human ventricular myocardium. Conclusions Our results provide support for the hypothesis that mutations in SCN3B can lead to loss of transport and functional expression of the hNav1.5 protein, leading to reduction in sodium channel current and clinical manifestation of a Brugada phenotype. PMID:20031595

  4. The stoichiometry and biophysical properties of the Kv4 potassium channel complex with K+ channel-interacting protein (KChIP) subunits are variable, depending on the relative expression level.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masahiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Nakajo, Koichi

    2014-06-20

    Kv4 is a voltage-gated K(+) channel, which underlies somatodendritic subthreshold A-type current (ISA) and cardiac transient outward K(+) (Ito) current. Various ion channel properties of Kv4 are known to be modulated by its auxiliary subunits, such as K(+) channel-interacting protein (KChIP) or dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein. KChIP is a cytoplasmic protein and increases the current amplitude, decelerates the inactivation, and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of Kv4. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that Kv4 and KChIP form an octameric complex with four Kv4 subunits and four KChIP subunits. However, it remains unknown whether the Kv4·KChIP complex can have a different stoichiometry other than 4:4. In this study, we expressed Kv4.2 and KChIP4 with various ratios in Xenopus oocytes and observed that the biophysical properties of Kv4.2 gradually changed with the increase in co-expressed KChIP4. The tandem repeat constructs of Kv4.2 and KChIP4 revealed that the 4:4 (Kv4.2/KChIP4) channel shows faster recovery than the 4:2 channel, suggesting that the biophysical properties of Kv4.2 change, depending on the number of bound KChIP4s. Subunit counting by single-molecule imaging revealed that the bound number of KChIP4 in each Kv4.2·KChIP4 complex was dependent on the expression level of KChIP4. Taken together, we conclude that the stoichiometry of Kv4·KChIP complex is variable, and the biophysical properties of Kv4 change depending on the number of bound KChIP subunits.

  5. The Stoichiometry and Biophysical Properties of the Kv4 Potassium Channel Complex with K+ Channel-interacting Protein (KChIP) Subunits Are Variable, Depending on the Relative Expression Level*

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Masahiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Nakajo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Kv4 is a voltage-gated K+ channel, which underlies somatodendritic subthreshold A-type current (ISA) and cardiac transient outward K+ (Ito) current. Various ion channel properties of Kv4 are known to be modulated by its auxiliary subunits, such as K+ channel-interacting protein (KChIP) or dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein. KChIP is a cytoplasmic protein and increases the current amplitude, decelerates the inactivation, and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of Kv4. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that Kv4 and KChIP form an octameric complex with four Kv4 subunits and four KChIP subunits. However, it remains unknown whether the Kv4·KChIP complex can have a different stoichiometry other than 4:4. In this study, we expressed Kv4.2 and KChIP4 with various ratios in Xenopus oocytes and observed that the biophysical properties of Kv4.2 gradually changed with the increase in co-expressed KChIP4. The tandem repeat constructs of Kv4.2 and KChIP4 revealed that the 4:4 (Kv4.2/KChIP4) channel shows faster recovery than the 4:2 channel, suggesting that the biophysical properties of Kv4.2 change, depending on the number of bound KChIP4s. Subunit counting by single-molecule imaging revealed that the bound number of KChIP4 in each Kv4.2·KChIP4 complex was dependent on the expression level of KChIP4. Taken together, we conclude that the stoichiometry of Kv4·KChIP complex is variable, and the biophysical properties of Kv4 change depending on the number of bound KChIP subunits. PMID:24811166

  6. Three-Dimensional Localization of the α and β Subunits and of the II-III Loop in the Skeletal Muscle L-type Ca2+ Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Szpyt, John; Lorenzon, Nancy; Perez, Claudio F.; Norris, Ethan; Allen, Paul D.; Beam, Kurt G.; Samsó, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The L-type Ca2+ channel (dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in skeletal muscle acts as the voltage sensor for excitation-contraction coupling. To better resolve the spatial organization of the DHPR subunits (α1s or CaV1.1, α2, β1a, δ1, and γ), we created transgenic mice expressing a recombinant β1a subunit with YFP and a biotin acceptor domain attached to its N- and C- termini, respectively. DHPR complexes were purified from skeletal muscle, negatively stained, imaged by electron microscopy, and subjected to single-particle image analysis. The resulting 19.1-Å resolution, three-dimensional reconstruction shows a main body of 17 × 11 × 8 nm with five corners along its perimeter. Two protrusions emerge from either face of the main body: the larger one attributed to the α2-δ1 subunit that forms a flexible hook-shaped feature and a smaller protrusion on the opposite side that corresponds to the II-III loop of CaV1.1 as revealed by antibody labeling. Novel features discernible in the electron density accommodate the atomic coordinates of a voltage-gated sodium channel and of the β subunit in a single docking possibility that defines the α1-β interaction. The β subunit appears more closely associated to the membrane than expected, which may better account for both its role in localizing the α1s subunit to the membrane and its suggested role in excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:23118233

  7. Three-dimensional localization of the α and β subunits and of the II-III loop in the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel.

    PubMed

    Szpyt, John; Lorenzon, Nancy; Perez, Claudio F; Norris, Ethan; Allen, Paul D; Beam, Kurt G; Samsó, Montserrat

    2012-12-21

    The L-type Ca(2+) channel (dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in skeletal muscle acts as the voltage sensor for excitation-contraction coupling. To better resolve the spatial organization of the DHPR subunits (α(1s) or Ca(V)1.1, α(2), β(1a), δ1, and γ), we created transgenic mice expressing a recombinant β(1a) subunit with YFP and a biotin acceptor domain attached to its N- and C- termini, respectively. DHPR complexes were purified from skeletal muscle, negatively stained, imaged by electron microscopy, and subjected to single-particle image analysis. The resulting 19.1-Å resolution, three-dimensional reconstruction shows a main body of 17 × 11 × 8 nm with five corners along its perimeter. Two protrusions emerge from either face of the main body: the larger one attributed to the α(2)-δ1 subunit that forms a flexible hook-shaped feature and a smaller protrusion on the opposite side that corresponds to the II-III loop of Ca(V)1.1 as revealed by antibody labeling. Novel features discernible in the electron density accommodate the atomic coordinates of a voltage-gated sodium channel and of the β subunit in a single docking possibility that defines the α1-β interaction. The β subunit appears more closely associated to the membrane than expected, which may better account for both its role in localizing the α(1s) subunit to the membrane and its suggested role in excitation-contraction coupling.

  8. Cell-specific expression of epithelial sodium channel alpha, beta, and gamma subunits in aldosterone-responsive epithelia from the rat: localization by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A highly selective, amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel from rat colon (rENaC), composed of three homologous subunits termed alpha, beta, and gamma rENaC, has been cloned by functional expression and was proposed to mediate electrogenic sodium reabsorption in aldosterone- responsive epithelia. To determine whether rENaC could account for sodium absorption in vivo, we studied the cellular localization of the sodium channel messenger RNA subunits by in situ hybridization and their cellular and subcellular distribution by immunocytochemistry in the kidney, colon, salivary, and sweat glands of the rat. In the kidney, we show that the three subunit mRNAs are specifically co- expressed in the renal distal convoluted tubules (DCT), connecting tubules (CNT), cortical collecting ducts (CCD), and outer medullary collecting ducts (OMCD), but not in the inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD). We demonstrate co-localization of alpha, beta, and gamma subunit proteins in the apical membrane of a majority of cells of CCD and OMCD. Our data indicate that alpha, beta, and gamma subunit mRNAs and proteins are co-expressed in the distal nephron (excepting IMCD), a localization that correlates with the previously described physiological expression of amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium transport. Our data, however, suggest that another sodium transport protein mediates electrogenic amiloride-sensitive sodium reabsorption in IMCD. We also localized rENaC to the surface epithelial cells of the distal colon and to the secretory ducts of the salivary gland and sweat gland, providing further evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the highly selective, amiloride-sensitive sodium channel is physiologically expressed in aldosterone-responsive cells. PMID:7806569

  9. Mutations of the Same Conserved Glutamate Residue in NBD2 of the Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Subunit of the KATP Channel Can Result in Either Hyperinsulinism or Neonatal Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Männikkö, Roope; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Sim, Xiuli; Segal, David; Hussain, Khalid; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Two novel mutations (E1506D, E1506G) in the nucleotide-binding domain 2 (NBD2) of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunit were detected heterozygously in patients with neonatal diabetes. A mutation at the same residue (E1506K) was previously shown to cause congenital hyperinsulinemia. We sought to understand why mutations at the same residue can cause either neonatal diabetes or hyperinsulinemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Neonatal diabetic patients were sequenced for mutations in ABCC8 (SUR1) and KCNJ11 (Kir6.2). Wild-type and mutant KATP channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied with electrophysiological methods. RESULTS Oocytes expressing neonatal diabetes mutant channels had larger resting whole-cell KATP currents than wild-type, consistent with the patients’ diabetes. Conversely, no E1506K currents were recorded at rest or after metabolic inhibition, as expected for a mutation causing hyperinsulinemia. KATP channels are activated by Mg-nucleotides (via SUR1) and blocked by ATP (via Kir6.2). All mutations decreased channel activation by MgADP but had little effect on MgATP activation, as assessed using an ATP-insensitive Kir6.2 subunit. Importantly, using wild-type Kir6.2, a 30-s preconditioning exposure to physiological MgATP concentrations (>300 µmol/L) caused a marked reduction in the ATP sensitivity of neonatal diabetic channels, a small decrease in that of wild-type channels, and no change for E1506K channels. This difference in MgATP inhibition may explain the difference in resting whole-cell currents found for the neonatal diabetes and hyperinsulinemia mutations. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in the same residue can cause either hyperinsulinemia or neonatal diabetes. Differentially altered nucleotide regulation by NBD2 of SUR1 can explain the respective clinical phenotypes. PMID:21617188

  10. Coding and noncoding variation of the human calcium-channel beta4-subunit gene CACNB4 in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and episodic ataxia.

    PubMed Central

    Escayg, A; De Waard, M; Lee, D D; Bichet, D; Wolf, P; Mayer, T; Johnston, J; Baloh, R; Sander, T; Meisler, M H

    2000-01-01

    Inactivation of the beta4 subunit of the calcium channel in the mouse neurological mutant lethargic results in a complex neurological disorder that includes absence epilepsy and ataxia. To determine the role of the calcium-channel beta4-subunit gene CACNB4 on chromosome 2q22-23 in related human disorders, we screened for mutations in small pedigrees with familial epilepsy and ataxia. The premature-termination mutation R482X was identified in a patient with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The R482X protein lacks the 38 C-terminal amino acids containing part of an interaction domain for the alpha1 subunit. The missense mutation C104F was identified both in a German family with generalized epilepsy and praxis-induced seizures and in a French Canadian family with episodic ataxia. These coding mutations were not detected in 255 unaffected control individuals (510 chromosomes), and they may be considered candidate disease mutations. The results of functional tests of the truncated protein R482X in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated a small decrease in the fast time constant for inactivation of the cotransfected alpha1 subunit. Further studies will be required to evaluate the in vivo consequences of these mutations. We also describe eight noncoding single-nucleotide substitutions, two of which are present at polymorphic frequency, and a previously unrecognized first intron of CACNB4 that interrupts exon 1 at codon 21. PMID:10762541

  11. Distinctive role of KV1.1 subunit in the biology and functions of low threshold K(+) channels with implications for neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Ovsepian, Saak V; LeBerre, Marie; Steuber, Volker; O'Leary, Valerie B; Leibold, Christian; Oliver Dolly, J

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of pore-forming subunits of KV1 channels (KV1.1-KV1.8) affords their physiological versatility and predicts a range of functional impairments resulting from genetic aberrations. Curiously, identified so far human neurological conditions associated with dysfunctions of KV1 channels have been linked exclusively to mutations in the KCNA1 gene encoding for the KV1.1 subunit. The absence of phenotypes related to irregularities in other subunits, including the prevalent KV1.2 subunit of neurons is highly perplexing given that deletion of the corresponding kcna2 gene in mouse models precipitates symptoms reminiscent to those of KV1.1 knockouts. Herein, we critically evaluate the molecular and biophysical characteristics of the KV1.1 protein in comparison with others and discuss their role in the greater penetrance of KCNA1 mutations in humans leading to the neurological signs of episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). Future research and interpretation of emerging data should afford new insights towards a better understanding of the role of KV1.1 in integrative mechanisms of neurons and synaptic functions under normal and disease conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium channel β1 subunit localizes to axon initial segments of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and shows regional heterogeneity in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Verena C; Harty, Rosemary C; Richards, Kay L; Phillips, A Marie; Miyazaki, Haruko; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Petrou, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The β1 subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels, Nav β1, plays multiple roles in neurons spanning electrophysiological modulation of sodium channel α subunits to cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. This study used immunohistochemistry to investigate Nav β1 subneuronal and regional expression. Nav β1 was enriched at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Nav β1 expression at the AIS was detected throughout the brain, predominantly in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Despite expression of Nav β1 in both excitatory and inhibitory AIS, it displayed a marked and fine-grained heterogeneity of expression. Such heterogeneity could have important implications for the tuning of single neuronal and regional excitability, especially in view of the fact that Nav β1 coexpressed with Nav 1.1, Nav 1.2, and Nav 1.6 subunits. The disruption of Nav β1 AIS expression by a human epilepsy-causing C121W genetic mutation in Nav β1 was also investigated using a mouse model. AIS expression of Nav β1 was reduced by approximately 50% in mice heterozygous for the C121W mutation and was abolished in homozygotes, suggesting that loss of Nav α subunit modulation by Nav β1 contributes to the mechanism of epileptogenesis in these animals as well as in patients.

  13. Molecular structure of rat brain apamin receptor: differential photoaffinity labeling of putative K/sup +/ channel subunits and target size analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Seagar, M.J.; Labbe-Jullie, C.; Granier, C.; Goll, A.; Glossmann, H.; Rietschoten, J.V.; Couraud, F.

    1986-07-01

    Two photoreactive apamin derivatives were prepared with an aryl azide group coupled at different positions on the neurotoxin molecule. These ligands were used to identify membrane components in the environment of the neuronal binding site that is associated with a Ca/sup 2 +/-activated K/sup +/ channel. /sup 125/I-(..cap alpha..-ANPAA-Cys/sub 1/)apamin labeled a single M/sub r/ 86,000 chain in cultured neurons whereas two bands corresponding to M/sub r/ 86,000 and 59,000 were detected in synaptic membrane preparations, suggesting that the M/sub r/ 59,000 polypeptide may be a degradation product. Randomly modified /sup 125/I-ANPAA-apamin gave a cross-linking profile equivalent to the sum of those obtained with the two defined derivatives. The apamin binding site seems to be located at the frontier between three or more putative K/sup +/ channel subunits which are only accessible from limited regions of the receptor-associated photoprobe. Irradiation of frozen rat brain membranes with high-energy electrons led to a reduction in /sup 125/I-apamin receptor capacity, yielding a target size for the functional binding unit of M/sub r/ 84,000-115,000, which could be constituted by the M/sub r/ 86,000 subunit alone or by the M/sub r/ 86,000 subunit in conjunction with one of the two smaller subunits.

  14. The comprehensive analysis of DEG/ENaC subunits in Hydra reveals a large variety of peptide-gated channels, potentially involved in neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Marc; Kuhn, Anne; Dürrnagel, Stefan; Holstein, Thomas W; Gründer, Stefan

    2014-10-14

    It is generally the case that fast transmission at neural synapses is mediated by small molecule neurotransmitters. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra, however, contains a large repertoire of neuropeptides and it has been suggested that neuropeptides are the principal transmitters of Hydra. An ion channel directly gated by Hydra-RFamide neuropeptides has indeed been identified in Hydra - the Hydra Na+ channel (HyNaC) 2/3/5, which is expressed at the oral side of the tentacle base. Hydra-RFamides are more widely expressed, however, being found in neurons of the head and peduncle region. Here, we explore whether further peptide-gated HyNaCs exist, where in the animal they are expressed, and whether they are all gated by Hydra-RFamides. We report molecular cloning of seven new HyNaC subunits - HyNaC6 to HyNaC12, all of which are members of the DEG/ENaC gene family. In Xenopus oocytes, these subunits assemble together with the four already known subunits into thirteen different ion channels that are directly gated by Hydra-RFamide neuropeptides with high affinity (up to 40 nM). In situ hybridization suggests that HyNaCs are expressed in epitheliomuscular cells at the oral and the aboral side of the tentacle base and at the peduncle. Moreover, diminazene, an inhibitor of HyNaCs, delayed tentacle movement in live Hydra. Our results show that Hydra has a large variety of peptide-gated ion channels that are activated by a restricted number of related neuropeptides. The existence and expression pattern of these channels, and behavioral effects induced by channel blockers, suggests that Hydra co-opted neuropeptides for fast neuromuscular transmission.

  15. Differential contribution of the NR1- and NR2A-subunits to the selectivity filter of recombinant NMDA receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Wollmuth, L P; Kuner, T; Seeburg, P H; Sakmann, B

    1996-01-01

    1. The molecular determinants for the narrow constriction of recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels composed of wild-type and mutant NR1- and NR2A-subunits were studied in Xenopus oocytes. 2. The relative permeability of differently sized organic cations was used as an indicator of the size of the narrow constriction. From measured reversal potentials under bi-ionic conditions with K+ as the reference solution, permeability ratios were calculated with the Lewis equation. 3. For wild-type NMDA receptor channels, five organic cations showed clear reversal potentials, with permeability ratios (PX/PK): ammonium, 1.28; methylammonium, 0.48; dimethylammonium (DMA), 0.20; diethylammonium, 0.07; and dimethylethanol-ammonium, 0.02. 4. Mutation of the N-site asparagine (N) to glutamine (Q) at homologous positions in either NR1 (position 598) or NR2A (position 595) increased the permeability of DMA relative to wild-type channels about equally. However, for larger sized organic cations, the NR1(N598Q) mutation had stronger effects on increasing their permeability whereas the NR2A(N595Q) mutation was without effect. These changes in organic cation permeability suggest that the NR1(N598Q) mutation increases the pore size while the NR2A(N595Q) mutation does not. 5. Channels in which the NR1 N-site asparagine was replaced by the smaller glycine (G), NR1(N598G)-NR2A, showed the largest increase in pore size of all sites examined in either subunit. In contrast, in the NR2A-subunit the same N-site substitution to glycine produced only small effects on pore size. 6. For the NR2A-subunit, an asparagine residue (position 596) on the C-terminal side of the N-site, when mutated to larger or smaller sized amino acids, produced large, volume-specific effects on pore size. The mutant channel NR1-NR2A(N596G) had the largest increase in pore size of all sites examined in the NR2A-subunit. In contrast, mutation of the homologous position in the NR1-subunit had no effect on

  16. A Novel CaV1.2 N Terminus Expressed in Smooth Muscle Cells of Resistance Size Arteries Modifies Channel Regulation by Auxiliary Subunits*S

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jianxi; Asuncion-Chin, Maria; Blaskova, Eva; Bannister, John P.; Dopico, Alejandro M.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ (CaV1.2) channels are the principal Ca2+ entry pathway in arterial myocytes. CaV1.2 channels regulate multiple vascular functions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of human disease, including hypertension. However, the molecular identity of CaV1.2 channels expressed in myocytes of myogenic arteries that regulate vascular pressure and blood flow is unknown. Here, we cloned CaV1.2 subunits from resistance size cerebral arteries and demonstrate that myocytes contain a novel, cysteine rich N terminus that is derived from exon 1 (termed “exon 1c”), which is located within CACNA1C, the CaV1.2 gene. Quantitative PCR revealed that exon 1c was predominant in arterial myocytes, but rare in cardiac myocytes, where exon 1a prevailed. When co-expressed with α2δ subunits, CaV1.2 channels containing the novel exon 1c-derived N terminus exhibited: 1) smaller whole cell current density, 2) more negative voltages of half activation (V1/2,act) and half-inactivation (V1/2,inact), and 3) reduced plasma membrane insertion, when compared with channels containing exon 1b. β1b and β2a subunits caused negative shifts in the V1/2,act and V1/2,inact of exon 1b-containing CaV1.2α1/α2δ currents that were larger than those in exon 1c-containing CaV1.2α1/α2δ currents. In contrast, β3 similarly shifted V1/2,act and V1/2,inact of currents generated by exon 1b- and exon 1c-containing channels. β subunits isoform-dependent differences in current inactivation rates were also detected between N-terminal variants. Data indicate that through novel alternative splicing at exon 1, the CaV1.2 N terminus modifies regulation by auxiliary subunits. The novel exon 1c should generate distinct voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry in arterial myocytes, resulting in tissue-specific Ca2+ signaling. PMID:17699517

  17. IBM-type inclusions in a patient with slow-channel syndrome caused by a mutation in the AChR epsilon subunit.

    PubMed

    Fidzianska, Anna; Ryniewicz, B; Shen, Xing-Ming; Engel, Andrew G

    2005-11-01

    We report a patient with a slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome who carries a novel slow-channel mutation in the epsilon subunit of the acetylcholine receptor and has tubulofilamentous inclusion bodies, in skeletal muscle of the type observed in hereditary and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Ultrastructural analysis of a muscle specimen obtained at the age of 9 years showed an endplate myopathy typical of the slow-channel syndrome. Twenty years later, a second muscle specimen again showed the endplate myopathy as well numerous nuclear and cytoplasmic tubulofilamentous inclusion bodies. Molecular genetic studies revealed a novel valine to phenylalanine mutation (epsilonV259F) in the M2 domain of the acetylcholine receptor. Coexistence of the slow-channel syndrome with a feature of IBM has not been observed before.

  18. The voltage-dependent K+ channel (Kv1.5) cloned from rabbit heart and facilitation of inactivation of the delayed rectifier current by the rat beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Ishii, K; Nunoki, K; Yamagishi, T; Taira, N

    1995-09-18

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a delayed rectifier K+ channel (RBKV1.5) from rabbit heart. The amino acid sequence of RBKV1.5 displays a homology to that of other K+ channels of Kv1.5 class. Overall amino acid identity between RBKV1.5 channel and Kv1.5 channel of other species is about 85%. RNA blot analysis revealed the expression of the primary transcript in various rabbit tissues, at the highest level in both the atrium and ventricle. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, RBKV1.5 current showed a delayed rectifier type characteristics, which was converted to rapidly inactivating currents upon coexpression with a beta subunit.

  19. A missense mutation in the sodium channel β2 subunit reveals SCN2B as a new candidate gene for Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riuró, Helena; Beltran-Alvarez, Pedro; Tarradas, Anna; Selga, Elisabet; Campuzano, Oscar; Vergés, Marcel; Pagans, Sara; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Pedro; Vázquez, Francisco M; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S; Brugada, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is a familial disease associated with sudden cardiac death. A 20%-25% of BrS patients carry genetic defects that cause loss-of-function of the voltage-gated cardiac sodium channel. Thus, 70%-75% of patients remain without a genetic diagnosis. In this work, we identified a novel missense mutation (p.Asp211Gly) in the sodium β2 subunit encoded by SCN2B, in a woman diagnosed with BrS. We studied the sodium current (INa ) from cells coexpressing Nav 1.5 and wild-type (β2WT) or mutant (β2D211G) β2 subunits. Our electrophysiological analysis showed a 39.4% reduction in INa density when Nav 1.5 was coexpressed with the β2D211G. Single channel analysis showed that the mutation did not affect the Nav 1.5 unitary channel conductance. Instead, protein membrane detection experiments suggested that β2D211G decreases Nav 1.5 cell surface expression. The effect of the mutant β2 subunit on the INa strongly suggests that SCN2B is a new candidate gene associated with BrS.

  20. Drosophila pheromone-sensing neurons expressing the ppk25 ion channel subunit stimulate male courtship and female receptivity.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vinoy; Thistle, Rob; Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2014-03-01

    As in many species, gustatory pheromones regulate the mating behavior of Drosophila. Recently, several ppk genes, encoding ion channel subunits of the DEG/ENaC family, have been implicated in this process, leading to the identification of gustatory neurons that detect specific pheromones. In a subset of taste hairs on the legs of Drosophila, there are two ppk23-expressing, pheromone-sensing neurons with complementary response profiles; one neuron detects female pheromones that stimulate male courtship, the other detects male pheromones that inhibit male-male courtship. In contrast to ppk23, ppk25, is only expressed in a single gustatory neuron per taste hair, and males with impaired ppk25 function court females at reduced rates but do not display abnormal courtship of other males. These findings raised the possibility that ppk25 expression defines a subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. Here we show that ppk25 is expressed and functions in neurons that detect female-specific pheromones and mediates their stimulatory effect on male courtship. Furthermore, the role of ppk25 and ppk25-expressing neurons is not restricted to responses to female-specific pheromones. ppk25 is also required in the same subset of neurons for stimulation of male courtship by young males, males of the Tai2 strain, and by synthetic 7-pentacosene (7-P), a hydrocarbon normally found at low levels in both males and females. Finally, we unexpectedly find that, in females, ppk25 and ppk25-expressing cells regulate receptivity to mating. In the absence of the third antennal segment, which has both olfactory and auditory functions, mutations in ppk25 or silencing of ppk25-expressing neurons block female receptivity to males. Together these results indicate that ppk25 identifies a functionally specialized subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. While ppk25 neurons are required for the responses to multiple pheromones, in both males and females these neurons are specifically involved in stimulating

  1. Cloning and characterization of genes encoding alpha and beta subunits of glutamate-gated chloride channel protein in Cylicocyclus nassatus.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ritesh; LePage, Keith T; Kaplan, Ray M

    2006-11-01

    The invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are receptor molecules and targets for the avermectin-milbemycin (AM) group of anthelmintics. Mutations in GluCls are associated with ivermectin resistance in the soil dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Cooperia oncophora. In this study, full-length cDNAs encoding alpha and beta subunits of GluCl were cloned and sequenced in Cylicocyclus nassatus, a common and important cyathostomin nematode parasite of horses. Both genes possess the sequence characteristics typical of GluCls, and phylogenetic analysis confirms that these genes are evolutionarily closely related to GluCls of other nematodes and flies. Complete coding sequences of C. nassatus GluCl-alpha and GluCl-beta were subcloned into pTL1 mammalian expression vector, and proteins were expressed in COS-7 cells. Ivermectin-binding characteristics were determined by incubating COS-7 cell membranes expressing C. nassatus GluCl-alpha and GluCl-beta proteins with [(3)H]ivermectin. In competitive binding experiments, fitting the data to a one site competition model, C. nassatus GluCl-alpha was found to bind [(3)H]ivermectin with a high amount of displaceable binding (IC(50)=208 pM). Compared to the mock-transfected COS-7 cells, the means of [(3)H]ivermectin binding were significantly different for C. nassatus GluCl-alpha and the Haemonchus contortus GluCl (HcGluCla) (p=0.018 and 0.023, respectively) but not for C. nassatus GluCl-beta (p=0.370). This is the first report of orthologs of GluCl genes and in vitro expression of an ivermectin-binding protein in a cyathostomin species. These data suggest the likelihood of a similar mechanism of action of AM drugs in these parasites, and suggest that mechanisms of resistance may also be similar.

  2. Embryonic type Na+ channel β-subunit, SCN3B masks the disease phenotype of Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okata, Shinichiro; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Ito, Shogo; Makita, Naomasa; Yoshida, Tetsu; Li, Min; Kurokawa, Junko; Seki, Tomohisa; Egashira, Toru; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Kodaira, Masaki; Motoda, Chikaaki; Yozu, Gakuto; Shimojima, Masaya; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Kuroda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Atsushi; Murata, Mitsushige; Aiba, Takeshi; Shimizu, Wataru; Horie, Minoru; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    SCN5A is abundant in heart and has a major role in INa. Loss-of-function mutation in SCN5A results in Brugada syndrome (BrS), which causes sudden death in adults. It remains unclear why disease phenotype does not manifest in the young even though mutated SCN5A is expressed in the young. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the timing of the disease manifestation in BrS. A gain-of-function mutation in SCN5A also results in Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQTS3), leading to sudden death in the young. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from a patient with a mixed phenotype of LQTS3 and BrS with the E1784K SCN5A mutation. Here we show that electrophysiological analysis revealed that LQTS3/BrS iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate the phenotype of LQTS3 but not BrS. Each β-subunit of the sodium channel is differentially expressed in embryonic and adult hearts. SCN3B is highly expressed in embryonic hearts and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. A heterologous expression system revealed that INa of mutated SCN5A is decreased and SCN3B augmented INa of mutated SCN5A. Knockdown of SCN3B in LQTS3/BrS iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes successfully unmasked the phenotype of BrS. Isogenic control of LQTS3/BrS (corrected-LQTS3/BrS) iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes gained the normal electrophysiological properties. PMID:27677334

  3. Drosophila Pheromone-Sensing Neurons Expressing the ppk25 Ion Channel Subunit Stimulate Male Courtship and Female Receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vinoy; Thistle, Rob; Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2014-01-01

    As in many species, gustatory pheromones regulate the mating behavior of Drosophila. Recently, several ppk genes, encoding ion channel subunits of the DEG/ENaC family, have been implicated in this process, leading to the identification of gustatory neurons that detect specific pheromones. In a subset of taste hairs on the legs of Drosophila, there are two ppk23-expressing, pheromone-sensing neurons with complementary response profiles; one neuron detects female pheromones that stimulate male courtship, the other detects male pheromones that inhibit male-male courtship. In contrast to ppk23, ppk25, is only expressed in a single gustatory neuron per taste hair, and males with impaired ppk25 function court females at reduced rates but do not display abnormal courtship of other males. These findings raised the possibility that ppk25 expression defines a subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. Here we show that ppk25 is expressed and functions in neurons that detect female-specific pheromones and mediates their stimulatory effect on male courtship. Furthermore, the role of ppk25 and ppk25-expressing neurons is not restricted to responses to female-specific pheromones. ppk25 is also required in the same subset of neurons for stimulation of male courtship by young males, males of the Tai2 strain, and by synthetic 7-pentacosene (7-P), a hydrocarbon normally found at low levels in both males and females. Finally, we unexpectedly find that, in females, ppk25 and ppk25-expressing cells regulate receptivity to mating. In the absence of the third antennal segment, which has both olfactory and auditory functions, mutations in ppk25 or silencing of ppk25-expressing neurons block female receptivity to males. Together these results indicate that ppk25 identifies a functionally specialized subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. While ppk25 neurons are required for the responses to multiple pheromones, in both males and females these neurons are specifically involved in stimulating

  4. Genetic Variation of the Alpha Subunit of the Epithelial Na+ Channels Influences Exhaled Na+ in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Lupo, William T.; Wheatley, Courtney M.; Baker, Sarah E.; Cassuto, Nicholas A.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial Na+ Channels (ENaC) are located on alveolar cells and are important in β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated lung fluid clearance through the removal of Na+ from the alveolar airspace. Previous work has demonstrated that genetic variation of the alpha subunit of ENaC at amino acid 663 is important in channel function: cells with the genotype resulting in alanine at amino acid 663 (A663) demonstrate attenuated function when compared to genotypes with at least one allele encoding threonine (T663, AT/TT). We sought to determine the influence of genetic variation at position 663 of ENaC on exhaled Na+ in healthy humans. Exhaled Na+ was measured in 18 AA and 13 AT/TT subjects (age=27±8 vs. 30±10yrs., ht.=174±12 vs. 171±10cm., wt=68±12 vs. 73±14kg., BMI=22±3 vs. 25±4kg/m2, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively). Measurements were made at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90 minutes following the administration of a nebulized β2-agonist (albuterol sulfate, 2.5mg diluted in 3ml normal saline). The AA group had a higher baseline level of exhaled Na+ and a greater response to β2-agonist stimulation (baseline= 3.1±1.8 vs. 2.3±1.5mmol/l; 30min-post= 2.1±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.8mmol/l; 60min-post= 2.0±0.5 vs. 2.3±1.0mmol/l; 90min-post= 1.8±0.8 vs. 2.6±1.5mmol/l, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively, p<0.05). The results are consistent with the notion that genetic variation of ENaC influences β2-adrenergic receptor stimulated Na+ clearance in the lungs, as there was a significant reduction in exhaled Na+ over time in the AA group. PMID:21889619

  5. Phosphorylation Sites in the Hook Domain of CaVβ Subunits Differentially Modulate CaV1.2 Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Sylvain; Emrick, Michelle A.; Sadilek, Martin; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of L-type calcium current is critical for the development, function, and regulation of many cell types. CaV1.2 channels that conduct L-type calcium currents are regulated by many protein kinases, but the sites of action of these kinases remain unknown in most cases. We combined mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and whole-cell patch clamp techniques in order to identify sites of phosphorylation of CaVβ subunits in vivo and test the impact of mutations of those sites on CaV1.2 channel function in vitro. Using the CaV1.1 channel purified from rabbit skeletal muscle as a substrate for phosphoproteomic analysis, we found that Ser193 and Thr205 in the HOOK domain of CaVβ1a subunits were both phosphorylated in vivo. Ser193 is located in a potential consensus sequence for casein kinase II, but it was not phosphorylated in vitro by that kinase. In contrast, Thr205 is located in a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, and it was robustly phosphorylated in vitro by PKA. These two sites are conserved in multiple CaVβ subunit isoforms, including the principal CaVβ subunit of cardiac CaV1.2 channels, CaVβ2b. In order to assess potential modulatory effects of phosphorylation at these sites separately from effects of phosphorylation of the α11.2 subunit, we inserted phosphomimetic or phosphoinhibitory mutations in CaVβ2b and analyzed their effects on CaV1.2 channel function in transfected nonmuscle cells. The phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bS152E decreased peak channel currents and shifted the voltage dependence of both activation and inactivation to more positive membrane potentials. The phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2bS152A had opposite effects. There were no differences in peak CaV1.2 currents or voltage dependence between the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bT164D and the phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2bT164A. However, calcium-dependent inactivation was significantly increased for the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bT164D. This effect was subunit

  6. Residual Ca2+ channel current modulation by megestrol acetate via a G-protein alpha s-subunit in rat hypothalamic neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, A M; Spence, K T; Plata-Salamán, C R; ffrench-Mullen, J M

    1995-01-01

    1. The inhibition of voltage-activated Ca2+ channel currents by the orally active progesterone derivative, megestrol acetate (MA), was examined in freshly dissociated rat ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) neurones using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique with 10 mM Ba2+ as the charge carrier. 2. The steady-state inhibition of the peak high-threshold Ca2+ channel current evoked by depolarization from -80 to -10 mV by MA increased in a concentration-dependent fashion. MA inhibited a fraction of the whole-cell Ca2+ channel current while progesterone had no effect on the peak Ca2+ channel current (7% at 10 microM). The low-threshold Ca2+ (T-type) current, evoked from -100 to -30 mV, was unaffected by MA. 3. Intracellular dialysis with MA had no effect on the Ca2+ channel current. Concomitant extracellular perfusion of MA showed normal inhibitory activity, suggesting that the MA binding site can only be accessed extracellularly. 4. The high-threshold Ca2+ channel current in VMN neurones was found to consist of four pharmacologically distinguishable components: an N-type current, an L-type current, a P-type current, and a residual current. MA had no effect on the N-, L- and P-type Ca2+ channel currents, but inhibited the residual current. 5. In neurones isolated from cholera toxin-treated animals, the MA-induced inhibition of the Ca2+ channel current was significantly diminished, suggesting a G-protein alpha S-subunit involvement. 6. Treatment with antisense phosphothio-oligodeoxynucleotides to the G alpha S-subunit (antisense-G alpha S) significantly reduced the MA-induced inhibition of the Ca2+ channel current. Treatment with either sense-G alpha S or antisense-G alpha 11 had no effect, confirming a G alpha S-subunit involvement. 7. These results suggest that appetite enhancement induced by MA in cachectic patients may in part be due to a novel central nervous system action, that is, inhibition of a fraction of the whole-cell Ca2+ channel current to attenuate

  7. Quantitative analysis of neurons with Kv3 potassium channel subunits, Kv3.1b and Kv3.2, in macaque primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Constantinople, Christine M; Disney, Anita A; Maffie, Jonathan; Rudy, Bernardo; Hawken, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels that are composed of Kv3 subunits exhibit distinct electrophysiological properties: activation at more depolarized potentials than other voltage-gated K+ channels and fast kinetics. These channels have been shown to contribute to the high-frequency firing of fast-spiking (FS) GABAergic interneurons in the rat and mouse brain. In the rodent neocortex there are distinct patterns of expression for the Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 channel subunits and of coexpression of these subunits with neurochemical markers, such as the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D-28K (CB). The distribution of Kv3 channels and interrelationship with calcium-binding protein expression has not been investigated in primate cortex. We used immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent labeling and stereological counting techniques to characterize the laminar and cell-type distributions of Kv3-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in macaque V1. We found that across the cortical layers approximately 25% of both Kv3.1b- and Kv3.2-ir neurons are non-GABAergic. In contrast, all Kv3-ir neurons in rodent cortex are GABAergic (Chow et al. [1999] J Neurosci. 19:9332-9345). The putatively excitatory Kv3-ir neurons were mostly located in layers 2, 3, and 4b. Further, the proportion of Kv3-ir neurons that express PV or CB also differs between macaque V1 and rodent cortex. These data indicate that, within the population of cortical neurons, a broader population of neurons, encompassing cells of a wider range of morphological classes may be capable of sustaining high-frequency firing in macaque V1.

  8. 17β-Estradiol Regulation of the mRNA Expression of T-type Calcium Channel subunits: Role of Estrogen Receptor α and Estrogen Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Martha A.; Hou, Jingwen; Fang, Yuan; Kelly, Martin J.; Rønnekleiv., Oline K.

    2009-01-01

    Low voltage-activated (T-type) calcium channels are responsible for burst firing and transmitter release in neurons and are important for exocytosis and hormone secretion in pituitary cells. T-type channels contain an α1 subunit, of which there are three subtypes, Cav3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, and each subtype has distinct kinetic characteristics. Although 17β-estradiol modulates T-type calcium channel expression and function, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Presently, we used real-time PCR quantification of RNA extracted from hypothalamic nuclei and pituitary in vehicle and E2-treated C57BL/6 mice to elucidate E2-mediated regulation of Cav3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 subunits. The three subunits were expressed in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. E2 treatment increased the mRNA expression of Cav3.1 and 3.2, but not Cav3.3, in the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus. In the pituitary, Cav3.1 was increased with E2-treatment and Cav3.2 and 3.3 were decreased. In order to examine whether the classical estrogen receptors (ERs) were involved in the regulation, we used ERα- and ERβ-deficient C57BL/6 mice and explored the effects of E2 on T-type channel subtypes. Indeed, we found that the E2-induced increase in Cav3.1 in the hypothalamus was dependent on ERα, whereas the E2 effect on Cav3.2 was dependent on both ERα and ERβ. However, the E2-induced effects in the pituitary were dependent on only the expression of ERα. The robust E2-regulation of the T-type calcium channels could be an important mechanism by which E2 increases the excitability of hypothalamic neurons and modulates pituitary secretion. PMID:19003958

  9. Functionally diverse complement of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channel (BK) alpha-subunits generated from a single site of splicing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lie; Tian, Lijun; MacDonald, Stephen H-F; McClafferty, Heather; Hammond, Martin S L; Huibant, Jean-Marc; Ruth, Peter; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Shipston, Michael J

    2005-09-30

    The pore-forming alpha-subunits of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels are encoded by a single gene that undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing. However, the extent to which differential exon usage at a single site of splicing may confer functionally distinct properties on BK channels is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that alternative splicing at site of splicing C2 in the mouse BK channel C terminus generates five distinct splice variants: ZERO, e20, e21(STREX), e22, and a novel variant deltae23. Splice variants display distinct patterns of tissue distribution with e21(STREX) expressed at the highest levels in adult endocrine tissues and e22 at embryonic stages of mouse development. deltae23 is not functionally expressed at the cell surface and acts as a dominant negative of cell surface expression by trapping other BK channel splice variant alpha-subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear compartments. Splice variants display a range of biophysical properties. e21(STREX) and e22 variants display a significant left shift (>20 mV at 1 microM [Ca2+]i) in half-maximal voltage of activation compared with ZERO and e20 as well as considerably slower rates of deactivation. Splice variants are differentially sensitive to phosphorylation by endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase; ZERO, e20, and e22 variants are all activated, whereas e21 (STREX) is the only variant that is inhibited. Thus alternative pre-mRNA splicing from a single site of splicing provides a mechanism to generate a physiologically diverse complement of BK channel alpha-subunits that differ dramatically in their tissue distribution, trafficking, and regulation.

  10. Role of KATP Channels in Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Ischemic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kraljevic, Jasenka; Høydal, Morten Andre; Ljubkovic, Marko; Moreira, Jose Bianco Nascimento; Jørgensen, Kari; Ness, Henning Ofstad; Bækkerud, Fredrik Hjulstad; Dujic, Zeljko; Wisløff, Ulrik; Marinovic, Jasna

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training reduces pathological remodeling and improves cardiac function in ischemic heart failure; however, causal mechanisms underlying the cardiac benefits of exercise are poorly understood. Because opening of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K ⁺(KATP) channels protects the heart during myocardial stress, we hypothesized that such a mechanism is responsible for some of the cardiac benefits induced by exercise in postinfarction chronic heart failure (CHF). Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from three groups of rats: Sham, CHF Tr (4 wk after myocardial infarction, rats underwent 8 wk of aerobic interval training 5 d·wk⁻¹) and CHF Sed (rats sedentary for 12 wk after infarction). Cardiomyocyte survival after oxidative stress exposure (200 μM H2O2) and calcium handling (cells loaded with Fura-2 AM and electrically paced at 1 Hz) were assessed in the presence of KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide. Expression of KATP subunits (SUR2A and Kir6.2) was evaluated using immunoblotting. Exercise improved cardiac function in CHF Tr animals. Cardiomyocytes from CHF Sed rats were more susceptible to oxidative stress-induced cell death than CHF Tr and Sham cardiomyocytes, with glibenclamide completely abolishing the protective effect of exercise. Glibenclamide did not affect cardiomyocyte survival in Sham or CHF Sed rats. In addition, exercise increased the systolic Ca²⁺ transient amplitude and improved diastolic Ca²⁺ removal in CHF Tr cardiomyocytes (compared with CHF Sed); both were significantly attenuated by glibenclamide. Exercise resulted in increased expression of KATP channel subunits in CHF Tr hearts, with more pronounced and significant effect on SUR2A. Our data suggest that KATP channel upregulation induced by chronic exercise likely mediates some of exercise-induced beneficial effects on cardiac function in postischemic heart failure.

  11. Role of N-Terminal Domain and Accessory Subunits in Controlling Deactivation-Inactivation Coupling of Kv4.2 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Barghaan, Jan; Tozakidou, Magdalini; Ehmke, Heimo; Bähring, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between deactivation and inactivation in Kv4.2 channels. In particular, we were interested in the role of a Kv4.2 N-terminal domain and accessory subunits in controlling macroscopic gating kinetics and asked if the effects of N-terminal deletion and accessory subunit coexpression conform to a kinetic coupling of deactivation and inactivation. We expressed Kv4.2 wild-type channels and N-terminal deletion mutants in the absence and presence of Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like proteins (DPPs) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kv4.2-mediated A-type currents at positive and deactivation tail currents at negative membrane potentials were recorded under whole-cell voltage-clamp and analyzed by multi-exponential fitting. The observed changes in Kv4.2 macroscopic inactivation kinetics caused by N-terminal deletion, accessory subunit coexpression, or a combination of the two maneuvers were compared with respective changes in deactivation kinetics. Extensive correlation analyses indicated that modulatory effects on deactivation closely parallel respective effects on inactivation, including both onset and recovery kinetics. Searching for the structural determinants, which control deactivation and inactivation, we found that in a Kv4.2Δ2–10 N-terminal deletion mutant both the initial rapid phase of macroscopic inactivation and tail current deactivation were slowed. On the other hand, the intermediate and slow phase of A-type current decay, recovery from inactivation, and tail current decay kinetics were accelerated in Kv4.2Δ2–10 by KChIP2 and DPPX. Thus, a Kv4.2 N-terminal domain, which may control both inactivation and deactivation, is not necessary for active modulation of current kinetics by accessory subunits. Our results further suggest distinct mechanisms for Kv4.2 gating modulation by KChIPs and DPPs. PMID:17981906

  12. Gα14 subunit-mediated inhibition of voltage-gated Ca2+ and K+ channels via neurokinin-1 receptors in rat celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Shigekazu; Farrag, Mohamed; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which G proteins modulate voltage-gated Ca(2+)channel currents (CaV), particularly CaV2.2 and CaV2.3, are voltage dependent (VD) or voltage independent (VI). VD pathways are typically mediated by Gαi/oand GαSsubfamilies. On the other hand, VI inhibition modulation is coupled to the Gαqsubfamily and signaling pathways downstream of phospholipase C stimulation. In most studies, this latter pathway has been shown to be linked to Gαqand/or Gα11protein subunits. However, there are no studies that have examined whether natively expressed Gα14subunits (Gαqsubfamily member) couple G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) with CaV2.2 channels. We report that Gα14subunits functionally couple the substance P (SP)/neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor pathway to CaV2.2 channels in acutely dissociated rat celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG) neurons. Exposure of CSMG neurons to SP blocked the CaV2.2 currents in a predominantly VD manner that was pertussis toxin and cholera toxin resistant, as well as Gαq/11independent. However, silencing Gα14subunits significantly attenuated the SP-mediated Ca(2+)current block. In another set of experiments, exposure of CSMG neurons to SP led to the inhibition of KCNQ K(+)M-currents. The SP-mediated M-current block was significantly reduced in neurons transfected with Gα14small-interference RNA. Finally, overexpression of the GTP-bound Gαq/11binding protein RGS2 did not alter the block of M-currents by SP but significantly abolished the oxotremorine methiodide-mediated M-current inhibition. Taken together, these results provide evidence of a new Gα14-coupled signaling pathway that modulates CaV2.2 and M-currents via SP-stimulated NK-1 receptors in CSMG neurons.

  13. The N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0) and a cytosolic linker (L0) of sulphonylurea receptor define the unique intrinsic gating of KATP channels

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kun; Csanády, László; Chan, Kim W

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels comprise four pore-forming Kir6 and four regulatory sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. SUR, an ATP-binding cassette protein, associates with Kir6 through its N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0). TMD0 connects to the core domain of SUR through a cytosolic linker (L0). The intrinsic gating of Kir6.2 is greatly altered by SUR. It has been hypothesized that these changes are conferred by TMD0. Exploiting the fact that the pancreatic (SUR1/Kir6.2) and the cardiac (SUR2A/Kir6.2) KATP channels show different gating behaviours, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the intrinsic gating of Kir6.2 with the last 26 residues deleted (Kir6.2Δ26) co-expressed with SUR1, S1-TMD0, SUR2A and S2-TMD0 at −40 and −100 mV (S is an abbreviation for SUR; TMD0/Kir6.2Δ26, but not TMD0/Kir6.2, can exit the endoplastic reticulum and reach the cell membrane). Single-channel kinetic analyses revealed that the mean burst and interburst durations are shorter for TMD0/Kir6.2Δ26 than for the corresponding SUR channels. No differences were found between the two TMD0 channels. We further demonstrated that in isolation even TMD0-L0 (SUR truncated after L0) cannot confer the wild-type intrinsic gating to Kir6.2Δ26 and that swapping L0 (SUR truncated after L0)between SUR1 and SUR2A only partially exchanges their different intrinsic gating. Therefore, in addition to TMD0, L0 and the core domain also participate in determining the intrinsic gating of Kir6.2. However, TMD0 and L0 are responsible for the different gating patterns of full-length SUR1 and SUR2A channels. A kinetic model with one open and four closed states is presented to explain our results in a mechanistic context. PMID:16887879

  14. Phenylephrine preconditioning in embryonic heart H9c2 cells is mediated by up-regulation of SUR2B/Kir6.2: A first evidence for functional role of SUR2B in sarcolemmal KATP channels and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Sofija; Ballantyne, Thomas; Du, Qingyou; Blagojević, Miloš; Jovanović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels were originally described in cardiomyocytes, where physiological levels of intracellular ATP keep them in a closed state. Structurally, these channels are composed of pore-forming inward rectifier, Kir6.1 or Kir6.2, and a regulatory, ATP-binding subunit, SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B. SUR1 and Kir6.2 form pancreatic type of KATP channels, SUR2A and Kir6.2 form cardiac type of KATP channels, SUR2B and Kir6.1 form vascular smooth muscle type of KATP channels. The presence of SUR2B has been described in cardiomyocytes, but its functional significance and role has remained unknown. Pretreatment with phenylephrine (100nM) for 24h increased mRNA levels of SUR2B and Kir6.2, without affecting those levels of SUR1, SUR2A and Kir6.1 in embryonic heart H9c2 cells. Such increase was associated with increased K(+) current through KATP channels and Kir6.2/SUR2B protein complexes as revealed by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting respectively. Pretreatment with phenylephrine (100nM) generated a cellular phenotype that acquired resistance to chemical hypoxia induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP; 10mM), which was accompanied by increased in K(+) current in response to DNP (10mM). Cytoprotection afforded by phenylephrine (100nM) was abolished by infection of H9c2 cells with adenovirus containing Kir6.2AFA, a mutant form of Kir6.2 with largely reduced K(+) conductance. Taking all together, the present findings demonstrate that the activation of α1-adrenoceptors up-regulates SUR2B/Kir6.2 to confer cardioprotection. This is the first account of possible physiological role of SUR2B in cardiomyocytes.

  15. Potentiation of prolactin secretion following lactotrope escape from dopamine action. II. Phosphorylation of the alpha(1) subunit of L-type, voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M E; del Mar Hernández, M; Díaz-Muñoz, M; Clapp, C; de la Escalera, G M

    1999-07-01

    Modulation of Ca(2+) channels has been shown to alter cellular functions. It can play an important role in the amplification of signals in the endocrine system, including the pleiotropically regulated pituitary lactotropes. Prolactin (PRL) secretion is tonically inhibited by dopamine (DA), the escape from which triggers acute episodes of hormone secretion. The magnitude of these episodes is explained by a potentiation of the PRL-releasing action of secretagogues such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). While the mechanisms of this potentiation are not fully understood, it is known to be mimicked by the dihydropyridine, L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist Bay K 8644 and blocked by nifedipine and methoxyverapamil. The potentiation is also blocked by inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. We recently described that the escape from tonic actions of DA results in increased macroscopic Ca(2+) currents in GH(4)C(1) lactotropic clonal cells transfected with a cDNA encoding the long form of the human D(2)-DA receptor. Here we show that the withdrawal from DA potentiates the PRL-releasing action of TRH in GH(4)C(1)/D(2)-DAR cells to the same extent as in enriched lactotropes in primary culture. In both experimental models a low density of dihydropyridine receptors was shown by (+)-[(3)H]PN200-110 binding. Photoaffinity labelling with the dihydropyridine [(3)H]azidopine revealed a protein consistent with the alpha(1) subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels of 165-170 kDa. In both experimental models, the facilitation of TRH action triggered by the escape from DA was correlated with an enhanced rate of phosphorylation of this putative alpha(1) subunit, the nature of which was further supported by immunoprecipitation with selective antibodies directed against the alpha(1C) and alpha(1D) subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. We propose that PKA- and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the alpha(1) subunit of high voltage activated, L-type Ca(2

  16. Effects of the β1 Auxiliary Subunit on Modification of Rat Nav1.6 Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells by the Pyrethroid Insecticides Tefluthrin and Deltamethrin

    PubMed Central

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M.

    2015-01-01

    We expressed rat Nav1.6 sodium channels with or without the rat β1 subunit in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on whole-cell sodium currents. In assays with the Nav1.6 α subunit alone, both pyrethroids prolonged channel inactivation and deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation toward hyperpolarization. Maximal shifts in activation were ~18 mV for tefluthrin and ~24 mV for deltamethrin. These compounds also caused hyperpolarizing shifts of ~10–14 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and increased in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation. The effects of pyrethroids on the voltage-dependent gating greatly increased the size of sodium window currents compared to unmodified channels; modified channels exhibited increased probability of spontaneous opening at membrane potentials more negative than the normal threshold for channel activation and incomplete channel inactivation. Coexpression of Nav1.6 with the β1 subunit had no effect on the kinetic behavior of pyrethroid-modified channels but had divergent effects on the voltage-dependent gating of tefluthrin- or deltamethrin-modified channels, increasing the size of tefluthrin-induced window currents but decreasing the size of corresponding deltamethrin-induced currents. Unexpectedly, the β1 subunit did not confer sensitivity to use-dependent channel modification by either tefluthrin or deltamethrin. We conclude from these results that functional reconstitution of channels in vitro requires careful attention to the subunit composition of channel complexes to ensure that channels in vitro are faithful functional and pharmacological models of channels in neurons. PMID:26708501

  17. Effects of the β1 auxiliary subunit on modification of Rat Na(v)1.6 sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M

    2016-01-15

    We expressed rat Nav1.6 sodium channels with or without the rat β1 subunit in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on whole-cell sodium currents. In assays with the Nav1.6 α subunit alone, both pyrethroids prolonged channel inactivation and deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation toward hyperpolarization. Maximal shifts in activation were ~18 mV for tefluthrin and ~24 mV for deltamethrin. These compounds also caused hyperpolarizing shifts of ~10-14 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and increased in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation. The effects of pyrethroids on the voltage-dependent gating greatly increased the size of sodium window currents compared to unmodified channels; modified channels exhibited increased probability of spontaneous opening at membrane potentials more negative than the normal threshold for channel activation and incomplete channel inactivation. Coexpression of Nav1.6 with the β1 subunit had no effect on the kinetic behavior of pyrethroid-modified channels but had divergent effects on the voltage-dependent gating of tefluthrin- or deltamethrin-modified channels, increasing the size of tefluthrin-induced window currents but decreasing the size of corresponding deltamethrin-induced currents. Unexpectedly, the β1 subunit did not confer sensitivity to use-dependent channel modification by either tefluthrin or deltamethrin. We conclude from these results that functional reconstitution of channels in vitro requires careful attention to the subunit composition of channel complexes to ensure that channels in vitro are faithful functional and pharmacological models of channels in neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. α- And β-subunit composition of voltage-gated sodium channels investigated with μ-conotoxins and the recently discovered μO§-conotoxin GVIIJ

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael J.; Zhang, Min-Min; Gajewiak, Joanna; Azam, Layla; Rivier, Jean E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the identities of the isoforms of the α (NaV1)- and β (NaVβ)-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels, including those responsible for action potentials in rodent sciatic nerves. To examine α-subunits, we used seven μ-conotoxins, which target site 1 of the channel. With the use of exogenously expressed channels, we show that two of the μ-conotoxins, μ-BuIIIB and μ-SxIIIA, are 50-fold more potent in blocking NaV1.6 from mouse than that from rat. Furthermore, we observed that μ-BuIIIB and μ-SxIIIA are potent blockers of large, myelinated A-fiber compound action potentials (A-CAPs) [but not small, unmyelinated C-fiber CAPs (C-CAPs)] in the sciatic nerve of the mouse (unlike A-CAPs of the rat, previously shown to be insensitive to these toxins). To investigate β-subunits, we used two synthetic derivatives of the recently discovered μO§-conotoxin GVIIJ that define site 8 of the channel, as previously characterized with cloned rat NaV1- and NaVβ-subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where it was shown that μO§-GVIIJ is a potent inhibitor of several NaV1-isoforms and that coexpression of NaVβ2 or -β4 (but not NaVβ1 or -β3) totally protects against block by μO§-GVIIJ. We report here the effects of μO§-GVIIJ on 1) sodium currents of mouse NaV1.6 coexpressed with various combinations of NaVβ-subunits in oocytes; 2) A- and C-CAPs of mouse and rat sciatic nerves; and 3) sodium currents of small and large neurons dissociated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Our overall results lead us to conclude that action potentials in A-fibers of the rodent sciatic nerve are mediated primarily by NaV1.6 associated with NaVβ2 or NaVβ4. PMID:25632083

  19. Α- and β-subunit composition of voltage-gated sodium channels investigated with μ-conotoxins and the recently discovered μO§-conotoxin GVIIJ.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Zhang, Min-Min; Gajewiak, Joanna; Azam, Layla; Rivier, Jean E; Olivera, Baldomero M; Yoshikami, Doju

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the identities of the isoforms of the α (NaV1)- and β (NaVβ)-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels, including those responsible for action potentials in rodent sciatic nerves. To examine α-subunits, we used seven μ-conotoxins, which target site 1 of the channel. With the use of exogenously expressed channels, we show that two of the μ-conotoxins, μ-BuIIIB and μ-SxIIIA, are 50-fold more potent in blocking NaV1.6 from mouse than that from rat. Furthermore, we observed that μ-BuIIIB and μ-SxIIIA are potent blockers of large, myelinated A-fiber compound action potentials (A-CAPs) [but not small, unmyelinated C-fiber CAPs (C-CAPs)] in the sciatic nerve of the mouse (unlike A-CAPs of the rat, previously shown to be insensitive to these toxins). To investigate β-subunits, we used two synthetic derivatives of the recently discovered μO§-conotoxin GVIIJ that define site 8 of the channel, as previously characterized with cloned rat NaV1- and NaVβ-subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where it was shown that μO§-GVIIJ is a potent inhibitor of several NaV1-isoforms and that coexpression of NaVβ2 or -β4 (but not NaVβ1 or -β3) totally protects against block by μO§-GVIIJ. We report here the effects of μO§-GVIIJ on 1) sodium currents of mouse NaV1.6 coexpressed with various combinations of NaVβ-subunits in oocytes; 2) A- and C-CAPs of mouse and rat sciatic nerves; and 3) sodium currents of small and large neurons dissociated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Our overall results lead us to conclude that action potentials in A-fibers of the rodent sciatic nerve are mediated primarily by NaV1.6 associated with NaVβ2 or NaVβ4. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Identification of the alternative spliced form of the alpha 2/delta subunit of voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels expressed in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Gilad, B; Shenkar, N; Halevi, S; Trus, M; Atlas, D

    1995-07-07

    The alpha 2/delta subunit of voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels expressed in PC12 has been cloned and partially sequenced. The message observed in Northern blot analysis displays a 7.5 kb transcript, identical in size to mRNA of rabbit skeletal muscle and rat brain. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned alpha 2 subunit of the PC12 specific cDNA is > 99% identical to rat brain sequence and 85% to skeletal muscle. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the alternative splicing region identifies two deleted regions of 57 bp and 21 bp in PC12 expressed alpha 2/delta transcript. The alternative variant alpha 2e of alpha 2/delta subunit which is expressed in PC12 cells was previously identified in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. RT-PCR analysis show two different sized alternative PCR fragments in rat lung and none in rat spleen, kidney and intestine. Antibodies prepared against a 19 amino acid peptide within the alternative spliced region effectively inhibits [3H]dopamine release in PC12 cells. This implies that the alternatively spliced region is positioned extracellularly and is involved in regulation of the L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated transmitter release.

  1. Sodium channel β2 subunit promotes filopodia-like processes and expansion of the dendritic tree in developing rat hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Maschietto, Marta; Girardi, Stefano; Dal Maschio, Marco; Scorzeto, Michele; Vassanelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The β2 auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) appears at early stages of brain development. It is abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system where it forms complexes with different channel isoforms, including Nav1.2. From the structural point of view, β2 is a transmembrane protein: at its extracellular N-terminus an Ig-like type C2 domain mediates the binding to the pore-forming alpha subunit with disulfide bonds and the interactions with the extracellular matrix. Given this structural versatility, β2 has been suggested to play multiple functions ranging from channel targeting to the plasma membrane and gating modulation to control of cell adhesion. We report that, when expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells CHO-K1, the subunit accumulates at the perimetral region of adhesion and particularly in large lamellipodia-like membrane processes where it induces formation of filopodia-like structures. When overexpressed in developing embryonic rat hippocampal neurons in vitro, β2 specifically promotes formation of filopodia-like processes in dendrites leading to expansion of the arborization tree, while axonal branching remains unaltered. In contrast to this striking and highly specific effect on dendritic morphology, the targeting of functional sodium channels to the plasma membrane, including the preferential localization of Nav1.2 at the axon, and their gating properties are only minimally affected. From these and previously reported observations it is suggested that β2, among its multiple functions, may contribute to promote dendritic outgrowth and to regulate neuronal wiring at specific stages of neuronal development. PMID:23355803

  2. TMEM16A is associated with voltage-gated calcium channels in mouse retina and its function is disrupted upon mutation of the auxiliary α2δ4 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Antonella; Piano, Ilaria; Demontis, Gian Carlo; Bacchi, Niccolò; Casarosa, Simona; Santina, Luca Della; Gargini, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors rely upon highly specialized synapses to efficiently transmit signals to multiple postsynaptic targets. Calcium influx in the presynaptic terminal is mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). This event triggers neurotransmitter release, but also gates calcium-activated chloride channels (TMEM), which in turn regulate VGCC activity. In order to investigate the relationship between VGCC and TMEM channels, we analyzed the retina of wild type (WT) and Cacna2d4 mutant mice, in which the VGCC auxiliary α2δ4 subunit carries a nonsense mutation, disrupting the normal channel function. Synaptic terminals of mutant photoreceptors are disarranged and synaptic proteins as well as TMEM16A channels lose their characteristic localization. In parallel, calcium-activated chloride currents are impaired in rods, despite unaltered TMEM16A protein levels. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the interaction between VGCC and TMEM16A channels in the retina. Heterologous expression of these channels in tsA-201 cells showed that TMEM16A associates with the CaV1.4 subunit, and the association persists upon expression of the mutant α2δ4 subunit. Collectively, our experiments show association between TMEM16A and the α1 subunit of VGCC. Close proximity of these channels allows optimal function of the photoreceptor synaptic terminal under physiological conditions, but also makes TMEM16A channels susceptible to changes occurring to calcium channels. PMID:26557056

  3. Basal sympathetic activity generated in neonatal mouse brainstem-spinal cord preparation requires T-type calcium channel subunit 1H.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Fan, Yu-Pei; Shin, Hee-Sup; Su, Chun-Kuei

    2011-05-01

    The T-type calcium channel (T-channel) is a low-voltage-activated channel. Whether T-channels are involved in sympathetic nerve discharge (SND), with subunits α1G and α1H differentially regulating SND genesis, was explored using in vitro brainstem-spinal cord-splanchnic sympathetic nerve preparations of wild-type and genetically modified B6 mice. Applications of 10-80 μm NNC 55-0396 to block T-channels in wild-type mice reduced SND in a concentration-dependent manner. Amounts of SND were measured in units of signal-to-noise ratio for objective comparisons between mouse groups. Comparable amounts of SND were observed in wild-type and α1G(-/-) mice. However, only ∼40% of the amount of SND of that in wild-type or α1G(-/-) mice was observed in α1H(-/-) mice. Whether a diminished excitatory drive originating in the brainstem could explain a low SND in α1H(-/-) mice was evaluated by cervical cord transections. Isolated spinal cord preparations of mice with different genetic backgrounds produced comparable amounts of SND. Excitability of the spinal circuitry was further explored by bath applications of 5 mm glutamate. Glutamate applications produced a prominent SND rise in all mouse groups. The ratios of glutamate-induced SND rise were similar between wild-type and α1H(-/-) mice, but significantly higher in α1G(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results suggest that α1H in mouse brainstem is essential for the genesis of presympathetic drive, whereas α1G in mouse spinal cord is functionally inhibitory for SND genesis. We conclude that α1H and α1G T-channel subunits may differentially regulate mouse SND genesis at different levels of the neuraxis.

  4. ZD0947, a sulphonylurea receptor modulator, detects functional sulphonylurea receptor subunits in murine vascular smooth muscle ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takahara, Kohei; Uchida, Keiichiro; Teramoto, Noriyoshi

    2017-02-16

    In order to identify functional sulphonylurea receptor (SUR.x) subunits of native ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP channels) in mouse portal vein, the effects of ZD0947, a SUR.x modulator, were investigated on spontaneous portal vein contractions, macroscopic membrane currents and unitary currents recorded (using patch-clamp techniques) in freshly dispersed mouse portal vein myocytes. Spontaneous contractions in mouse portal vein were reversibly reduced by ZD0947 in a concentration-dependent manner (Ki =293nM). The relaxation elicited by 3µM ZD0947 was antagonized by the additional application of glibenclamide (300nM), but not gliclazide (100-300nM). In the conventional whole-cell configuration, 100µM ZD0947 elicited inward glibenclamide-sensitive currents at a holding potential of -60mV that demonstrated selectivity for K(+)(i.e. KATP currents). The peak amplitude of the membrane current elicited by 30µM or 100µM ZD0947 was smaller than that elicited by 100µM pinacidil at -60mV. In the cell-attached mode, 100µM ZD0947 activated glibenclamide-sensitive K(+) channels with a conductance (35 pS) similar to that of recombinant Kir6.1/SUR2B channels that were expressed in HEK293 cells and activated by 100µM ZD0947. These results demonstrate that ZD0947 caused a significant vascular relaxation through the activation of KATP channels and that SUR2B may be the major functional subunit of SUR.x in mouse portal vein KATP channels, based on its pharmacological selectivity.

  5. Structural modeling and patch-clamp analysis of pain-related mutation TRPA1-N855S reveal inter-subunit salt bridges stabilizing the channel open state.

    PubMed

    Zíma, Vlastimil; Witschas, Katja; Hynkova, Anna; Zímová, Lucie; Barvík, Ivan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2015-06-01

    The ankyrin transient receptor potential channel TRPA1 is a polymodal sensor for noxious stimuli, and hence a promising target for treating chronic pain. This tetrameric six-transmembrane segment (S1-S6) channel can be activated by various pungent chemicals, such as allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde, but also by intracellular Ca(2+) or depolarizing voltages. Within the S4-S5 linker of human TRPA1, a gain-of-function mutation, N855S, was recently found to underlie familial episodic pain syndrome, manifested by bouts of severe upper body pain, triggered by physical stress, fasting, or cold. To clarify the structural basis for this channelopathy, we derive a structural model of TRPA1 by combining homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, point mutagenesis and electrophysiology. In the vicinity of N855, the model reveals inter-subunit salt bridges between E854 and K868. Using the heterologous expression of recombinant wild-type and mutant TRPA1 channels in HEK293T cells, we indeed found that the charge-reversal mutants E854R and K868E exhibited dramatically reduced responses to chemical and voltage stimuli, whereas the charge-swapping mutation E854R/K868E substantially rescued their functionalities. Moreover, mutation analysis of highly conserved charged residues within the S4-S5 region revealed a gain-of-function phenotype for R852E with an increased basal channel activity, a loss of Ca(2+)-induced potentiation and an accelerated Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. Based on the model and on a comparison with the recently revealed atomic-level structure of the related channel TRPV1, we propose that inter-subunit salt bridges between adjacent S4-S5 regions are crucial for stabilizing the conformations associated with chemically and voltage-induced gating of the TRPA1 ion channel.

  6. 11,12-EET Stimulates the Association of BK Channel α and β1 Subunits in Mitochondria to Induce Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Loot, Annemarieke E.; Oelze, Matthias; Syzonenko, Tetyana; Daiber, Andreas; Fleming, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    In the systemic circulation, 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) elicits nitric oxide (NO)- and prostacyclin-independent vascular relaxation, partially through the activation of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channels. However, in the lung 11,12-EET contributes to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Since pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells also express BK channels, we assessed the consequences of BKβ1 subunit deletion on pulmonary responsiveness to 11,12-EET as well as to acute hypoxia. In buffer-perfused mouse lungs, hypoxia increased pulmonary artery pressure and this was significantly enhanced in the presence of NO synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. Under these conditions the elevation of tissue EET levels using an inhibitor of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH-I), further increased the hypoxic contraction. Direct administration of 11,12-EET also increased pulmonary artery pressure, and both the sEH-I and 11,12-EET effects were prevented by iberiotoxin and absent in BKβ1−/− mice. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells treated with NOS and COX inhibitors and loaded with the potentiometric dye, di-8-ANEPPS, 11,12-EET induced depolarization while the BK channel opener NS1619 elicited hyperpolarization indicating there was no effect of the EET on classical plasma membrane BK channels. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells a subpopulation of BK channels is localized in mitochondria. In these cells, 11,12-EET elicited an iberiotoxin-sensitive loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 fluorescence) leading to plasma membrane depolarization, an effect not observed in BKβ1−/− cells. Mechanistically, stimulation with 11,12-EET time-dependently induced the association of the BK α and β1 subunits. Our data indicate that in the absence of NO and prostacyclin 11,12-EET contributes to pulmonary vasoconstriction by stimulating the association of the α and β1 subunits of mitochondrial BK channels. The 11

  7. Association of potassium channel Kv3.4 subunits with pre- and post-synaptic structures in brainstem and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Brooke, R E; Atkinson, L; Batten, T F C; Deuchars, S A; Deuchars, J

    2004-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv) are divided into eight subfamilies (Kv1-8) and play a major role in determining the excitability of neurones. Members of the Kv3 subfamily are highly abundant in the CNS, with each Kv3 gene (Kv3.1-Kv3.4) exhibiting a unique pattern of expression, although single neurones can express more than one subtype. Of the Kv3 subunits relatively little is known of the Kv3.4 subunit distribution in the nervous system, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rat. We performed immunohistochemistry to determine both the cellular and sub-cellular distribution of the Kv3.4 subunit in these areas. Kv3.4 subunit immunoreactivity (Kv3.4-IR) was widespread, with dense, punctate staining in many regions including the intermediolateral cell column (IML) and the dorsal vagal nucleus (DVN), nucleus ambiguus (NA) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In the ventral horn a presynaptic location was confirmed by co-localization of Kv3.4-IR with the synaptic vesicle protein, SV2 and also with the glutamate vesicle markers vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT) 1, VGluT2 or the glycine transporter GlyT2, suggesting a role for the channel in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Electron microscopy confirmed a presynaptic terminal location of Kv3.4-IR in the VH, IML, DVN, NA and NTS. Interestingly however, patches of Kv3.4-IR were also revealed postsynaptically in dendritic and somatic structures throughout these areas. This staining was striking due to its localization at synaptic junctions at terminals with morphological features consistent with excitatory functions, suggesting an association with the postsynaptic density. Therefore the pre and postsynaptic localization of Kv3.4-IR suggests a role both in the control of transmitter release and in regulating neuronal excitability.

  8. Protein kinase A phosphorylation alters Kvbeta1.3 subunit-mediated inactivation of the Kv1.5 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Y G; Hu, N; Wei, J; George, A L; Grobaski, T D; Tamkun, M M; Murray, K T

    1999-05-14

    The human Kv1.5 potassium channel forms the IKur current in atrial myocytes and is functionally altered by coexpression with Kvbeta subunits. To explore the role of protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation in beta-subunit function, we examined the effect of PKA stimulation on Kv1.5 current following coexpression with either Kvbeta1.2 or Kvbeta1.3, both of which coassemble with Kv1.5 and induce fast inactivation. In Xenopus oocytes expressing Kv1.5 and Kvbeta1.3, activation of PKA reduced macroscopic inactivation with an increase in K+ current. Similar results were obtained using HEK 293 cells which lack endogenous K+ channel subunits. These effects did not occur when Kv1.5 was coexpressed with either Kvbeta1.2 or Kvbeta1.3 lacking the amino terminus, suggesting involvement of this region of Kvbeta1.3. Removal of a consensus PKA phosphorylation site on the Kvbeta1.3 NH2 terminus (serine 24), but not alternative sites in either Kvbeta1.3 or Kv1.5, resulted in loss of the functional effects of kinase activation. The effects of phosphorylation appeared to be electrostatic, as replacement of serine 24 with a negatively charged amino acid reduced beta-mediated inactivation, while substitution with a positively charged residue enhanced it. These results indicate that Kvbeta1.3-induced inactivation is reduced by PKA activation, and that phosphorylation of serine 24 in the subunit NH2 terminus is responsible.

  9. A distinct three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 inhibits I(ks) channels by interacting with the KCNE1 auxiliary subunit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peibei; Wu, Fangming; Wen, Ming; Yang, Xingwang; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Yiming; He, Shufang; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Changlin

    2015-08-26

    KCNE1 is a single-span transmembrane auxiliary protein that modulates the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1. The KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex in cardiomyocytes exhibited slow activated potassium (I(ks)) currents. Recently, a novel 47-residue polypeptide toxin SSD609 was purified from Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani venom and showed I(ks) current inhibition. Here, chemically synthesized SSD609 was shown to exert I(ks) inhibition in extracted guinea pig cardiomyocytes and KCNQ1/KCNE1 current attenuation in CHO cells. The K(+) current attenuation of SSD609 showed decent selectivity among different auxiliary subunits. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of SSD609 revealed a distinctive three-helix conformation that was stabilized by a new disulfide bonding pattern as well as segregated surface charge distribution. Structure-activity studies demonstrated that negatively charged Glu19 in the amphipathic extracellular helix of KCNE1 was the key residue that interacted with SSD609. The distinctive three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 is known to be the first polypeptide toxin acting on channel auxiliary subunit KCNE1, which suggests a new type of pharmacological regulation for ion channels in cardiomyocytes.

  10. Genetic contribution to iron status: SNPs related to iron deficiency anaemia and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 calcium channel subunit.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; Remacha, Angel; Vaquero, M Pilar; López-Parra, Ana M

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies associate genetic markers with iron- and erythrocyte-related parameters, but few relate them to iron-clinical phenotypes. Novel SNP rs1375515, located in a subunit of the calcium channel gene CACNA2D3, is associated with a higher risk of anaemia. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of this SNP with iron-related parameters and iron-clinical phenotypes, and to explore the potential role of calcium channel subunit region in iron regulation. Furthermore, we aim to replicate the association of other SNPs reported previously in our population. We tested 45 SNPs selected via systematic review and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 region, with haematological and biochemical traits in 358 women of reproductive age. Multivariate analyses include back-step logistic regression and decision trees. The results replicate the association of SNPs with iron-related traits, and also confirm the protective effect of both A allele of rs1800562 (HFE) and G allele of rs4895441 (HBS1L-MYB). The risk of developing anaemia is increased in reproductive age women carriers of A allele of rs1868505 (CACNA2D3) and/or T allele of rs13194491 (HIST1H2BJ). Association of SNPs from fine mapping with ferritin and serum iron suggests that calcium channels could be a potential pathway for iron uptake in physiological conditions.

  11. Immunohistochemical localisation of the voltage gated potassium ion channel subunit Kv3.3 in the rat medulla oblongata and thoracic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Ruth E; Atkinson, Lucy; Edwards, Ian; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2006-01-27

    Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a diverse group of channels important in determining neuronal excitability. The Kv superfamily is divided into 12 subfamilies (Kv1-12) and members of the Kv3 subfamily are highly abundant in the CNS, with each Kv3 gene (Kv3.1-Kv3.4) exhibiting a unique expression pattern. Since the localisation of Kv subunits is important in defining the roles they play in neuronal function, we have used immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of the Kv3.3 subunit in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of rats. Kv3.3 subunit immunoreactivity (Kv3.3-IR) was widespread but present only in specific cell populations where it could be detected in somata, dendrites and synaptic terminals. Labelled neurones were observed in the spinal cord in laminae IV and V, in the region of the central canal and in the ventral horn. In the medulla oblongata, labelled cell bodies were numerous in the spinal trigeminal, cuneate and gracilis nuclei whilst rarer in the lateral reticular nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus and raphe nucleus. Regions containing autonomic efferent neurones were predominantly devoid of labelling with only occasional labelled neurones being observed. Dual immunohistochemistry revealed that some Kv3.3-IR neurones in the ventral medullary reticular nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal horn, ventral horn and central canal region were also immunoreactive for the Kv3.1b subunit. The presence of Kv3.3 subunits in terminals was confirmed by co-localisation of Kv3.3-IR with the synaptic vesicle protein SV2, the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT2 and the glycine transporter GlyT2. Co-localisation of Kv3.3-IR was not observed with VGluT1, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin or choline acetyl transferase. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Kv3.3-IR in terminals and somatic membranes in ventral horn neurones, but not motoneurones. This study provides evidence supporting a role for Kv3.3 subunits in regulating neuronal excitability

  12. Expression and function of K(ATP) channels in normal and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes: possible role in glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Ana T; Rosa, Susana C; Judas, Fernando; Mobasheri, Ali; Lopes, M Celeste; Mendes, Alexandrina F

    2013-08-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium [K(ATP)] channels sense intracellular ATP/ADP levels, being essential components of a glucose-sensing apparatus in various cells that couples glucose metabolism, intracellular ATP/ADP levels and membrane potential. These channels are present in human chondrocytes, but their subunit composition and functions are unknown. This study aimed at elucidating the subunit composition of K(ATP) channels expressed in human chondrocytes and determining whether they play a role in regulating the abundance of major glucose transporters, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3, and glucose transport capacity. The results obtained show that human chondrocytes express the pore forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, at the mRNA and protein levels and the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits, SUR2A and SUR2B, but not SUR1. The expression of these subunits was no affected by culture under hyperglycemia-like conditions. Functional impairment of the channel activity, using a SUR blocker (glibenclamide 10 or 20 nM), reduced the protein levels of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 by approximately 30% in normal chondrocytes, while in cells from cartilage with increasing osteoarthritic (OA) grade no changes were observed. Glucose transport capacity, however, was not affected in normal or OA chondrocytes. These results show that K(ATP) channel activity regulates the abundance of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3, although other mechanisms are involved in regulating the overall glucose transport capacity of human chondrocytes. Therefore, K(ATP) channels are potential components of a broad glucose sensing apparatus that modulates glucose transporters and allows human chondrocytes to adjust to varying extracellular glucose concentrations. This function of K(ATP) channels seems to be impaired in OA chondrocytes.

  13. Drosophila GABA-gated chloride channel: modified [3H]EBOB binding site associated with Ala-->Ser or Gly mutants of Rdl subunit.

    PubMed

    Cole, L M; Roush, R T; Casida, J E

    1995-01-01

    The non-competitive blocker site of the GABA-gated chloride ion channel in normal susceptible strains of Drosophila melanogaster and simulans binds 4-n-[3H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H]EBOB) at specific sites with KdS of 1.6-1.9 nM and BmaxS of 171-181 fmol/mg protein. This specific binding of [3H]EBOB is strongly inhibited by: a large number and variety of insecticidal channel blockers at 20 nM (lindane, alpha-endosulfan, dieldrin, 12-ketoendrin, fipronil, and a representative bicycloorthobenzoate and dithiane) or 200 nM (picrotoxinin); the insecticidal channel activators avermectin and moxidectin at 20 nM; muscimol at 30 microM and GABA at 300 microM. Cyclodiene resistance in D. melanogaster has been attributed to a mutation resulting in an Ala302-->Ser replacement in the Rdl GABA receptor subunit and in D. simulans to an homologous Ala-->Ser or Gly replacement. These mutations are shown here to greatly reduce [3H]EBOB binding, i.e. lower affinity and apparent number of binding sites. The Ala-->Ser replacement with both melanogaster and simulans almost always reduces the potency in inhibiting [3H]EBOB binding of each of eight channel blockers and of muscimol and GABA. The Ala-->Gly replacement in D. simulans is generally less effective than the Ala-->Ser modification in reducing sensitivity to the channel blockers and to muscimol and GABA. The channel activators avermectin and moxidectin usually retain their inhibitory potency in the Rdl subunit mutants. Thus, it appears that replacement of Ala by Ser generally modifies the non-competitive blocker site and its coupling to the GABA-recognition site with less effect on the channel activator site. In contrast, the Ala-->Gly replacement has less impact in protecting the chloride channel from the action of insecticidal blockers. Each of the resistant strains has the same level of resistance to the lethal action of the five channel blockers examined but none to avermectins and muscimol.

  14. Functional dominant-negative mutation of sodium channel subunit gene SCN3B associated with atrial fibrillation in a Chinese GeneID population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengyun; Yang, Qinbo; Wu, Xiaofen; Yang, Yanzong; Shi, Lisong; Wang, Chuchu; Wu, Gang; Xia, Yunlong; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Rongfeng; Xu, Chengqi; Cheng, Xiang; Li, Sisi; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fu, Fenfen; Liao, Yuhua; Fang, Fang; Chen, Qiuyun; Tu, Xin; Wang, Qing K.

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the clinic, and accounts for more than 15% of strokes. Mutations in cardiac sodium channel α, β1 and β2 subunit genes (SCN5A, SCN1B, and SCN2B) have been identified in AF patients. We hypothesize that mutations in the sodium channel β3 subunit gene SCN3B are also associated with AF. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a large scale sequencing analysis of all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of SCN3B in 477 AF patients (28.5% lone AF) from the GeneID Chinese Han population. A novel A130V mutation was identified in a 46 year-old patient with lone AF, and the mutation was absent in 500 controls. Mutation A130V dramatically decreased the cardiac sodium current density when expressed in HEK293/Nav1.5 stable cell line, but did not have significant effect on kinetics of activation, inactivation, and channel recovery from inactivation. When co-expressed with wild type SCN3B, the A130V mutant SCN3B negated the function of wild type SCN3B, suggesting that A130V acts by a dominant negative mechanism. Western blot analysis with biotinylated plasma membrane protein extracts revealed that A130V did not affect cell surface expression of Nav1.5 or SCN3B, suggesting that mutant A130V SCN3B may not inhibit sodium channel trafficking, instead may affect conduction of sodium ions due to its malfunction as an integral component of the channel complex. This study identifies the first AF-associated mutation in SCN3B, and suggests that mutations in SCN3B may be a new pathogenic cause of AF. PMID:20558140

  15. Apical sorting of a voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel alpha -subunit in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells is independent of N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Zehnder, M; Orio, P; Norambuena, A; Wallner, M; Meera, P; Toro, L; Latorre, R; González, A

    2000-11-21

    The voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(V,Ca)) channel is expressed in a variety of polarized epithelial cells seemingly displaying a tissue-dependent apical-to-basolateral regionalization, as revealed by electrophysiology. Using domain-specific biotinylation and immunofluorescence we show that the human channel K(V,Ca) alpha-subunit (human Slowpoke channel, hSlo) is predominantly found in the apical plasma membrane domain of permanently transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Both the wild-type and a mutant hSlo protein lacking its only potential N-glycosylation site were efficiently transported to the cell surface and concentrated in the apical domain even when they were overexpressed to levels 200- to 300-fold higher than the density of intrinsic Slo channels. Furthermore, tunicamycin treatment did not prevent apical segregation of hSlo, indicating that endogenous glycosylated proteins (e.g., K(V,Ca) beta-subunits) were not required. hSlo seems to display properties for lipid-raft targeting, as judged by its buoyant distribution in sucrose gradients after extraction with either detergent or sodium carbonate. The evidence indicates that the hSlo protein possesses intrinsic information for transport to the apical cell surface through a mechanism that may involve association with lipid rafts and that is independent of glycosylation of the channel itself or an associated protein. Thus, this particular polytopic model protein shows that glycosylation-independent apical pathways exist for endogenous membrane proteins in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

  16. The β(1a) subunit of the skeletal DHPR binds to skeletal RyR1 and activates the channel via its 35-residue C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Robyn T; Karunasekara, Yamuna; Gallant, Esther M; Board, Philip G; Beard, Nicole A; Casarotto, Marco G; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2011-02-16

    Although it has been suggested that the C-terminal tail of the β(1a) subunit of the skeletal dihyropyridine receptor (DHPR) may contribute to voltage-activated Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle by interacting with the skeletal ryanodine receptor (RyR1), a direct functional interaction between the two proteins has not been demonstrated previously. Such an interaction is reported here. A peptide with the sequence of the C-terminal 35 residues of β(1a) bound to RyR1 in affinity chromatography. The full-length β(1a) subunit and the C-terminal peptide increased [(3)H]ryanodine binding and RyR1 channel activity with an AC(50) of 450-600 pM under optimal conditions. The effect of the peptide was dependent on cytoplasmic Ca(2+), ATP, and Mg(2+) concentrations. There was no effect of the peptide when channel activity was very low as a result of Mg(2+) inhibition or addition of 100 nM Ca(2+) (without ATP). Maximum increases were seen with 1-10 μM Ca(2+), in the absence of Mg(2+) inhibition. A control peptide with the C-terminal 35 residues in a scrambled sequence did not bind to RyR1 or alter [(3)H]ryanodine binding or channel activity. This high-affinity in vitro functional interaction between the C-terminal 35 residues of the DHPR β(1a) subunit and RyR1 may support an in vivo function of β(1a) during voltage-activated Ca(2+) release.

  17. Identification of channel-lining residues in the M2 membrane-spanning segment of the GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are the major inhibitory, postsynaptic, neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. The binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to the GABA(A) receptors induces the opening of an anion-selective channel that remains open for tens of milliseconds before it closes. To understand how the structure of the GABA(A) receptor determines the functional properties such as ion conduction, ion selectivity and gating we sought to identify the amino acid residues that line the ion conducting channel. To accomplish this we mutated 26 consecutive residues (250-275), one at a time, in and flanking the M2 membrane- spanning segment of the rat alpha1 subunit to cysteine. We expressed the mutant alpha1 subunit with wild-type beta1 and gamma2 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. We probed the accessibility of the engineered cysteine to covalent modification by charged, sulfhydryl-specific reagents added extracellularly. We assume that among residues in membrane-spanning segments, only those lining the channel would be susceptible to modification by polar reagents and that such modification would irreversibly alter conduction through the channel. We infer that nine of the residues, alpha1 Val257, alpha1 Thr26l, alpha1 Thr262, alpha1 Leu264, alpha1 Thr265, alpha1 Thr268, alpha1 Ile27l, alpha1 Ser272 and alpha1 Asn275 are exposed in the channel. On a helical wheel plot, the exposed residues, except alpha1 Thr262, lie on one side of the helix in an arc of 120 degrees. We infer that the M2 segment forms an alpha helix that is interrupted in the region of alpha1 Thr262. The modification of residues as cytoplasmic as alpha1 Val257 in the closed state of the channel suggests that the gate is at least as cytoplasmic as alpha1 Val257. The ability of the positively charged reagent methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium to reach the level of alpha1 Thr261 suggests that the charge-selectivity filter is at least as cytoplasmic as this

  18. Overlapping binding sites of structurally different antiarrhythmics flecainide and propafenone in the subunit interface of potassium channel Kv2.1.

    PubMed

    Madeja, Michael; Steffen, Wibke; Mesic, Ivana; Garic, Bojan; Zhorov, Boris S

    2010-10-29

    Kv2.1 channels, which are expressed in brain, heart, pancreas, and other organs and tissues, are important targets for drug design. Flecainide and propafenone are known to block Kv2.1 channels more potently than other Kv channels. Here, we sought to explore structural determinants of this selectivity. We demonstrated that flecainide reduced the K(+) currents through Kv2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. By systematically exchanging various segments of Kv2.1 with those from Kv1.2, we determined flecainide-sensing residues in the P-helix and inner helix S6. These residues are not exposed to the inner pore, a conventional binding region of open channel blockers. The flecainide-sensing residues also contribute to propafenone binding, suggesting overlapping receptors for the drugs. Indeed, propafenone and flecainide compete for binding in Kv2.1. We further used Monte Carlo-energy minimizations to map the receptors of the drugs. Flecainide docking in the Kv1.2-based homology model of Kv2.1 predicts the ligand ammonium group in the central cavity and the benzamide moiety in a niche between S6 and the P-helix. Propafenone also binds in the niche. Its carbonyl group accepts an H-bond from the P-helix, the amino group donates an H-bond to the P-loop turn, whereas the propyl group protrudes in the pore and blocks the access to the selectivity filter. Thus, besides the binding region in the central cavity, certain K(+) channel ligands can expand in the subunit interface whose residues are less conserved between K(+) channels and hence may be targets for design of highly desirable subtype-specific K(+) channel drugs.

  19. Deltamethrin affects the expression of voltage-gated calcium channel α1 subunits and the locomotion, egg-laying, foraging behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rune; Yu, Xing; Tan, Xing; Ye, Shan; Ding, Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Deltamethrin belongs to the class of synthetic pyrethroids, which are being widely used as insecticides in agricultural practices. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the primary targets of these chemicals for toxicity to insects. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) does not have VGSCs but is susceptible to deltamethrin. Recent findings have suggested that pyrethroids can affect voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). However, it remains elusive whether deltamethrin induces toxicity to C. elegans via modulating the activity of VGCCs. To identify the potential target of deltamethrin, we exposed C. elegans to different concentrations of deltamethrin and Ca(2+) channel blockers for different times, characterized the behavioral toxicity of deltamethrin on C. elegans, and determined the expression of egl-19, unc-2, and cca-1, which encode the α1-subunit of the L-, R/N/P/Q-, and T-type VGCC, respectively. We found that deltamethrin inhibited the locomotion, egg-laying and foraging ability of C. elegans in a concentration dependent manner. We also showed that body length of worms on agar plates containing 200mgL(-1) deltamethrin for 12h was not significantly different from controls, whereas the cholinesterase inhibitor carbofuran caused hypercontraction which is a characteristic of organophosphates and carbamates, suggesting that deltamethrin's mode of action is distinct from those nematicides. In addition, unc-2 was significantly up-regulated following 0.05mgL(-1) deltamethrin exposure for 24h; while egl-19 and cca-1 were significantly up-regulated following 5 and 50mgL(-1) deltamethrin exposure for 24h. Further tests of worms' sensitivity and expression of three α1-subunits of VGCC to Ca(2+) channel blockers indicate that deltamethrin may induce toxic behavior C. elegans via modulation of the expression of the α1-subunits of VGCC. This study provides insights into the linkage between deltamethrin-induced toxic behavior and the regulation of α1-subunits of VGCC

  20. Cloning and Immunocytochemical Localization of a Cyclic Nucleotide–Gated Channel α-Subunit to All Cone Photoreceptors in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    HIRANO, ARLENE A.; HACK, IRIS; WÄSSLE, HEINZ; DUVOISIN, ROBERT M.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide–gated channels (CNGC) are ligand-gated ion channels that open and close in response to changes in the intracellular concentration of the second messengers, 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Most notably, they transduce the chemical signal produced by the absorption of light in photoreceptors into a membrane potential change, which is then transmitted to the ascending visual pathway. CNGCs have also been implicated in the signal transduction of other neurons downstream of the photoreceptors, in particular the ON-bipolar cells, as well as in other areas of the central nervous system. We therefore undertook a search for additional cyclic nucleotide–gated channels expressed in the retina. Following a degenerate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach to amplify low-copy number messages, a cDNA encoding a new splice variant of CNGC α-subunit was isolated from mouse retina and classified as mCNG3. An antiserum raised against the carboxy-terminal sequence identified the retinal cell type expressing mCNG3 as cone photoreceptors. Preembedding immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated its membrane localization in the outer segments, consistent with its role in phototransduction. Double-labeling experiments with cone-specific markers indicated that all cone photoreceptors in the murid retina use the same or a highly conserved cyclic nucleotide–gated channel. Therefore, defects in this channel would be predicted to severely impair photopic vision. PMID:10813773

  1. In planta AKT2 subunits constitute a pH- and Ca2+-sensitive inward rectifying K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Latz, Andreas; Ivashikina, Natalya; Fischer, Susanne; Ache, Peter; Sano, Toshio; Becker, Dirk; Deeken, Rosalia; Hedrich, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    Heterologous expression of plant genes in yeast and animal cells represents a common approach to study plant ion channels. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes and COS cells the Arabidopsis Shaker-like K+ channel, AKT2 forms a weakly voltage-dependent channel, blocked by Ca2+ and protons. Channels with these characteristics, however, were not found in AKT2-expressing Arabidopsis cell types. To understand this phenomenon, we employed Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to functionally characterise Arabidopsis thaliana channels in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells. In this expression system we used AtTPK4 as a control for voltage-independent A. thaliana channels. Agrobacteria harbouring GFP-tagged constructs with the coding sequences of AKT2 and AtTPK4 were infiltrated into intact tobacco leaves. With quantitative RT-PCR analyses channel transcripts of AKT2 and AtTPK4 were determined in transformed leaves. These results were confirmed by Western blots with V5 epitope-tagged AKT2 and AtTPK4 proteins, showing that the channel protein was indeed synthesised. For functional analysis of these channels, mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from infiltrated leaf sections. Patch-clamp studies revealed that AKT2 channels in mesophyll protoplasts retained Ca2+ and pH sensitivity, characteristics of the heterologously expressed protein, but displayed pronounced differences in voltage-dependence and kinetics. AKT2-transformed mesophyll cells, displayed inward-rectifying, rather than voltage-independent K+ channels, initially characterised in AKT2-expressing animal cells. In contrast, AtTPK4 showed the same electrophysiological characteristics both, in oocytes and plant cells. Our data suggest that heterologous systems do not always possess all regulatory components for functional expression of plant channels. Therefore, transient expression of plant proteins in planta provides an additional research tool for rapid biophysical analysis of plant ion channels.

  2. Molecular characterization and gene expression of the channel catfish Ferritin H subunit after bacterial infection and iron treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ferritins are the major iron storage protein in the cytoplasm of cells, responsible for regulating levels of intracellular iron. Ferritin genes are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In mammals, ferritin molecules are composed of heavy- (H) and light- (L) chain subunits; amphibia...

  3. Developmental expression and functional characterization of the potassium-channel subunit Kv3.1b in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Zhang, L; Weiser, M; Rudy, B; McBain, C J

    1996-01-15

    The expression of the voltage-gated K(+)-channel subunit Kv3.1b in the developing hippocampus was determined by immunoblot and immunohistochemical techniques. Kv3.1b protein was detected first at postnatal day (P) 8. The Kv3.1b-immunopositive cell number per tissue section reached a maximum at P14 and was maintained through P40. In contrast, the Kv3.1b protein content of isolated membrane vesicles in immunoblots progressively increased through P40, suggesting an increase in Kv3.1b content per cell throughout this time period. Kv3.1b protein was expressed selectively in the somata, proximal dendrites, and axons of cells lying within or near the pyramidal cell layer, consistent with their being GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. Kv3.1b was present in approximately 80% of parvalbumin-positive interneurons. The developmental onset of Kv3.1b and parvalbumin immunoreactivity was identical. In contrast, Kv3.1b was mostly absent from the subset of somatostatin-positive inhibitory interneurons. Electrophysiological recordings were made from stratum pyramidale interneurons in which morphology and Kv3.1b-positive immunoreactivity were confirmed post hoc. Outward currents had voltage-dependent and biophysical properties resembling those of channels formed by Kv3.1b. The current blocked by low concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) showed marked inactivation, suggesting that Kv3.1b may coassemble with other members of the Kv3 subfamily. In current-clamp recordings, concentrations of 4-AP that blocked the current through Kv3.1b channels allowed us tentatively to assign a role to Kv3.1b-containing channels in action-potential repolarization. These data demonstrate that Kv3.1b is regulated developmentally in a specific subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons and that channels containing this subunit may be a major determinant in imparting "fast-spiking" characteristics to these and other cells throughout the central nervous system containing the Kv3.1b subunit.

  4. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav) subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct) values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP) there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain. PMID:27896032

  5. Rab27a GTPase modulates L-type Ca2+ channel function via interaction with the II-III linker of CaV1.3 subunit.

    PubMed

    Reichhart, Nadine; Markowski, Magdalena; Ishiyama, Shimpei; Wagner, Andrea; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Schorb, Talitha; Ramalho, José S; Milenkovic, Vladimir M; Föckler, Renate; Seabra, Miguel C; Strauß, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    In a variety of cells, secretory processes require the activation of both Rab27a and L-type channels of the Ca(V)1.3 subtype. In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Rab27a and Ca(V)1.3 channels regulate growth-factor secretion towards its basolateral side. Analysis of murine retina sections revealed a co-localization of both Rab27a and Ca(V)1.3 at the basolateral membrane of the RPE. Heterologously expressed Ca(V)1.3/β3/α2δ1 channels showed negatively shifted voltage-dependence and decreased current density of about 70% when co-expressed with Rab27a. However, co-localization analysis using α(5)β(1) integrin as a membrane marker revealed that Rab27a co-expression reduced the surface expression of Ca(V)1.3 only about 10%. Physical binding of heterologously expressed Rab27a with Ca(V)1.3 channels was shown by co-localization in immunocytochemistry as well as co-immunoprecipitation which was abolished after deletion of a MyRIP-homologous amino acid sequence at the II-III linker of the Ca(V)1.3 subunit. Rab27a over-expression in ARPE-19 cells positively shifted the voltage dependence, decreased current density of endogenous Ca(V)1.3 channels and reduced VEGF-A secretion. We show the first evidence of a direct functional modulation of an ion channel by Rab27a suggesting a new mechanism of Rab and ion channel interaction in the control of VEGF-A secretion in the RPE.

  6. Interactions between N and C termini of α1C subunit regulate inactivation of CaV1.2 L-type Ca2+ channel

    PubMed Central

    Benmocha Guggenheimer, Adva; Almagor, Lior; Tsemakhovich, Vladimir; Tripathy, Debi Ranjan; Hirsch, Joel A; Dascal, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The modulation and regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is affected by the pore-forming segments, the cytosolic parts of the channel, and interacting intracellular proteins. In this study we demonstrate a direct physical interaction between the N terminus (NT) and C terminus (CT) of the main subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel CaV1.2, α1C, and explore the importance of this interaction for the regulation of the channel. We used biochemistry to measure the strength of the interaction and to map the location of the interaction sites, and electrophysiology to investigate the functional impact of the interaction. We show that the full-length NT (amino acids 1-154) and the proximal (close to the plasma membrane) part of the CT, pCT (amino acids 1508-1669) interact with sub-micromolar to low-micromolar affinity. Calmodulin (CaM) is not essential for the binding. The results further suggest that the NT-CT interaction regulates the channel's inactivation, and that Ca2+, presumably through binding to calmodulin (CaM), reduces the strength of NT-CT interaction. We propose a molecular mechanism in which NT and CT of the channel serve as levers whose movements regulate inactivation by promoting changes in the transmembrane core of the channel via S1 (NT) or S6 (pCT) segments of domains I and IV, accordingly, and not as a kind of pore blocker. We hypothesize that Ca2+-CaM-induced changes in NT-CT interaction may, in part, underlie the acceleration of CaV1.2 inactivation induced by Ca2+ entry into the cell. PMID:26577286

  7. Differential distribution and functional impact of BK channel beta1 subunits across mesenteric, coronary, and different cerebral arteries of the rat.

    PubMed

    Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Bisen, Shivantika; Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alex M

    2017-02-01

    Large conductance, Ca(2+)i- and voltage-gated K(+) (BK) channels regulate myogenic tone and, thus, arterial diameter. In smooth muscle (SM), BK channels include channel-forming α and auxiliary β1 subunits. BK β1 increases the channel's Ca(2+) sensitivity, allowing BK channels to negatively feedback on depolarization-induced Ca(2+) entry, oppose SM contraction and favor vasodilation. Thus, endothelial-independent vasodilation can be evoked though targeting of SM BK β1 by endogenous ligands, including lithocholate (LCA). Here, we investigated the expression of BK β1 across arteries of the cerebral and peripheral circulations, and the contribution of such expression to channel function and BK β1-mediated vasodilation. Data demonstrate that endothelium-independent, BK β1-mediated vasodilation by LCA is larger in coronary (CA) and basilar (BA) arteries than in anterior cerebral (ACA), middle cerebral (MCA), posterior cerebral (PCA), and mesenteric (MA) arteries, all arterial segments having a similar diameter. Thus, differential dilation occurs in extracranial arteries which are subjected to similar vascular pressure (CA vs. MA) and in arteries that irrigate different brain regions (BA vs. ACA, MCA, and PCA). SM BK channels from BA and CA displayed increased basal activity and LCA responses, indicating increased BK β1 functional presence. Indeed, in the absence of detectable changes in BK α, BA and CA myocytes showed an increased location of BK β1 in the plasmalemma/subplasmalemma. Moreover, these myocytes distinctly showed increased BK β1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Supporting a major role of enhanced BK β1 transcripts in artery dilation, LCA-induced dilation of MCA transfected with BK β1 complementary DNA (cDNA) was as high as LCA-induced dilation of untransfected BA or CA.

  8. Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S; Farrell, Bianca; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

    2011-01-12

    Voltage gated K(+) channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (ΔΔCT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  9. Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S.; Dotson, Bianca Farrel; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F.; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (Δ ΔCT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20971086

  10. Hydroxyproline-induced Helical Disruption in Conantokin Rl-B Affects Subunit-selective Antagonistic Activities toward Ion Channels of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kunda, Shailaja; Yuan, Yue; Balsara, Rashna D.; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Castellino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Conantokins are ∼20-amino acid peptides present in predatory marine snail venoms that function as allosteric antagonists of ion channels of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). These peptides possess a high percentage of post-/co-translationally modified amino acids, particularly γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla). Appropriately spaced Gla residues allow binding of functional divalent cations, which induces end-to-end α-helices in many conantokins. A smaller number of these peptides additionally contain 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp). Hyp should prevent adoption of the metal ion-induced full α-helix, with unknown functional consequences. To address this disparity, as well as the role of Hyp in conantokins, we have solved the high resolution three-dimensional solution structure of a Gla/Hyp-containing 18-residue conantokin, conRl-B, by high field NMR spectroscopy. We show that Hyp10 disrupts only a small region of the α-helix of the Mn2+·peptide complex, which displays cation-induced α-helices on each terminus of the peptide. The function of conRl-B was examined by measuring its inhibition of NMDA/Gly-mediated current through NMDAR ion channels in mouse cortical neurons. The conRl-B displays high inhibitory selectivity for subclasses of NMDARs that contain the functionally important GluN2B subunit. Replacement of Hyp10 with N8Q results in a Mg2+-complexed end-to-end α-helix, accompanied by attenuation of NMDAR inhibitory activity. However, replacement of Hyp10 with Pro10 allowed the resulting peptide to retain its inhibitory property but diminished its GluN2B specificity. Thus, these modified amino acids, in specific peptide backbones, play critical roles in their subunit-selective inhibition of NMDAR ion channels, a finding that can be employed to design NMDAR antagonists that function at ion channels of distinct NMDAR subclasses. PMID:26048991

  11. Loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit impairs parallel fibre volley and Purkinje cell firing in cerebellum of adult ataxic mice.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Bruno; Benedetti, Ariane; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    The auxiliary voltage-gated calcium channel subunit β4 supports targeting of calcium channels to the cell membrane, modulates ionic currents and promotes synaptic release in the central nervous system. β4 is abundant in cerebellum and its loss causes ataxia. However, the type of calcium channels and cerebellar functions affected by the loss of β4 are currently unknown. We therefore studied the structure and function of Purkinje cells in acute cerebellar slices of the β4 (-/-) ataxic (lethargic) mouse, finding that loss of β4 affected Purkinje cell input, morphology and pacemaker activity. In adult lethargic cerebellum evoked postsynaptic currents from parallel fibres were depressed, while paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous synaptic currents were unaffected. Because climbing fibre input was spared, the parallel fibre/climbing fibre input ratio was reduced. The dendritic arbor of adult lethargic Purkinje cells displayed fewer and shorter dendrites, but a normal spine density. Accordingly, the width of the molecular and granular layers was reduced. These defects recapitulate the impaired cerebellar maturation observed upon Cav 2.1 ataxic mutations. However, unlike Cav 2.1 mutations, lethargic Purkinje cells also displayed a striking decrease in pacemaker firing frequency, without loss of firing regularity. All these deficiencies appear in late development, indicating the importance of β4 for the normal differentiation and function of mature Purkinje cells networks. The observed reduction of the parallel fibre input, the altered parallel fibre/climbing fibre ratio and the reduced Purkinje cell output can contribute to the severe motor impairment caused by the loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit in lethargic mice.

  12. Role of spinal voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha 2 delta-1 subunit in the expression of a neuropathic pain-like state in mice.

    PubMed

    Narita, Minoru; Nakajima, Mayumi; Miyoshi, Kan; Narita, Michiko; Nagumo, Yasuyuki; Miyatake, Mayumi; Yajima, Yoshinori; Yanagida, Kiyomi; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2007-05-08

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of spinal voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1 subunit in the expression of a neuropathic pain-like state induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice. In cultured spinal neurons, gabapentin (GBP), which displays the inhibitory effect of alpha(2)delta-1 subunit, suppressed the extracellular Ca(2+) influx induced by KCl, whereas it failed to inhibit the intracellular Ca(2+) release induced by inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate. Seven days after sciatic nerve ligation, the protein level of alpha(2)delta-1 subunit in the ipsilateral spinal cord was clearly increased compared to that observed in sham-operated mice. In addition, the mRNA level of alpha(2)delta-1 subunit was significantly increased in the dorsal root ganglion, but not in the spinal cord, of nerve-ligated mice. Under these conditions, a marked decrease in the latency of paw-withdrawal against a thermal stimulation and tactile stimulation, induced by sciatic nerve ligation was abolished by repeated intrathecal (i.t.) treatment with GBP. Additionally, the persistent reduction in the nociceptive threshold by i.t. treatment with GBP at the early stage of the neuropathic pain-like state was maintained for 7 days even after GBP withdrawal. It is of interest to note that a single i.t. post-injection of GBP showed a marked and transient inhibitory effect on the developed neuropathic pain-like state, whereas repeated i.t. post-treatment with GBP produced a persistent inhibitory effect during the treatment. In conclusion, we propose here that the neuropathic pain-like state with sciatic nerve ligation is associated with the increased level of the alpha(2)delta-1 subunit of Ca(2+) channels at the sensory nerve terminal in the spinal dorsal horn of mice. Furthermore, the present data provide evidence that the neuropathic pain may be effectively controlled by repeated treatment with GBP at the early stage.

  13. Targeting of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel α2δ-1 Subunit to Lipid Rafts Is Independent from a GPI-Anchoring Motif

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Philip; Etheridge, Sarah; Song, Lele; Shah, Riddhi; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M.; Jones, Owen T.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav) exist as heteromultimers comprising a pore-forming α1 with accessory β and α2δ subunits which modify channel trafficking and function. We previously showed that α2δ-1 (and likely the other mammalian α2δ isoforms - α2δ-2, 3 and 4) is required for targeting Cavs to lipid rafts, although the mechanism remains unclear. Whilst originally understood to have a classical type I transmembrane (TM) topology, recent evidence suggests the α2δ subunit contains a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor that mediates its association with lipid rafts. To test this notion, we have used a strategy based on the expression of chimera, where the reported GPI-anchoring sequences in the gabapentinoid-sensitive α2δ-1 subunit have been substituted with those of a functionally inert Type I TM-spanning protein – PIN-G. Using imaging, electrophysiology and biochemistry, we find that lipid raft association of PIN-α2δ is unaffected by substitution of the GPI motif with the TM domain of PIN-G. Moreover, the presence of the GPI motif alone is not sufficient for raft localisation, suggesting that upstream residues are required. GPI-anchoring is susceptible to phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) cleavage. However, whilst raft localisation of PIN-α2δ is disrupted by PI-PLC treatment, this is assay-dependent and non-specific effects of PI-PLC are observed on the distribution of the endogenous raft marker, caveolin, but not flotillin. Taken together, these data are most consistent with a model where α2δ-1 retains its type I transmembrane topology and its targeting to lipid rafts is governed by sequences upstream of the putative GPI anchor, that promote protein-protein, rather than lipid-lipid interactions. PMID:21695204

  14. The sodium channel β1 subunit mediates outgrowth of neurite-like processes on breast cancer cells and promotes tumour growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michaela; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Forrest, Lorna C; Brackenbury, William J

    2014-11-15

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are heteromeric proteins composed of pore-forming α subunits and smaller β subunits. The β subunits are multifunctional channel modulators and are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). β1, encoded by SCN1B, is best characterized in the central nervous system (CNS), where it plays a critical role in regulating electrical excitability, neurite outgrowth and migration during development. β1 is also expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell lines, where it regulates adhesion and migration in vitro. In the present study, we found that SCN1B mRNA/β1 protein were up-regulated in BCa specimens, compared with normal breast tissue. β1 upregulation substantially increased tumour growth and metastasis in a xenograft model of BCa. β1 over-expression also increased vascularization and reduced apoptosis in the primary tumours, and β1 over-expressing tumour cells had an elongate morphology. In vitro, β1 potentiated outgrowth of processes from BCa cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, via trans-homophilic adhesion. β1-mediated process outgrowth in BCa cells required the presence and activity of fyn kinase, and Na(+) current, thus replicating the mechanism by which β1 regulates neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons. We conclude that when present in breast tumours, β1 enhances pathological growth and cellular dissemination. This study is the first demonstration of a functional role for β1 in tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. We propose that β1 warrants further study as a potential biomarker and targeting β1-mediated adhesion interactions may have value as a novel anti-cancer therapy.

  15. Ontogenic Changes and Differential Localization of T-type Ca2+ Channel Subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in Mouse Hippocampus and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Carolina; García-Madrona, Sebastián; Gil-Minguez, Mercedes; Luján, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    T-type calcium (Ca2+) channels play a central role in regulating membrane excitability in the brain. Although the contributions of T-type current to neuron output is often proposed to reflect a differential distribution of T-type channel subtypes to somato-dendritic compartments, their precise subcellular distributions in central neurons are not fully determined. Using histoblot and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopic techniques, we have investigated the expression, regional distribution and subcellular localization of T-type Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channel subunits in the adult brain, as well as the ontogeny of expression during postnatal development. Histoblot analysis showed that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 proteins were widely expressed in the brain, with mostly non-overlapping patterns. Cav3.1 showed the highest expression level in the molecular layer (ml) of the cerebellum (Cb), and Cav3.2 in the hippocampus (Hp) and the ml of Cb. During development, levels of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 increased with age, although there were marked region- and developmental stage-specific differences in their expression. At the cellular and subcellular level, immunoelectron microscopy showed that labeling for Cav3.1 was present in somato-dendritic domains of hippocampal interneurons and Purkinje cells (PCs), while Cav3.2 was present in somato-dendritic domains of CA1 pyramidal cells, hippocampal interneurons and PCs. Most of the immunoparticles for Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 were either associated with the plasma membrane or the intracellular membranes, with notable differences depending on the compartment. Thus, Cav3.1 was mainly located in the plasma membrane of interneurons, whereas Cav3.2 was mainly located in the plasma membrane of dendritic spines and had a major intracellular distribution in dendritic shafts. In PCs, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 showed similar distribution patterns. In addition to its main postsynaptic distribution, Cav3.2 but not Cav3.1 was also detected in axon terminals establishing

  16. Gene Splicing of an Invertebrate Beta Subunit (LCavβ) in the N-Terminal and HOOK Domains and Its Regulation of LCav1 and LCav2 Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Taylor F.; Boone, Adrienne N.; Senatore, Adriano; Piticaru, Joshua; Thiyagalingam, Shano; Jackson, Daniel; Davison, Angus; Spafford, J. David

    2014-01-01

    The accessory beta subunit (Cavβ) of calcium channels first appear in the same genome as Cav1 L-type calcium channels in single-celled coanoflagellates. The complexity of this relationship expanded in vertebrates to include four different possible Cavβ subunits (β1, β2, β3, β4) which associate with four Cav1 channel isoforms (Cav1.1 to Cav1.4) and three Cav2 channel isoforms (Cav2.1 to Cav2.3). Here we assess the fundamentally-shared features of the Cavβ subunit in an invertebrate model (pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis) that bears only three homologous genes: (LCav1, LCav2, and LCavβ). Invertebrate Cavβ subunits (in flatworms, snails, squid and honeybees) slow the inactivation kinetics of Cav2 channels, and they do so with variable N-termini and lacking the canonical palmitoylation residues of the vertebrate β2a subunit. Alternative splicing of exon 7 of the HOOK domain is a primary determinant of a slow inactivation kinetics imparted by the invertebrate LCavβ subunit. LCavβ will also slow the inactivation kinetics of LCav3 T-type channels, but this is likely not physiologically relevant in vivo. Variable N-termini have little influence on the voltage-dependent inactivation kinetics of differing invertebrate Cavβ subunits, but the expression pattern of N-terminal splice isoforms appears to be highly tissue specific. Molluscan LCavβ subunits have an N-terminal “A” isoform (coded by exons: 1a and 1b) that structurally resembles the muscle specific variant of vertebrate β1a subunit, and has a broad mRNA expression profile in brain, heart, muscle and glands. A more variable “B” N-terminus (exon 2) in the exon position of mammalian β3 and has a more brain-centric mRNA expression pattern. Lastly, we suggest that the facilitation of closed-state inactivation (e.g. observed in Cav2.2 and Cavβ3 subunit combinations) is a specialization in vertebrates, because neither snail subunit (LCav2 nor LCavβ) appears to be compatible with this observed property

  17. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive α-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, C; Doll, T; Stueber, T; Herzog, C; Echtermeyer, F; Greulich, F; Rudat, C; Kispert, A; Wegner, F; Leffler, A

    2016-06-01

    The sodium channel α-subunit (Nav) Nav1.5 is regarded as the most prevalent cardiac sodium channel required for generation of action potentials in cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, Nav1.5 seems to be the main target molecule for local anesthetic (LA)-induced cardiotoxicity. However, recent reports demonstrated functional expression of several "neuronal" Nav's in cardiomyocytes being involved in cardiac contractility and rhythmogenesis. In this study, we examined the relevance of neuronal tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Nav's for inhibition of cardiac sodium channels by the cardiotoxic LAs ropivacaine and bupivacaine. Effects of LAs on recombinant Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 expressed in human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK-293) cells, and on sodium currents in murine, cardiomyocytes were investigated by whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Expression analyses were performed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice express messenger RNA (mRNA) for Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.8, and 1.9 and generate TTX-sensitive sodium currents. Tonic and use-dependent block of sodium currents in cardiomyocytes by ropivacaine and bupivacaine were enhanced by 200 nM TTX. Inhibition of recombinant Nav1.5 channels was similar to that of TTX-resistant currents in cardiomyocytes but stronger as compared to inhibition of total sodium current in cardiomyocytes. Recombinant Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 channels displayed significant differences in regard to use-dependent block by ropivacaine. Finally, bupivacaine blocked sodium currents in cardiomyocytes as well as recombinant Nav1.5 currents significantly stronger in comparison to ropivacaine. Our data demonstrate for the first time that cardiac TTX-sensitive sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by LAs.

  18. Identification of residues in dendrotoxin K responsible for its discrimination between neuronal K+ channels containing Kv1.1 and 1.2 alpha subunits.

    PubMed

    Wang, F C; Bell, N; Reid, P; Smith, L A; McIntosh, P; Robertson, B; Dolly, J O

    1999-07-01

    Dendrotoxin (DTX) homologues are powerful blockers of K+ channels that contain certain subfamily Kv1 (1.1-1.6) alpha- and beta-subunits, in (alpha)4(beta)4 stoichiometry. DTXk inhibits potently Kv1.1-containing channels only, whereas alphaDTX is less discriminating, but exhibits highest affinity for Kv1.2. Herein, the nature of interactions of DTXk with native K+ channels composed of Kv1.1 and 1.2 (plus other) subunits were examined, using 15 site-directed mutants in which amino acids were altered in the 310-helix, beta-turn, alpha-helix and random-coil regions. The mutants' antagonism of high-affinity [125I]DTXk binding to Kv1. 1-possessing channels in rat brain membranes and blockade of the Kv1. 1 current expressed in oocytes were quantified. Also, the levels of inhibition of [125I]alphaDTX binding to brain membranes by the DTXk mutants were used to measure their high- and low-affinity interactions, respectively, with neuronal Kv1.2-containing channels that possess Kv1.1 as a major or minor constituent. Displacement of toxin binding to either of these subtypes was not altered by single substitution with alanine of three basic residues in the random-coil region, or R52 or R53 in the alpha-helix; accordingly, representative mutants (K17A, R53A) blocked the Kv1.1 current with the same potency as the natural toxin. In contrast, competition of the binding of the radiolabelled alphaDTX or DTXk was dramatically reduced by alanine substitution of K26 or W25 in the beta-turn whereas changing nearby residues caused negligible alterations. Consistently, W25A and K26A exhibited diminished functional blockade of the Kv1.1 homo-oligomer. The 310-helical N-terminal region of DTXk was found to be responsible for recognition of Kv1.1 channels because mutation of K3A led to approximately 1246-fold reduction in the inhibitory potency for [125I]DTXk binding and a large decrease in its ability to block the Kv1.1 current; the effect of this substitution on the affinity of DTXk for Kv1

  19. T-Type calcium channel alpha1G and alpha1H subunits in human retinoblastoma cells and their loss after differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Sun, Xiaolu; Hamid, Jawed; Zamponi, Gerald W; Juhasz, Alexander E; Haynes, Lawrence W; Barnes, Steven

    2002-07-01

    Human retinoblastoma cells are multipotent retinal precursor cells capable of differentiating into photoreceptors, neurons, and glia. The current-voltage relation of the undifferentiated cells is dominated by a transient inward current that disappears shortly after differentiation. In 20 mM Ba(2+)-containing bath solutions, the current has an activation midpoint near -25 mV and appears to be fully inactivated at -20 mV. Sr(2+) and Ca(2+) are preferred charge carriers relative to Ba(2+), and the current vanishes in the absence of these divalent cations. Cd(2+) blocks the current with an IC(50) of 160 microM, and Ni(2+) blocks in a biphasic manner with IC(50)s of 22 and 352 microM. The current is unaffected when sodium is replaced with other monovalent cations, and it is insensitive to nifedipine, omega-conotoxin GVIA, omega-agatoxin IVA, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. RT-PCR revealed the presence of alpha 1G and alpha 1H mRNA in undifferentiated cells, but following differentiation, a striking reduction of both alpha 1G and alpha 1H mRNA was found, and this was paralleled by the loss of T-type Ca channel currents. alpha 1I subunit mRNA levels were low in undifferentiated and differentiated cells. These results suggest that T-type Ca channels could play a role in undifferentiated retinoblastoma cell physiology since alpha 1G and alpha 1H Ca channel subunit expression is reduced in cells that have differentiated and exited the cell cycle.

  20. Comparative study of the distribution of the alpha-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels in normal and axotomized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Obata, Koichi; Dai, Yi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2008-09-10

    We compared the distribution of the alpha-subunit mRNAs of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.1-1.3 and Nav1.6-1.9 and a related channel, Nax, in histochemically identified neuronal subpopulations of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the naïve DRG, the expression of Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 was restricted to A-fiber neurons, and they were preferentially expressed by TrkC neurons, suggesting that proprioceptive neurons possess these channels. Nav1.7, -1.8, and -1.9 mRNAs were more abundant in C-fiber neurons compared with A-fiber ones. Nax was evenly expressed in both populations. Although Nav1.8 and -1.9 were preferentially expressed by TrkA neurons, other alpha-subunits were expressed independently of TrkA expression. Actually, all IB4(+) neurons expressed both Nav1.8 and -1.9, and relatively limited subpopulations of IB4(+) neurons (3% and 12%, respectively) expressed Nav1.1 and/or Nav1.6. These findings provide useful information in interpreting the electrophysiological characteristics of some neuronal subpopulations of naïve DRG. After L5 spinal nerve ligation, Nav1.3 mRNA was up-regulated mainly in A-fiber neurons in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Although previous studies demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) reversed this up-regulation, the Nav1.3 induction was independent of either TrkA or GFRalpha1 expression, suggesting that the induction of Nav1.3 may be one of the common responses of axotomized DRG neurons without a direct relationship to NGF/GDNF supply. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. RalA GTPase tethers insulin granules to L- and R-type calcium channels through binding α2 δ-1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Kang, Youhou; Liang, Tao; Dolai, Subhankar; Xie, Huanli; Parsaud, Leon; Lopez, Jamie A; He, Yu; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Lam, Patrick P; James, David E; Sugita, Shuzo; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2013-04-01

    RalA GTPase has been implicated in the regulated delivery of exocytotic vesicles to the plasma membrane (PM) in mammalian cells. We had reported that RalA regulates biphasic insulin secretion, which we have now determined to be contributed by RalA direct interaction with voltage-gated calcium (Cav ) channels. RalA knockdown (KD) in INS-1 cells and primary rat β-cells resulted in a reduction in Ca(2+) currents arising specifically from L-(Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3) and R-type (Cav 2.3) Ca(2+) channels. Restoration of RalA expression in RalA KD cells rescued these defects in Ca(2+) currents. RalA co-immunoprecipitated with the Cav α2 δ-1 auxiliary subunit known to bind the three Cav s. Moreover, the functional molecular interactions between Cav α2 δ-1 and RalA on the PM shown by total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy/FRET analysis could be induced by glucose stimulation. KD of RalA inhibited trafficking of α2 δ-1 to insulin granules without affecting the localization of the other Cav subunits. Furthermore, we confirmed that RalA and α2 δ-1 functionally interact since RalA KD-induced inhibition of Cav currents could not be recovered by RalA when α2 δ-1 was simultaneously knocked down. These data provide a mechanism for RalA function in insulin secretion, whereby RalA binds α2 δ-1 on insulin granules to tether these granules to PM Ca(2+) channels. This acts as a chaperoning step prior to and in preparation for sequential assembly of exocyst and excitosome complexes that mediate biphasic insulin secretion.

  2. A specific tryptophan in the I-II linker is a key determinant of beta-subunit binding and modulation in Ca(V)2.3 calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Berrou, L; Klein, H; Bernatchez, G; Parent, L

    2002-01-01

    The ancillary beta subunits modulate the activation and inactivation properties of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels in an isoform-specific manner. The beta subunits bind to a high-affinity interaction site, alpha-interaction domain (AID), located in the I-II linker of HVA alpha1 subunits. Nine residues in the AID motif are absolutely conserved in all HVA channels (QQxExxLxGYxxWIxxxE), but their contribution to beta-subunit binding and modulation remains to be established in Ca(V)2.3. Mutations of W386 to either A, G, Q, R, E, F, or Y in Ca(V)2.3 disrupted [(35)S]beta3-subunit overlay binding to glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the mutated I-II linker, whereas mutations (single or multiple) of nonconserved residues did not affect the protein-protein interaction with beta3. The tryptophan residue at position 386 appears to be an essential determinant as substitutions with hydrophobic (A and G), hydrophilic (Q, R, and E), or aromatic (F and Y) residues yielded the same results. beta-Subunit modulation of W386 (A, G, Q, R, E, F, and Y) and Y383 (A and S) mutants was investigated after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. All mutant channels expressed large inward Ba(2+) currents with typical current-voltage properties. Nonetheless, the typical hallmarks of beta-subunit modulation, namely the increase in peak currents, the hyperpolarization of peak voltages, and the modulation of the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation, were eliminated in all W386 mutants, although they were preserved in part in Y383 (A and S) mutants. Altogether these results suggest that W386 is critical for beta-subunit binding and modulation of HVA Ca(2+) channels. PMID:12202369

  3. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity and hypoxic preconditioning are independent of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; DiStefano, Peter; Sherman, Teresa; Brookes, Paul S.; Nehrke, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) is an evolutionarily-conserved mechanism that protects an organism against stress. The mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mKATP) plays an essential role in the protective signaling, but remains molecularly undefined. Several lines of evidence suggest that mKATP may arise from an inward rectifying K+ channel (Kir). The genetic model organism C. elegans exhibits HP and displays mKATP activity. Here, we investigate the tissue expression profile of the three C. elegans Kir genes and demonstrate that mutant strains where the irk genes have been deleted either individually or in combination can be protected by HP and exhibit robust mKATP channel activity in purified mitochondria. These data suggest that the mKATP in C. elegans does not arise from a Kir derived channel. PMID:22281198

  4. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity and hypoxic preconditioning are independent of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wojtovich, Andrew P; DiStefano, Peter; Sherman, Teresa; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith

    2012-02-17

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) is an evolutionarily-conserved mechanism that protects an organism against stress. The mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (mK(ATP)) plays an essential role in the protective signaling, but remains molecularly undefined. Several lines of evidence suggest that mK(ATP) may arise from an inward rectifying K(+) channel (Kir). The genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits HP and displays mK(ATP) activity. Here, we investigate the tissue expression profile of the three C. elegans Kir genes and demonstrate that mutant strains where the irk genes have been deleted either individually or in combination can be protected by HP and exhibit robust mK(ATP) channel activity in purified mitochondria. These data suggest that the mK(ATP) in C. elegans does not arise from a Kir derived channel.

  5. Investigations of the Navβ1b sodium channel subunit in human ventricle; functional characterization of the H162P Brugada syndrome mutant.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Liang, Bo; Lorentzen, Lasse G; Tang, Chuyi; Andersen, Martin N; Svendsen, Jesper H; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Maleckar, Molly; Schmitt, Nicole; Olesen, Morten S; Jespersen, Thomas

    2014-04-15

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare inherited disease that can give rise to ventricular arrhythmia and ultimately sudden cardiac death. Numerous loss-of-function mutations in the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 have been associated with BrS. However, few mutations in the auxiliary Navβ1-4 subunits have been linked to this disease. Here we investigated differences in expression and function between Navβ1 and Navβ1b and whether the H162P/Navβ1b mutation found in a BrS patient is likely to be the underlying cause of disease. The impact of Navβ subunits was investigated by patch-clamp electrophysiology, and the obtained in vitro values were used for subsequent in silico modeling. We found that Navβ1b transcripts were expressed at higher levels than Navβ1 transcripts in the human heart. Navβ1 and Navβ1b coexpressed with Nav1.5 induced a negative shift on steady state of activation and inactivation compared with Nav1.5 alone. Furthermore, Navβ1b was found to increase the current level when coexpressed with Nav1.5, Navβ1b/H162P mutated subunit peak current density was reduced by 48% (-645 ± 151 vs. -334 ± 71 pA/pF), V1/2 steady-state inactivation shifted by -6.7 mV (-70.3 ± 1.5 vs. -77.0 ± 2.8 mV), and time-dependent recovery from inactivation slowed by >50% compared with coexpression with Navβ1b wild type. Computer simulations revealed that these electrophysiological changes resulted in a reduction in both action potential amplitude and maximum upstroke velocity. The experimental data thereby indicate that Navβ1b/H162P results in reduced sodium channel activity functionally affecting the ventricular action potential. This result is an important replication to support the notion that BrS can be linked to the function of Navβ1b and is associated with loss-of-function of the cardiac sodium channel.

  6. Altered expression and localization of hippocampal A-type potassium channel subunits in the pilocarpine-induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, M M; Menegola, M; Vacher, H; Rhodes, K J; Trimmer, J S

    2008-10-15

    Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of 2-3 weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE.

  7. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mouse skeletal muscle afferents are heteromers composed of ASIC1a, ASIC2, and ASIC3 subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Mamta; Benson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in skeletal muscle afferents, in which they sense extracellular acidosis and other metabolites released during ischemia and exercise. ASICs are formed as homotrimers or heterotrimers of several isoforms (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3), with each channel displaying distinct properties. To dissect the ASIC composition in muscle afferents, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to study the properties of acid-evoked currents (amplitude, pH sensitivity, the kinetics of desensitization and recovery from desensitization, and pharmacological modulation) in isolated, labeled mouse muscle afferents from wild-type (C57BL/6J) and specific ASIC−/− mice. We found that ASIC-like currents in wild-type muscle afferents displayed fast desensitization, indicating that they are carried by heteromeric channels. Currents from ASIC1a−/− muscle afferents were less pH-sensitive and displayed faster recovery, currents from ASIC2−/− mice showed diminished potentiation by zinc, and currents from ASIC3−/− mice displayed slower desensitization than those from wild-type mice. Finally, ASIC-like currents were absent from triple-null mice lacking ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC3. We conclude that ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC3 heteromers are the principle channels in skeletal muscle afferents. These results will help us understand the role of ASICs in exercise physiology and provide a molecular target for potential drug therapies to treat muscle pain.—Gautam, M., Benson, C. J. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mouse skeletal muscle afferents are heteromers composed of ASIC1a, ASIC2, and ASIC3 subunits. PMID:23109675

  8. Evolution of CpG island promoter function underlies changes in KChIP2 potassium channel subunit gene expression in mammalian heart.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qinghong; Masson, Rajeev; Ren, Yi; Rosati, Barbara; McKinnon, David

    2012-01-31

    Scaling of cardiac electrophysiology with body mass requires large changes in the ventricular action potential duration and heart rate in mammals. These changes in cellular electrophysiological function are produced by systematic and coordinated changes in the expression of multiple ion channel and transporter genes. Expression of one important potassium current, the transient outward current (I(to)), changes significantly during mammalian evolution. Changes in I(to) expression are determined, in part, by variation in the expression of an obligatory auxiliary subunit encoded by the KChIP2 gene. The KChIP2 gene is expressed in both cardiac myocytes and neurons and transcription in both cell types is initiated from the same CpG island promoter. Species-dependent variation of KChIP2 expression in heart is mediated by the evolution of the cis-regulatory function of this gene. Surprisingly, the major locus of evolutionary change for KChIP2 gene expression in heart lies within the CpG island core promoter. The results demonstrate that CpG island promoters are not simply permissive for gene expression but can also contribute to tissue-selective expression and, as such, can function as an important locus for the evolution of cis-regulatory function. More generally, evolution of the cis-regulatory function of voltage-gated ion channel genes appears to be an effective and efficient way to modify channel expression levels to optimize electrophysiological function.

  9. Reactive oxygen species signaling facilitates FOXO-3a/FBXO-dependent vascular BK channel β1 subunit degradation in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tong; Chai, Qiang; Yu, Ling; d'Uscio, Livius V; Katusic, Zvonimir S; He, Tongrong; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2012-07-01

    Activity of the vascular large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel is tightly regulated by its accessory β(1) subunit (BK-β(1)). Downregulation of BK-β(1) expression in diabetic vessels is associated with upregulation of the forkhead box O subfamily transcription factor-3a (FOXO-3a)-dependent F-box-only protein (FBXO) expression. However, the upstream signaling regulating this process is unclear. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common finding in diabetic vasculopathy. We hypothesized that ROS signaling cascade facilitates the FOXO-3a/FBXO-mediated BK-β(1) degradation and leads to diabetic BK channel dysfunction. Using cellular biology, patch clamp, and videomicroscopy techniques, we found that reduced BK-β(1) expression in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse arteries and in human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured with high glucose was attributable to an increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-β and NADPH oxidase expressions and accompanied by attenuation of Akt phosphorylation and augmentation of atrogin-1 expression. Treatment with ruboxistaurin (a PKCβ inhibitor) or with GW501516 (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ activator) reduced atrogin-1 expression and restored BK channel-mediated coronary vasodilation in diabetic mice. Our results suggested that oxidative stress inhibited Akt signaling and facilitated the FOXO-3a/FBXO-dependent BK-β(1) degradation in diabetic vessels. Suppression of the FOXO-3a/FBXO pathway prevented vascular BK-β(1) degradation and protected coronary function in diabetes.

  10. Role of Nrf2 Signaling in the Regulation of Vascular BK Channel β1 Subunit Expression and BK Channel Function in High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tong; Sun, Xiaojing; Li, Yong; Chai, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2017-10-01

    The large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel β1-subunit (BK-β1) is a key modulator of BK channel electrophysiology and the downregulation of BK-β1 protein expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) underlies diabetic vascular dysfunction. In this study, we hypothesized that the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway plays a significant role in the regulation of coronary BK channel function and vasodilation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese/diabetic mice. We found that the protein expressions of BK-β1 and Nrf2 were markedly downregulated, whereas those of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1 [a ubiquitin E3 ligase for BK-β1]) were significantly upregulated in HFD mouse arteries. Adenoviral expression of Nrf2 suppressed the protein expressions of NF-κB and MuRF1 but enhanced BK-β1 mRNA and protein expressions in cultured coronary SMCs. Knockdown of Nrf2 resulted in reciprocal changes of these proteins. Patch-clamp studies showed that coronary BK-β1-mediated channel activation was diminished in HFD mice. Importantly, the activation of Nrf2 by dimethyl fumarate significantly reduced the body weight and blood glucose levels of HFD mice, enhanced BK-β1 transcription, and attenuated MuRF1-dependent BK-β1 protein degradation, which in turn restored coronary BK channel function and BK channel-mediated coronary vasodilation in HFD mice. Hence, Nrf2 is a novel regulator of BK channel function with therapeutic implications in diabetic vasculopathy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Autosomal dominant erythermalgia associated with a novel mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit Nav1.7.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Jan J; te Morsche, Rene H M; Jansen, Jan B M J; Drenth, Joost P H

    2005-10-01

    Autosomal dominant primary erythermalgia is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of red, warm, and painful hands and/or feet. To describe the phenotypes and molecular data of a 10-member family with 5 symptomatic living patients with erythermalgia. The clinical phenotype of this family was featured by episodic or continuous symmetrical red swelling, irritating warmth, and burning pain of feet and lower legs provoked or aggravated by warmth and exercise, and relief was always obtained by application of cold, such as putting feet in (ice-) cold water. The symptoms in this family were only partially controlled by analgesics and sedatives. All affected family members were heterozygous for a novel mutation (S241T) of the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit Nav1.7. Primary erythermalgia may be a neuropathic disorder of the small peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons, and may be caused by hyperexcitability of Nav1.7.

  12. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association.

  13. Oxidation differentially modulates the recombinant voltage-gated Na(+) channel α-subunits Nav1.7 and Nav1.8.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Friederike; Leffler, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels regulate neuronal excitability by generating the upstroke of action potentials. The α-subunits Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 are required for normal function of sensory neurons and thus for peripheral pain processing, but also for an increased excitability leading to an increased pain sensitivity under several conditions associated with oxidative stress. While little is known about the direct effects of oxidants on Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, a recent study on mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons suggested that oxidant-induced alterations of nociceptor excitability are primarily driven by Nav1.8. Here we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings to explore how oxidation modulates functional properties of recombinant Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 channels. The strong oxidant chloramine-T (ChT) at 100 and 500µM induced a shift of the voltage-dependency of activation towards more hyperpolarized potentials. While fast inactivation was stabilized by 100µM ChT, it was partially removed by 500µM ChT on both α-subunits (Nav1.7

  14. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association. PMID:26146998

  15. Neutralization of Gating Charges in Domain II of the Sodium Channel α Subunit Enhances Voltage-Sensor Trapping by a β-Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Cestèle, Sandrine; Scheuer, Todd; Mantegazza, Massimo; Rochat, Hervé; Catterall, William A.

    2001-01-01

    β-Scorpion toxins shift the voltage dependence of activation of sodium channels to more negative membrane potentials, but only after a strong depolarizing prepulse to fully activate the channels. Their receptor site includes the S3–S4 loop at the extracellular end of the S4 voltage sensor in domain II of the α subunit. Here, we probe the role of gating charges in the IIS4 segment in β-scorpion toxin action by mutagenesis and functional analysis of the resulting mutant sodium channels. Neutralization of the positively charged amino acid residues in the IIS4 segment by mutation to glutamine shifts the voltage dependence of channel activation to more positive membrane potentials and reduces the steepness of voltage-dependent gating, which is consistent with the presumed role of these residues as gating charges. Surprisingly, neutralization of the gating charges at the outer end of the IIS4 segment by the mutations R850Q, R850C, R853Q, and R853C markedly enhances β-scorpion toxin action, whereas mutations R856Q, K859Q, and K862Q have no effect. In contrast to wild-type, the β-scorpion toxin Css IV causes a negative shift of the voltage dependence of activation of mutants R853Q and R853C without a depolarizing prepulse at holding potentials from −80 to −140 mV. Reaction of mutant R853C with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate causes a positive shift of the voltage dependence of activation and restores the requirement for a depolarizing prepulse for Css IV action. Enhancement of sodium channel activation by Css IV causes large tail currents upon repolarization, indicating slowed deactivation of the IIS4 voltage sensor by the bound toxin. Our results are consistent with a voltage-sensor–trapping model in which the β-scorpion toxin traps the IIS4 voltage sensor in its activated position as it moves outward in response to depolarization and holds it there, slowing its inward movement on deactivation and enhancing subsequent channel activation. Evidently

  16. Expression of sodium channel α subunits 1.1, 1.2 and 1.6 in rat hippocampus after kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Werkman, Taco R; Gorter, Jan A; Wadman, Wytse J; van Vliet, Erwin A

    2013-09-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels control neuronal excitability and are the primary target for the majority of anti-epileptic drugs. This study investigates the (sub)cellular expression patterns of three important brain-associated Na(+) channel α subunits: NaV1.1, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 during epileptogenesis (induced by kainic acid) using time points that cover the period from induction to the chronic phase of epilepsy. NaV1.1 immunoreactivity was persistently reduced at 1 day, 3 weeks and 2 months after SE in CA1 and CA3. About 50% of the NaV1.1-positive interneurons was lost at one day after SE in all regions investigated. In the hilus a similar reduction in NeuN-positive neurons was found, while in the CA1 and CA3 region the loss in NeuN-positive neurons only reached 15% in the chronic phase of epilepsy. This implies a stronger shift in the balance between excitation and inhibition toward excitation in the CA1 and CA3 region than in the hilus. NaV1.2 immunoreactivity in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was lower than control at 1 day after SE. It increased at 3 weeks and 2 months after SE in the inner molecular layer and overlapped with sprouted mossy fibers. NaV1.6 immunoreactivity in the dendritic region of CA1 and CA3 was persistently reduced at all time-points during epileptogenesis. Some astrocytes expressed NaV1.1 and NaV1.6 at 3 weeks after SE. Expression data alone are not sufficient to explain changes in network stability, or infer causality in epileptogenesis. These results demonstrate that hippocampal sub-regional expression of NaV1.1, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 Na(+) channel α subunits is altered during epileptogenesis in a time and location specific way. This implies that understanding epileptogenesis has to take into account several distinct and type-specific changes in sodium channel expression.

  17. The metal-ion-dependent adhesion site in the Von Willebrand factor-A domain of α2δ subunits is key to trafficking voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Cantí, C.; Nieto-Rostro, M.; Foucault, I.; Heblich, F.; Wratten, J.; Richards, M. W.; Hendrich, J.; Douglas, L.; Page, K. M.; Davies, A.; Dolphin, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    All auxiliary α2δ subunits of voltage-gated C