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Sample records for channel sulfonylurea sensitivity

  1. Neonatal Diabetes Caused by Mutations in Sulfonylurea Receptor 1: Interplay between Expression and Mg-Nucleotide Gating Defects of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Garin, Intza; Castaño, Luis; Argente, Jesús; Muñoz-Calvo, Ma. Teresa; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Context: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels regulate insulin secretion by coupling glucose metabolism to β-cell membrane potential. Gain-of-function mutations in the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or Kir6.2 channel subunit underlie neonatal diabetes. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the mechanisms by which two SUR1 mutations, E208K and V324M, associated with transient neonatal diabetes affect KATP channel function. Design: E208K or V324M mutant SUR1 was coexpressed with Kir6.2 in COS cells, and expression and gating properties of the resulting channels were assessed biochemically and electrophysiologically. Results: Both E208K and V324M augment channel response to MgADP stimulation without altering sensitivity to ATP4− or sulfonylureas. Surprisingly, whereas E208K causes only a small increase in MgADP response consistent with the mild transient diabetes phenotype, V324M causes a severe activating gating defect. Unlike E208K, V324M also impairs channel expression at the cell surface, which is expected to dampen its functional impact on β-cells. When either mutation was combined with a mutation in the second nucleotide binding domain of SUR1 previously shown to abolish Mg-nucleotide response, the activating effect of E208K and V324M was also abolished. Moreover, combination of E208K and V324M results in channels with Mg-nucleotide sensitivity greater than that seen in individual mutations alone. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that E208K and V324M, located in distinct domains of SUR1, enhance transduction of Mg-nucleotide stimulation from the SUR1 nucleotide binding folds to Kir6.2. Furthermore, they suggest that diabetes severity is determined by interplay between effects of a mutation on channel expression and channel gating. PMID:20810569

  2. Stimulation of epithelial sodium channel activity by the sulfonylurea glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Chrabi, A; Horisberger, J D

    1999-07-01

    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) contributes to the regulation of the sodium balance and blood pressure because it mediates a rate-limiting step in sodium transport across the epithelium of the distal nephron. The activity of ENaC is regulated by hormones, such as aldosterone and vasopressin, and by other intracellular or extracellular factors, but the mechanisms of these regulations are not yet well understood. It has been proposed that ENaC may be regulated by an associated ATP-binding cassette protein such as the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator or the K channel-associated sulfonylurea receptor. Glibenclamide, a known inhibitor of sulfonylurea receptor and cystic fibrosis conductance regulator, induced a dose-dependent and reversible stimulation (of the order of 40-50%) of the amiloride-sensitive current in oocytes expressing Xenopus ENaC, with a K1/2 of 45 +/- 5 microM. A similar effect was observed in oocytes expressing human ENaC, but not rat ENaC. Measurements performed with various combinations of rat and Xenopus subunits indicated that several subunits are involved in this effect. Glibenclamide also increased the transepithelial Na transport by the A6 Xenopus kidney cell line. Single-channel current recordings showed a doubling of the number of the open channels when glibenclamide was applied locally to the extracellular surface of the cell membrane. These results support the hypothesis of the existence of an associated ATP-binding cassette-type regulatory protein associated with the epithelial sodium channel. PMID:10381797

  3. Sensitivity of a renal K+ channel (ROMK2) to the inhibitory sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide is enhanced by coexpression with the ATP-binding cassette transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, C M; Guggino, W B; Schwiebert, E M; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G; Egan, M E

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate here that coexpression of ROMK2, an inwardly rectifying ATP-sensitive renal K+ channel (IKATP) with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) significantly enhances the sensitivity of ROMK2 to the sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide. When expressed alone, ROMK2 is relatively insensitive to glibenclamide. The interaction between ROMK2, CFTR, and glibenclamide is modulated by altering the phosphorylation state of either ROMK2, CFTR, or an associated protein, as exogenous MgATP and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of glibenclamide on ROMK2. Thus CFTR, which has been demonstrated to interact with both Na+ and Cl- channels in airway epithelium, modulates the function of renal ROMK2 K+ channels. PMID:8755607

  4. ATP-sensitive K/sup +/ channels that are blocked by hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylureas in insulin-secreting cells are activated by galanin, a hyperglycemia-inducing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    de Weille, J.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M.

    1988-02-01

    The action of the hyperglycemia-inducing hormone galanin, a 29-amino acid peptide names from its N-terminal glycine and C-terminal amidated alanine, was studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells using electrophysiological and /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ flux techniques. Galanin hyperpolarizes and reduces spontaneous electrical activity by activating a population of APT-sensitive K/sup +/ channels with a single-channel conductance of 30 pS (at -60 mV). Galanin-induced hyperpolarization and reduction of spike activity are reversed by the hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylurea glibenclamine. Glibenclamide blocks the galanin-activated ATP-sensitive K/sup +/ channel. /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by galanin in a dose-dependent manner. The half-maximum value of activation is found at 1.6 nM. Galanin-induced /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux is abolished by glibenclamide. The half-maximum value of inhibition is found at 0.3 nM, which is close to the half-maximum value of inhibition of the ATP-dependent K/sup +/ channel reported earlier. /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux studies confirm the electrophysiological demonstration that galanin activates and ATP-dependent K/sup +/ channel.

  5. Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Haruaki

    2014-05-01

    The sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (sarcKATP) channel in the heart is a hetero-octamer comprising the pore-forming subunit Kir6.2 and the regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor SUR2A. By functional analysis of genetically engineered mice lacking sarcKATP channels, the pathophysiological roles of the K(+) channel in the heart have been extensively evaluated. Although mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channel is proposed to be an important effector for the protection of ischemic myocardium and the inhibition of ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias, the molecular identity of mitoKATP channel has not been established. Although selective sarcKATP-channel blockers can prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias by inhibiting the action potential shortening in the acute phase, the drugs may aggravate the ischemic damages due to intracellular Ca(2+) overload. The sarcKATP channel is also mandatory for optimal adaptation to hemodynamic stress such as sympathetic activation. Dysfunction of mutated sarcKATP channels in atrial cells may lead to electrical instability and atrial fibrillation. Recently, it has been proposed that the gain-of-function mutation of cardiac Kir6.1 channel can be a pathogenic substrate for J wave syndromes, a cause of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation as early repolarization syndrome or Brugada syndrome, whereas loss of function of the channel mutations can underlie sudden infant death syndrome. However, precise role of Kir6.1 channels in cardiac cells remains to be defined and further study may be needed to clarify the role of Kir6.1 channel in the heart. PMID:24367007

  6. Functional effects of mutations at F35 in the NH2-terminus of Kir6.2 (KCNJ11), causing neonatal diabetes, and response to sulfonylurea therapy.

    PubMed

    Proks, Peter; Girard, Christophe; Baevre, Halvor; Njølstad, Pål R; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2006-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the human Kir6.2 gene (KCNJ11), the pore-forming subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP) channel), cause neonatal diabetes. To date, all mutations increase whole-cell K(ATP) channel currents by reducing channel inhibition by MgATP. Here, we provide functional characterization of two mutations (F35L and F35V) at residue F35 of Kir6.2, which lies within the NH(2)-terminus. We further show that the F35V patient can be successfully transferred from insulin to sulfonylurea therapy. The patient has been off insulin for 24 months and shows improved metabolic control (mean HbA(1c) 7.58 before and 6.18% after sulfonylurea treatment; P < 0.007). Wild-type and mutant Kir6.2 were heterologously coexpressed with SUR1 in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell K(ATP) channel currents through homomeric and heterozygous F35V and F35L channels were increased due to a reduced sensitivity to inhibition by MgATP. The mutation also increased the open probability (P(O)) of homomeric F35 mutant channels in the absence of ATP. These effects on P(O) and ATP sensitivity were abolished in the absence of SUR1. Our results suggest that mutations at F35 cause permanent neonatal diabetes by affecting K(ATP) channel gating and thereby, indirectly, ATP inhibition. Heterozygous F35V channels were markedly inhibited by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide, accounting for the efficacy of sulfonylurea therapy in the patient.

  7. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, L.L.; Cotterman, J.C.; Primiani, M.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Selection of kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes resistant to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron has occurred through the continued use of this herbicide in monoculture cereal-growing areas in the United States. The apparent sulfonylurea resistance observed in kochia was confirmed in greenhouse tests. Fresh and dry weight accumulation in the resistance kochia was 2- to >350-fold higher in the presence of four sulfonylurea herbicides as compared to the susceptible biotype. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity isolated from sulfonylurea-resistant kochia was less sensitive to inhibition by three classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonanilides. The decrease in ALS sensitivity to inhibition (as measured by the ratio of resistant I{sub 50} to susceptible I{sub 50}) was 5- to 28-fold, 2- to 6-fold, and 20-fold for sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, and a sulfonanilide herbicide, respectively. No differences were observed in the ALS-specific activities or the rates of ({sup 14}C)chlorsulfuron uptake, translocation, and metabolism between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes. The K{sub m} values for pyruvate using ALS from susceptible and resistant kochia were 2.13 and 1.74 mM, respectively. Based on these results, the mechanism of sulfonylurea resistance in this kochia biotype is due solely to a less sulfonylurea-sensitive ALS enzyme.

  8. Regulation of ATP-sensitive K sup + channels in insulinoma cells: Activation by somatostatin and protein kinase C and the role of cAMP

    SciTech Connect

    De Weille, J.R.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M. )

    1989-04-01

    The actions of somatostatin and of the phorbol ester 4{beta}-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells by electrophysiological and {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux techniques. Both PMA and somatostatin hyperpolarize insulinoma cells by activating ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels. The presence of intracellular GTP is required for the somatostatin effects. PMA- and somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization and channel activity are inhibited by the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. Glibenclamide-sensitive {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by somatostatin in a dose-dependent manner (half maximal effect at 0.7 nM) and abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Mutual roles of a GTP-binding protein, of protein kinase C, and of cAMP in the regulation of ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels are discussed.

  9. Blockade of the antinociception induced by diclofenac, but not of indomethacin, by sulfonylureas and biguanides.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2011-07-01

    There is evidence that administration of sulfonylureas, such as glibenclamide and tolbutamide, blocks diclofenac-induced antinociception, suggesting that diclofenac activates ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. However, there is no evidence for the interaction between diclofenac and other hypoglycemic drugs, such as the biguanides metformin or phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether two sulfonylureas, glibenclamide and glipizide, as well as two biguanides, metformin and phenformin, have any effect on the systemic antinociception that is induced by diclofenac and indomethacin using the rat formalin test as an animal model. Systemic injections of diclofenac (10 to 30mg/kg) and indomethacin (10 to 30mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Systemic pretreatment with glibenclamide (3 and 10mg/kg), glipizide (3 and 10mg/kg), metformin (100 and 180mg/kg) or phenformin (100 and 180mg/kg) blocked diclofenac-induced systemic antinociception in the second phase of the test (P<0.05). In contrast, pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin or phenformin did not block indomethacin-induced systemic antinociception (P>0.05). These data suggest that diclofenac, but not indomethacin, activated K(+) channels and metformin and phenformin-dependent mechanisms, which resulted in systemic antinociceptive effects in the rat formalin test.

  10. SulE, a sulfonylurea herbicide de-esterification esterase from Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113.

    PubMed

    Hang, Bao-Jian; Hong, Qing; Xie, Xiang-Ting; Huang, Xing; Wang, Cheng-Hong; He, Jian; Li, Shun-Peng

    2012-03-01

    De-esterification is an important degradation or detoxification mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide in microbes and plants. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of sulfonylurea herbicide de-esterification are still unknown. In this study, a novel esterase gene, sulE, responsible for sulfonylurea herbicide de-esterification, was cloned from Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113. The gene contained an open reading frame of 1,194 bp, and a putative signal peptide at the N terminal was identified with a predicted cleavage site between Ala37 and Glu38, resulting in a 361-residue mature protein. SulE minus the signal peptide was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified to homogeneity. SulE catalyzed the de-esterification of a variety of sulfonylurea herbicides that gave rise to the corresponding herbicidally inactive parent acid and exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency toward thifensulfuron-methyl. SulE was a dimer without the requirement of a cofactor. The activity of the enzyme was completely inhibited by Ag(+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), methamidophos, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. A sulE-disrupted mutant strain, ΔsulE, was constructed by insertion mutation. ΔsulE lost the de-esterification ability and was more sensitive to the herbicides than the wild type of strain S113, suggesting that sulE played a vital role in the sulfonylurea herbicide resistance of the strain. The transfer of sulE into Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 conferred on it the ability to de-esterify sulfonylurea herbicides and increased its resistance to the herbicides. This study has provided an excellent candidate for the mechanistic study of sulfonylurea herbicide metabolism and detoxification through de-esterification, construction of sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant transgenic crops, and bioremediation of sulfonylurea herbicide-contaminated environments.

  11. Sulfonylureas and their use in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Daniele; Schianca, Gian Piero Carnevale; Maffioli, Pamela; Bigliocca, Marcello; Mella, Roberto; Corlianò, Francesca; Fra, Gian Paolo; Bartoli, Ettore; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Many anti-diabetic drugs with different mechanisms of action are now available for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sulfonylureas have been extensively used for treatment of type 2 diabetes for nearly 50 years and, even in our times, are widely used for treatment of this devastating chronic illness. Here, we review some of the available data on sulfonylureas, evaluating their mechanism of action and their effects on glycemic control. We can conclude that sulfonylureas are still the most used anti-diabetic agents: maybe this is due to their lower cost, to the possibility of mono-dosing and to the presence of an association with metformin in the same tablet. However, sulfonylureas, especially the older ones, are linked to a greater prevalence of hypoglycemia, and cardiovascular risk; newer prolonged-release preparations of sulfonylureas are undoubtedly safer, mainly due to reducing hypoglycemia, and for this reason should be preferred. PMID:26322096

  12. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  13. Database search of spontaneous reports and pharmacological investigations on the sulfonylureas and glinides-induced atrophy in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mele, Antonietta; Calzolaro, Sara; Cannone, Gianluigi; Cetrone, Michela; Conte, Diana; Tricarico, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is an emerging pathway in the skeletal muscle atrophy which is a comorbidity condition in diabetes. The “in vitro” effects of the sulfonylureas and glinides were evaluated on the protein content/muscle weight, fibers viability, mitochondrial succinic dehydrogenases (SDH) activity, and channel currents in oxidative soleus (SOL), glycolitic/oxidative flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), and glycolitic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers of mice using biochemical and cell-counting Kit-8 assay, image analysis, and patch-clamp techniques. The sulfonylureas were: tolbutamide, glibenclamide, and glimepiride; the glinides were: repaglinide and nateglinide. Food and Drug Administration-Adverse Effects Reporting System (FDA-AERS) database searching of atrophy-related signals associated with the use of these drugs in humans has been performed. The drugs after 24 h of incubation time reduced the protein content/muscle weight and fibers viability more effectively in FDB and SOL than in the EDL. The order of efficacy of the drugs in reducing the protein content in FDB was: repaglinide (EC50 = 5.21 × 10−6) ≥ glibenclamide(EC50 = 8.84 × 10−6) > glimepiride(EC50 = 2.93 × 10−5) > tolbutamide(EC50 = 1.07 × 10−4) > nateglinide(EC50 = 1.61 × 10−4) and it was: repaglinide(7.15 × 10−5) ≥ glibenclamide(EC50 = 9.10 × 10−5) > nateglinide(EC50 = 1.80 × 10−4) ≥ tolbutamide(EC50 = 2.19 × 10−4) > glimepiride(EC50=–) in SOL. The drug-induced atrophy can be explained by the KATP channel block and by the enhancement of the mitochondrial SDH activity. In an 8-month period, muscle atrophy was found in 0.27% of the glibenclamide reports in humans and in 0.022% of the other not sulfonylureas and glinides drugs. No reports of atrophy were found for the other sulfonylureas and glinides in the FDA-AERS. Glibenclamide induces atrophy in animal experiments and in human patients. Glimepiride shows less potential for inducing

  14. Database search of spontaneous reports and pharmacological investigations on the sulfonylureas and glinides-induced atrophy in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mele, Antonietta; Calzolaro, Sara; Cannone, Gianluigi; Cetrone, Michela; Conte, Diana; Tricarico, Domenico

    2014-02-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is an emerging pathway in the skeletal muscle atrophy which is a comorbidity condition in diabetes. The "in vitro" effects of the sulfonylureas and glinides were evaluated on the protein content/muscle weight, fibers viability, mitochondrial succinic dehydrogenases (SDH) activity, and channel currents in oxidative soleus (SOL), glycolitic/oxidative flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), and glycolitic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers of mice using biochemical and cell-counting Kit-8 assay, image analysis, and patch-clamp techniques. The sulfonylureas were: tolbutamide, glibenclamide, and glimepiride; the glinides were: repaglinide and nateglinide. Food and Drug Administration-Adverse Effects Reporting System (FDA-AERS) database searching of atrophy-related signals associated with the use of these drugs in humans has been performed. The drugs after 24 h of incubation time reduced the protein content/muscle weight and fibers viability more effectively in FDB and SOL than in the EDL. The order of efficacy of the drugs in reducing the protein content in FDB was: repaglinide (EC50 = 5.21 × 10(-6)) ≥ glibenclamide(EC50 = 8.84 × 10(-6)) > glimepiride(EC50 = 2.93 × 10(-5)) > tolbutamide(EC50 = 1.07 × 10(-4)) > nateglinide(EC50 = 1.61 × 10(-4)) and it was: repaglinide(7.15 × 10(-5)) ≥ glibenclamide(EC50 = 9.10 × 10(-5)) > nateglinide(EC50 = 1.80 × 10(-4)) ≥ tolbutamide(EC50 = 2.19 × 10(-4)) > glimepiride(EC50=-) in SOL. The drug-induced atrophy can be explained by the KATP channel block and by the enhancement of the mitochondrial SDH activity. In an 8-month period, muscle atrophy was found in 0.27% of the glibenclamide reports in humans and in 0.022% of the other not sulfonylureas and glinides drugs. No reports of atrophy were found for the other sulfonylureas and glinides in the FDA-AERS. Glibenclamide induces atrophy in animal experiments and in human patients. Glimepiride shows less potential for inducing atrophy

  15. Specification of auditory sensitivity by Drosophila TRP channels.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Martin C; Albert, Jörg T; Nadrowski, B; Kamikouchi, A

    2006-08-01

    Ears achieve their exquisite sensitivity by means of mechanical feedback: motile mechanosensory cells through their active motion boost the mechanical input from the ear. Examination of the auditory mechanics in Drosophila melanogaster mutants shows that the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel NompC is required to promote this feedback, whereas the TRP vanilloid (TRPV) channels Nan and Iav serve to control the feedback gain. The combined function of these channels specifies the sensitivity of the fly auditory organ. PMID:16819519

  16. [Risk and benefit of sulfonylureas--their role in view of new treatment options for type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2016-02-01

    Currently, the therapy with oral antidiabetic drugs undergoes major changes. The use of sulfonylureas is in marked decline. The major argument in favor of newer oral antidiabetic drugs is the lower risk of hypoglycemia. At the present time however, it is unclear whether DDP4 inhibitors or SGLT2 inhibitors lead to better outcomes with respect to cardiovascular events and overall mortality. Most evidence on the therapeutic use of sulfonylureas has been gained with glibenclamide and to some degree sulfonylureas and glibenclamide have become synonymous. Since sulfonylureas vary considerably in their affinity for the K(ATP) channel subtypes and in their pharmacokinetic properties, the epidemiological evidence that outcomes tend to be less favorable with glibenclamide than with glimepiride or gliclazide has gained some attention. Beyond debate is the efficacy of metformin to diminish cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes, probably due to effects beyond the lowering of blood glucose. PMID:26983335

  17. Visualization of the specific interaction of sulfonylurea-incorporated polymer with insulinoma cell line MIN6.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun-Hong; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2004-02-01

    A derivative of sulfonylurea (SU) that mimics glibenclamide in chemical structure was synthesized and incorporated into a water-soluble polymeric backbone as a biospecific polymer for stimulating insulin secretion. In this study, a backbone polymer fluorescence-labeled with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was found to be strongly adsorbed onto MIN6 cells, probably due to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. The intensity of fluorescence on the cells was significantly increased by increasing the incubation time and polymer concentration. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K(+) channel closer)-incorporated copolymer and MIN6 cells, the cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(+) channel opener), before adding the polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the interaction between SU and MIN6 cells. A confocal laser microscopic study confirmed this effect. The results of this study provide evidence that SU-incorporated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion through the specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with MIN6 cells.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of channel-bend hydraulics influenced by vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Manners, R.; McDonald, R.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Alternating bars influence hydraulics by changing the force balance of channels as part of a morphodynamic feedback loop that dictates channel geometry. Pioneer woody riparian trees recruit on river bars and may steer flow, alter cross-stream and downstream force balances, and ultimately change channel morphology. Quantifying the influence of vegetation on stream hydraulics is difficult, and researchers increasingly rely on two-dimensional hydraulic models. In many cases, channel characteristics (channel drag and lateral eddy viscosity) and vegetation characteristics (density, frontal area, and drag coefficient) are uncertain. This study uses a beta version of FaSTMECH that models vegetation explicitly as a drag force to test the sensitivity of channel-bend hydraulics to riparian vegetation. We use a simplified, scale model of a meandering river with bars and conduct a global sensitivity analysis that ranks the influence of specified channel characteristics (channel drag and lateral eddy viscosity) against vegetation characteristics (density, frontal area, and drag coefficient) on cross-stream hydraulics. The primary influence on cross-stream velocity and shear stress is channel drag (i.e., bed roughness), followed by the near-equal influence of all vegetation parameters and lateral eddy viscosity. To test the implication of the sensitivity indices on bend hydraulics, we hold calibrated channel characteristics constant for a wandering gravel-bed river with bars (Bitterroot River, MT), and vary vegetation parameters on a bar. For a dense vegetation scenario, we find flow to be steered away from the bar, and velocity and shear stress to be reduced within the thalweg. This provides insight into how the morphodynamic evolution of vegetated bars differs from unvegetated bars.

  19. Gating-by-Tilt of Mechanically Sensitive Membrane Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew S.; Sens, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    We propose an alternative mechanism for the gating of biological membrane channels in response to membrane tension that involves a change in the slope of the membrane near the channel. Under biological membrane tensions we show that the energy difference between the closed (tilted) and open (untilted) states can far exceed kBT and is comparable to what is available under simple dilational gating. Recent experiments demonstrate that membrane leaflet asymmetries (spontaneous curvature) can strongly affect the gating of some channels. Such a phenomenon would be easier to explain under gating-by-tilt, given its novel intrinsic sensitivity to such asymmetry.

  20. Progressing From Metformin to Sulfonylureas or Meglitinides.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joan S; Graven, Lucinda J

    2016-09-01

    The article provides an overview of sulfonylureas and meglitinides as second-line agents for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Implications for occupational health clinicians who work with these individuals when they take either of these medications to achieve target glycemic indices are emphasized. PMID:27621259

  1. Running out of time: the decline of channel activity and nucleotide activation in adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K-channels

    PubMed Central

    Proks, Peter; Puljung, Michael C.; Vedovato, Natascia; Sachse, Gregor; Mulvaney, Rachel; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels act as key regulators of electrical excitability by coupling metabolic cues—mainly intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations—to cellular potassium ion efflux. However, their study has been hindered by their rapid loss of activity in excised membrane patches (rundown), and by a second phenomenon, the decline of activation by Mg-nucleotides (DAMN). Degradation of PI(4,5)P2 and other phosphoinositides is the strongest candidate for the molecular cause of rundown. Broad evidence indicates that most other determinants of rundown (e.g. phosphorylation, intracellular calcium, channel mutations that affect rundown) also act by influencing KATP channel regulation by phosphoinositides. Unfortunately, experimental conditions that reproducibly prevent rundown have remained elusive, necessitating post hoc data compensation. Rundown is clearly distinct from DAMN. While the former is associated with pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits, DAMN is generally a slower process involving the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. We speculate that it arises when SUR subunits enter non-physiological conformational states associated with the loss of SUR nucleotide-binding domain dimerization following prolonged exposure to nucleotide-free conditions. This review presents new information on both rundown and DAMN, summarizes our current understanding of these processes and considers their physiological roles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377720

  2. Leptin Suppression of Insulin Secretion by the Activation of ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Timothy J.; Heller, R. Scott; Leech, Colin A.; Holz, George G.; Habener, Joel F.

    2010-01-01

    In the genetic mutant mouse models ob/ob or db/db, leptin deficiency or resistance, respectively, results in severe obesity and the development of a syndrome resembling NIDDM. One of the earliest manifestations in these mutant mice is hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that leptin may normally directly suppress the secretion of insulin. Here, we show that pancreatic islets express a long (signal-transducing) form of leptin-receptor mRNA and that β-cells bind a fluorescent derivative of leptin (Cy3-leptin). The expression of leptin receptors on insulin-secreting β-cells was also visualized utilizing antisera generated against an extracellular epitope of the receptor. A functional role for the β-cell leptin receptor is indicated by our observation that leptin (100 ng/ml) suppressed the secretion of insulin from islets isolated from ob/ob mice. Furthermore, leptin produced a marked lowering of [Ca2+]i in ob/ob β-cells, which was accompanied by cellular hyperpolarization and increased membrane conductance. Cell-attached patch measurements of ob/ob β-cells demonstrated that leptin activated ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) by increasing the open channel probability, while exerting no effect on mean open time. These effects were reversed by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide, a specific inhibitor of KATP. Taken together, these observations indicate an important physiological role for leptin as an inhibitor of insulin secretion and lead us to propose that the failure of leptin to inhibit insulin secretion from the β-cells of ob/ob and db/db mice may explain, in part, the development of hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and the progression to NIDDM. PMID:9166685

  3. Differential sensitivity of rat voltage-sensitive sodium channel isoforms to pyrazoline-type insecticides.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher S; Soderlund, David M

    2006-07-15

    Pyrazoline-type insecticides are potent inhibitors of insect and mammalian voltage-sensitive sodium channels. In mammals, there are nine sodium channel alpha subunit isoforms that have unique distributions and pharmacological properties, but no published data exist that compare the relative sensitivity of these different mammalian sodium channel isoforms to inhibition by pyrazoline-type insecticides. This study employed the Xenopus oocyte expression system to examine the relative sensitivity of rat Na(v)1.2a, Na(v)1.4, Na(v)1.5, and Na(v)1.8 sodium channel alpha subunit isoforms to the pyrazoline-type insecticides indoxacarb, DCJW, and RH 3421. Additionally, we assessed the effect of coexpression with the rat beta1 auxiliary subunit on the sensitivity of the Na(v)1.2a and Na(v)1.4 isoforms to these compounds. The relative sensitivity of the four sodium channel alpha subunits differed for each of the three compounds we examined. With DCJW, the order of sensitivity was Na(v)1.4 > Na(v)1.2a > Na(v)1.5 > Na(v)1.8. In contrast, the relative sensitivity of these isoforms to indoxacarb differed from that to DCJW: the Na(v)1.8 isoform was most sensitive, the Na(v)1.4 isoform was completely insensitive, and the sensitivities of the Na(v)1.5 and Na(v)1.2a isoforms were intermediate between these two extremes. Moreover, the pattern of sensitivity to RH 3421 among these four isoforms was different from that for either indoxacarb or DCJW: the Na(v)1.4 isoform was most sensitive to RH 3421, whereas the sensitivities of the remaining three isoforms were substantially less than that of the Na(v)1.4 isoform and were approximately equivalent. The only statistically significant effect of coexpression of either the Na(v)1.2a or Na(v)1.4 isoforms with the beta1 subunit was the modest reduction in the sensitivity of the Na(v)1.2a isoform to RH 3421. These results demonstrate that mammalian sodium channel isoforms differ in their sensitivities to pyrazoline-type insecticides.

  4. Differential sensitivity of rat voltage-sensitive sodium channel isoforms to pyrazoline-type insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Kristopher S.; Soderlund, David M. . E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu

    2006-07-15

    Pyrazoline-type insecticides are potent inhibitors of insect and mammalian voltage-sensitive sodium channels. In mammals, there are nine sodium channel {alpha} subunit isoforms that have unique distributions and pharmacological properties, but no published data exist that compare the relative sensitivity of these different mammalian sodium channel isoforms to inhibition by pyrazoline-type insecticides. This study employed the Xenopus oocyte expression system to examine the relative sensitivity of rat Na{sub v}1.2a, Na{sub v}1.4, Na{sub v}1.5, and Na{sub v}1.8 sodium channel {alpha} subunit isoforms to the pyrazoline-type insecticides indoxacarb, DCJW, and RH 3421. Additionally, we assessed the effect of coexpression with the rat {beta}1 auxiliary subunit on the sensitivity of the Na{sub v}1.2a and Na{sub v}1.4 isoforms to these compounds. The relative sensitivity of the four sodium channel {alpha} subunits differed for each of the three compounds we examined. With DCJW, the order of sensitivity was Na{sub v}1.4 > Na{sub v}1.2a > Na{sub v}1.5 > Na{sub v}1.8. In contrast, the relative sensitivity of these isoforms to indoxacarb differed from that to DCJW: the Na{sub v}1.8 isoform was most sensitive, the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform was completely insensitive, and the sensitivities of the Na{sub v}1.5 and Na{sub v}1.2a isoforms were intermediate between these two extremes. Moreover, the pattern of sensitivity to RH 3421 among these four isoforms was different from that for either indoxacarb or DCJW: the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform was most sensitive to RH 3421, whereas the sensitivities of the remaining three isoforms were substantially less than that of the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform and were approximately equivalent. The only statistically significant effect of coexpression of either the Na{sub v}1.2a or Na{sub v}1.4 isoforms with the {beta}1 subunit was the modest reduction in the sensitivity of the Na{sub v}1.2a isoform to RH 3421. These results demonstrate that mammalian sodium

  5. Successful sulfonylurea treatment of an insulin-naïve neonate with diabetes mellitus due to a KCNJ11 mutation.

    PubMed

    Wambach, Jennifer A; Marshall, Bess A; Koster, Joseph C; White, Neil H; Nichols, Colin G

    2010-06-01

    Activating mutations in the K(ATP)-channel cause neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), and patients have been safely transitioned from insulin to sulfonylureas. We report a male infant with permanent NDM (PNDM), born to a PNDM mother. Blood glucose began to rise on day of life (DOL) 2, and sulfonylurea (glyburide) therapy was initiated on DOL 5. Glucose was subsequently well controlled and normal at 3 months. A K(ATP) mutation (R201H; KCNJ11) was detected in the infant, the mother, and 6-yr-old sister with PNDM; both were also subsequently transitioned off insulin onto glyburide. To our knowledge, this is the youngest NDM patient to receive oral glyburide and, importantly, the only one deliberately initiated on sulfonylureas. Strikingly, the current dose (0.017 mg/kg/d) is below the reported therapeutic range and approximately 75-fold lower than doses required by the affected sister and mother. Pancreatic insulin disappears in an animal model of K(ATP)-induced NDM, unless glycemia is well controlled, thus, a dramatically lower glyburide requirement in the infant may reflect preserved insulin content because of early sulfonylurea intervention. Safe and effective initiation of glyburide in an insulin-naïve neonatal patient with K(ATP)-dependent PNDM argues for early detection and sulfonylurea intervention.

  6. ClC-3 chloride channel functions as a mechanically sensitive channel in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Qian; Mao, Yong; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation usually causes the volume changes of osteoblasts. Whether these volume changes could be sensed by the ClC-3 chloride channel, a volume-sensitive ion channel, and further promote the osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts has not been determined. In this study, we applied persistent static compression on MC3T3-E1 cells to detect the expression changes of ClC-3, osteogenic markers, as well as some molecules related with signaling transduction pathway. We tested the key role of ClC-3 in transferring the mechanical signal to osteoinduction by ClC-3 overexpressing and siRNA technique. We found that ClC-3 level was up-regulated by mechanical stimulation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Mechanical force also up-regulated the mRNA level of osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp), bone sialoprotein (Bsp), and osteocalcin (Oc), which could be blocked or strengthened by Clcn3 siRNA or overexpressing, and Alp expression was more sensitive to the changes of ClC-3 level. We also found that runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and Wnt pathway might be involved in ClC-3 mediated mechanical transduction in osteoblasts. The data from the current study suggest that the ClC-3 chloride channel acts as a mechanically sensitive channel to regulate osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of vegetation-induced flow steering in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Morphodynamic feedbacks result in alternating bars within channels, and the resulting convective accelerations dictate the cross-stream force balance of channels and in turn influence morphology. Pioneer woody riparian trees recruit on river bars and may steer flow and alter this force balance. This study uses two-dimensional hydraulic modeling to test the sensitivity of the flow field to riparian vegetation at the reach scale. We use two test systems with different width-to-depth ratios, substrate sizes, and vegetation structure: the gravel-bed Bitterroot River, MT and the sand-bed Santa Maria River, AZ. We model vegetation explicitly as a drag force by spatially specifying vegetation density, height, and drag coefficient, across varying hydraulic (e.g., discharge, eddy viscosity) conditions and compare velocity vectors between runs. We test variations in vegetation configurations, including the present-day configuration of vegetation in our field systems (extracted from LiDAR), removal of vegetation (e.g., from floods or management actions), and expansion of vegetation. Preliminary model runs suggest that the sensitivity of convective accelerations to vegetation reflects a balance between the extent and density of vegetation inundated and other sources of channel roughness. This research quantifies how vegetation alters hydraulics at the reach scale, a fundamental step to understanding vegetation-morphodynamic interactions.

  8. Potentiation of sulfonylurea action by an EPAC-selective cAMP analog in INS-1 cells: comparison of tolbutamide and gliclazide and a potential role for EPAC activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ influx.

    PubMed

    Jarrard, Rachel E; Wang, Yuchen; Salyer, Amy E; Pratt, Evan P S; Soderling, Ian M; Guerra, Marcy L; Lange, Allison M; Broderick, Hilary J; Hockerman, Gregory H

    2013-01-01

    Tolbutamide and gliclazide block the K(ATP) channel K(ir)6.2/Sur1, causing membrane depolarization and stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We examined the ability of the EPAC-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate the action of these drugs and the mechanism that might account for it. Insulin secretion stimulated by both 200 μM tolbutamide and 20 μM gliclazide, concentrations that had equivalent effects on membrane potential, was inhibited by thapsigargin (1 μM) or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine (2 μM) and was potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM at concentrations ≥2 μM in INS-1 cells. Ca(2+) transients stimulated by either tolbutamide or gliclazide were inhibited by thapsigargin or nicardipine and were significantly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM at 5 μM but not 1 μM. Both tolbutamide and gliclazide stimulated phospholipase C activity; however, only gliclazide did so independently of its activity at K(ATP) channels, and this activity was partially inhibited by pertussis toxin. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM alone (5 μM) did not stimulate insulin secretion, but did increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration significantly, and this activity was inhibited by 25 μM 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) or the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiation of insulin secretion stimulated by tolbutamide was markedly inhibited by 2-APB (25 μM) and enhanced by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I (1 μM). Our data demonstrate that the actions of both tolbutamide and gliclazide are strongly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM, that gliclazide can stimulate phospholipase C activity via a partially pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism, and that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiation of tolbutamide action may involve activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca(2+) influx. PMID:23071106

  9. Cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels in neurovascular unit targets of ischemic stroke in the recovery period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Sipei; Zheng, Xiaolu; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to analyze the mechanism of cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) in the neurovascular unit treatment of ischemic stroke in the recovery period. A total of 24 healthy adult male Wistar rats of 5–8 weeks age, weighing 160–200 g were randomly divided into the control (sham-operation group), model, KATP blocker and KATP opener groups (n=6 rats per group). Nylon cerebral artery occlusion was conducted using nylon monofilament coated with Poly-L-lysine, which was used to produce a cerebral infarction model. After feeding normally for 3 days, 5-hydroxydecanoate (40 mg/Kg), and diazoxide (40 mg/Kg) were injected to the abdominal cavity in the blocker, and opener groups, respectively. The control received an equivalent normal saline that was injected into the sham-operation and model groups. The animals were mutilated and samples were collected after 3 days. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of the three subunits of KATP, i.e., kir6.1, and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) 1 and SUR2 mRNA, as well as to calculate infarct size in tetrazolium chloride staining. The expression level of mRNA in the opener group were significantly higher, followed by the model and blocker groups, with the control group being the lowest (P<0.05). Infarct size in the opener group was markedly smaller than the model and blocker groups, and infarct size in the blocker group was significantly larger (P<0.05). Thus, the target treatment on KATP may improve the prognosis of ischemic stroke during the recovery period. PMID:27446320

  10. Volume regulation of spermatozoa by quinine-sensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S B; Sauna, Z E; Somlata, V; Sitaramam, V

    1997-04-01

    Bovine spermatozoa were shown to exhibit rapid regulatory volume decrease (RVD) when exposed to hypotonic saline media. This quinine- and quinidine-sensitive regulatory volume decrease was coincident with K+ release due to stretch-activation of inhibitor-specific presumptive K+ channels. The regulatory volume decrease response was much faster than a similar phenomenon observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Studies on volume changes in different electrolyte and nonelectrolyte media suggested that: (1) this inhibitor-specific channel could also be a nonspecific pore in the spermatozoal membrane for nonelectrolytes below 150 daltons; (2) subpopulations (of nearly equal size) of the spermatozoa differ in the expression of the pore; (3) capacitation abolishes this distinction between subpopulations of spermatozoa; and (4) the general case of RVD for other mammalian spermatozoa was also established.

  11. Role of the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain of the alpha-ENaC in activation by sulfonylurea glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Renauld, Stephane; Chraibi, Ahmed

    2009-08-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is regulated by hormones and by other intracellular or extracellular factors. It is activated by the sulfonylurea drug glibenclamide. The activator effect of glibenclamide is fast and reversible and was observed in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing the alpha subunit from human, Xenopus, or guinea pig (but not rat) with betagamma-rat ENaC subunits. The mechanism of this effect is not yet well understood. We hypothesize that the extracellular loop of ENaC plays a major role in this activation. Mutants and chimeras of alpha subunits harboring different parts of the rat and guinea pig alpha-subunit extracellular loops were generated and coexpressed with betagamma-rat subunits in Xenopus oocytes. The effect of glibenclamide on ENaC activity was measured using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The alpha-rat ENaC chimera containing the C-terminal part of the extracellular loop of the alpha-guinea pig ENaC was significantly stimulated by glibenclamide (1.26-fold), whereas the rat-alpha combination was not activated by this sulfonylurea. Mutagenesis of specific residues on the rat alpha subunit did not generate channels sensitive to glibenclamide, suggesting that the overall structure of the extracellular loop is required for activation of the channel by this drug. These results support the hypothesis of the existence of a role played by the last 100 amino acids of the extracellular loop and confirm that the ENaC behaves as a ligand-gated channel similar to several other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:19696956

  12. Interaction of sulfonylurea-conjugated polymer with insulinoma cell line of MIN6 and its effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Kim, S W; Bae, Y H

    2001-04-01

    A carboxylated derivative of sulfonylurea (SU), an insulinotropic agent, was synthesized and grafted onto a water-soluble polymer as a biospecific and stimulating polymer for insulin secretion. To evaluate the effect of the SU-conjugated polymer on insulin secretion, its solution in dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the culture of insulinoma cell line of MIN6 cells to make 10 nM of SU units in the medium and incubated for 3 h at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was conditioned with glucose concentration of 3.3 or 25 mM. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K+ channel closer)-conjugated polymer and MIN6 cells, the cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel (K+ channel opener), before adding the SU-conjugated polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the action of SUs on MIN6 cells. Fluorescence-labeled polymer with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was used to visualize the interactions, and we found that the labeled polymer strongly absorbed to MIN6 cells, probably owing to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. The fluorescence intensity on the cells significantly increased with an increase in incubation time and polymer concentration. A confocal laser microscopic study further confirmed this interaction. The results from this study provided evidence that SU-conjugated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion by specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with MIN6 cells.

  13. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16409.001 PMID:27177419

  14. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. PMID:27177419

  15. Voltage-sensitive potassium channels in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The steady-state slope conductance of Limulus ventral photoreceptors increases markedly when the membrane is depolarized from rest. The ionic basis of this rectification has been examined with a voltage- clamp technique. Tail currents that occur when membrane potential is repolarized after having been depolarized have been identified. The tail currents reverse direction at a voltage that becomes more positive when Ko is increased. Rectification is reduced by extracellular 4- aminopyridine and by intracellular injection of tetra-ethyl-ammonium (TEA). These results indicate that the membrane rectification around resting potential is due primarily to voltage-sensitive K+ channels. The increase in gK caused by depolarization is not mediated by a voltage-dependent rise in in Cai++, since intracellular injection of Ca++ causes a decrease rather than an increase in slope conductance. TEA can be used to examine the functional role of the K+ channels because it blocks them without substantially affecting the light- activated Na+ conductance. The effect of TEA on response-intensity curves shows that the K+ channels serve to compress the voltage range of receptor potentials. PMID:621492

  16. Age at the time of sulfonylurea initiation influences treatment outcomes in KCNJ11-related neonatal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Brian W.; Carmody, David; Tadie, Elizabeth C.; Pastore, Ashley N.; Dickens, Jazzmyne T.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Naylor, Rochelle N.; Philipson, Louis H.; Greeley, Siri Atma W.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Individuals with heterozygous activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene encoding a subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can usually be treated with oral sulfonylurea (SU) pills in lieu of insulin injections. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that younger age at the time of initiation of SU therapy is correlated with lower required doses of SU therapy, shorter transition time and decreased likelihood of requiring additional diabetes medications. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using data on 58 individuals with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11mutations identified through the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry (http://monogenicdiabetes.uchicago.edu/registry). We assessed the influence of age at initiation of SU therapy on treatment outcomes. Results HbA1c fell from an average of 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) before transition to 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) after SU therapy (p < 0.001). Age of initiation of SU correlated with the dose (mg kg−1 day−1) of SU required at follow-up (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed across mutation subtypes. Ten participants required additional glucose-lowering medications and all had initiated SU at age 13 years or older. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions/interpretation Earlier age at initiation of SU treatment is associated with improved response to SU therapy. Declining sensitivity to SU may be due to loss of beta cell mass over time in those treated with insulin. Our data support the need for early genetic diagnosis and appropriate personalised treatment in all cases of neonatal diabetes. PMID:25877689

  17. Kir6.2 activation by sulfonylurea receptors: a different mechanism of action for SUR1 and SUR2A subunits via the same residues

    PubMed Central

    Principalli, Maria A; Dupuis, Julien P; Moreau, Christophe J; Vivaudou, Michel; Revilloud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP channels) play a key role in adjusting the membrane potential to the metabolic state of cells. They result from the unique combination of two proteins: the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, and the inward rectifier K+ channel Kir6.2. Both subunits associate to form a heterooctamer (4 SUR/4 Kir6.2). SUR modulates channel gating in response to the binding of nucleotides or drugs and Kir6.2 conducts potassium ions. The activity of K-ATP channels varies with their localization. In pancreatic β-cells, SUR1/Kir6.2 channels are partly active at rest while in cardiomyocytes SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels are mostly closed. This divergence of function could be related to differences in the interaction of SUR1 and SUR2A with Kir6.2. Three residues (E1305, I1310, L1313) located in the linker region between transmembrane domain 2 and nucleotide-binding domain 2 of SUR2A were previously found to be involved in the activation pathway linking binding of openers onto SUR2A and channel opening. To determine the role of the equivalent residues in the SUR1 isoform, we designed chimeras between SUR1 and the ABC transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and used patch clamp recordings on Xenopus oocytes to assess the functionality of SUR1/MRP1 chimeric K-ATP channels. Our results reveal that the same residues in SUR1 and SUR2A are involved in the functional association with Kir6.2, but they display unexpected side-chain specificities which could account for the contrasted properties of pancreatic and cardiac K-ATP channels. PMID:26416970

  18. Severe hypoglycemia in users of sulfonylurea antidiabetic agents and antihyperlipidemics.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C E; Bilker, W B; Brensinger, C M; Han, X; Flory, J H; Flockhart, D A; Gagne, J J; Cardillo, S; Hennessy, S

    2016-05-01

    Drug-drug interactions causing severe hypoglycemia due to antidiabetic drugs is a major clinical and public health problem. We assessed whether sulfonylurea use with a statin or fibrate was associated with severe hypoglycemia. We conducted cohort studies of users of glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride plus a statin or fibrate within a Medicaid population. The outcome was a validated, diagnosis-based algorithm for severe hypoglycemia. Among 592,872 persons newly exposed to a sulfonylurea+antihyperlipidemic, the incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 5.8/100 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for sulfonylurea+statins were consistent with no association. Most overall HRs for sulfonylurea+fibrate were elevated, with sulfonylurea-specific adjusted HRs as large as 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-1.81) for glyburide+gemfibrozil, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11-1.69) for glipizide+gemfibrozil, and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29-2.06) for glimepiride+fenofibrate. Concomitant therapy with a sulfonylurea and fibrate is associated with an often delayed increased rate of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:26566262

  19. Diverse roles of K(ATP) channels learned from Kir6.2 genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Seino, S; Iwanaga, T; Nagashima, K; Miki, T

    2000-03-01

    The regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells depends critically on the activities of their plasma membrane ion channels. ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP) channels) are present in many cells and regulate a variety of cellular functions by coupling cell metabolism with membrane potential. The activity of the K(ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells is regulated by changes in the ATP and ADP concentrations (ATP/ADP ratio) caused by glucose metabolism. Thus, the K(ATP) channels are the ATP and ADP sensors in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. K(ATP) channels are also the target of sulfonylureas, which are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Molecular cloning of the two subunits of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel, Kir6.2 (an inward rectifier K+ channel member) and SUR1 (a receptor for sulfonylureas), has provided great insight into its structure and function. Kir6.2 subunits form the K+ ion-permeable pore and primarily confer inhibition of the channels by ATP, while SUR1 subunits confer activation of the channels by MgADP and K+ channel openers, such as diazoxide, as well as inhibition by sulfonylureas. The SUR1 subunits also enhance the sensitivity of the channels to ATP. To determine the physiological roles of K(ATP) channels directly, we have generated two kinds of genetically engineered mice: mice expressing a dominant-negative form of Kir6.2 specifically in the pancreatic beta-cells (Kir6.2G132S Tg mice) and mice lacking Kir6.2 (Kir6.2 knockout mice). Studies of these mice elucidated various roles of the K(ATP) channels in endocrine pancreatic function: 1) the K(ATP) channels are the major determinant of the resting membrane potential of pancreatic beta-cells, 2) both glucose- and sulfonylurea-induced membrane depolarization of beta-cells require closure of the K(ATP) channels, 3) both glucose- and sulfonylurea-induced rises in intracellular calcium concentration in beta-cells require closure of the K

  20. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  1. Capillary electrophoretic behavior of seven sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Matchett, W H; Winnik, W; Brumley, W C

    1996-01-01

    The electrophoretic behavior of seven sulfonylureas (bensulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, nicosulfuron [accent], chlorimuron ethyl, thifensulfuron methyl [harmony], metsulfuron methyl, and chlorsulfuron) was studied under capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) conditions. Mixtures of these compounds were separated with very high efficiencies (2 x 10(5) theoretical plates) in a running buffer consisting of 3 parts acetate buffer (25 mM, pH 5.0) and 1 part acetonitrile. In this buffer system, acetonitrile was shown to be superior to methanol, acetone, and ethanol as a nonpolar additive, but any of these solvents can be used to reduce electroosmotic flow (EOF) and to obtain adequate separation. On-column detection limits at 214 nM were of the order of 80-100 fM. Micellar agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium cholate (but not monosialoganglioside-Gm1 or starburst dendrimer, generation 2.5) improved separation in phosphate and borate buffers. Implications of these results for the development of methods to detect these compounds on matrices of environmental origin are discussed. In particular, the instability of these compounds in methanol is noted and degradation products are detected using free zone CE. The methanolysis products of sulfometuron are tentatively identified by tandem MS (negative ion conditions) as 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine and 2-carboxymethylbenz(N-carboxymethyl)sulfonamide.

  2. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: same mutation, different glycemic control with sulfonylurea therapy on long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Banu Kücükemre; Bundak, Rüveyde; Baş, Firdevs; Maraş, Hülya; Saka, Nurçin; Günöz, Hülya; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2012-06-01

    Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) is a rare condition presenting before six months of age. Mutations in the genes encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel are the most common causes. Sulfonylurea (SU) therapy leads to dramatic improvement in diabetes control and quality of life in most patients who carry these mutations. Here, we report the long-term follow-up results of two siblings with PNDM who were treated with insulin until ABCC8 gene mutation was identified, and were successfully transferred to oral SU therapy. After 3.5 years of follow-up on SU, one patient had a very good response, while the other one had a poor response. Bad compliance to diet was thought to be the most probable reason for poor glycemic control in this patient. In conclusion, molecular genetic diagnosis in all patients with PNDM is recommended. Compliance to treatment should be an important aspect of the follow-up of these patients. PMID:22672870

  3. Regulation of Shaker-type potassium channels by hypoxia. Oxygen-sensitive K+ channels in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular composition of the O2-sensitive K+ (Ko2) channels. The possibility that these channels belong to the Shaker subfamily (Kv1) of voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels has been raised in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells. Numerous findings suggest that the Ko2 channel in PC12 cells is a Kv1 channel, formed by the Kv1.2 alpha subunit. The Ko2 channel in PC12 cells is a slow-inactivating voltage-dependent K+ channel of 20 pS conductance. Other Kv channels, also expressed in PC12 cells, are not inhibited by hypoxia. Selective up-regulation by chronic hypoxia of the Kv1.2 alpha subunit expression correlates with an increase O2-sensitivity of the K+ current. Other Kv1 alpha subunit genes encoding slow-inactivating Kv channels, such as Kv1.3, Kv2.1, Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 are not modulated by chronic hypoxia. The Ko2 current in PC12 cells is blocked by 5 mM externally applied tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) and by charydbotoxin (CTX). The responses of the Kv1.2 K+ channel to hypoxia have been studied in the Xenopus oocytes and compared to those of Kv2.1, also proposed as Ko2 channel in PA smooth muscle cells. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments show that hypoxia induces inhibition of K+ current amplitude only in oocytes injected with Kv1.2 cRNA. These data indicate that Kv1.2 K+ channels are inhibited by hypoxia. PMID:10849667

  4. SODIUM CHANNELS (NAV1.2/B1) EXPRESSED IN XENOPUS OOCYTES DEMONSTRATE SENSITIVITY TO PYRETHROIDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are hypothesized to be a primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. However, multiple isoforms of VSSCs exist and the sensitivity of different isoforms to pyrethroids has not been well characterized. The Nav1.2/1 channel predominates in a...

  5. Sulfonylurea pharmacogenomics in Type 2 diabetes: the influence of drug target and diabetes risk polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Aquilante, Christina L

    2010-01-01

    The sulfonylureas stimulate insulin release from pancreatic β cells, and have been a cornerstone of Type 2 diabetes pharmacotherapy for over 50 years. Although sulfonylureas are effective antihyperglycemic agents, interindividual variability exists in drug response (i.e., pharmacodynamics), disposition (i.e., pharmacokinetics) and adverse effects. The field of pharmacogenomics has been applied to sulfonylurea clinical studies in order to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of this response variability. Historically, most studies have sought to determine the influence of polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzyme genes on sulfonylurea pharmacokinetics in humans. More recently, polymorphisms in sulfonylurea drug target genes and diabetes risk genes have been implicated as important determinants of sulfonylurea pharmacodynamics in patients with Type 2 diabetes. As such, the purpose of this review is to discuss sulfonylurea pharmacogenomics in the setting of Type 2 diabetes, specifically focusing on polymorphisms in drug target and diabetes risk genes, and their relationship with interindividual variability in sulfonylurea response and adverse effects. PMID:20222815

  6. Are one or two dangerous? Sulfonylurea exposure in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Little, Gary L; Boniface, Keith S

    2005-04-01

    Sulfonylurea-based oral hypoglycemics are in widespread use in the adult population, increasing the potential for unintentional exposure in children. This article examines the risk of toxicity in children under 6 years of age who ingest one to two tablets of a sulfonylurea. We review the literature on sulfonylurea toxicity, including cases reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). The ingestion of one to two sulfonylurea tablets by a small child can lead to profound hypoglycemia with severe sequelae if untreated. As a result, all potential sulfonylurea ingestions by young children should be evaluated by a physician. A capillary glucose level must be rapidly determined at presentation and should then be repeated at regular intervals for up to 8 hours. A longer observation period is recommended for the extended release preparation of glipizide. Asymptomatic children who do not develop hypoglycemia within the recommended observation period may be safely discharged home. All children who exhibit clear symptoms of hypoglycemia or glucose levels < 60 mg/dL should be admitted for supplemental glucose (oral or intravenous), with careful observation of clinical condition and monitoring of serum glucose levels. In cases refractory to intravenous glucose, therapy with octreotide or diazoxide may be beneficial.

  7. α-Synuclein forms non-selective cation channels and stimulates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Sergej L

    2015-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases, the protein α-synuclein (αS) is produced within neurons and accumulates in the extracellular fluid. Several mechanisms of αS action are proposed, one of which is the formation of cation-permeable pores that may mediate toxicity. αS induces non-selective cation channels in lipid bilayers, but whether this occurs in living neurons and which properties the channels possess have not yet been examined. In this study the properties of αS channels in dissociated hippocampal neurons are documented. In cell-attached recordings the incorporation of αS into membranes was driven by applied negative potentials. These channels exhibited multiple levels of conductance (30, 70 and 120 pS at −100 mV) and inward rectification. The persistent activity of αS channels induced local changes in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+, depolarized neurons and augmented bursting activity. αS channels formed by adding αS to the intracellular membrane in inside-out patches exhibited outward rectification. αS channels were equally permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca2+. These channels were also observed in neurons transfected with wild-type or mutant A53T αS, and after extracellular application of wild-type or mutant A53T αS proteins. Opening of αS channels stimulated opening of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP ) channels and did not interfere with the activity of delayed rectifier K+ channels. The properties of αS channels in neuronal membranes suggest stronger toxicity of extracellularly applied αS than intracellular αS. Enhancement of neuronal excitability and distortions in ion homeostasis may underlie the toxic effects of αS that can be dampened by KATP channels. PMID:25556793

  8. Inactivation of the first nucleotide-binding fold of the sulfonylurea receptor, and familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.M.; Wohllk, N.; Huang, E.

    1996-09-01

    Familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy is a disorder of glucose homeostasis and is characterized by unregulated insulin secretion and profound hypoglycemia. Loss-of-function mutations in the second nucleotide-binding fold of the sulfonylurea receptor, a subunit of the pancreatic-islet {beta}-cell ATP-dependent potassium channel, has been demonstrated to be causative for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. We now describe three additional mutations in the first nucleotide-binding fold of the sulfonylurea-receptor gene. One point mutation disrupts the highly conserved Walker A motif of the first nucleotide-binding-fold region. The other two mutations occur in noncoding sequences required for RNA processing and are predicted to disrupt the normal splicing pathway of the sulfonylurea-receptor mRNA precursor. These data suggest that both nucleotide-binding-fold regions of the sulfortylurea receptor are required for normal regulation of {beta}-cell ATP-dependent potassium channel activity and insulin secretion. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11 encoding Kir6.2: patient characteristics and initial response to sulfonylurea therapy.

    PubMed

    Sagen, Jørn V; Raeder, Helge; Hathout, Eba; Shehadeh, Naim; Gudmundsson, Kolbeinn; Baevre, Halvor; Abuelo, Dianne; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Molnes, Janne; Bell, Graeme I; Gloyn, Anna L; Hattersley, Andrew T; Molven, Anders; Søvik, Oddmund; Njølstad, Pål R

    2004-10-01

    Permanent neonatal diabetes (PND) can be caused by mutations in the transcription factors insulin promoter factor (IPF)-1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3), and forkhead box-P3 and in key components of insulin secretion: glucokinase (GCK) and the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel subunit Kir6.2. We sequenced the gene encoding Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) in 11 probands with GCK-negative PND. Heterozygous mutations were identified in seven probands, causing three novel (F35V, Y330C, and F333I) and two known (V59M and R201H) Kir6.2 amino acid substitutions. Only two probands had a family history of diabetes. Subjects with the V59M mutation had neurological features including motor delay. Three mutation carriers tested had an insulin secretory response to tolbutamide, but not to glucose or glucagon. Glibenclamide was introduced in increasing doses to investigate whether sulfonylurea could replace insulin. At a glibenclamide dose of 0.3-0.4 mg. kg(-1). day(-1), insulin was discontinued. Blood glucose did not deteriorate, and HbA(1c) was stable or fell during 2-6 months of follow-up. An oral glucose tolerance test performed in one subject revealed that glucose-stimulated insulin release was restored. Mutations in Kir6.2 were the most frequent cause of PND in our cohort. Apparently insulin-dependent patients with mutations in Kir6.2 may be managed on an oral sulfonylurea with sustained metabolic control rather than insulin injections, illustrating the principle of pharmacogenetics applied in diabetes treatment.

  10. Mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 ion channels can be tuned by cellular membrane tension.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda H; Grandl, Jörg

    2015-12-08

    Piezo1 ion channels mediate the conversion of mechanical forces into electrical signals and are critical for responsiveness to touch in metazoans. The apparent mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 varies substantially across cellular environments, stimulating methods and protocols, raising the fundamental questions of what precise physical stimulus activates the channel and how its stimulus sensitivity is regulated. Here, we measured Piezo1 currents evoked by membrane stretch in three patch configurations, while simultaneously visualizing and measuring membrane geometry. Building on this approach, we developed protocols to minimize resting membrane curvature and tension prior to probing Piezo1 activity. We find that Piezo1 responds to lateral membrane tension with exquisite sensitivity as compared to other mechanically activated channels and that resting tension can drive channel inactivation, thereby tuning overall mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1. Our results explain how Piezo1 can function efficiently and with adaptable sensitivity as a sensor of mechanical stimulation in diverse cellular contexts.

  11. A Heat-Sensitive TRP Channel Expressed in Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peier, Andrea M.; Reeve, Alison J.; Andersson, David A.; Moqrich, Aziz; Earley, Taryn J.; Hergarden, Anne C.; Story, Gina M.; Colley, Sian; Hogenesch, John B.; McIntyre, Peter; Bevan, Stuart; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2002-06-01

    Mechanical and thermal cues stimulate a specialized group of sensory neurons that terminate in the skin. Three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of channels are expressed in subsets of these neurons and are activated at distinct physiological temperatures. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel thermosensitive TRP channel. TRPV3 has a unique threshold: It is activated at innocuous (warm) temperatures and shows an increased response at noxious temperatures. TRPV3 is specifically expressed in keratinocytes; hence, skin cells are capable of detecting heat via molecules similar to those in heat-sensing neurons.

  12. Potential Roles of Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels in Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Siguang; Liu, Cui; Ma, Yana; Ji, Hong-Long; Li, Xiumin

    2016-01-01

    The ENaC/degenerin ion channel superfamily includes the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and acid sensitive ionic channel (ASIC). ENaC is a multimeric ion channel formed by heteromultimeric membrane glycoproteins, which participate in a multitude of biological processes by mediating the transport of sodium (Na(+)) across epithelial tissues such as the kidney, lungs, bladder, and gut. Aberrant ENaC functions contribute to several human disease states including pseudohypoaldosteronism, Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and salt-sensitive hypertension. Increasing evidence suggests that ion channels not only regulate ion homeostasis and electric signaling in excitable cells but also play important roles in cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration. Indeed, ENaCs/ASICs had been reported to be associated with cancer characteristics. Given their cell surface localization and pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target ENaC/ASIC family members may be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:27403419

  13. Potential Roles of Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Siguang; Liu, Cui; Ma, Yana; Ji, Hong-Long; Li, Xiumin

    2016-01-01

    The ENaC/degenerin ion channel superfamily includes the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and acid sensitive ionic channel (ASIC). ENaC is a multimeric ion channel formed by heteromultimeric membrane glycoproteins, which participate in a multitude of biological processes by mediating the transport of sodium (Na+) across epithelial tissues such as the kidney, lungs, bladder, and gut. Aberrant ENaC functions contribute to several human disease states including pseudohypoaldosteronism, Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and salt-sensitive hypertension. Increasing evidence suggests that ion channels not only regulate ion homeostasis and electric signaling in excitable cells but also play important roles in cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration. Indeed, ENaCs/ASICs had been reported to be associated with cancer characteristics. Given their cell surface localization and pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target ENaC/ASIC family members may be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:27403419

  14. Tactile Sensitivity of Children: Effects of Frequency, Masking, and the Non-Pacinian I Psychophysical Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Burak; Oztek, Cigdem

    2007-01-01

    Tactile perception depends on the contributions of four psychophysical tactile channels mediated by four corresponding receptor systems. The sensitivity of the tactile channels is determined by detection thresholds that vary as a function of the stimulus frequency. It has been widely reported that tactile thresholds increase (i.e., sensitivity…

  15. NEGATIVE-ION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF SULFONYLUREA HERBICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfonylurea herbicides have been studied using neg-ion desorption chem.-ionization (DCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and DCI-MS/MS techniques. Both {M-H]- and M.- ions were obsd. in the DCI mass spectra. The collisonally activated dissocn. (CAD) spectra were characteristic of the str...

  16. Leaching of three sulfonylurea herbicides during sprinkler irrigation.

    PubMed

    Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Bailey, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Sulfonylurea herbicides are widely applied on the Canadian prairies to control weeds in a variety of crops. Several sulfonylurea herbicides are mobile in soil, and there is concern about their possible movement to ground water. This study was performed to assess the susceptibility of three sulfonylurea herbicides commonly used in prairie crop production to leach under a worst-case scenario. Thifensulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, and rimsulfuron were applied to a 9-ha tile-drained field, and then approximately 300 mm of irrigation water were applied over a 2-wk period using a center pivot. The commencement of tile-drain flow corresponded to the rise of the water table above tile-drain depth, and peak flow rates corresponded to the greatest depths of ground water above the tile drains. The volume of irrigation water intercepted by the tile drains in each quadrant was determined by site hydrology and represented <10% of the irrigation water applied. Concentrations of thifensulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, and rimsulfuron in the tile-drain effluent ranged (analysis by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry) from 2.0 to 248 ng L(-1), not detected (nd) to 55 ng L(-1), and nd to 497 ng L(-1), respectively. Total herbicide transport from the root zone in each quadrant was estimated at <0.5% of the amount of each sulfonylurea herbicide applied. Thifensulfuron-methyl was the only herbicide detected in ground water, with concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 2.5 ng L(-1). With the frequency and amount of rainfall typically encountered in the prairie region of Canada, detectable concentrations (>1 ng L(-1)) of these sulfonylurea herbicides in ground water would be unlikely. PMID:20048324

  17. Isolation of INS-1-derived cell lines with robust ATP-sensitive K+ channel-dependent and -independent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Hohmeier, H E; Mulder, H; Chen, G; Henkel-Rieger, R; Prentki, M; Newgard, C B

    2000-03-01

    The biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of insulin secretion are not completely understood. The rat INS-1 cell line has been used to gain insight in this area because it secretes insulin in response to glucose concentrations in the physiological range. However, the magnitude of the response is far less than that seen in freshly isolated rat islets. In the current study, we have stably transfected INS-1 cells with a plasmid containing the human proinsulin gene. After antibiotic selection and clonal expansion, 67% of the resultant clones were found to be poorly responsive to glucose in terms of insulin secretion (< or =2-fold stimulation by 15 mmol/l compared with 3 mmol/l glucose), 17% of the clones were moderately responsive (2- to 5-fold stimulation), and 16% were strongly responsive (5- to 13-fold stimulation). The differences in responsiveness could not be ascribed to differences in insulin content. Detailed analysis of one of the strongly responsive lines (832/13) revealed that its potent response to glucose (average of 10-fold) was stable over 66 population doublings (approximately 7.5 months of tissue culture) with half-maximal stimulation at 6 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, in the presence of 15 mmol/l glucose, insulin secretion was potentiated significantly by 100 pmol/l isobutylmethylxanthine (320%), 1 mmol/l oleate/palmitate (77%), and 50 nmol/l glucagon-like peptide 1 (60%), whereas carbachol had no effect. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was also potentiated by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (threefold at 3 mmol/l glucose and 50% at 15 mmol/l glucose) and was abolished by diazoxide, which demonstrates the operation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) in 832/13 cells. Moreover, when the K(ATP) channel was bypassed by incubation of cells in depolarizing K+ (35 mmol/l), insulin secretion was more effectively stimulated by glucose in 832/13 cells than in parental INS-1 cells, which demonstrates the presence of a K(ATP) channel

  18. Gold nanoparticles embedded silicon channel biosensor for improved sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. Y.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; M. Nuzaihan M., N.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Hashim, U.

    2016-07-01

    This project discusses the fabrication steps of a biosensor device on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Conventional photolithography technique is used to fabricate the device. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are then used to enhance the sensitivity of the device. By incorporating the GNPs, it is expected to get higher current compared with the device without GNPs due to better conductivity of gold and higher volume-to-ratio. Hence, with the addition of GNPs, it may boost up the signal and enhance the sensitivity of the device.

  19. Angular Sensitivity of Gated Micro-Channel Plate Framing Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O L; Lobban, A; Tutt, T; Bell, P M; Costa, R; Ze, F

    2000-07-24

    Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras have been deployed worldwide for 0.2 - 9 keV x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of transient plasma phenomena. For a variety of spectroscopic and imaging applications, the angular sensitivity of MCPs must be known for correctly interpreting the data. We present systematic measurements of angular sensitivity at discrete relevant photon energies and arbitrary MCP gain. The results can been accurately predicted by using a simple 2D approximation to the 3D MCP geometry and by averaging over all possible photon ray paths.

  20. Sensitizing the Slit Diaphragm with TRPC6 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Möller, Clemens C; Flesche, Jan; Reiser, Jochen

    2009-05-01

    Physiologic permeability of the glomerular capillary depends on the normal structure of podocyte foot processes forming a functioning slit diaphragm in between. Mutations in several podocyte genes as well as specific molecular pathways have been identified as the cause for progressive kidney failure with urinary protein loss. Podocyte injury is a hallmark of glomerular disease, which is generally displayed by the rearrangement of the podocyte slit diaphragm and the actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies demonstrate a unique role for the Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel protein TRPC6 as a regulator of glomerular ultrafiltration. In both genetic and acquired forms of proteinuric kidney disease, dysregulation of podocyte TRPC6 plays a pathogenic role. This article illustrates how recent findings add to emerging concepts in podocyte biology, particularly mechanosensation and signaling at the slit diaphragm.

  1. Sulfhydryl oxidation modifies the calcium dependence of ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels of excitable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, J J; Hidalgo, C; Bull, R

    1998-01-01

    The calcium dependence of ryanodine-sensitive single calcium channels was studied after fusing with planar lipid bilayers sarcoendoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from excitable tissues. Native channels from mammalian or amphibian skeletal muscle displayed three different calcium dependencies, cardiac (C), mammalian skeletal (MS), and low fractional open times (low Po), as reported for channels from brain cortex. Native channels from cardiac muscle presented only the MS and C dependencies. Channels with the MS or low Po behaviors showed bell-shaped calcium dependencies, but the latter had fractional open times of <0.1 at all [Ca2+]. Channels with C calcium dependence were activated by [Ca2+] < 10 microM and were not inhibited by increasing cis [Ca2+] up to 0.5 mM. After oxidation with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine or thimerosal, channels with low Po or MS dependencies increased their activity. These channels modified their calcium dependencies sequentially, from low Po to MS and C, or from MS to C. Reduction with glutathione of channels with C dependence (native or oxidized) decreased their fractional open times in 0.5 mM cis [Ca2+], from near unity to 0.1-0.3. These results show that all native channels displayed at least two calcium dependencies regardless of their origin, and that these changed after treatment with redox reagents. PMID:9512024

  2. Modulation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in Drosophila by a cAMP-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, A; Gu, G G; Singh, S

    1999-06-15

    Drosophila has proved to be a valuable system for studying the structure and function of ion channels. However, relatively little is known about the regulation of ion channels, particularly that of Ca2+ channels, in Drosophila. Physiological and pharmacological differences between invertebrate and mammalian L-type Ca2+ channels raise questions on the extent of conservation of Ca2+ channel modulatory pathways. We have examined the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade in modulating the dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels in the larval muscles of Drosophila, using mutations and drugs that disrupt specific steps in this pathway. The L-type (DHP-sensitive) Ca2+ channel current was increased in the dunce mutants, which have high cAMP concentration owing to cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) disruption. The current was decreased in the rutabaga mutants, where adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity is altered thereby decreasing the cAMP concentration. The dunce effect was mimicked by 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog, and IBMX, a PDE inhibitor. The rutabaga effect was rescued by forskolin, an AC activator. H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase-A (PKA), reduced the current and inhibited the effect of 8-Br-cAMP. The data suggest modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels of Drosophila via a cAMP-PKA mediated pathway. While there are differences in L-type channels, as well as in components of cAMP cascade, between Drosophila and vertebrates, main features of the modulatory pathway have been conserved. The data also raise questions on the likely role of DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channel modulation in synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, processes disrupted by the dnc and the rut mutations. PMID:10380071

  3. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels control energy expenditure determining body weight.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Alexey E; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A; Goldhamer, David J; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here, we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of K(ATP) channel function provoked, under conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in K(ATP) channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots, promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by K(ATP) channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels govern muscle energy economy, and their downregulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an antiobesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise.

  4. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening.

  5. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening. PMID:10557247

  6. Evidence for Novel Pharmacological Sensitivities of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Swarna; Churgin, Matthew A.; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions globally. Praziquantel (PZQ), the only drug currently available for treatment and control, is largely ineffective against juvenile worms, and reports of PZQ resistance lend added urgency to the need for development of new therapeutics. Ion channels, which underlie electrical excitability in cells, are validated targets for many current anthelmintics. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels. TRP channels play key roles in sensory transduction and other critical functions, yet the properties of these channels have remained essentially unexplored in parasitic helminths. TRP channels fall into several (7–8) subfamilies, including TRPA and TRPV. Though schistosomes contain genes predicted to encode representatives of most of the TRP channel subfamilies, they do not appear to have genes for any TRPV channels. Nonetheless, we find that the TRPV1-selective activators capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) induce dramatic hyperactivity in adult worms; capsaicin also increases motility in schistosomula. SB 366719, a highly-selective TRPV1 antagonist, blocks the capsaicin-induced hyperactivity in adults. Mammalian TRPA1 is not activated by capsaicin, yet knockdown of the single predicted TRPA1-like gene (SmTRPA) in S. mansoni effectively abolishes capsaicin-induced responses in adult worms, suggesting that SmTRPA is required for capsaicin sensitivity in these parasites. Based on these results, we hypothesize that some schistosome TRP channels have novel pharmacological sensitivities that can be targeted to disrupt normal parasite neuromuscular function. These results also have implications for understanding the phylogeny of metazoan TRP channels and may help identify novel targets for new or repurposed therapeutics. PMID:26655809

  7. Highly Sensitive and Patchable Pressure Sensors Mimicking Ion-Channel-Engaged Sensory Organs.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Son, Young Jun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Biological ion channels have led to much inspiration because of their unique and exquisite operational functions in living cells. Specifically, their extreme and dynamic sensing abilities can be realized by the combination of receptors and nanopores coupled together to construct an ion channel system. In the current study, we demonstrated that artificial ion channel pressure sensors inspired by nature for detecting pressure are highly sensitive and patchable. Our ion channel pressure sensors basically consisted of receptors and nanopore membranes, enabling dynamic current responses to external forces for multiple applications. The ion channel pressure sensors had a sensitivity of ∼5.6 kPa(-1) and a response time of ∼12 ms at a frequency of 1 Hz. The power consumption was recorded as less than a few μW. Moreover, a reliability test showed stability over 10 000 loading-unloading cycles. Additionally, linear regression was performed in terms of temperature, which showed no significant variations, and there were no significant current variations with humidity. The patchable ion channel pressure sensors were then used to detect blood pressure/pulse in humans, and different signals were clearly observed for each person. Additionally, modified ion channel pressure sensors detected complex motions including pressing and folding in a high-pressure range (10-20 kPa).

  8. On the sensitivity of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager channels to overland rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yalei; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Yu; Cao, Jie

    2011-06-01

    , and the V37 or V21 channel becomes the top responder to surface rain as the amount of hydrometeors in the atmospheric column reaches very high values. Additionally, it is found that land surface type and 2 m air temperature have significant skills in characterizing rain cloud types, so that the V19-V37 channel is more sensitive to surface rainfall for more vegetated warm surface, while the V85 channel is more sensitive to cold bare land. This finding implies that the above two parameters may be used to prioritize satellite observations at different channels, so that the channel that has the best rainfall sensitivity under a given condition receives the highest weight in retrieval algorithms.

  9. Mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 ion channels can be tuned by cellular membrane tension

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H; Grandl, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Piezo1 ion channels mediate the conversion of mechanical forces into electrical signals and are critical for responsiveness to touch in metazoans. The apparent mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 varies substantially across cellular environments, stimulating methods and protocols, raising the fundamental questions of what precise physical stimulus activates the channel and how its stimulus sensitivity is regulated. Here, we measured Piezo1 currents evoked by membrane stretch in three patch configurations, while simultaneously visualizing and measuring membrane geometry. Building on this approach, we developed protocols to minimize resting membrane curvature and tension prior to probing Piezo1 activity. We find that Piezo1 responds to lateral membrane tension with exquisite sensitivity as compared to other mechanically activated channels and that resting tension can drive channel inactivation, thereby tuning overall mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1. Our results explain how Piezo1 can function efficiently and with adaptable sensitivity as a sensor of mechanical stimulation in diverse cellular contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12088.001 PMID:26646186

  10. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel protects cardiac myocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xiong, Yiqun; Xu, Chaoying; Liu, Xinliang; Lin, Jian; Mu, Guiping; Xu, Shaogang; Liu, Wenhe

    2016-09-01

    The sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (sarcKATP) channel plays a cardioprotective role during stress. However, the role of the sarcKATP channel in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and association with mitochondrial calcium remains unclear. For this purpose, we developed a model of LPS-induced sepsis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). The TUNEL assay was performed in order to detect the apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and the MTT assay was performed to determine cellular viability. Exposure to LPS significantly decreased the viability of the NRCs as well as the expression of Bcl-2, whereas it enhanced the activity and expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. The sarcKATP channel blocker, HMR-1098, increased the apoptosis of NRCs, whereas the specific sarcKATP channel opener, P-1075, reduced the apoptosis of NRCs. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of HMR-1098. In order to confirm the role of the sarcKATP channel, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the sarcKATP channel mutant subunit Kir6.2AAA to inhibit the channel activity. Kir6.2AAA adenovirus infection in NRCs significantly aggravated the apoptosis of myocytes induced by LPS. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the sarcKATP channel in apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27430376

  11. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel protects cardiac myocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xiong, Yiqun; Xu, Chaoying; Liu, Xinliang; Lin, Jian; Mu, Guiping; Xu, Shaogang; Liu, Wenhe

    2016-01-01

    The sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (sarcKATP) channel plays a cardioprotective role during stress. However, the role of the sarcKATP channel in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and association with mitochondrial calcium remains unclear. For this purpose, we developed a model of LPS-induced sepsis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). The TUNEL assay was performed in order to detect the apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and the MTT assay was performed to determine cellular viability. Exposure to LPS significantly decreased the viability of the NRCs as well as the expression of Bcl-2, whereas it enhanced the activity and expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. The sarcKATP channel blocker, HMR-1098, increased the apoptosis of NRCs, whereas the specific sarcKATP channel opener, P-1075, reduced the apoptosis of NRCs. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of HMR-1098. In order to confirm the role of the sarcKATP channel, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the sarcKATP channel mutant subunit Kir6.2AAA to inhibit the channel activity. Kir6.2AAA adenovirus infection in NRCs significantly aggravated the apoptosis of myocytes induced by LPS. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the sarcKATP channel in apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27430376

  12. Blood Pressure and Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels in Vascular and Renal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, David G.; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Tarjus, Antoine; Sheng, Shaohu; Oberleithner, Hans; Kleyman, Thomas R.; Jaisser, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the expression and regulation of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in the epithelial cells of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ENaC) and amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Guyton’s hypothesis stated that blood pressure control is critically dependent on vascular tone and fluid handling by the kidney. With the study of Mendelian forms of hypertension and their corresponding transgenic mouse models, the main components of the aldosterone- and angiotensin-dependent sodium transporters have been identified over the past 20 years. Proteolytic processing of the ENaC external domain, and inhibition by increased sodium concentrations are important features of the ENaC complexes expressed in the distal nephron. In contrast, amiloride-sensitive sodium channels expressed in the vascular system are activated by increased external sodium concentrations, resulting in changes in the mechanical properties and function of endothelial cells. Mechano-sensitivity and shear stress affect both epithelial and vascular sodium channel activity. The synergistic effects and complementary regulation of the epithelial and vascular systems are consistent with the Guytonian model of volume and blood pressure regulation, and may reflect sequential evolution of the two systems. The integration of vascular tone, renal perfusion and regulation of renal sodium reabsorption is the central underpinning of the Guytonian model. We summarize the recent evidence in this review that describes the central role of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in the efferent (e.g., vascular) and afferent (e.g., epithelial) arms of this homeostatic system. PMID:24419567

  13. Development of Pressure-Sensitive Channel Chip for Micro Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yu; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Niimi, Tomohide

    2012-05-01

    Optical measurement techniques are useful for experimental studies on micro gas flows, which enable us to non-intrusively measure the flows with a high spatial resolution. The pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique, which is based on the emission of photons from luminophore, is a potential diagnostic tool for pressure measurement of micro gas flows. However, measurements by conventional PSPs are limited to the sub-millimeter order spatial resolution of ca. 200 μm, indicating the difficulty of the micro scale measurements. The present study proposes pressure-sensitive channel chip (PSCC) which is a micro channel with the capability of measuring pressure. We focused on the poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) micro-molding technique, which is one of the most popular techniques to fabricate a micro channel easily. Moreover, PDMS is a polymer used as a binder in PSP because of high optical transparency, gas permeability, and gas diffusivity. Thus, we developed a micro channel by the PDMS micro-molding technique with mixing a pressure-sensitive luminophore into PDMS: i.e. a micro channel fabricated by PSP, which is named PSCC. A flow through a micro converging-diverging nozzle with the throat width of 120 μm was demonstrated. The pressure distribution on the nozzle surface was successfully obtained by PSCC.

  14. A KINETIC STUDY OF THE METHANOLYSIS OF THE SULFONYLUREAS BENSULFURON METHYL AND SULFOMETURON METHYL USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The instability of sulfonylureas in solution in methanol has led us to a kinetic study of methanolysis of two sulfonylureas using capillary electrophoresis. In a preliminary experiment solutions of the seven compounds, bensulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, nicosulfuron, chlori...

  15. Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Contributes to the Astrocyte Swelling and Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, A.R.; Valdes, V.; Tong, X.Y.; Shamaladevi, N.; Gonzalez, W.; Norenberg, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte swelling (cytotoxic brain edema) is the major neurological complication of acute liver failure (ALF), a condition in which ammonia has been strongly implicated in its etiology. Ion channels and transporters are known to be involved in cell volume regulation and a disturbance in these systems may result in cell swelling. One ion channel known to contribute to astrocyte swelling/brain edema in other neurological disorders is the ATP-dependent, non-selective cation channel (NCCa-ATP channel). We therefore examined its potential role in the astrocyte swelling/brain edema associated with ALF. Cultured astrocytes treated with 5 mM ammonia showed a 3-fold increase in the sulfonylurea receptor type 1 (SUR1) protein expression, a marker of NCCa-ATP channel activity. Blocking SUR1 with glibenclamide significantly reduced the ammonia-induced cell swelling in cultured astrocytes. Additionally, overexpression of SUR1 in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes was significantly reduced by co-treatment of cells with BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB, indicating the involvement of an NF-κB-mediated SUR1 upregulation in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Brain SUR1 mRNA level was also found to be increased in the thioacetamide (TAA) rat model of ALF. Additionally, we found a significant increase in SUR1 protein expression in rat brain cortical astrocytes in TAA-treated rats. Treatment with glibenclamide significantly reduced the brain edema in this model of ALF. These findings strongly suggest the involvement of NCCa-ATP channel in the astrocyte swelling/brain edema in ALF, and that targeting this channel may represent a useful approach for the treatment of the brain edema associated with ALF. PMID:24443056

  16. Simplification and analysis of models of calcium dynamics based on IP3-sensitive calcium channel kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Stephenson, J L; Othmer, H G

    1996-01-01

    We study the models for calcium (Ca) dynamics developed in earlier studies, in each of which the key component is the kinetics of intracellular inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca channels. After rapidly equilibrating steps are eliminated, the channel kinetics in these models are represented by a single differential equation that is linear in the state of the channel. In the reduced kinetic model, the graph of the steady-state fraction of conducting channels as a function of log10(Ca) is a bell-shaped curve. Dynamically, a step increase in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate induces an incremental increase in the fraction of conducting channels, whereas a step increase in Ca can either potentiate or inhibit channel activation, depending on the Ca level before and after the increase. The relationships among these models are discussed, and experimental tests to distinguish between them are given. Under certain conditions the models for intracellular calcium dynamics are reduced to the singular perturbed form epsilon dx/d tau = f(x, y, p), dy/d tau = g(x, y, p). Phase-plane analysis is applied to a generic form of these simplified models to show how different types of Ca response, such as excitability, oscillations, and a sustained elevation of Ca, can arise. The generic model can also be used to study frequency encoding of hormonal stimuli, to determine the conditions for stable traveling Ca waves, and to understand the effect of channel properties on the wave speed.

  17. A sodium channel mutation identified in Aedes aegypti selectively reduces cockroach sodium channel sensitivity to type I, but not type II pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaonong; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Numerous point mutations in sodium channel genes have been identified in pyrethroid-resistant insect species, and many have been confirmed to reduce or abolish sensitivity of channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to pyrethroids. Recently, several novel mutations were reported in sodium channel genes of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes mosquito populations. One of the mutations is a phenylalanine (F) to cysteine (C) change in segment 6 of domain III (IIIS6) of the Aedes mosquito sodium channel. Curiously, a previous study showed that alanine substitution of this F did not alter the action of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, on a cockroach sodium channel. In this study, we changed this F to C in a pyrethroid-sensitive cockroach sodium channel and examined mutant channel sensitivity to permethrin as well as five other type I or type II pyrethroids in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, the F to C mutation drastically reduced channel sensitivity to three type I pyrethroids, permethrin, NRDC 157 (a deltamethrin analogue lacking the α-cyano group) and bioresemthrin, but not to three type II pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin. These results confirm the involvement of the F to C mutation in permethrin resistance, and raise the possibility that rotation of type I and type II pyrethroids might be considered in the control of insect pest populations where this particular mutation is present.

  18. A red-shifted photochromic sulfonylurea for the remote control of pancreatic beta cell function.

    PubMed

    Broichhagen, J; Frank, J A; Johnston, N R; Mitchell, R K; Šmid, K; Marchetti, P; Bugliani, M; Rutter, G A; Trauner, D; Hodson, D J

    2015-04-01

    Azobenzene photoresponsive elements can be installed on sulfonylureas, yielding optical control over pancreatic beta cell function and insulin release. An obstacle to such photopharmacological approaches remains the use of ultraviolet-blue illumination. Herein, we synthesize and test a novel yellow light-activated sulfonylurea based on a heterocyclic azobenzene bearing a push-pull system. PMID:25744824

  19. Inhibition of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel from mouse pancreatic β-cells by surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul A; Proks, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We have used patch-clamp methods to study the effects of the detergents, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Triton X100 on the KATP channel in the pancreatic β-cell from mouse.All three detergents blocked KATP channel activity with the following order of potency: Tween 80 (Ki<∼83 nM)>Triton X100 (Ki=350 nM)>Cremophor. In all cases the block was poorly reversible.Single-channel studies suggested that at low doses, the detergents act as slow blockers of the KATP channel.Unlike the block produced by tolbutamide, that produced by detergent was not affected by intracellular Mg2+-nucleotide, diazoxide or trypsin treatment, nor did it involve an acceleration of rundown or increase in ATP sensitivity of the chanel.The detergents could block the pore-forming subunit, Kir6.2ΔC26, which can be expressed independently of SUR1 (the regulatory subunit of the KATP channel). These data suggest that the detergents act on Kir6.2 and not SUR1.The detergents had no effect on another member of the inward rectifier family: Kir1.1a (ROMK1).Voltage-dependent K-currents in the β-cell were reversibly blocked by the detergents with a far lower potency than that found for the KATP channel.Like other insulin secretagogues that act by blocking the KATP channel, Cremophor elevated intracellular Ca2+ in single β-cells to levels that would be expected to elicit insulin secretion.Given the role of the KATP channel in many physiological processes, we conclude that plasma borne detergent may have pharmacological actions mediated through blockage of the KATP channel PMID:9647478

  20. The role of pH-sensitive TASK channels in central respiratory chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Douglas A.; Barhanin, Jacques; Gestreau, Christian; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of the subunits within the family of K2P background K+ channels are sensitive to changes in extracellular pH in the physiological range, making them likely candidates to mediate various pH-dependent processes. Based on expression patterns within several brainstem neuronal cell groups that are believed to function in CO2/H+ regulation of breathing, three TASK subunits – TASK-1, TASK-2 and TASK-3 – were specifically hypothesized to contribute to this central respiratory chemoreflex. For the acid-sensitive TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels, despite widespread expression at multiple levels within the brainstem respiratory control system (including presumptive chemoreceptor populations), experiments in knockout mice provided no evidence for their involvement in CO2 regulation of breathing. By contrast, the alkaline-activated TASK-2 channel has a more restricted brainstem distribution and was localized to the Phox2b-expressing chemoreceptor neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). Remarkably, in a Phox2b27Ala/+ mouse genetic model of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) that is characterized by reduced central respiratory chemosensitivity, selective ablation of Phox2b-expressing RTN neurons was accompanied by a corresponding loss of TASK-2 expression. Furthermore, genetic deletion of TASK-2 blunted RTN neuronal pH sensitivity in vitro, reduced alkaline-induced respiratory network inhibition in situ and diminished the ventilatory response to CO2/H+ in vivo. Notably, a subpopulation of RTN neurons from TASK-2−/− mice retained their pH sensitivity, at least in part due to a residual pH-sensitive background K+ current, suggesting that other mechanisms (and perhaps other K2P channels) for RTN neuronal pH sensitivity are yet to be identified. PMID:25346157

  1. An amino acid outside the pore region influences apamin sensitivity in small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Andreas; Ferraro, Teresa; D'hoedt, Dieter; Stocker, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK, K(Ca)) are a family of voltage-independent K+ channels with a distinct physiology and pharmacology. The bee venom toxin apamin inhibits exclusively the three cloned SK channel subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) with different affinity, highest for SK2, lowest for SK1, and intermediate for SK3 channels. The high selectivity of apamin made it a valuable tool to study the molecular makeup and function of native SK channels. Three amino acids located in the outer vestibule of the pore are of particular importance for the different apamin sensitivities of SK channels. Chimeric SK1 channels, enabling the homomeric expression of the rat SK1 (rSK1) subunit and containing the core domain (S1-S6) of rSK1, are apamin-insensitive. By contrast, channels formed by the human orthologue human SK1 (hSK1) are sensitive to apamin. This finding hinted at the involvement of regions beyond the pore as determinants of apamin sensitivity, because hSK1 and rSK1 have an identical amino acid sequence in the pore region. Here we investigated which parts of the channels outside the pore region are important for apamin sensitivity by constructing chimeras between apamin-insensitive and -sensitive SK channel subunits and by introducing point mutations. We demonstrate that a single amino acid situated in the extracellular loop between the transmembrane segments S3 and S4 has a major impact on apamin sensitivity. Our findings enabled us to convert the hSK1 channel into a channel that was as sensitive for apamin as SK2, the SK channel with the highest sensitivity.

  2. The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is activated by alterations of its membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Lucas, Susana Dias; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity.

  3. Chronic ethanol-induced changes in cardiac and neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bangalore, R.; Hawthorn, M.; Triggle, D.J. )

    1992-02-26

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on cardiac and neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium channels. These channels have been shown to be regulated under diseased conditions such as congestive heart failure. Rats were chronically fed with a liquid diet containing ethanol or equicaloric amount of dextrin for the three weeks. This diet induced tolerance to ethanol as assessed by the longer time the ethanol fed rats could stay on a rotorod compared to control rats when challenged with an i.p. injection of ethanol, ATP-sensitive potassium channels were characterized using ({sup 3}H)glibenclamide binding to membrane preparations from heart, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. Chronic ethanol consumption caused a significant increase in the K{sub D} value in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and a significant decrease in the K{sub D} value in the cortex. The K{sub D} value did not change in other brain areas and heart with chronic ethanol consumption. In contrast, chronic ethanol caused a significant decrease in the B{sub max} value in the heart, and a slight but significant increase in the B{sub max} value in the spinal cord. Chronic ethanol did not affect the B{sub max} value in other brain areas. ATP-sensitive potassium channels are differently regulated by ethanol in cardiac and neuronal preparations.

  4. The pH sensitivity of Aqp0 channels in tetraploid and diploid teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Chauvigné, François; Zapater, Cinta; Stavang, Jon Anders; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Cerdà, Joan; Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Water homeostasis and the structural integrity of the vertebrate lens is partially mediated by AQP0 channels. Emerging evidence indicates that external pH may be involved in channel gating. Here we show that a tetraploid teleost, the Atlantic salmon, retains 4 aqp0 genes (aqp0a1, -0a2, -0b1, and -0b2), which are highly, but not exclusively, expressed in the lens. Functional characterization reveals that, although each paralog permeates water efficiently, the permeability is respectively shifted to the neutral, alkaline, or acidic pH in Aqp0a1, -0a2, and -0b1, whereas that of Aqp0b2 is not regulated by external pH. Mutagenesis studies demonstrate that Ser38, His39, and His40 residues in the extracellular transmembrane domain of α-helix 2 facing the water pore are critical for the pH modulation of water transport. To validate these findings, we show that both zebrafish Aqp0a and -0b are functional water channels with respective pH sensitivities toward alkaline or acid pH ranges and that an N-terminal allelic variant (Ser19) of Aqp0b exists that abolishes water transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The data suggest that the alkaline pH sensitivity is a conserved trait in teleost Aqp0 a-type channels, whereas mammalian AQP0 and some teleost Aqp0 b-type channels display an acidic pH permeation preference.—Chauvigné, F., Zapater, C., Stavang, J. A., Taranger, G. L., Cerdà, J., Finn, R. N. The pH sensitivity of Aqp0 channels in tetraploid and diploid teleosts. PMID:25667219

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Canagliflozin versus Sitagliptin When Added to Metformin and Sulfonylurea in Type 2 Diabetes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, Suthakar; Neslusan, Cheryl; Yoong, Kim; Teschemaker, Anna; Johansen, Pierre; Willis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCanagliflozin, an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is approved as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Canada. Canagliflozin offers greater glycemic control, as well as important additional benefits such as weight loss and blood pressure reductions, versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin.  ObjectiveThis analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg and canagliflozin 100 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin plus sulfonylurea from the perspective of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. MethodsA 40-year cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using the validated Economic and Health Outcomes Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ECHO-T2DM). Patient characteristics, treatment effects, and rates of hypoglycemia and adverse events were sourced from the canagliflozin clinical program. Canada-specific costs and utilities were applied. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative values for key model inputs. ResultsBoth canagliflozin 300 and 100 mg dominated sitagliptin 100 mg over 40 years, providing quality-adjusted life-year gains of 0.31 and 0.28, and cost offsets of $2,217 and $2,560, respectively. Both canagliflozin doses dominated sitagliptin in each of the sensitivity analyses. ConclusionsSimulation results suggested that canagliflozin 300 and 100 mg provided better health outcomes and lower costs than sitagliptin 100 mg as a third-line therapy added-on to metformin and sulfonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes in Canada. PMID:27463416

  6. Sulfonylureas and Glinides as New PPARγ Agonists:. Virtual Screening and Biological Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsi, Marco; Podvinec, Michael; Roth, Adrian; Hug, Hubert; Kersten, Sander; Albrecht, Hugo; Schwede, Torsten; Meyer, Urs A.; Rücker, Christoph

    2007-12-01

    This work combines the predictive power of computational drug discovery with experimental validation by means of biological assays. In this way, a new mode of action for type 2 diabetes drugs has been unvealed. Most drugs currently employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes either target the sulfonylurea receptor stimulating insulin release (sulfonylureas, glinides), or target PPARγ improving insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones). Our work shows that sulfonylureas and glinides bind to PPARγ and exhibit PPARγ agonistic activity. This result was predicted in silico by virtual screening and confirmed in vitro by three biological assays. This dual mode of action of sulfonylureas and glinides may open new perspectives for the molecular pharmacology of antidiabetic drugs, since it provides evidence that drugs can be designed which target both the sulfonylurea receptor and PPARγ. Targeting both receptors could in principle allow to increase pancreatic insulin secretion, as well as to improve insulin resistance.

  7. Review of safety considerations in the elderly using sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Tirmizi, Samad; Mazzola, Nissa

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus that work by increasing insulin secretion in the pancreas. Second-generation SUs are most often used today because of adverse effects with those in the first generation. However, there is still a risk of hypoglycemia even with the newer medications in the class. The American Diabetes Association encourages a patient-centered approach when initiating pharmacologic therapy. Understanding the pharmacokinetic differences among these medications can allow the consultant pharmacist to make a decision on which medication may be best suited for the patient. PMID:25695418

  8. Review of safety considerations in the elderly using sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Tirmizi, Samad; Mazzola, Nissa

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus that work by increasing insulin secretion in the pancreas. Second-generation SUs are most often used today because of adverse effects with those in the first generation. However, there is still a risk of hypoglycemia even with the newer medications in the class. The American Diabetes Association encourages a patient-centered approach when initiating pharmacologic therapy. Understanding the pharmacokinetic differences among these medications can allow the consultant pharmacist to make a decision on which medication may be best suited for the patient.

  9. Blood pressure and amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in vascular and renal cells.

    PubMed

    Warnock, David G; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Tarjus, Antoine; Sheng, Shaohu; Oberleithner, Hans; Kleyman, Thomas R; Jaisser, Frederic

    2014-03-01

    Sodium transport in the distal nephron is mediated by epithelial sodium channel activity. Proteolytic processing of external domains and inhibition with increased sodium concentrations are important regulatory features of epithelial sodium channel complexes expressed in the distal nephron. By contrast, sodium channels expressed in the vascular system are activated by increased external sodium concentrations, which results in changes in the mechanical properties and function of endothelial cells. Mechanosensitivity and shear stress affect both epithelial and vascular sodium channel activity. Guyton's hypothesis stated that blood pressure control is critically dependent on vascular tone and fluid handling by the kidney. The synergistic effects, and complementary regulation, of the epithelial and vascular systems are consistent with the Guytonian model of volume and blood pressure regulation, and probably reflect sequential evolution of the two systems. The integration of vascular tone, renal perfusion and regulation of renal sodium reabsorption is the central underpinning of the Guytonian model. In this Review, we focus on the expression and regulation of sodium channels, and we outline the emerging evidence that describes the central role of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in the efferent (vascular) and afferent (epithelial) arms of this homeostatic system.

  10. ATP-sensitive potassium channels: uncovering novel targets for treating depression.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Kong, Hui; Ye, Xinhai; Ding, Jianhua; Hu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels have been shown to couple membrane electrical activity to energy metabolism in a variety of cells and are important in several physiological systems. In the brain, K-ATP channels are strongly expressed in the neuronal circuitry. The distributional profile and functional significance of K-ATP channels suggest that they may be involved in stress-induced depression. First, we showed that chronic mild stress (CMS) significantly increased the expression of hippocampal Kir6.2 and Kir6.1 subunits of K-ATP channels. Next, using Kir6.2 knockout (Kir6.2(-/-)) mice, we presented that Kir6.2 deficiency resulted in antidepressant-like behaviors under non-stress conditions, but aggravated depressive behaviors accompanied by the loss of CA3 neuron and the reduction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus under chronic stress. Finally, we demonstrated that the K-ATP channel opener iptakalim, as well as a classical antidepressant fluoxetine, can reverse CMS-induced depression-related behaviors and counteract the deleterious effects of stress on hippocampus in wild-type mice, but only partially alleviate these symptoms in Kir6.2(-/-) mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that K-ATP channels are involved in the pathogenesis of depression and may be a promising target for the therapy of depression.

  11. Subsecond regulation of striatal dopamine release by presynaptic KATP channels

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jyoti C.; Witkovsky, Paul; Coetzee, William A.; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels are composed of pore-forming subunits, typically Kir6.2 in neurons, and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunits. In dorsal striatum, activity-dependent H2O2 produced from glutamatergic AMPA-receptor activation inhibits dopamine release via KATP channels. Sources of modulatory H2O2 include medium spiny neurons, but not dopaminergic axons. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in guinea-pig striatal slices and immunohistochemistry, we determined the time window for H2O2/KATP-channel-mediated inhibition and assessed whether modulatory KATP channels are on dopaminergic axons. Comparison of paired-pulse suppression of dopamine release in the absence and presence of glibenclamide, a KATP-channel blocker, or mercaptosuccinate, a glutathione peroxidase inhibitor that enhances endogenous H2O2 levels, revealed a time window for inhibition of 500 to 1000 ms after stimulation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated localization of Kir6.2 KATP-channel subunits on dopaminergic axons. Consistent with the presence of functional KATP channels on dopaminergic axons, KATP-channel openers, diazoxide and cromakalim, suppressed single-pulse evoked dopamine release. Although cholinergic interneurons that tonically regulate dopamine release also express KATP channels, diazoxide did not induce the enhanced frequency responsiveness of dopamine release seen with nicotinic-receptor blockade. Together, these studies reveal subsecond regulation of striatal dopamine release by endogenous H2O2 acting at KATP channels on dopaminergic axons, including a role in paired-pulse suppression. PMID:21689107

  12. TASK-2 channels contribute to pH sensitivity of retrotrapezoid nucleus chemoreceptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Benamer, Najate; Zanella, Sébastien; Kumar, Natasha N; Shi, Yingtang; Bévengut, Michelle; Penton, David; Guyenet, Patrice G; Lesage, Florian; Gestreau, Christian; Barhanin, Jacques; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2013-10-01

    Phox2b-expressing glutamatergic neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) display properties expected of central respiratory chemoreceptors; they are directly activated by CO2/H(+) via an unidentified pH-sensitive background K(+) channel and, in turn, facilitate brainstem networks that control breathing. Here, we used a knock-out mouse model to examine whether TASK-2 (K2P5), an alkaline-activated background K(+) channel, contributes to RTN neuronal pH sensitivity. We made patch-clamp recordings in brainstem slices from RTN neurons that were identified by expression of GFP (directed by the Phox2b promoter) or β-galactosidase (from the gene trap used for TASK-2 knock-out). Whereas nearly all RTN cells from control mice were pH sensitive (95%, n = 58 of 61), only 56% of GFP-expressing RTN neurons from TASK-2(-/-) mice (n = 49 of 88) could be classified as pH sensitive (>30% reduction in firing rate from pH 7.0 to pH 7.8); the remaining cells were pH insensitive (44%). Moreover, none of the recorded RTN neurons from TASK-2(-/-) mice selected based on β-galactosidase activity (a subpopulation of GFP-expressing neurons) were pH sensitive. The alkaline-activated background K(+) currents were reduced in amplitude in RTN neurons from TASK-2(-/-) mice that retained some pH sensitivity but were absent from pH-insensitive cells. Finally, using a working heart-brainstem preparation, we found diminished inhibition of phrenic burst amplitude by alkalization in TASK-2(-/-) mice, with apneic threshold shifted to higher pH levels. In conclusion, alkaline-activated TASK-2 channels contribute to pH sensitivity in RTN neurons, with effects on respiration in situ that are particularly prominent near apneic threshold.

  13. Myometrial relaxation of mice via expression of two pore domain acid sensitive K(+) (TASK-2) channels.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Kim, Young Chul; Cho, Woong; Myung, Sun Chul; Lee, Moo Yeol; You, Ra Young; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kwon, So Yeon; Suzuki, Hikaru; Park, Yeon Jin; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Kim, Hak Soon; Kim, Heon; Lim, Seung Woon; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin; Ji, Il Woon

    2016-09-01

    Myometrial relaxation of mouse via expression of two-pore domain acid sensitive (TASK) channels was studied. In our previous report, we suggested that two-pore domain acid-sensing K(+) channels (TASK-2) might be one of the candidates for the regulation of uterine circular smooth muscles in mice. In this study, we tried to show the mechanisms of relaxation via TASK-2 channels in marine myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and patch clamp technique were used to verify TASK conductance in murine myometrium. Western blot and immunehistochemical study under confocal microscopy were used to investigate molecular identity of TASK channel. In this study, we showed that TEA and 4-AP insensitive non-inactivating outward K(+) current (NIOK) may be responsible for the quiescence of murine pregnant longitudinal myometrium. The characteristics of NIOK coincided with two-pore domain acid-sensing K(+) channels (TASK-2). NIOK in the presence of K(+) channel blockers was inhibited further by TASK inhibitors such as quinidine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and extracellular acidosis. Furthermore, oxytocin and estrogen inhibited NIOK in pregnant myometrium. When compared to non-pregnant myometrium, pregnant myometrium showed stronger inhibition of NIOK by quinidine and increased immunohistochemical expression of TASK-2. Finally, TASK-2 inhibitors induced strong myometrial contraction even in the presence of L-methionine, a known inhibitor of stretch-activated channels in the longitudinal myometrium of mouse. Activation of TASK-2 channels seems to play an essential role for relaxing uterus during pregnancy and it might be one of the alternatives for preventing preterm delivery.

  14. Myometrial relaxation of mice via expression of two pore domain acid sensitive K+ (TASK-2) channels

    PubMed Central

    Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Cho, Woong; Myung, Sun Chul; Lee, Moo Yeol; You, Ra Young; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kwon, So Yeon; Suzuki, Hikaru; Park, Yeon Jin; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Kim, Hak Soon; Kim, Heon; Lim, Seung Woon; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Myometrial relaxation of mouse via expression of two-pore domain acid sensitive (TASK) channels was studied. In our previous report, we suggested that two-pore domain acid-sensing K+ channels (TASK-2) might be one of the candidates for the regulation of uterine circular smooth muscles in mice. In this study, we tried to show the mechanisms of relaxation via TASK-2 channels in marine myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and patch clamp technique were used to verify TASK conductance in murine myometrium. Western blot and immunehistochemical study under confocal microscopy were used to investigate molecular identity of TASK channel. In this study, we showed that TEA and 4-AP insensitive non-inactivating outward K+ current (NIOK) may be responsible for the quiescence of murine pregnant longitudinal myometrium. The characteristics of NIOK coincided with two-pore domain acid-sensing K+ channels (TASK-2). NIOK in the presence of K+ channel blockers was inhibited further by TASK inhibitors such as quinidine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and extracellular acidosis. Furthermore, oxytocin and estrogen inhibited NIOK in pregnant myometrium. When compared to non-pregnant myometrium, pregnant myometrium showed stronger inhibition of NIOK by quinidine and increased immunohistochemical expression of TASK-2. Finally, TASK-2 inhibitors induced strong myometrial contraction even in the presence of L-methionine, a known inhibitor of stretch-activated channels in the longitudinal myometrium of mouse. Activation of TASK-2 channels seems to play an essential role for relaxing uterus during pregnancy and it might be one of the alternatives for preventing preterm delivery. PMID:27610042

  15. Myometrial relaxation of mice via expression of two pore domain acid sensitive K(+) (TASK-2) channels.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Kim, Young Chul; Cho, Woong; Myung, Sun Chul; Lee, Moo Yeol; You, Ra Young; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kwon, So Yeon; Suzuki, Hikaru; Park, Yeon Jin; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Kim, Hak Soon; Kim, Heon; Lim, Seung Woon; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin; Ji, Il Woon

    2016-09-01

    Myometrial relaxation of mouse via expression of two-pore domain acid sensitive (TASK) channels was studied. In our previous report, we suggested that two-pore domain acid-sensing K(+) channels (TASK-2) might be one of the candidates for the regulation of uterine circular smooth muscles in mice. In this study, we tried to show the mechanisms of relaxation via TASK-2 channels in marine myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and patch clamp technique were used to verify TASK conductance in murine myometrium. Western blot and immunehistochemical study under confocal microscopy were used to investigate molecular identity of TASK channel. In this study, we showed that TEA and 4-AP insensitive non-inactivating outward K(+) current (NIOK) may be responsible for the quiescence of murine pregnant longitudinal myometrium. The characteristics of NIOK coincided with two-pore domain acid-sensing K(+) channels (TASK-2). NIOK in the presence of K(+) channel blockers was inhibited further by TASK inhibitors such as quinidine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and extracellular acidosis. Furthermore, oxytocin and estrogen inhibited NIOK in pregnant myometrium. When compared to non-pregnant myometrium, pregnant myometrium showed stronger inhibition of NIOK by quinidine and increased immunohistochemical expression of TASK-2. Finally, TASK-2 inhibitors induced strong myometrial contraction even in the presence of L-methionine, a known inhibitor of stretch-activated channels in the longitudinal myometrium of mouse. Activation of TASK-2 channels seems to play an essential role for relaxing uterus during pregnancy and it might be one of the alternatives for preventing preterm delivery. PMID:27610042

  16. Myometrial relaxation of mice via expression of two pore domain acid sensitive K+ (TASK-2) channels

    PubMed Central

    Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Cho, Woong; Myung, Sun Chul; Lee, Moo Yeol; You, Ra Young; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kwon, So Yeon; Suzuki, Hikaru; Park, Yeon Jin; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Kim, Hak Soon; Kim, Heon; Lim, Seung Woon; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Myometrial relaxation of mouse via expression of two-pore domain acid sensitive (TASK) channels was studied. In our previous report, we suggested that two-pore domain acid-sensing K+ channels (TASK-2) might be one of the candidates for the regulation of uterine circular smooth muscles in mice. In this study, we tried to show the mechanisms of relaxation via TASK-2 channels in marine myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and patch clamp technique were used to verify TASK conductance in murine myometrium. Western blot and immunehistochemical study under confocal microscopy were used to investigate molecular identity of TASK channel. In this study, we showed that TEA and 4-AP insensitive non-inactivating outward K+ current (NIOK) may be responsible for the quiescence of murine pregnant longitudinal myometrium. The characteristics of NIOK coincided with two-pore domain acid-sensing K+ channels (TASK-2). NIOK in the presence of K+ channel blockers was inhibited further by TASK inhibitors such as quinidine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and extracellular acidosis. Furthermore, oxytocin and estrogen inhibited NIOK in pregnant myometrium. When compared to non-pregnant myometrium, pregnant myometrium showed stronger inhibition of NIOK by quinidine and increased immunohistochemical expression of TASK-2. Finally, TASK-2 inhibitors induced strong myometrial contraction even in the presence of L-methionine, a known inhibitor of stretch-activated channels in the longitudinal myometrium of mouse. Activation of TASK-2 channels seems to play an essential role for relaxing uterus during pregnancy and it might be one of the alternatives for preventing preterm delivery.

  17. The TRPA1 channel and oral hypoglycemic agents

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) results from the combination of insulin unresponsiveness in target tissues and the failure of pancreatic β cells to secrete enough insulin.1 It is a highly prevalent chronic disease that is aggravated with time, leading to major complications, such as cardiovascular disease and peripheral and ocular neuropathies.2 Interestingly, therapies to improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients usually involve the use of glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic drug that blocks ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP),3,4 forcing β cells to release more insulin to overcome peripheral insulin resistance. However, sulfonylureas are ineffective for long-term treatments and ultimately result in the administration of insulin to control glucose levels.5 The mechanisms underlying β-cell failure to respond effectively with glibenclamide after long-term treatments still needs clarification. A recent study demonstrating that this drug activates TRPA1,6 a member of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels and a functional protein in insulin secreting cells,7,8 has highlighted a possible role for TRPA1 as a potential mediator of sulfonylurea-induced toxicity. PMID:23921548

  18. TRPM7 channel is sensitive to osmotic gradients in human kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F; Fleig, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    TRPM7 (transient-receptor-potential melastatin 7) is an ion channel with α-kinase function. TRPM7 is divalent-selective and regulated by a range of receptor-stimulated second messenger pathways, intracellular Mg-nucleotides, divalent and polyvalent cations and pH. TRPM7 is ubiquitously found in mammalian cells, including kidney, the responsible organ for osmolyte regulation, posing the question whether the channel is osmosensitive. Recent reports investigated the sensitivity of native TRPM7-like currents to cell swelling with contradictory results. Here, we assess the sensitivity of TRPM7 to both hypo- and hyperosmotic conditions and explored the involvement of the channel's kinase domain. We find that hypotonicity facilitates TRPM7 at elevated intracellular magnesium and Mg·ATP (3–4 mm), but has no effect in the absence of these solutes. Hypertonic conditions, in contrast, inhibit TRPM7 with an IC50 of 430 mosmol l−1. This inhibitory effect is maintained in the complete absence of intra- and extracellular divalent ions, although shifted to higher osmolarities (IC50= 510 mosmol l−1). TRPM7 senses osmotic gradients rather than ionic strength and this is independent of cAMP or not affected by cytochalasin D treatment. Furthermore, the kinase-domain deletion mutant of TRPM7 shows a similar behaviour to osmolarity as the wild-type protein, both in the presence and absence of divalent ions. This indicates that at least part of the osmosensitivity resides in the channel domain. Physiologically, TRPM7 channels do not seem to play an active role in regulatory volume changes, but rather those volume changes modulate TRPM7 activity through changes in the cytosolic concentrations of free Mg, Mg-nucleotides and a further unidentified factor. We conclude that TRPM7 senses osmotically induced changes primarily through molecular crowding of solutes that affect channel activity. PMID:17510191

  19. Mutants in Drosophila TRPC Channels Reduce Olfactory Sensitivity to Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Badsha, Farhath; Kain, Pinky; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sundaram, Susinder; Padinjat, Raghu; Hasan, Gaiti

    2012-01-01

    Background Members of the canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) class of cationic channels function downstream of Gαq and PLCβ in Drosophila photoreceptors for transducing visual stimuli. Gαq has recently been implicated in olfactory sensing of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other odorants. Here we investigated the role of PLCβ and TRPC channels for sensing CO2 in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings Through behavioral assays it was demonstrated that Drosophila mutants for plc21c, trp and trpl have a reduced sensitivity for CO2. Immuno-histochemical staining for TRP, TRPL and TRPγ indicates that all three channels are expressed in Drosophila antennae including the sensory neurons that express CO2 receptors. Electrophysiological recordings obtained from the antennae of protein null alleles of TRP (trp343) and TRPL (trpl302), showed that the sensory response to multiple concentrations of CO2 was reduced. However, trpl302; trp343 double mutants still have a residual response to CO2. Down-regulation of TRPC channels specifically in CO2 sensing olfactory neurons reduced the response to CO2 and this reduction was obtained even upon down-regulation of the TRPCs in adult olfactory sensory neurons. Thus the reduced response to CO2 obtained from the antennae of TRPC RNAi strains is not due to a developmental defect. Conclusion These observations show that reduction in TRPC channel function significantly reduces the sensitivity of the olfactory response to CO2 concentrations of 5% or less in adult Drosophila. It is possible that the CO2 receptors Gr63a and Gr21a activate the TRPC channels through Gαq and PLC21C. PMID:23185459

  20. The TRPM2 ion channel is required for sensitivity to warmth.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun-Hsiang; McNaughton, Peter A

    2016-08-25

    Thermally activated ion channels are known to detect the entire thermal range from extreme heat (TRPV2), painful heat (TRPV1, TRPM3 and ANO1), non-painful warmth (TRPV3 and TRPV4) and non-painful coolness (TRPM8) through to painful cold (TRPA1). Genetic deletion of each of these ion channels, however, has only modest effects on thermal behaviour in mice, with the exception of TRPM8, the deletion of which has marked effects on the perception of moderate coolness in the range 10-25 °C. The molecular mechanism responsible for detecting non-painful warmth, in particular, is unresolved. Here we used calcium imaging to identify a population of thermally sensitive somatosensory neurons which do not express any of the known thermally activated TRP channels. We then used a combination of calcium imaging, electrophysiology and RNA sequencing to show that the ion channel generating heat sensitivity in these neurons is TRPM2. Autonomic neurons, usually thought of as exclusively motor, also express TRPM2 and respond directly to heat. Mice in which TRPM2 had been genetically deleted showed a striking deficit in their sensation of non-noxious warm temperatures, consistent with the idea that TRPM2 initiates a 'warm' signal which drives cool-seeking behaviour. PMID:27533035

  1. TRPM2 Channel-Mediated ROS-Sensitive Ca2+ Signaling Mechanisms in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Syed Mortadza, Sharifah Alawieyah; Wang, Lu; Li, Dongliang; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) proteins form Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that are potently activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are produced during immune responses as signaling molecules as well as anti-microbial agents. ROS-sensitive TRPM2 channels are widely expressed in cells of the immune system and located on the cell surface as a Ca2+ influx pathway in macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and microglia but preferentially within the lysosomal membranes as a Ca2+ release mechanism in dendritic cells; ROS activation of the TRPM2 channels, regardless of the subcellular location, results in an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Recent studies have revealed that TRPM2-mediated ROS-sensitive Ca2+ signaling mechanisms play a crucial role in a number of processes and functions in immune cells. This mini-review discusses the recent advances in revelation of the various roles the TRPM2 channels have in immune cell functions and the implications in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26300888

  2. The TRPM2 ion channel is required for sensitivity to warmth.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun-Hsiang; McNaughton, Peter A

    2016-08-25

    Thermally activated ion channels are known to detect the entire thermal range from extreme heat (TRPV2), painful heat (TRPV1, TRPM3 and ANO1), non-painful warmth (TRPV3 and TRPV4) and non-painful coolness (TRPM8) through to painful cold (TRPA1). Genetic deletion of each of these ion channels, however, has only modest effects on thermal behaviour in mice, with the exception of TRPM8, the deletion of which has marked effects on the perception of moderate coolness in the range 10-25 °C. The molecular mechanism responsible for detecting non-painful warmth, in particular, is unresolved. Here we used calcium imaging to identify a population of thermally sensitive somatosensory neurons which do not express any of the known thermally activated TRP channels. We then used a combination of calcium imaging, electrophysiology and RNA sequencing to show that the ion channel generating heat sensitivity in these neurons is TRPM2. Autonomic neurons, usually thought of as exclusively motor, also express TRPM2 and respond directly to heat. Mice in which TRPM2 had been genetically deleted showed a striking deficit in their sensation of non-noxious warm temperatures, consistent with the idea that TRPM2 initiates a 'warm' signal which drives cool-seeking behaviour.

  3. Sensitivity of the sea circulation to the atmospheric forcing in the Sicily Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Hiba; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Boukthir, Moncef; Drobinski, Philippe; Lebeaupin-Brossier, Cindy; Mairech, Hanen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the sea surface circulation in the Sicily Channel to surface winds, using a 15-year long (1994-2008) air-sea coupled numerical simulation. Analysis is based on the clustering of six main wind regimes over the Sicily Channel domain. The analysis of the corresponding sea current clusters shows that sea circulation in this area is sensitive to surface wind patterns. This wind modulates the strength of the two main branches of the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel (i.e. the Atlantic Tunisian Current and the Atlantic Ionian Stream). The modulation of these two currents depends on the wind regime, and displays a strong seasonal variability. It is also shown that the sea circulation in the Sicily Channel is strongly controlled by the thermohaline circulation and the bathymetry (geostrophic current). However, the contribution to the total current of its ageostrophic component forced by the surface winds is significant, with a correlation coefficient varying from 0.3 to 0.7.

  4. Amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel currents in surface cells of rat rectal colon.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, A; Yamaguchi, S; Ishikawa, T

    2004-02-01

    Surface cells of the mammalian distal colon are shown to molecularly express the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel composed of three homologous subunits (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC). However, because basic electrophysiological properties of amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels expressed in these cells are largely unknown at the cellular level, functional evidence for the involvement of the subunits in the native channels is incomplete. Using electrophysiological techniques, we have now characterized functional properties of native ENaC in surface cells of rectal colon (RC) of rats fed a normal Na+ diet. Ussing chamber experiments showed that apical amiloride inhibited a basal short-circuit current in mucosal preparation of RC with an apparent half-inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.20 microM. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of transcripts of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-rENaC in rectal mucosa. Whole cell patch-clamp experiments in surface cells of intact crypts acutely isolated from rectal mucosa identified an inward cationic current, which was inhibited by amiloride with a Ki value of 0.12 microM at a membrane potential of -64 mV, the inhibition being weakly voltage dependent. Conductance ratios of the currents were Li+ (1.8) > Na+ (1) > K+ ( approximately 0), respectively. Amiloride-sensitive current amplitude was almost the same at 15 or 150 mM extracellular Na+, suggesting a high Na+ affinity for current activation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a heterooligomer composed of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC may be the molecular basis of the native channels, which are responsible for amiloride-sensitive electrogenic Na+ absorption in rat rectal colon. PMID:14576089

  5. Discrete change in volatile anesthetic sensitivity in mice with inactivated tandem pore potassium channel TRESK

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yun Jeong; Zhang, Jianan; Au, Paul; Sabbadini, Marta; Xie, Guo-Xi; Yost, C. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Backgrcound We investigated the role of tandem pore domain potassium channel (K2P) TRESK in neurobehavioral function and volatile anesthetic sensitivity in genetically modified mice. Methods Exon III of the mouse TRESK gene locus was deleted by homologous recombination using a targeting vector. The genotype of bred mice (wildtype, knockout or heterozygote) was determined using the polymerase chain reaction. Morphologic and behavioral evaluations of TRESK knockout mice were compared to wildtype littermates. Sensitivity of bred mice to isoflurane, halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane were studied by determining the minimum alveolar concentration preventing movement to tail clamping in 50% of each genotype. Results TRESK knockout mice had normal development and behavior except for decreased number of inactive periods and increased thermal pain sensitivity (20% decrease in latency with hot plate test). TRESK knockout mice showed a statistically significant 8% increase in isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration compared to wildtype littermates; sensitivity to other volatile anesthetics was not significantly different. Spontaneous mortality of TRESK knockout mice following initial anesthesia testing was nearly threefold higher than that of wildtype littermates. Conclusions TRESK alone is not critical for baseline central nervous system function but may contribute to the action of volatile anesthetics. The inhomogenous change in anesthetic sensitivity corroborates findings in other K2P knockout mice and supports the idea that the mechanism of volatile anesthetic action involves multiple targets. Although it was not shown in this study, a compensatory effect by other K2P channels may also contribute to these observations. PMID:21042202

  6. Molecular cloning of the alpha-1 subunit of an omega-conotoxin-sensitive calcium channel.

    PubMed Central

    Dubel, S J; Starr, T V; Hell, J; Ahlijanian, M K; Enyeart, J J; Catterall, W A; Snutch, T P

    1992-01-01

    Of the four major types of Ca channel described in vertebrate cells (designated T, L, N, and P), N-type Ca channels are unique in that they are found specifically in neurons, have been correlated with control of neurotransmitter release, and are blocked by omega-conotoxin, a neuropeptide toxin isolated from the marine snail Conus geographus. A set of overlapping cDNA clones were isolated and found to encode a Ca channel alpha-1 subunit, designated rbB-I. Polyclonal antiserum generated against a peptide from the rbB-I sequence selectively immunoprecipitates high-affinity 125I-labeled omega-conotoxin-binding sites from labeled rat forebrain membranes. PCR analysis shows that, like N-type Ca channels, expression of rbB-I is limited to the nervous system and neuronally derived cell lines. This brain Ca channel may mediate the omega-conotoxin-sensitive Ca influx required for neurotransmitter release at many synapses. Images PMID:1317580

  7. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)batrachotoxinin A 20{alpha}-benzoate (({sup 3}H)BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of ({sup 3}H)BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited ({sup 3}H)BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents.

  8. Integration of spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity with a multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanaki, Ali N.; Espig, Kathryn S.; Marchessoux, Cedric; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Kimpe, Tom R. L.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-03-01

    Barten's model of spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function of human visual system is embedded in a multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer. This is done by 3D filtering of the stack of images with the spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function and feeding the result (i.e., the perceived image stack) to the multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer. The proposed procedure of considering spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function is generic in the sense that it can be used with observers other than multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer. Detection performance of the new observer in digital breast tomosynthesis is measured in a variety of browsing speeds, at two spatial sampling rates, using computer simulations. Our results show a peak in detection performance in mid browsing speeds. We compare our results to those of a human observer study reported earlier (I. Diaz et al. SPIE MI 2011). The effects of display luminance, contrast and spatial sampling rate, with and without considering foveal vision, are also studied. Reported simulations are conducted with real digital breast tomosynthesis image stacks, as well as stacks from an anthropomorphic software breast phantom (P. Bakic et al. Med Phys. 2011). Lesion cases are simulated by inserting single micro-calcifications or masses. Limitations of our methods and ways to improve them are discussed.

  9. Micromolar-Affinity Benzodiazepine Receptors Regulate Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Nerve Terminal Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, William C.; Delorenzo, Robert J.

    1984-05-01

    Benzodiazepines in micromolar concentrations significantly inhibit depolarization-sensitive Ca2+ uptake in intact nerve-terminal preparations. Benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake is concentration dependent and stereospecific. Micromolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors have been identified and characterized in brain membrane and shown to be distinct from nanomolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors. Evidence is presented that micromolar, and not nanomolar, benzodiazepine binding sites mediate benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. Irreversible binding to micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites also irreversibly blocked depolarization-dependent Ca2+ uptake in synaptosomes, indicating that these compounds may represent a useful marker for identifying the molecular components of Ca2+ channels in brain. Characterization of benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake demonstrates that these drugs function as Ca2+ channel antagonists, because benzodiazepines effectively blocked voltage-sensitive Ca2+ uptake inhibited by Mn2+, Co2+, verapamil, nitrendipine, and nimodipine. These results indicate that micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites regulate voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in brain membrane and suggest that some of the neuronal stabilizing effects of micromolar benzodiazepine receptors may be mediated by the regulation of Ca2+ conductance.

  10. Function and expression of sulfonylurea, adrenergic, and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors in isolated porcine islets.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Steyn, Leah V; Kitzmann, Jenna P; Anderson, Miranda J; Mueller, Kate R; Hart, Nathaniel J; Lynch, Ronald M; Papas, Klearchos K; Limesand, Sean W

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of human cadaveric pancreata limits large-scale application of islet transplantation for patients with diabetes. Islets isolated from pathogen-free pigs provide an economical and abundant alternative source assuming immunologic barriers are appropriate. Membrane receptors involved in insulin secretion that also have potential as imaging targets were investigated in isolated porcine islets. Quantitative (q)PCR revealed that porcine islets express mRNA transcripts for sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), inward rectifying potassium channel (Kir6.2, associated with Sur1), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), and adrenergic receptor alpha 2A (ADRα2A). Receptor function was assessed in static incubations with stimulatory glucose concentrations, and in the presence of receptor agonists. Glibenclamide, an anti-diabetic sulfonylurea, and exendin-4, a GLP-1 mimetic, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion >2-fold. Conversely, epinephrine maximally reduced insulin secretion 72 ± 9% (P < 0.05) and had a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 60 nm in porcine islets (95% confidence interval of 45-830 nm). The epinephrine action was inhibited by the ADRα2A antagonist yohimbine. Our findings demonstrate that porcine islets express and are responsive to both stimulatory and inhibitory membrane localized receptors, which can be used as imaging targets after transplantation or to modify insulin secretion.

  11. Beta-adrenergic modulation of cardiac ion channels. Differential temperature sensitivity of potassium and calcium currents

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic stimulation of ventricular heart cells results in the enhancement of two important ion currents that regulate the plateau phase of the action potential: the delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IK) and L-type calcium channel current (ICa). The temperature dependence of beta-adrenergic modulation of these two currents was examined in patch-clamped guinea pig ventricular myocytes at various steps in the beta-receptor/cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. External applications of isoproterenol and forskolin were used to activate the beta-receptor and the enzyme adenylate cyclase, respectively. Internal dialysis of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CS), as well as the external addition of 8-chlorphenylthio cAMP (CPT-cAMP) was applied to increase intracellular levels of cAMP and CS. Isoproterenol-mediated increases in IK, but not ICa, were found to be very temperature dependent over the range of 20-37 degrees C. At room temperature (20-22 degrees C) isoproterenol produced a large (threefold) enhancement of ICa but had no effect on IK. In contrast, at warmer temperatures (30-37 degrees C) both currents increased in the presence of this agonist and the kinetics of IK were slowed at -30 mV. A similar temperature sensitivity also existed after exposure to forskolin, CPT-cAMP, cAMP, and CS, suggesting that this temperature sensitivity of IK may arise at the channel protein level. Modulation of IK during each of these interventions was accompanied by a slowing in IK kinetics. Thus, regulation of cardiac potassium channels but not calcium channels involves a temperature-dependent step that occurs after activation of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. PMID:2472462

  12. Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel occurs independently of PKCε in turtle brain.

    PubMed

    Hawrysh, Peter John; Miles, Ashley Rebecca; Buck, Leslie Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Neurons from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) are remarkably resilient to anoxia. This is partly due to a reduction in the permeability of excitatory glutamatergic ion channels, initiated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(+)ATP) channel activation. The aim of this study was to determine if: 1) PKCε, a kinase associated with hypoxic stress tolerance, is more highly expressed in turtle brain than the anoxia-intolerant rat brain; 2) PKCε translocates to the mitochondrial membrane during anoxia; 3) PKCε modulates mK(+)ATP channels at the Thr-224 phosphorylation site on the Kir6.2 subunit; and 4) Thr-224 phosphorylation sensitises mK(+)ATP channels to anoxia. Soluble and mitochondrial-rich particulate fractions of turtle and rat cerebral cortex were isolated and PKCε expression was determined by Western blot, which revealed that turtle cortical PKCε expression was half that of the rat. Following the transition to anoxia, no changes in PKCε expression in either the soluble or particulate fraction of the turtle cortex were observed. Furthermore, incubation of tissue with tat-conjugated activator or inhibitor peptides had no effect on the amount of PKCε in either fraction. However, we observed a 2-fold increase in Thr-224 phosphorylation following 1h of anoxia. The increased Thr-224 phosphorylation was blocked by the general kinase inhibitor staurosporine but this did not affect the latency or magnitude of mK(+)ATP channel-mediated mitochondrial depolarization following anoxia, as indicated by rhodamine-123. We conclude that PKCε does not play a role in the onset of mitochondrial depolarization and therefore glutamatergic channel arrest in turtle cerebral cortex.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a new SWIR-channel measuring tropospheric CH 4 and CO from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongma, Rienk T.; Gloudemans, Annemieke M. S.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Aben, Ilse; de Vries, Johan; Escudero-Sanz, Isabel; van den Oord, Gijsbertus; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2006-08-01

    In preparation for future atmospheric space missions a consortium of Dutch organizations is performing design studies on a nadir viewing grating-based imaging spectrometer using OMI and SCIAMACHY heritage. The spectrometer measures selected species (O 3, NO II, HCHO, H IIO, SO II, aerosols (optical depth, type and absorption index), CO and CH4) with sensitivity down to the Earth's surface, thus addressing science issues on air quality and climate. It includes 3 UV-VIS channels continuously covering the 270-490 nm range, a NIR-channel covering the 710-775 nm range, and a SWIR-channel covering the 2305-2385 nm range. This instrument concept is, named TROPOMI, part of the TRAQ-mission proposal to ESA in response to the Call for Earth Explorer Ideas 2005, and, named TROPI, part of the CAMEO-proposal prepared for the US NRC decadal study-call on Earth science and applications from space. The SWIR-channel is optional in the TROPOMI/TRAQ instrument and included as baseline in the TROPI/CAMEO instrument. This paper focuses on derivation of the instrument requirements of the SWIR-channel by presenting the results of retrieval studies. Synthetic detector spectra are generated by the combination of a forward model and an instrument simulator that includes the properties of state-of-the-art detector technology. The synthetic spectra are input to the CO and CH 4 IMLM retrieval algorithm originally developed for SCIAMACHY. The required accuracy of the Level-2 SWIR data products defines the main instrument parameters like spectral resolution and sampling, telescope aperture, detector temperature, and optical bench temperature. The impact of selected calibration and retrieval errors on the Level-2 products has been characterized. The current status of the SWIR-channel optical design with its demanding requirements on ground-pixel size, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio will be presented.

  14. Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel occurs independently of PKCε in turtle brain.

    PubMed

    Hawrysh, Peter John; Miles, Ashley Rebecca; Buck, Leslie Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Neurons from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) are remarkably resilient to anoxia. This is partly due to a reduction in the permeability of excitatory glutamatergic ion channels, initiated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(+)ATP) channel activation. The aim of this study was to determine if: 1) PKCε, a kinase associated with hypoxic stress tolerance, is more highly expressed in turtle brain than the anoxia-intolerant rat brain; 2) PKCε translocates to the mitochondrial membrane during anoxia; 3) PKCε modulates mK(+)ATP channels at the Thr-224 phosphorylation site on the Kir6.2 subunit; and 4) Thr-224 phosphorylation sensitises mK(+)ATP channels to anoxia. Soluble and mitochondrial-rich particulate fractions of turtle and rat cerebral cortex were isolated and PKCε expression was determined by Western blot, which revealed that turtle cortical PKCε expression was half that of the rat. Following the transition to anoxia, no changes in PKCε expression in either the soluble or particulate fraction of the turtle cortex were observed. Furthermore, incubation of tissue with tat-conjugated activator or inhibitor peptides had no effect on the amount of PKCε in either fraction. However, we observed a 2-fold increase in Thr-224 phosphorylation following 1h of anoxia. The increased Thr-224 phosphorylation was blocked by the general kinase inhibitor staurosporine but this did not affect the latency or magnitude of mK(+)ATP channel-mediated mitochondrial depolarization following anoxia, as indicated by rhodamine-123. We conclude that PKCε does not play a role in the onset of mitochondrial depolarization and therefore glutamatergic channel arrest in turtle cerebral cortex. PMID:27280321

  15. On the localization of voltage-sensitive calcium channels in the flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to prove that voltage-sensitive calcium channels controlling the photophobic stop response of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are exclusively found in the flagellar region of the cell and to answer the question as to their exact localization within the flagellar membrane. The strategy used was to amputate flagella to a variable degree without perturbing the electrical properties of the cell and measure flagellar currents shortly after amputation and during the subsequent regeneration process. Under all conditions, a close correlation was found between current size and flagellar length, strongly suggesting that the channels that mediate increases in intraflagellar calcium concentration are confined to and distributed over the total flagellar length. Bald mutants yielded tiny flagellar currents, in agreement with the existence of residual flagellar stubs. In the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, flagellar length and flagellar currents also recovered in parallel. Recovery came to an earlier end, however, leveling off at a time when in the absence of cycloheximide only half maximal values were achieved. This suggests the existence of a pool of precursors, which permits the maintenance of a constant ratio between voltage-sensitive calcium channels and other intraflagellar proteins. PMID:8195293

  16. Calcium-dependent inactivation of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in GH3 cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The inactivation of calcium channels in mammalian pituitary tumor cells (GH3) was studied with patch electrodes under voltage clamp in cell- free membrane patches and in dialyzed cells. The calcium current elicited by depolarization from a holding potential of -40 mV passed predominantly through one class of channels previously shown to be modulated by dihydropyridines and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation (Armstrong and Eckert, 1987). When exogenous calcium buffers were omitted from the pipette solution, the macroscopic calcium current through those channels inactivated with a half time of approximately 10 ms to a steady state level 40-75% smaller than the peak. Inactivation was also measured as the reduction in peak current during a test pulse that closely followed a prepulse. Inactivation was largely reduced or eliminated by (a) buffering free calcium in the pipette solution to less than 10(-8) M; (b) replacing extracellular calcium with barium; (c) increasing the prepulse voltage from +10 to +60 mV; or (d) increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP, either 'directly' with dibutyryl-cAMP or indirectly by activating adenylate cyclase with forskolin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. Thus, inactivation of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in GH3 cells only occurs when membrane depolarization leads to calcium ion entry and intracellular accumulation. PMID:2849631

  17. ATP-sensitive potassium channel modulation of the guinea pig ventricular action potential and contraction.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C G; Ripoll, C; Lederer, W J

    1991-01-01

    The role of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in modulating the action potential and contraction of guinea pig ventricular myocytes was investigated. Under voltage clamp, the maximum whole-cell KATP channel conductance was estimated (195 +/- 10 nS, n = 6) by exposing the cells to complete metabolic blockade (2 mM cyanide in the presence of 10 mM 2-deoxy-glucose). In isolated inside-out membrane patches, the ATP dependence of KATP channel activity under relevant conditions was measured (half-maximal inhibition at 114 microM). Under current clamp (with intracellular ATP concentration = 5 mM), the effect of graded KATP channel activation on the action potential and the twitch was estimated by injection of a current (proportional to voltage) that simulated the KATP conductance. As this "conductance" was increased, the action potential was shortened, and contractile amplitude declined, as expected. From the results of these experiments, the quantitative dependence of the action potential duration on intracellular ATP concentration was estimated, without relying on a mathematical model of the cell membrane. The results imply that KATP-dependent action potential shortening is likely to occur if ATP concentration falls below normal levels (approximately 5 mM), as may happen regionally, or globally, during myocardial ischemia.

  18. Is gliclazide a sulfonylurea with difference? A review in 2016.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) remain the most commonly prescribed drug after metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), despite the availability of several newer agents. The primary reason of SUs being most popular is their quick glycemic response, time-tested experience and least cost. Although SUs are one amongst the several other second line agents after metformin in all major guidelines, the new Dutch type 2 guidelines specifically advise gliclazide as the preferred second line drug instead of SUs as a class. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also included gliclazide in their Model List of Essential Medicines 2013 motivated by its safety data in elderly patients. Specifically advising gliclazide may have been based on emerging evidence suggesting cardiovascular neutrality of gliclazide over other SUs. This prompted us to do a literature review of gliclazide efficacy and safety data compared to other SUs as well as oral anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:26924475

  19. Block of pancreatic ATP-sensitive K+ channels and insulinotrophic action by the antiarrhythmic agent, cibenzoline.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida-Takahashi, A.; Horie, M.; Tsuura, Y.; Ishida, H.; Ai, T.; Sasayama, S.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of cibenzoline (a class Ia antiarrhythmic drug) on basal insulin secretory activity of rat pancreatic islets and ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) in single pancreatic beta cells of the same species, using radioimmunoassay and patch clamp techniques. 2. Micromolar cibenzoline had a dose-dependent insulinotrophic action with an EC50 of 94.2 +/- 46.4 microM. The compound inhibited the activity of the KATP channel recorded from a single beta-cell in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 was 0.4 microM in the inside-out mode and 5.2 microM in the cell-attached mode, at pH 7.4. 3. In the cell-attached mode, alkalinization of extracellular solution increased the inhibitory action of cibenzoline and the IC50 was reduced from 26.8 microM at pH 6.2 to 0.9 microM at pH 8.4. On the other hand, the action of cibenzoline in the excised inside-out mode was acute in onset with a small IC50, indicating that the drug attains its binding site from the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. 4. In the inside-out mode, micromolar ADP reactivated the cibenzoline-blocked KATP channels in a manner similar to that by which ADP restored ATP-dependent block of the channel. 5. The binding of [3H]-glibenclamide to pancreatic islets was inhibited by glibenclamide but not by cibenzoline. In contrast, the [3H]-cibenzoline binding was displaced by unlabelled cibenzoline but not by glibenclamide. It is concluded that cibenzoline blocks pancreatic KATP channels via a binding site distinct from the sulphonylurea receptor. PMID:8732286

  20. Intramembrane aromatic interactions influence the lipid sensitivities of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Carswell, Casey L; Sun, Jiayin; Baenziger, John E

    2015-01-23

    Although the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes lacking cholesterol and anionic lipids adopts a conformation where agonist binding is uncoupled from channel gating, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Here, we examine the mechanism behind lipid-dependent uncoupling by comparing the propensities of two prokaryotic homologs, Gloebacter and Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC and ELIC, respectively), to adopt a similar uncoupled conformation. Membrane-reconstituted GLIC and ELIC both exhibit folded structures in the minimal PC membranes that stabilize an uncoupled nAChR. GLIC, with a large number of aromatic interactions at the interface between the outermost transmembrane α-helix, M4, and the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3, retains the ability to flux cations in this uncoupling PC membrane environment. In contrast, ELIC, with a level of aromatic interactions intermediate between that of the nAChR and GLIC, does not undergo agonist-induced channel gating, although it does not exhibit the expected biophysical characteristics of the uncoupled state. Engineering new aromatic interactions at the M4-M1/M3 interface to promote effective M4 interactions with M1/M3, however, increases the stability of the transmembrane domain to restore channel function. Our data provide direct evidence that M4 interactions with M1/M3 are modulated during lipid sensing. Aromatic residues strengthen M4 interactions with M1/M3 to reduce the sensitivities of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels to their surrounding membrane environment. PMID:25519904

  1. Low glucose-induced ghrelin secretion is mediated by an ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Oya, Manami; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Harada, Kazuki; Numano, Rika; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Ghrelin is synthesized in X/A-like cells of the gastric mucosa, which plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Although ghrelin secretion is known to be induced by neurotransmitters or hormones or by nutrient sensing in the ghrelin-secreting cells themselves, the mechanism of ghrelin secretion is not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that changing the extracellular glucose concentration from elevated (25  mM) to optimal (10 mM) caused an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in ghrelin-secreting mouse ghrelinoma 3-1 (MGN3-1) cells (n=32, P<0.01), whereas changing the glucose concentration from elevated to lowered (5 or 1 mM) had little effect on [Ca2+]i increase. Overexpression of a closed form of an ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel mutant suppressed the 10  mM glucose-induced [Ca2+]i increase (n=8, P<0.01) and exocytotic events (n=6, P<0.01). We also found that a low concentration of a KATP channel opener, diazoxide, with 25  mM glucose induced [Ca2+]i increase (n=23, P<0.01) and ghrelin secretion (n≥3, P<0.05). In contrast, the application of a low concentration of a KATP channel blocker, tolbutamide, significantly induced [Ca2+]i increase (n=15, P<0.01) and ghrelin secretion (n≥3, P<0.05) under 5 mM glucose. Furthermore, the application of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitors suppressed the 10 mM glucose-induced [Ca2+]i increase (n≥26, P<0.01) and ghrelin secretion (n≥5, P<0.05). These findings suggest that KATP and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are involved in glucose-dependent ghrelin secretion in MGN3-1 cells.

  2. Matrix volume measurements challenge the existence of diazoxide/glibencamide-sensitive KATP channels in rat mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Das, Manika; Parker, Joanne E; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2003-01-01

    A mitochondrial sulphonylurea-sensitive, ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mitoKATP) that is selectively inhibited by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and activated by diazoxide has been implicated in ischaemic preconditioning. Here we re-evaluate the evidence for the existence of this mitoKATP by measuring changes in light scattering (A520) in parallel with direct determination of mitochondrial matrix volumes using 3H2O and [14C]sucrose. Incubation of rat liver and heart mitochondria in KCl medium containing Mg2+ and inorganic phosphate caused a decrease in light scattering over 5 min, which was accompanied by a small (15–30 %) increase in matrix volume. The presence of ATP or ADP in the buffer from the start greatly inhibited the decline in A520, whilst addition after a period of incubation (1–5 min) induced a rapid increase in A520, especially in heart mitochondria. Neither response was accompanied by a change in matrix volume, as measured isotopically. However, the effects of ATP and ADP on A520 were abolished by carboxyatractyloside and bongkrekic acid, inhibitors of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) that lock the transporter in two discrete conformations and cause distinct changes in A520 in their own right. These data suggest that rather than matrix volume changes, the effects of ATP and ADP on A520 reflect changes in mitochondrial shape induced by conformational changes in the ANT. Furthermore, we were unable to demonstrate either a decrease in A520 or increase in matrix volume with a range of ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers such as diazoxide. Nor did glibencamide or 5-HD cause any reduction of matrix volume, whereas the K+ ionophore valinomycin (0.2 nm), produced a 10–20 % increase in matrix volume that was readily detectable by both techniques. Our data argue against the existence of a sulphonylurea-inhibitable mitoKATP channel. PMID:12562892

  3. A role for DPPX modulating external TEA sensitivity of Kv4 channels.

    PubMed

    Colinas, Olaia; Pérez-Carretero, Francisco D; López-López, José R; Pérez-García, M Teresa

    2008-05-01

    Shal-type (Kv4) channels are expressed in a large variety of tissues, where they contribute to transient voltage-dependent K+ currents. Kv4 are the molecular correlate of the A-type current of neurons (I(SA)), the fast component of I(TO) current in the heart, and also of the oxygen-sensitive K+ current (K(O2)) in rabbit carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. The enormous degree of variability in the physiological properties of Kv4-mediated currents can be attributable to the complexity of their regulation together with the large number of ancillary subunits and scaffolding proteins that associate with Kv4 proteins to modify their trafficking and their kinetic properties. Among those, KChIPs and DPPX proteins have been demonstrated to be integral components of I(SA) and I(TO) currents, as their coexpression with Kv4 subunits recapitulates the kinetics of native currents. Here, we explore the presence and functional contribution of DPPX to K(O2) currents in rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells by using DPPX functional knockdown with siRNA. Additionally, we investigate if the presence of DPPX endows Kv4 channels with new pharmacological properties, as we have observed anomalous tetraethylammonium (TEA) sensitivity in the native K(O2) currents. DPPX association with Kv4 channels induced an increased TEA sensitivity both in heterologous expression systems and in CB chemoreceptor cells. Moreover, TEA application to Kv4-DPPX heteromultimers leads to marked kinetic effects that could be explained by an augmented closed-state inactivation. Our data suggest that DPPX proteins are integral components of K(O2) currents, and that their association with Kv4 subunits modulate the pharmacological profile of the heteromultimers.

  4. High-throughput and sensitive particle counting by a novel microfluidic differential resistive pulse sensor with multidetecting channels and a common reference channel.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Yang, Jiandong; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    High-throughput particle counting by a differential resistive pulse sensing method in a microfluidic chip is presented in this paper. A sensitive differential microfluidic sensor with multiple detecting channels and one common reference channel was devised. To test the particle counting performance of this chip, an experimental system which consists of the microfluidic chip, electric resistors, an amplification circuit, a LabView based data acquisition device was developed. The influence of the common reference channel on the S/N of particle detection was investigated. The relationship between the hydraulic pressure drop applied across the detecting channel and the counting throughput was experimentally obtained. The experimental results show that the reference channel designed in this work can improve the S/N by ten times, thus enabling sensitive high-throughput particle counting. Because of the greatly improved S/N, the sensing gate with a size of 25 × 50 × 10 μm (W × L × H) in our chips can detect and count particles larger than 1.5 μm in diameter. The counting throughput increases with the increase in the flowing velocity of the sample solution. An average throughput of 7140/min under a flow rate of 10 μL/min was achieved. Comparing with other methods, the structure of the chip and particle detecting mechanism reported in this paper is simple and sensitive, and does not have the crosstalking problem. Counting throughput can be adjusted simply by changing the number of the detecting channels.

  5. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  6. The insulin sensitizing effect of topiramate involves KATP channel activation in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Coomans, C P; Geerling, J J; van den Berg, S A A; van Diepen, H C; Garcia-Tardón, N; Thomas, A; Schröder-van der Elst, J P; Ouwens, D M; Pijl, H; Rensen, P C N; Havekes, L M; Guigas, B; Romijn, J A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Topiramate improves insulin sensitivity, in addition to its antiepileptic action. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of the insulin-sensitizing effect of topiramate both in vivo and in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a run-in high-fat diet for 6 weeks, before receiving topiramate or vehicle mixed in high-fat diet for an additional 6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. The extent to which the insulin sensitizing effects of topiramate were mediated through the CNS were determined by concomitant i.c.v. infusion of vehicle or tolbutamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in neurons. The direct effects of topiramate on insulin signalling and glucose uptake were assessed in vivo and in cultured muscle cells. KEY RESULTS In hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp conditions, therapeutic plasma concentrations of topiramate (∼4 μg·mL−1) improved insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate + 58%). Using 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, we established that topiramate improved the insulin-mediated glucose uptake by heart (+92%), muscle (+116%) and adipose tissue (+586%). Upon i.c.v. tolbutamide, the insulin-sensitizing effect of topiramate was completely abrogated. Topiramate did not directly affect glucose uptake or insulin signalling neither in vivo nor in cultured muscle cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS In conclusion, topiramate stimulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo through the CNS. These observations illustrate the possibility of pharmacological modulation of peripheral insulin resistance through a target in the CNS. PMID:23957854

  7. O2-sensitive K+ channels: role of the Kv1.2 -subunit in mediating the hypoxic response.

    PubMed

    Conforti, L; Bodi, I; Nisbet, J W; Millhorn, D E

    2000-05-01

    One of the early events in O2 chemoreception is inhibition of O2-sensitive K+ (KO2) channels. Characterization of the molecular composition of the native KO2 channels in chemosensitive cells is important to understand the mechanism(s) that couple O2 to the KO2 channels. The rat phaeochromocytoma PC12 clonal cell line expresses an O2-sensitive voltage-dependent K+ channel similar to that recorded in other chemosensitive cells. Here we examine the possibility that the Kv1.2 alpha-subunit comprises the KO2 channel in PC12 cells. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments showed that the KO2 current in PC12 cells is inhibited by charybdotoxin, a blocker of Kv1.2 channels. PC12 cells express the Kv1.2 alpha-subunit of K+ channels: Western blot analysis with affinity-purified anti-Kv1.2 antibody revealed a band at approximately 80 kDa. Specificity of this antibody was established in Western blot and immunohystochemical studies. Anti-Kv1.2 antibody selectively blocked Kv1.2 current expressed in the Xenopus oocyte, but had no effect on Kv2.1 current. Anti-Kv1.2 antibody dialysed through the patch pipette completely blocked the KO2 current, while the anti-Kv2.1 and irrelevant antibodies had no effect. The O2 sensitivity of recombinant Kv1.2 and Kv2.1 channels was studied in Xenopus oocytes. Hypoxia inhibited the Kv1.2 current only. These findings show that the KO2 channel in PC12 cells belongs to the Kv1 subfamily of K+ channels and that the Kv1.2 alpha-subunit is important in conferring O2 sensitivity to this channel. PMID:10790158

  8. O2-sensitive K+ channels: role of the Kv1.2 α-subunit in mediating the hypoxic response

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Laura; Bodi, Ilona; Nisbet, John W; Millhorn, David E

    2000-01-01

    One of the early events in O2 chemoreception is inhibition of O2-sensitive K+ (KO2) channels. Characterization of the molecular composition of the native KO2 channels in chemosensitive cells is important to understand the mechanism(s) that couple O2 to the KO2 channels. The rat phaeochromocytoma PC12 clonal cell line expresses an O2-sensitive voltage-dependent K+ channel similar to that recorded in other chemosensitive cells. Here we examine the possibility that the Kv1.2 α-subunit comprises the KO2 channel in PC12 cells. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments showed that the KO2 current in PC12 cells is inhibited by charybdotoxin, a blocker of Kv1.2 channels. PC12 cells express the Kv1.2 α-subunit of K+ channels: Western blot analysis with affinity-purified anti-Kv1.2 antibody revealed a band at ≈80 kDa. Specificity of this antibody was established in Western blot and immunohystochemical studies. Anti-Kv1.2 antibody selectively blocked Kv1.2 current expressed in the Xenopus oocyte, but had no effect on Kv2.1 current. Anti-Kv1.2 antibody dialysed through the patch pipette completely blocked the KO2 current, while the anti-Kv2.1 and irrelevant antibodies had no effect. The O2 sensitivity of recombinant Kv1.2 and Kv2.1 channels was studied in Xenopus oocytes. Hypoxia inhibited the Kv1.2 current only. These findings show that the KO2 channel in PC12 cells belongs to the Kv1 subfamily of K+ channels and that the Kv1.2 α-subunit is important in conferring O2 sensitivity to this channel. PMID:10790158

  9. Evidence for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling to activate ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Jung; Park, Hyun-Sun; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shin, Su-Kyung; Song, Seung Eun; Hwang, Meeyul; Cho, Ho-Chan; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that promotes insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 has been shown to confer glucose-insensitive beta cells with glucose sensitivity by modulation of the activity of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The channel closing effect of GLP-1, interacting with corresponding G-protein-coupled receptors, has been well established; however, to our knowledge, no study has shown whether GLP-1 directly induces activation of beta-cell KATP channels. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether the activation of beta-cell KATP channels by GLP-1 exists and affects intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i). KATP channel activity was measured in isolated rat pancreatic beta cells by whole-cell perforated patch-clamp recordings with a diazoxide-containing pipette solution. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i and the subcellular localization of KATP channels were observed using the calcium-sensitive dye fura-4/AM and anti-Kir6.2 antibodies in INS-1 beta cells, respectively. To eliminate the well-known inhibitory effects of GLP-1 on KATP channel activity, channels were fully inhibited by pretreatment with methyl pyruvate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. In the pretreated beta cells, GLP-1 and exendin-4 promptly activated the channels, reducing [Ca(2+)]i. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effects of GLP-1 on channel activity. Moreover, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate mimicked the effects of GLP-1. These results suggested that beta-cell GLP-1 receptor signaling involved activation of KATP channels via a PI3K-dependent pathway. This alternative mechanism of GLP-1 function may act as a negative feedback pathway, modulating the glucose-dependent GLP-1 inhibition on KATP channel activity. PMID:26655814

  10. Effects of N-glycosylation of the human cation channel TRPA1 on agonist-sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Timothy J.; Acuña, Mario A.; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Urech, David

    2016-01-01

    Determining the functional significance of post-translational modifications advances our understanding of many broadly-expressed proteins, and particularly ion channels. The enzymes that catalyse these modifications are often expressed in a cell-type specific manner, resulting in considerable structural diversity among post-translationally modified proteins that are expressed across a variety of cell types. TRP channels exhibit notably variable behaviour between cell types in vitro and in vivo, and they are frequently modified with N-glycans that contribute to protein function. TRPA1 possesses two putative N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn747 and Asn753 that have not yet been studied in detail. In the present study, we show that both of these sites can be modified with an N-glycan and that the glycan at position Asn747 modulates agonist-sensitivity of TRPA1 in vitro. Additionally, we found that N-glycosylation also modulates cooperative effects of temperature and the agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA) on TRPA1 channel activation. Collectively, these findings suggest a dynamic role played by the N-glycosylation of human TRPA1. They also provide further evidence of the versatility of N-glycans and will assist in efforts to fully understand the complex regulation of TRPA1 activity. PMID:27582506

  11. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    intracellular calcium occurs by the entry of extracellular calcium ions through VGCCs which are sensitive to neomycin. N-type and P-type VGCCs are potential candidates because they are observed in osteoblasts and they are sensitive to neomycin. The calcium channels identified in this study provide new insight into mechanisms underlying the targeted repair process which is essential to bone adaptation.

  12. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P; Greenwood, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3-5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10-1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  13. Oxygen-Sensitive K+ Channels Modulate Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Secretion from Human Placental Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Paula; Sibley, Colin P.; Greenwood, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a key autocrine/paracrine regulator of placental syncytiotrophoblast, the transport epithelium of the human placenta. Syncytiotrophoblast hCG secretion is modulated by the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) channels. Here we test the hypothesis that K+ channels mediate the effects of pO2 and ROS on hCG secretion. Placental villous explants from normal term pregnancies were cultured for 6 days at 6% (normoxia), 21% (hyperoxia) or 1% (hypoxia) pO2. On days 3–5, explants were treated with 5mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or tetraethylammonium (TEA), blockers of pO2-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, or ROS (10–1000μM H2O2). hCG secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a marker of necrosis, were determined daily. At day 6, hCG and LDH were measured in tissue lysate and 86Rb (K+) efflux assessed to estimate syncytiotrophoblast K+ permeability. hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux were significantly greater in explants maintained in 21% pO2 than normoxia. 4-AP/TEA inhibited hCG secretion to a greater extent at 21% than 6% and 1% pO2, and reduced 86Rb efflux at 21% but not 6% pO2. LDH release and tissue LDH/hCG were similar in 6%, 21% and 1% pO2 and unaffected by 4-AP/TEA. H2O2 stimulated 86Rb efflux and hCG secretion at normoxia but decreased 86Rb efflux, without affecting hCG secretion, at 21% pO2. 4-AP/TEA-sensitive K+ channels participate in pO2-sensitive hCG secretion from syncytiotrophoblast. ROS effects on both hCG secretion and 86Rb efflux are pO2-dependent but causal links between the two remain to be established. PMID:26863525

  14. Lactate modulates the intracellular pH sensitivity of human TREK1 channels.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Swagata; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Tissue acidosis and high lactate concentrations are associated with cerebral ischaemia. The degree of acidosis is dependent on circulating glucose concentration, hyperglycaemia being associated with increased acidosis. Among other agents, lactate and protons have been shown to activate the leak potassium channel; TREK1 (TWIK related potassium channel 1) from the intracellular side and its increased activity is implicated in tolerance towards ischaemic cell damage. In the present study, we show that ischaemic concentrations of lactate (30 mM) at pH 7.0 and 6.5, commonly observed during ischemia, cause robust potentiation of human TREK1 (hTREK1) activity at single-channel level in cell-free inside-out membrane patches, while 30 mM lactate at pH 6.0 to 5.5, commonly observed during hyperglycaemic ischemia, reduces hTREK1 channel activity significantly. The biphasic effect of 30 mM lactate (ischaemic concentrations) on modulation of hTREK1 by varying pH conditions is specific since basal concentrations of lactate (3 mM) and 30 mM pyruvate at pH 7.0 and 5.5 failed to show similar effect as lactate. Experiments with deletion and point mutants of hTREK1 channel suggest that lactate changes the pH modulation of hTREK1 by interacting differently with the histidine residue at 328th position (H328) above and below its pKa (∼6.0) in the intracellular carboxyl-terminal domain of TREK1. This lactate-induced pH modulation of hTREK1 is absent in C-terminal deletion mutant, CTDΔ100, and is similar in E321A-hTREK1 mutant as in wild-type hTREK1 suggesting that it is independent of pH-sensitive glutamate residue at 321st position. Such a differential pH-dependent effect of lactate on an ion channel function has not been reported earlier and has important implications in different stages of ischaemia.

  15. Role of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein, K+ channels, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the antinociceptive effect of inosine.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Junior, Sérgio José; Nascimento, Francisney Pinto; Luiz-Cerutti, Murilo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2013-03-01

    Inosine is the first metabolite of adenosine. It exerts an antinociceptive effect by activating the adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors. We have previously demonstrated that inosine exhibits antinociceptive properties in acute and chronic mice models of nociception. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors, as well as K(+) and Ca(2+) channels, in the antinociception promoted by inosine in the formalin test. Mice were pretreated with pertussis toxin (2.5 μg/site, i.t., an inactivator of G(i/0) protein); after 7 days, they received inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c., used as positive control) immediately before the formalin test. Another group of animals received tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (1 μg/site, i.t., a non-specific voltage-gated K(+) channel blockers), apamin (50 ng/site, i.t., a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), charybdotoxin (250 pg/site, i.t., a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), glibenclamide (100 μg/site, i.t., an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker) or CaCl(2) (200 nmol/site, i.t.). Afterwards, the mice received inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p., a positive control), or morphine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c., a positive control) immediately before the formalin test. The antinociceptive effect of inosine was reversed by the pre-administration of pertussis toxin (2.5 μg/site, i.t.), TEA, 4-aminopyridine, charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, and CaCl(2), but not apamin. Further, all K(+) channel blockers and CaCl(2) reversed the antinociception induced by diclofenac and morphine, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that the antinociceptive effect of inosine is mediated, in part, by pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein coupled receptors and the subsequent activation of voltage gated K(+) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or

  16. Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 in Humans with Post-Traumatic Brain Contusions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Vidal-Jorge, Marian; Martínez-Saez, Elena; Castro, Lidia; Arikan, Fuat; Cordero, Esteban; Rădoi, Andreea; Poca, Maria-Antonia; Simard, J Marc; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic brain contusions (PTBCs) are traditionally considered primary injuries and can increase in size, generate perilesional edema, cause mass effect, induce neurological deterioration, and cause death. Most patients experience a progressive increase in pericontusional edema, and nearly half, an increase in the hemorrhagic component itself. The underlying molecular pathophysiology of contusion-induced brain edema and hemorrhagic progression remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate sulfonylurea 1/transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (SUR1-TRPM4) ion channel SUR1 expression in various cell types (neurons, astrocytes, endothelial cells, microglia, macrophages, and neutrophils) of human brain contusions and whether SUR1 up-regulation was related to time postinjury. Double immunolabeling of SUR1 and cell-type- specific proteins was performed in 26 specimens from traumatic brain injury patients whose lesions were surgically evacuated. Three samples from limited brain resections performed for accessing extra-axial skull-base tumors or intraventricular lesions were controls. We found SUR1 was significantly overexpresed in all cell types and was especially prominent in neurons and endothelial cells (ECs). The temporal pattern depended on cell type: 1) In neurons, SUR1 increased within 48 h of injury and stabilized thereafter; 2) in ECs, there was no trend; 3) in glial cells and microglia/macrophages, a moderate increase was observed over time; and 4) in neutrophils, it decreased with time. Our results suggest that up-regulation of SUR1 in humans point to this channel as one of the important molecular players in the pathophysiology of PTBCs. Our findings reveal opportunities to act therapeutically on the mechanisms of growth of traumatic contusions and therefore reduce the number of patients with neurological deterioration and poor neurological outcomes. PMID:26398596

  17. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of novel sulfonylureas of 15-membered azalides.

    PubMed

    Krajacić, Mirjana Bukvić; Kujundzić, Nedjeljko; Dumić, Miljenko; Cindrić, Mario; Brajsa, Karmen; Metelko, Biserka; Novak, Predrag

    2005-06-01

    Three series of the novel sulfonylurea derivatives of 15-membered azalides, i.e. 9a-N-[N'-(aryl)sulfonylcarbamoyl] (4a-4f, 5a-5f), 9a-N-{N'-[(aryl)sulfonylcarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl]} (10a-10f, 11a, 11c) and 9a-N-{N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-[(aryl)sulfonylcarabamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl]} (14a-14f, 15a, 15b, 15f) derivatives of 9-deoxo-9-dihydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A (2) and 5-O-desosaminyl-9-deoxo-9-dihydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythronolide A (3) were prepared and their structures elucidated by NMR and IR spectroscopic methods and mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these compounds was determined on a panel of sensitive and resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Several compounds of the series of 9a-N-[N'-(aryl)sulfonylcarbamoyl] derivatives that showed significant improvements in activity against inducible resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strain were suggested for further optimization.

  18. Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channel Kir Subunits Implicated in Cardioprotection by Diazoxide

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Matthew C; Janjua, M Burhan; Kanter, Evelyn M; Makepeace, Carol M; Schuessler, Richard B; Nichols, Colin G; Lawton, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel openers provide cardioprotection in multiple models. Ion flux at an unidentified mitochondrial KATP channel has been proposed as the mechanism. The renal outer medullary kidney potassium channel subunit, potassium inward rectifying (Kir)1.1, has been implicated as a mitochondrial channel pore-forming subunit. We hypothesized that subunit Kir1.1 is involved in cardioprotection (maintenance of volume homeostasis and contractility) of the KATP channel opener diazoxide (DZX) during stress (exposure to hyperkalemic cardioplegia [CPG]) at the myocyte and mitochondrial levels. Methods and Results Kir subunit inhibitor Tertiapin Q (TPN-Q) was utilized to evaluate response to stress. Mouse ventricular mitochondrial volume was measured in the following groups: isolation buffer; 200 μmol/L of ATP; 100 μmol/L of DZX+200 μmol/L of ATP; or 100 μmol/L of DZX+200 μmol/L of ATP+TPN-Q (500 or 100 nmol/L). Myocytes were exposed to Tyrode’s solution (5 minutes), test solution (Tyrode’s, cardioplegia [CPG], CPG+DZX, CPG+DZX+TPN-Q, Tyrode’s+TPN-Q, or CPG+TPN-Q), N=12 for all (10 minutes); followed by Tyrode’s (5 minutes). Volumes were compared. TPN-Q, with or without DZX, did not alter mitochondrial or myocyte volume. Stress (CPG) resulted in myocyte swelling and reduced contractility that was prevented by DZX. TPN-Q prevented the cardioprotection afforded by DZX (volume homeostasis and maintenance of contractility). Conclusions TPN-Q inhibited myocyte cardioprotection provided by DZX during stress; however, it did not alter mitochondrial volume. Because TPN-Q inhibits Kir1.1, Kir3.1, and Kir3.4, these data support that any of these Kir subunits could be involved in the cardioprotection afforded by diazoxide. However, these data suggest that mitochondrial swelling by diazoxide does not involve Kir1.1, 3.1, or 3.4. PMID:26304939

  19. Crystal Structure of the Human K2P TRAAK, a Lipid- and Mechano-Sensitive K[superscript +] Ion Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Brohawn, Stephen G.; del Mármol, Josefina; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2012-03-01

    TRAAK channels, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} (potassium ion) channel family K2P, are expressed almost exclusively in the nervous system and control the resting membrane potential. Their gating is sensitive to polyunsaturated fatty acids, mechanical deformation of the membrane, and temperature changes. Physiologically, these channels appear to control the noxious input threshold for temperature and pressure sensitivity in dorsal root ganglia neurons. We present the crystal structure of human TRAAK at a resolution of 3.8 angstroms. The channel comprises two protomers, each containing two distinct pore domains, which create a two-fold symmetric K{sup +} channel. The extracellular surface features a helical cap, 35 angstroms tall, that creates a bifurcated pore entry way and accounts for the insensitivity of two-pore domain K{sup +} channels to inhibitory toxins. Two diagonally opposed gate-forming inner helices form membrane-interacting structures that may underlie this channel's sensitivity to chemical and mechanical properties of the cell membrane.

  20. Sulfonylurea Treatment Before Genetic Testing in Neonatal Diabetes: Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, David; Bell, Charles D.; Hwang, Jessica L.; Dickens, Jazzmyne T.; Sima, Daniela I.; Felipe, Dania L.; Zimmer, Carrie A.; Davis, Ajuah O.; Kotlyarevska, Kateryna; Naylor, Rochelle N.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Diabetes in neonates nearly always has a monogenic etiology. Earlier sulfonylurea therapy can improve glycemic control and potential neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations, the most common gene causes. Objective: Assess the risks and benefits of initiating sulfonylurea therapy before genetic testing results become available. Design, Setting, and Patients: Observational retrospective study of subjects with neonatal diabetes within the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry. Main Outcome Measures: Response to sulfonylurea (determined by whether insulin could be discontinued) and treatment side effects in those treated empirically. Results: A total of 154 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months of age. A genetic diagnosis had been determined in 118 (77%), with 73 (47%) having a mutation in KCNJ11 or ABCC8. The median time from clinical diagnosis to genetic diagnosis was 10.4 weeks (range, 1.6 to 58.2 wk). In nine probands, an empiric sulfonylurea trial was initiated within 28 days of diabetes diagnosis. A genetic cause was subsequently found in eight cases, and insulin was discontinued within 14 days of sulfonylurea initiation in all of these cases. Conclusions: Sulfonylurea therapy appears to be safe and often successful in neonatal diabetes patients before genetic testing results are available; however, larger numbers of cases must be studied. Given the potential beneficial effect on neurodevelopmental outcome, glycemic control, and the current barriers to expeditious acquisition of genetic testing, an empiric inpatient trial of sulfonylurea can be considered. However, obtaining a genetic diagnosis remains imperative to inform long-term management and prognosis. PMID:25238204

  1. Unique properties of the ATP-sensitive K⁺ channel in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system.

    PubMed

    Bao, Li; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Lader, Joshua; Hong, Miyoun; Morley, Gregory; Fishman, Glenn I; Sobie, Eric A; Coetzee, William A

    2011-12-01

    Background- The specialized cardiac conduction system (CCS) expresses a unique complement of ion channels that confer a specific electrophysiological profile. ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels in these myocytes have not been systemically investigated. Methods and Results- We recorded K(ATP) channels in isolated CCS myocytes using Cntn2-EGFP reporter mice. The CCS K(ATP) channels were less sensitive to inhibitory cytosolic ATP compared with ventricular channels and more strongly activated by MgADP. They also had a smaller slope conductance. The 2 types of channels had similar intraburst open and closed times, but the CCS K(ATP) channel had a prolonged interburst closed time. CCS K(ATP) channels were strongly activated by diazoxide and less by levcromakalim, whereas the ventricular K(ATP) channel had a reverse pharmacological profile. CCS myocytes express elevated levels of Kir6.1 but reduced Kir6.2 and SUR2A mRNA compared with ventricular myocytes (SUR1 expression was negligible). SUR2B mRNA expression was higher in CCS myocytes relative to SUR2A. Canine Purkinje fibers expressed higher levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2B protein relative to the ventricle. Numeric simulation predicts a high sensitivity of the Purkinje action potential to changes in ATP:ADP ratio. Cardiac conduction time was prolonged by low-flow ischemia in isolated, perfused mouse hearts, which was prevented by glibenclamide. Conclusions- These data imply a differential electrophysiological response (and possible contribution to arrhythmias) of the ventricular CCS to K(ATP) channel opening during periods of ischemia.

  2. The structure-activity relationship in herbicidal monosubstituted sulfonylureas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheng-Ming; Ma, Yi; Guddat, Luke; Cheng, Pei-Quan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Pang, Siew S; Dong, Yu-Hui; Lai, Cheng-Ming; Wang, Ling-Xiu; Jia, Guo-Feng; Li, Yong-Hong; Wang, Su-Hua; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Wei-Guang; Wang, Bao-Lei

    2012-05-24

    The herbicide sulfonylurea (SU) belongs to one of the most important class of herbicides worldwide. It is well known for its ecofriendly, extreme low toxicity towards mammals and ultralow dosage application. The original inventor, G Levitt, set out structure-activity relationship (SAR) guidelines for SU structural design to attain superhigh bioactivity. A new approach to SU molecular design has been developed. After the analysis of scores of SU products by X-ray diffraction methodology and after greenhouse herbicidal screening of 900 novel SU structures synthesized in the authors laboratory, it was found that several SU structures containing a monosubstituted pyrimidine moiety retain excellent herbicidal characteristics, which has led to partial revision of the Levitt guidelines. Among the novel SU molecules, monosulfuron and monosulfuron-ester have been developed into two new herbicides that have been officially approved for field application and applied in millet and wheat fields in China. A systematic structural study of the new substrate-target complex and the relative mode of action in comparison with conventional SU has been carried out. A new mode of action has been postulated.

  3. Suppression of the Eag1 potassium channel sensitizes glioblastoma cells to injury caused by temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Thais Torquato; Resende, Fernando Francisco Borges; Chaves, Natália Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza; Báo, Sônia Nair; Brettas, Marcella Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of human primary brain tumor. The standard treatment protocol includes radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Despite advances in GBM treatment, the survival time of patients diagnosed with glioma is 14.5 months. Regarding tumor biology, various types of cancer cell overexpress the ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel. Therefore, the present study examined the role of Eag1 in the cell damage caused by TMZ on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Eag1 was inhibited using a channel blocker (astemizole) or silenced by a short-hairpin RNA expression vector (pKv10.1-3). pKv10.1-3 (0.2 µg) improved the Eag1 silencing caused by 250 µM TMZ, as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, inhibiting Eag1 with the vector or astemizole (5 µM) reduced glioblastoma cell viability and sensitized cells to TMZ. Cell viability decreased by 63% for pKv10.1-3 + TMZ compared with 34% for TMZ alone, and by 77% for astemizole + TMZ compared with 46% for TMZ alone, as determined by MTT assay. In addition, both the vector and astemizole increased the apoptosis rate of glioblastoma cells triggered by TMZ, as determined by an Annexin V apoptosis assay. Collectively, the current data reveal that Eag1 has a role in the damage caused to glioblastoma by TMZ. Furthermore, suppression of this channel can improve the action of TMZ on U87MG glioblastoma cells. Thus, silencing Eag1 is a promising strategy to improve GBM treatment and merits additional studies in animal models of glioma. PMID:27698831

  4. Suppression of the Eag1 potassium channel sensitizes glioblastoma cells to injury caused by temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Thais Torquato; Resende, Fernando Francisco Borges; Chaves, Natália Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza; Báo, Sônia Nair; Brettas, Marcella Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of human primary brain tumor. The standard treatment protocol includes radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Despite advances in GBM treatment, the survival time of patients diagnosed with glioma is 14.5 months. Regarding tumor biology, various types of cancer cell overexpress the ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel. Therefore, the present study examined the role of Eag1 in the cell damage caused by TMZ on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Eag1 was inhibited using a channel blocker (astemizole) or silenced by a short-hairpin RNA expression vector (pKv10.1-3). pKv10.1-3 (0.2 µg) improved the Eag1 silencing caused by 250 µM TMZ, as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, inhibiting Eag1 with the vector or astemizole (5 µM) reduced glioblastoma cell viability and sensitized cells to TMZ. Cell viability decreased by 63% for pKv10.1-3 + TMZ compared with 34% for TMZ alone, and by 77% for astemizole + TMZ compared with 46% for TMZ alone, as determined by MTT assay. In addition, both the vector and astemizole increased the apoptosis rate of glioblastoma cells triggered by TMZ, as determined by an Annexin V apoptosis assay. Collectively, the current data reveal that Eag1 has a role in the damage caused to glioblastoma by TMZ. Furthermore, suppression of this channel can improve the action of TMZ on U87MG glioblastoma cells. Thus, silencing Eag1 is a promising strategy to improve GBM treatment and merits additional studies in animal models of glioma.

  5. ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Umaru, Bukar; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Kotsikoris, Vasileios; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Topouzis, Stavros

    2015-07-01

    Intense research is conducted to identify new molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that the angiogenic effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) depend on the activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) and that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which can act through KATP, promotes endothelial cell growth. We therefore investigated whether direct KATP activation induces angiogenic responses and whether it is required for the endothelial responses to CNP or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis was similarly enhanced by the direct KATP channel activator 2-nicotinamidoethyl acetate (SG-209) and by CNP or VEGF. The KATP inhibitors glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) reduced basal and abolished CNP-induced CAM angiogenesis. In vitro, the direct KATP openers nicorandil and SG-209 and the polypeptides VEGF and CNP increased proliferation and migration in bEnd.3 mouse endothelial cells. In addition, VEGF and CNP induced cord-like formation on Matrigel by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). All these in vitro endothelial responses were effectively abrogated by glibenclamide or 5-HD. In HUVECs, a small-interfering RNA-mediated decrease in the expression of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.1 subunit impaired cell migration and network morphogenesis in response to either SG-209 or CNP. We conclude that 1) direct pharmacologic activation of KATP induces angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo, 2) angiogenic responses to CNP and VEGF depend on KATP activation and require the expression of the Kir6.1 KATP subunit, and 3) KATP activation may underpin angiogenesis to a variety of vasoactive stimuli, including H2S, VEGF, and CNP. PMID:25977483

  6. Voltage-gated and ATP-sensitive K+ channels are associated with cell proliferation and tumorigenesis of human glioma.

    PubMed

    Ru, Qin; Tian, Xiang; Wu, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Ri-Hui; Pi, Ming-Shan; Li, Chao-Ying

    2014-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that potassium (K+) channels play important roles in the growth and development of human cancer. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of and the mechanism by which K+ channels control the proliferation and tumor development of U87-MG human glioma cells. A variety of K+ channel blockers and openers were used to differentiate the critical subtype of K+ channels involved. The in vitro data demonstrated that selective blockers of voltage-gated K+ (K(V)) channels or ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels significantly inhibited the proliferation of U87-MG cells, blocked the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis. In the U87-MG xenograft model in nude mice, K(V) or K(ATP) channel blockers markedly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, electrophysiological results showed that KV or KATP channel blockers inhibited K(V)/K(ATP) channel currents as well as cell proliferation and tumor growth over the same concentration range. In contrast, iberiotoxin, a selective blocker of calcium-activated K+ channels, had no apparent effect on the cell proliferation, cell cycle or apoptosis of U87-MG cells. In addition, the results of fluorescence assays indicated that blockers of K(V) or K(ATP) channels attenuated intracellular Ca2+ signaling by blocking Ca2+ influx in U87-MG cells. Taken together, these data suggest that K(V) and K(ATP) channels play important roles in the proliferation of U87-MG cells and that the influence of K(V) and K(ATP) channels may be mediated by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism. PMID:24284968

  7. tmc-1 encodes a sodium-sensitive channel required for salt chemosensation in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Bang, Sangsu; Hwang, Sun Wook; Schafer, William R

    2013-02-01

    Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) genes encode a broadly conserved family of multipass integral membrane proteins in animals. Human TMC1 and TMC2 genes are linked to human deafness and required for hair-cell mechanotransduction; however, the molecular functions of these and other TMC proteins have not been determined. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans tmc-1 gene encodes a sodium sensor that functions specifically in salt taste chemosensation. tmc-1 is expressed in the ASH polymodal avoidance neurons, where it is required for salt-evoked neuronal activity and behavioural avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. However, tmc-1 has no effect on responses to other stimuli sensed by the ASH neurons including high osmolarity and chemical repellents, indicating a specific role in salt sensation. When expressed in mammalian cell culture, C. elegans TMC-1 generates a predominantly cationic conductance activated by high extracellular sodium but not by other cations or uncharged small molecules. Thus, TMC-1 is both necessary for salt sensation in vivo and sufficient to generate a sodium-sensitive channel in vitro, identifying it as a probable ionotropic sensory receptor. PMID:23364694

  8. Taurine-induced modulation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Yu, Kuai; Gu, Yan; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2005-08-15

    The physiological role of taurine, an abundant free amino acid in the neural system, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents in enzymatically dissociated neurons from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with conventional whole-cell recording manner under voltage-clamp conditions. A TTX-S Na+ current was recorded preferentially from large DRG neurons and a TTX-R Na+ current preferentially from small ones. For TTX-S Na+ channel, taurine of the concentration > or = 10 mM shifted the activation curve in the depolarizing direction and the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. There was no change in the activation curve for TTX-R Na+ channel and the inactivation curve was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction slightly in the presence of taurine > or = 20 mM. When the recovery kinetics was examined, the presence of taurine resulted in a slower recovery from inactivation of TTX-S currents and no change of TTX-R ones. All the effects of taurine were weakly concentration-dependent and partly recovered quite slowly after washout. Our data indicate that taurine alters the properties of Na+ currents in intact DRG neurons. These may contribute to the understanding of taurine as a natural neuroprotectant and the potential of taurine as a useful medicine for the treatment of sensory neuropathies.

  9. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.I.; Wiest, S.A.; Zimmerman, K.M.; Ertel, P.J.; Bemis, K.G.; Robertson, D.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas.

  10. Risk of hypoglycemia following intensification of metformin treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea

    PubMed Central

    Roumie, Christianne L.; Min, Jea Young; Greevy, Robert A.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Hung, Adriana M.; Liu, Xulei; Elasy, Tom; Griffin, Marie R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia remains a common life-threatening event associated with diabetes treatment. We compared the risk of first or recurrent hypoglycemia event among metformin initiators who intensified treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea. Methods: We assembled a retrospective cohort using databases of the Veterans Health Administration, Medicare and the National Death Index. Metformin initiators who intensified treatment with insulin or sulfonylurea were followed to either their first or recurrent hypoglycemia event using Cox proportional hazard models. Hypoglycemia was defined as hospital admission or an emergency department visit for hypoglycemia, or an outpatient blood glucose value of less than 3.3 mmol/L. We conducted additional analyses for risk of first hypoglycemia event, with death as the competing risk. Results: Among 178 341 metformin initiators, 2948 added insulin and 39 990 added sulfonylurea. Propensity score matching yielded 2436 patients taking metformin plus insulin and 12 180 taking metformin plus sulfonylurea. Patients took metformin for a median of 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5–30) months, and the median glycated hemoglobin level was 8.1% (IQR 7.2%–9.9%) at intensification. In the group who added insulin, 121 first hypoglycemia events occurred, and 466 first events occurred in the group who added sulfonylurea (30.9 v. 24.6 events per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.59). For recurrent hypoglycemia, there were 159 events in the insulin group and 585 events in the sulfonylurea group (39.1 v. 30.0 per 1000 person-years; adjusted HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12–1.72). In separate competing risk analyses, the adjusted HR for hypoglycemia was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04–1.56). Interpretation: Among patients using metformin who could use either insulin or sulfonylurea, the addition of insulin was associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia than the addition of sulfonylurea. This finding should

  11. Strain differences in pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in chemosensory and nonchemosensory brain stem nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Paul F.; Olesiak, S.; Batuuka, D.; Riley, D.; Neumueller, S.; Forster, H. V.

    2014-01-01

    The ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex is inherently low in inbred Brown Norway (BN) rats compared with other strains, including inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Since the brain stem expression of various pH-sensitive ion channels may be determinants of the CO2 chemoreflex, we tested the hypothesis that there would be fewer pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in BN relative to SS rats within brain stem sites associated with respiratory chemoreception, such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), but not within the pre-Bötzinger complex region, nucleus ambiguus or the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Medullary sections (25 μm) from adult male and female BN and SS rats were stained with primary antibodies targeting TASK-1, Kv1.4, or Kir2.3 K+ channels, and the total (Nissl-stained) and K+ channel immunoreactive (-ir) cells counted. For both male and female rats, the numbers of K+ channel-ir cells within the NTS were reduced in the BN compared with SS rats (P < 0.05), despite equal numbers of total NTS cells. In contrast, we found few differences in the numbers of K+ channel-ir cells among the strains within the nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal motor nucleus, or pre-Bötzinger complex regions in both male and female rats. However, there were no predicted functional mutations in each of the K+ channels studied comparing genomic sequences among these strains. Thus we conclude that the relatively selective reductions in pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in the NTS of male and female BN rats may contribute to their severely blunted ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. PMID:25150225

  12. Dopamine midbrain neurons in health and Parkinson's disease: emerging roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, E; Schiemann, J; Liss, B

    2015-01-22

    Dopamine (DA) releasing midbrain neurons are essential for multiple brain functions, such as voluntary movement, working memory, emotion and cognition. DA midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibit a variety of distinct axonal projections and cellular properties, and are differentially affected in diseases like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apart from having diverse functions in health and disease states, DA midbrain neurons display distinct electrical activity patterns, crucial for DA release. These activity patterns are generated and modulated by specific sets of ion channels. Recently, two ion channels have been identified, not only contributing to these activity patterns and to functional properties of DA midbrain neurons, but also seem to render SN DA neurons particularly vulnerable to degeneration in PD and its animal models: L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATPs). In this review, we focus on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological roles of these two ion channels (and their complex interplay with other ion channels), particularly in highly vulnerable SN DA neurons, as selective degeneration of these neurons causes the major motor symptoms of PD. PMID:25450964

  13. Dopamine midbrain neurons in health and Parkinson's disease: emerging roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, E; Schiemann, J; Liss, B

    2015-01-22

    Dopamine (DA) releasing midbrain neurons are essential for multiple brain functions, such as voluntary movement, working memory, emotion and cognition. DA midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibit a variety of distinct axonal projections and cellular properties, and are differentially affected in diseases like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apart from having diverse functions in health and disease states, DA midbrain neurons display distinct electrical activity patterns, crucial for DA release. These activity patterns are generated and modulated by specific sets of ion channels. Recently, two ion channels have been identified, not only contributing to these activity patterns and to functional properties of DA midbrain neurons, but also seem to render SN DA neurons particularly vulnerable to degeneration in PD and its animal models: L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATPs). In this review, we focus on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological roles of these two ion channels (and their complex interplay with other ion channels), particularly in highly vulnerable SN DA neurons, as selective degeneration of these neurons causes the major motor symptoms of PD.

  14. Functions of volume-sensitive and calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-04-01

    The review describes molecular and functional properties of the volume regulated anion channel and Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels belonging to the anoctamin family with emphasis on physiological importance of these channels in regulation of cell volume, cell migration, cell proliferation, and programmed cell death. Finally, we discuss the role of Cl(-) channels in various diseases.

  15. Activation of peripheral ATP-sensitive K+ channels mediates the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Picolo, Gisele; Cassola, Antônio Carlos; Cury, Yara

    2003-05-23

    The role of peripheral potassium channels on the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, a mixed delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, was investigated in hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E(2). Rat paw pressure test was applied before and 3 h after the intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of the nociceptive stimuli. Oral administration of venom 2 h after carrageenin or prostaglandin E(2) induces antinociception. Local pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium (blockers of voltage-dependent K(+) channel) or charybdotoxin and apamin (inhibitors of large- and small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, respectively) did not modify venom effect. On the other hand, glybenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel abolished antinociception induced by the venom. Glybenclamide also inhibited the antinociceptive effect of [D-Pen(2.5)] enkephalin (DPDPE), a delta opioid receptor agonist, but did not modify the effect of (+)-trans-(1R,2R)-U-50488 (U50488), a kappa opioid receptor agonist. Diazoxide and pinacidil, two ATP-sensitive K(+) channel openers, injected by intraplantar route, induced a long-lasting increment of pain threshold of the animals and produced antinociception in both models of hyperalgesia. These results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of crotalid venom is mediated by activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels at peripheral afferent neurons.

  16. TRPA1 Channels in Drosophila and Honey Bee Ectoparasitic Mites Share Heat Sensitivity and Temperature-Related Physiological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Guangda; Kashio, Makiko; Li, Tianbang; Dong, Xiaofeng; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) is conserved between many arthropods, and in some has been shown to function as a chemosensor for noxious compounds. Activation of arthropod TRPA1 channels by temperature fluctuations has been tested in only a few insect species, and all of them were shown to be activated by heat. The recent identification of chemosensitive TRPA1 channels from two honey bee ectoparasitic mite species (VdTRPA1 and TmTRPA1) have provided an opportunity to study the temperature-dependent activation and the temperature-associated physiological functions of TRPA1 channels in non-insect arthropods. We found that both mite TRPA1 channels are heat sensitive and capable of rescuing the temperature-related behavioral defects of a Drosophila melanogaster trpA1 mutant. These results suggest that heat-sensitivity of TRPA1 could be conserved between many arthropods despite its amino acid sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the ankyrin repeats (ARs) 6 and 7 are well-conserved between six heat-sensitive arthropod TRPA1 channels and have critical roles for the heat activation of VdTRPA1. PMID:27761115

  17. Selective disruption of high sensitivity heat activation but not capsaicin activation of TRPV1 channels by pore turret mutations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Cao, Xu; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In particular, where the temperature sensor is located and whether heat and capsaicin share a common activation pathway are debated. To address these fundamental issues, we searched for channel mutations that selectively affected one form of activation. We found that deletion of the first 10 amino acids of the pore turret significantly reduced the heat response amplitude and shifted the heat activation threshold, whereas capsaicin activation remained unchanged. Removing larger portions of the turret disrupted channel function. Introducing an artificial sequence to replace the deleted region restored sensitive capsaicin activation in these nonfunctional channels. The heat activation, however, remained significantly impaired, with the current exhibiting diminishing heat sensitivity to a level indistinguishable from that of a voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv7.4. Our results demonstrate that heat and capsaicin activation of TRPV1 are structurally and mechanistically distinct processes, and the pore turret is an indispensible channel structure involved in the heat activation process but is not part of the capsaicin activation pathway. Synergistic effect of heat and capsaicin on TRPV1 activation may originate from convergence of the two pathways on a common activation gate.

  18. KCNQ Potassium Channels Modulate Sensitivity of Skin Down-hair (D-hair) Mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Sebastian; Orozco, Ian J; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-03-11

    M-current-mediating KCNQ (Kv7) channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of neuronal cells, as highlighted by mutations in Kcnq2 and Kcnq3 that underlie certain forms of epilepsy. In addition to their expression in brain, KCNQ2 and -3 are also found in the somatosensory system. We have now detected both KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons that correspond to D-hair Aδ-fibers and demonstrate KCNQ3 expression in peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous D-hair follicles. Electrophysiological recordings from single D-hair afferents from Kcnq3(-/-) mice showed increased firing frequencies in response to mechanical ramp-and-hold stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced at slow indentation velocities. Additional reduction of KCNQ2 expression further increased D-hair sensitivity. Together with previous work on the specific role of KCNQ4 in rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors, our results show that different KCNQ isoforms are specifically expressed in particular subsets of mechanosensory neurons and modulate their sensitivity directly in sensory nerve endings.

  19. KCNQ Potassium Channels Modulate Sensitivity of Skin Down-hair (D-hair) Mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Sebastian; Orozco, Ian J; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-03-11

    M-current-mediating KCNQ (Kv7) channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of neuronal cells, as highlighted by mutations in Kcnq2 and Kcnq3 that underlie certain forms of epilepsy. In addition to their expression in brain, KCNQ2 and -3 are also found in the somatosensory system. We have now detected both KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons that correspond to D-hair Aδ-fibers and demonstrate KCNQ3 expression in peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous D-hair follicles. Electrophysiological recordings from single D-hair afferents from Kcnq3(-/-) mice showed increased firing frequencies in response to mechanical ramp-and-hold stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced at slow indentation velocities. Additional reduction of KCNQ2 expression further increased D-hair sensitivity. Together with previous work on the specific role of KCNQ4 in rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors, our results show that different KCNQ isoforms are specifically expressed in particular subsets of mechanosensory neurons and modulate their sensitivity directly in sensory nerve endings. PMID:26733196

  20. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukuta, Naomi; Shingai, Ryuzo; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV) subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  1. Random assembly of SUR subunits in K(ATP) channel complexes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wayland W L; Tong, Ailing; Flagg, Thomas P; Nichols, Colin G

    2008-01-01

    Sulfonylurea receptors (SURs) associate with Kir6.x subunits to form tetradimeric K(ATP) channel complexes. SUR1 and SUR2 confer differential channel sensitivities to nucleotides and pharmacological agents, and are expressed in specific, but overlapping, tissues. This raises the question of whether these different SUR subtypes can assemble in the same channel complex and generate channels with hybrid properties. To test this, we engineered dimeric constructs of wild type or N160D mutant Kir6.2 fused to SUR1 or SUR2A. Dimeric fusions formed functional, ATP-sensitive, channels. Coexpression of weakly rectifying SUR1-Kir6.2 (WTF-1) with strongly rectifying SUR1-Kir6.2[N160D] (NDF-1) in COSm6 cells results in mixed subunit complexes that exhibit unique rectification properties. Coexpression of NDF-1 and SUR2A-Kir6.2 (WTF-2) results in similar complex rectification, reflecting the presence of SUR1- and SUR2A-containing dimers in the same channel. The data demonstrate clearly that SUR1 and SUR2A subunits associate randomly, and suggest that heteromeric channels will occur in native tissues. PMID:18690055

  2. Trypsin-Sensitive, Rapid Inactivation of a Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaro, Christopher R.; Lingle, Christopher J.

    1992-09-01

    Most calcium-activated potassium channels couple changes in intracellular calcium to membrane excitability by conducting a current with a probability that depends directly on submembrane calcium concentration. In rat adrenal chromaffin cells, however, a large conductance, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) undergoes rapid inactivation, suggesting that this channel has a physiological role different than that of other BK channels. The inactivation of the BK channel, like that of the voltage-gated Shaker B potassium channel, is removed by trypsin digestion and channels are blocked by the Shaker B amino-terminal inactivating domain. Thus, this BK channel shares functional and possibly structural homologies with other inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels.

  3. Contrasting anesthetic sensitivities of T-type Ca2+ channels of reticular thalamic neurons and recombinant Ca(v)3.3 channels.

    PubMed

    Joksovic, Pavle M; Brimelow, Barbara C; Murbartián, Janet; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Todorovic, Slobodan M

    2005-01-01

    Reticular thalamocortical neurons express a slowly inactivating T-type Ca(2+) current that is quite similar to that recorded from recombinant Ca(v)3.3b (alpha1Ib) channels. These neurons also express abundant Ca(v)3.3 mRNA, suggesting that it underlies the native current. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the anesthetic sensitivities of recombinant Ca(v)3.3b channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells to native T channels in reticular thalamic neurons (nRT) from brain slices of young rats. Barbiturates completely blocked both Ca(v)3.3 and nRT currents, with pentobarbital being about twice more potent in blocking Ca(v)3.3 currents. Isoflurane had about the same potency in blocking Ca(v)3.3 and nRT currents, but enflurane, etomidate, propofol, and ethanol exhibited 2-4 fold higher potency in blocking nRT vs Ca(v)3.3 currents. Nitrous oxide (N(2)O; laughing gas) blocked completely nRT currents with IC(50) of 20%, but did not significantly affect Ca(v)3.3 currents at four-fold higher concentrations. In addition, we observed that in lower concentration, N(2)O reversibly increased nRT but not Ca(v)3.3 currents. In conclusion, contrasting anesthetic sensitivities of Ca(v)3.3 and nRT T-type Ca(2+) channels strongly suggest that different molecular structures of Ca(2+) channels give rise to slowly inactivating T-type Ca(2+) currents. Furthermore, effects of volatile anesthetics and ethanol on slowly inactivating T-type Ca(2+) channel variants may contribute to the clinical effects of these agents. PMID:15644869

  4. ATP-sensitive K+ channels in rat ventricular myocytes are blocked and inactivated by internal divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Findlay, I

    1987-10-01

    K+ currents were recorded from ATP-sensitive channels in inside-out patches from isolated rat ventricular myocytes. In the absence of internal divalent cations the current voltage relationship could be described by constant-field assumptions with a permeability of 1.25 X 10(-13) cm2/s; outward currents saturated under a high driving force for K+ movement. Internal 0.1-5.0 mM Mg2+, 0.1 microM Ca2+ and 10 mM Na+ each depressed the flux of K+ ions moving outwards through open channels. Internal 0.1-5.0 mM Mg2+, 0.1-1.0 microM Ca2+ and 1-10 microM Ba2+ and Sr2+ blocked K+ channel activity in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner. Run-down channels could be reactivated by Mg-ATP, but not by AMP-PNP, ATP gamma S or Mg-free ATP which suggested that phosphorylation of the channels was involved in their activity. Ca2+ (greater than = 1 microM) and Sr2+ (1 mM) markedly inactivated K+ ATP channels, millimolar Ba2+ or Mg2+ were less effective. This suggested that the run down of the channels was a Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of the K+ channel protein.

  5. pH-Sensitive K(+) Currents and Properties of K2P Channels in Murine Hippocampal Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Weller, Johannes; Steinhäuser, Christian; Seifert, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Based on their intimate spatial association with synapses and the capillary, astrocytes are critically involved in the control of ion, transmitter, and energy homeostasis as well as regulation of the cerebral blood flow. Under pathophysiological conditions, dysfunctional astrocytes can no longer assure homeostatic control although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Specifically, neurological diseases are often accompanied by acidification of the extracellular space, but the properties of astrocytes in such an acidic environment are still a matter of debate. To meet the homeostatic requirements, astrocytes are equipped with intercellular gap junctions, inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels, and two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channels. One goal of the present study was to overview current knowledge about astrocyte K(+) channel function during acidosis. In addition, we combined functional and molecular analyses to clarify how low pH affects K(+) channel function in astrocytes freshly isolated from the developing mouse hippocampus. Extracellular acidification led to a decrease of K(+) currents in astrocytes, probably due to modulation of Kir4.1 channels. After blocking Kir4.1 channels, low pH enhanced K(+) current amplitudes. This current activation was mimicked by modulators of TREK-1 channels, which belong to the K2P channels family. We found no evidence for the presence of acid-sensitive ion channels and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, the assembly of astrocytic K(+) channels allows tolerating short, transient acidification, and glial Kir4.1 and K2P channels can be considered promising new targets in brain diseases accompanied by pH shifts. PMID:26920692

  6. Mercury-sensitive water channels as possible sensors of water potentials in pollen.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Hill, Bruria; Hill, Adrian E; Powell, Janet; Skepper, Jeremy N; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-11-01

    The growing pollen tube is central to plant reproduction and is a long-standing model for cellular tip growth in biology. Rapid osmotically driven growth is maintained under variable conditions, which requires osmosensing and regulation. This study explores the mechanism of water entry and the potential role of osmosensory regulation in maintaining pollen growth. The osmotic permeability of the plasmalemma of Lilium pollen tubes was measured from plasmolysis rates to be 1.32±0.31×10(-3) cm s(-1). Mercuric ions reduce this permeability by 65%. Simulations using an osmotic model of pollen tube growth predict that an osmosensor at the cell membrane controls pectin deposition at the cell tip; inhibiting the sensor is predicted to cause tip bursting due to cell wall thinning. It was found that adding mercury to growing pollen tubes caused such a bursting of the tips. The model indicates that lowering the osmotic permeability per se does not lead to bursting but rather to thickening of the tip. The time course of induced bursting showed no time lag and was independent of mercury concentration, compatible with a surface site of action. The submaximal bursting response to intermediate mercuric ion concentration was independent of the concentration of calcium ions, showing that bursting is not due to a competitive inhibition of calcium binding or entry. Bursting with the same time course was also shown by cells growing on potassium-free media, indicating that potassium channels (implicated in mechanosensing) are not involved in the bursting response. The possible involvement of mercury-sensitive water channels as osmosensors and current knowledge of these in pollen cells are discussed. PMID:24098048

  7. Mercury-sensitive water channels as possible sensors of water potentials in pollen

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Adrian E.

    2013-01-01

    The growing pollen tube is central to plant reproduction and is a long-standing model for cellular tip growth in biology. Rapid osmotically driven growth is maintained under variable conditions, which requires osmosensing and regulation. This study explores the mechanism of water entry and the potential role of osmosensory regulation in maintaining pollen growth. The osmotic permeability of the plasmalemma of Lilium pollen tubes was measured from plasmolysis rates to be 1.32±0.31×10–3 cm s–1. Mercuric ions reduce this permeability by 65%. Simulations using an osmotic model of pollen tube growth predict that an osmosensor at the cell membrane controls pectin deposition at the cell tip; inhibiting the sensor is predicted to cause tip bursting due to cell wall thinning. It was found that adding mercury to growing pollen tubes caused such a bursting of the tips. The model indicates that lowering the osmotic permeability per se does not lead to bursting but rather to thickening of the tip. The time course of induced bursting showed no time lag and was independent of mercury concentration, compatible with a surface site of action. The submaximal bursting response to intermediate mercuric ion concentration was independent of the concentration of calcium ions, showing that bursting is not due to a competitive inhibition of calcium binding or entry. Bursting with the same time course was also shown by cells growing on potassium-free media, indicating that potassium channels (implicated in mechanosensing) are not involved in the bursting response. The possible involvement of mercury-sensitive water channels as osmosensors and current knowledge of these in pollen cells are discussed. PMID:24098048

  8. Overexpressed TRPV3 ion channels in skin keratinocytes modulate pain sensitivity via prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susan M.; Lee, Hyosang; Chung, Man-Kyo; Park, Una; Yu, Yin Yin; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Coulombe, Pierre A.; Walker, J. Michael; Caterina, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sense changes in the environment is essential for survival because it permits responses such as withdrawal from noxious stimuli and regulation of body temperature. Keratinocytes, which occupy much of the skin epidermis, are situated at the interface between the external environment and the body's internal milieu, and have long been appreciated for their barrier function against external insults. The recent discovery of temperature-sensitive TRPV ion channels in keratinocytes has raised the possibility that these cells also actively participate in acute temperature and pain sensation. To address this notion, we generated and characterized transgenic mice that overexpress TRPV3 in epidermal keratinocytes under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. Compared to wild-type controls, keratinocytes overexpressing TRPV3 exhibited larger currents as well as augmented prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in response to two TRPV3 agonists, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) and heat. Thermal selection behavior and heat-evoked withdrawal behavior of naïve mice overexpressing TRPV3 were not consistently altered. Upon selective pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 with JNJ-7203212, however, the keratinocyte-specific TRPV3 transgenic mice showed increased escape responses to noxious heat relative to their wild-type littermates. Co-administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, with the TRPV1 antagonist decreased inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia in transgenic but not wild-type animals. Our results reveal a previously undescribed mechanism for keratinocyte participation in thermal pain transduction through keratinocyte TRPV3 ion channels and the intercellular messenger PGE2. PMID:19091963

  9. Mercury-sensitive water channels as possible sensors of water potentials in pollen.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Hill, Bruria; Hill, Adrian E; Powell, Janet; Skepper, Jeremy N; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-11-01

    The growing pollen tube is central to plant reproduction and is a long-standing model for cellular tip growth in biology. Rapid osmotically driven growth is maintained under variable conditions, which requires osmosensing and regulation. This study explores the mechanism of water entry and the potential role of osmosensory regulation in maintaining pollen growth. The osmotic permeability of the plasmalemma of Lilium pollen tubes was measured from plasmolysis rates to be 1.32±0.31×10(-3) cm s(-1). Mercuric ions reduce this permeability by 65%. Simulations using an osmotic model of pollen tube growth predict that an osmosensor at the cell membrane controls pectin deposition at the cell tip; inhibiting the sensor is predicted to cause tip bursting due to cell wall thinning. It was found that adding mercury to growing pollen tubes caused such a bursting of the tips. The model indicates that lowering the osmotic permeability per se does not lead to bursting but rather to thickening of the tip. The time course of induced bursting showed no time lag and was independent of mercury concentration, compatible with a surface site of action. The submaximal bursting response to intermediate mercuric ion concentration was independent of the concentration of calcium ions, showing that bursting is not due to a competitive inhibition of calcium binding or entry. Bursting with the same time course was also shown by cells growing on potassium-free media, indicating that potassium channels (implicated in mechanosensing) are not involved in the bursting response. The possible involvement of mercury-sensitive water channels as osmosensors and current knowledge of these in pollen cells are discussed.

  10. KATP channel as well as SGLT1 participates in GIP secretion in the diabetic state.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hidetada; Seino, Yusuke; Harada, Norio; Iida, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazuyo; Izumoto, Takako; Ishikawa, Kota; Uenishi, Eita; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Takashi; Inagaki, Nobuya; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Seino, Susumu; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a gut hormone secreted from intestinal K-cells, potentiates insulin secretion. Both K-cells and pancreatic β-cells are glucose-responsive and equipped with a similar glucose-sensing apparatus that includes glucokinase and an ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel comprising KIR6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor 1. In absorptive epithelial cells and enteroendocrine cells, sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is also known to play an important role in glucose absorption and glucose-induced incretin secretion. However, the glucose-sensing mechanism in K-cells is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the involvement of SGLT1 (SLC5A1) and the KATP channels in glucose sensing in GIP secretion in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Glimepiride, a sulfonylurea, did not induce GIP secretion and pretreatment with diazoxide, a KATP channel activator, did not affect glucose-induced GIP secretion in the normal state. In mice lacking KATP channels (Kir6.2(-/-) mice), glucose-induced GIP secretion was enhanced compared with control (Kir6.2(+) (/) (+)) mice, but was completely blocked by the SGLT1 inhibitor phlorizin. In Kir6.2(-/-) mice, intestinal glucose absorption through SGLT1 was enhanced compared with that in Kir6.2(+) (/) (+) mice. On the other hand, glucose-induced GIP secretion was enhanced in the diabetic state in Kir6.2(+) (/) (+) mice. This GIP secretion was partially blocked by phlorizin, but was completely blocked by pretreatment with diazoxide in addition to phlorizin administration. These results demonstrate that glucose-induced GIP secretion depends primarily on SGLT1 in the normal state, whereas the KATP channel as well as SGLT1 is involved in GIP secretion in the diabetic state in vivo.

  11. Fine-tuning of voltage sensitivity of the Kv1.2 potassium channel by interhelix loop dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sand, Rheanna; Sharmin, Nazlee; Morgan, Carla; Gallin, Warren J

    2013-04-01

    Many proteins function by changing conformation in response to ligand binding or changes in other factors in their environment. Any change in the sequence of a protein, for example during evolution, which alters the relative free energies of the different functional conformations changes the conditions under which the protein will function. Voltage-gated ion channels are membrane proteins that open and close an ion-selective pore in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. The charged S4 transmembrane helix transduces changes in transmembrane voltage into a change in protein internal energy by interacting with the rest of the channel protein through a combination of non-covalent interactions between adjacent helices and covalent interactions along the peptide backbone. However, the structural basis for the wide variation in the V50 value between different voltage-gated potassium channels is not well defined. To test the role of the loop linking the S3 helix and the S4 helix in voltage sensitivity, we have constructed a set of mutants of the rat Kv1.2 channel that vary solely in the length and composition of the extracellular loop that connects S4 to S3. We evaluated the effect of these different loop substitutions on the voltage sensitivity of the channel and compared these experimental results with molecular dynamics simulations of the loop structures. Here, we show that this loop has a significant role in setting the precise V50 of activation in Kv1 family channels.

  12. A model of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes based on the kinetics of ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y; Othmer, H G

    1994-01-01

    The ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels are pivotal to signal transduction and cell function in many cell types, including cardiac myocytes. In this paper a kinetic model is proposed for these channels. In the model there are two Ca regulatory sites on the channel protein, one positive and the other negative. Cytoplasmic Ca binds to these regulatory sites independently It is assumed that the binding of Ca to the positive site is a much faster process than binding to the negative site. At steady state, the channel opening as a function of the Ca concentration is a bell-shaped curve. The model predicts the adaptation of channels to constant Ca stimulus. When this model is applied to cardiac myocytes, it predicts excitability with respect to Ca perturbations, smoothly graded responses, and Ca oscillations in certain pathological circumstances. In a spatially distributed system, traveling Ca waves in individual myocytes exist under certain conditions. This model can also be applied to other systems where the ryanodine-sensitive channels have been identified. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 15 PMID:7696464

  13. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-06-05

    In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE) via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl), saltiness (NaCl), sweetness (glucose) and bitterness (quinine-HCl), were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to

  14. The cardioprotective effect of naringenin against ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel in rat.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li-Min; Ma, Hui-Jie; Guo, Hui; Kong, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Naringenin (Nari) has antioxidative and anti-atherosclerosis effects, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can offer cardiac protection. We hypothesized that Nari protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury through activation of KATP. Isolated hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a 30-min global ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion (120 min for the infarct size determination). The hearts were treated with Nari (NARI); Nari plus glibenclamide (GLI), a non-specific ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+GLI); and Nari plus 5-hydroxy decanoic acid (5-HD), a mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+5-HD). The left ventricular pressure, lactate dehydrogenates (LDH) in coronary effluent, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardium, and myocardial infarct area were measured. Nari above 2.5 μmol/L improved the recovery of left ventricular function, decreased LDH in coronary effluent, and reduced myocardial infarct area. The SOD activity was increased and MDA was decreased in Nari-treated myocardium. The cardioprotective effect of Nari was canceled by GLI and 5-HD. In conclusion, Nari has a cardioprotective effect against I-R injury, which may be carried out through activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels in both cell and mitochondrial membrane, and enhancing myocardial antioxidant capacity. PMID:27408985

  15. The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC), the ignored cousin of ASICs and ENaC.

    PubMed

    Wiemuth, Dominik; Assmann, Marc; Gründer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The DEG/ENaC gene family of ion channels is characterized by a high degree of structural similarity and an equally high degree of diversity concerning the physiological function. In humans and rodents, the DEG/ENaC family comprises 2 main subgroups: the subunits of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and the subunits of the acid sensing ion channels (ASICs). The bile acid-sensitive channel (BASIC), previously known as BLINaC or INaC, represents a third subgroup within the DEG/ENaC family. Although BASIC was identified more than a decade ago, very little is known about its physiological function. Recent progress in the characterization of this neglected member of the DEG/ENaC family, which is summarized in this focused review, includes the discovery of surprising species differences, its pharmacological characterization, and the identification of bile acids as putative natural activators.

  16. The Walter B. Cannon Physiology in Perspective Lecture, 2007. ATP-sensitive K+ channels and disease: from molecule to malady.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Frances M

    2007-10-01

    This essay is based on a lecture given to the American Physiological Society in honor of Walter B. Cannon, an advocate of homeostasis. It focuses on the role of the ATP-sensitive potassium K(+) (K(ATP)) channel in glucose homeostasis and, in particular, on its role in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. The beta-cell K(ATP) channel comprises pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory SUR1 subunits, and mutations in either type of subunit can result in too little or too much insulin release. Here, I review the latest information on the relationship between K(ATP) channel structure and function, and consider how mutations in the K(ATP) channel genes lead to neonatal diabetes or congenital hyperinsulinism.

  17. The Walter B. Cannon Physiology in Perspective Lecture, 2007. ATP-sensitive K+ channels and disease: from molecule to malady.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Frances M

    2007-10-01

    This essay is based on a lecture given to the American Physiological Society in honor of Walter B. Cannon, an advocate of homeostasis. It focuses on the role of the ATP-sensitive potassium K(+) (K(ATP)) channel in glucose homeostasis and, in particular, on its role in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. The beta-cell K(ATP) channel comprises pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory SUR1 subunits, and mutations in either type of subunit can result in too little or too much insulin release. Here, I review the latest information on the relationship between K(ATP) channel structure and function, and consider how mutations in the K(ATP) channel genes lead to neonatal diabetes or congenital hyperinsulinism. PMID:17652156

  18. ATP-sensitive potassium channel modulators and cardiac arrhythmias: an update.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Danina M; Kiss, Loránd; Jost, Norbert; Baczko, István

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia and heart failure-related cardiac arrhythmias, both atrial (e.g., atrial fibrillation) and ventricular (e.g., malignant tachyarrhythmias) represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the progress made in the last decade in understanding their pathophysiological mechanisms there is still an unmet need for safer and more efficacious pharmacological treatment, especially when considering the drawbacks and complications of implantable devices. Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels located in the sarcolemmal membrane (sarcKATP) and the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP) have emerged as crucial controllers of several key cellular functions. In the past three decades a tremendous amount of research led to their structural and functional characterization unveiling both a protective role in cardiac adaptive responses to metabolic stress and a seemingly paradoxical role in promoting as well as protecting against atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. On the other hand, several KATP inhibitors have emerged as potential ischemia selective antiarrhythmic drugs. In this respect, cardioselective, chamber specific and combined sarcKATP and mitoKATP modulators currently represent a promising field for drug development.

  19. Expression of temperature-sensitive ion channel TRPM8 in sperm cells correlates with vertebrate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Saha, Somdatta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Arijit; Swain, Nirlipta; Goswami, Luna; Mohapatra, Pratyush; Maity, Apratim; Kumar Sahoo, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily Melastatin, member 8 (TRPM8) is involved in detection of cold temperature, different noxious compounds and in execution of thermo- as well as chemo-sensitive responses at cellular levels. Here we explored the molecular evolution of TRPM8 by analyzing sequences from various species. We elucidate that several regions of TRPM8 had different levels of selection pressure but the 4th–5th transmembrane regions remain highly conserved. Analysis of synteny suggests that since vertebrate origin, TRPM8 gene is linked with SPP2, a bone morphogen. TRPM8, especially the N-terminal region of it, seems to be highly variable in human population. We found 16,656 TRPM8 variants in 1092 human genomes with top variations being SNPs, insertions and deletions. A total of 692 missense mutations are also mapped to human TRPM8 protein of which 509 seem to be delateroiours in nature as supported by Polyphen V2, SIFT and Grantham deviation score. Using a highly specific antibody, we demonstrate that TRPM8 is expressed endogenously in the testis of rat and sperm cells of different vertebrates ranging from fish to higher mammals. We hypothesize that TRPM8 had emerged during vertebrate evolution (ca 450 MYA). We propose that expression of TRPM8 in sperm cell and its role in regulating sperm function are important factors that have guided its molecular evolution, and that these understandings may have medical importance. PMID:26500819

  20. Functional control of cold- and menthol-sensitive TRPM8 ion channels by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beiying; Qin, Feng

    2005-02-16

    Cold is detected by a small subpopulation of peripheral thermoreceptors. TRPM8, a cloned menthol- and cold-sensitive ion channel, has been suggested to mediate cold transduction in the innocuous range. The channel shows a robust response in whole-cell recordings but exhibits markedly reduced activity in excised membrane patches. Here we report that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an essential regulator of the channel function. The rundown of the channel is prevented by lipid phosphatase inhibitors. Application of exogenous PIP2 both activates the channel directly and restores rundown activity. Whole-cell experiments involving intracellular dialysis with polyvalent cations, inhibition of PIP2 synthesis kinases, and receptor-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 show that PIP2 also modulates the channel activity in the intact cells. The crucial role of PIP2 on the function of TRPM8 suggests that the membrane PIP2 level may be an important regulator of cold transduction in vivo. The opposite effects of PIP2 on the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and TRPM8 also implies that the membrane lipid may have dual actions as a bimodal switch to selectively control the heat- and cold-induced responses in nociceptors expressing both channels.

  1. Evaluation of six channelized Hotelling observers in combination with a contrast sensitivity function to predict human observer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffi, Marco; Veldkamp, Wouter J. H.; van Engen, Ruben E.; Bouwman, Ramona W.

    2015-03-01

    Standard methods to quantify image quality (IQ) may not be adequate for clinical images since they depend on uniform backgrounds and linearity. Statistical model observers are not restricted to these limitations and might be suitable for IQ evaluation of clinical images. One of these statistical model observers is the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO), where the images are filtered by a set of channels. The aim of this study was to evaluate six different channel sets, with an additional filter to simulate the human contrast sensitivity function (CSF), in their ability to predict human observer performance. For this evaluation a two alternative forced choice experiment was performed with two types of background structures (white noise (WN) and clustered lumpy background (CLB)), 5 disk-shaped objects with different diameters and 3 different signal energies. The results show that the correlation between human and model observers have a diameter dependency for some channel sets in combination with CLBs. The addition of the CSF reduces this diameter dependency and in some cases improves the correlation coefficient between human- and model observer. For the CLB the Partial Least Squares channel set shows the highest correlation with the human observer (r2=0.71) and for WN backgrounds it was the Gabor-channel set with CSF (r2=0.72). This study showed that for some channels there is a high correlation between human and model observer, which suggests that the CHO has potential as a tool for IQ analysis of digital mammography systems.

  2. Influence of Thromboxane A2 on the Regulation of Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, In Seok; Cho, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Kim, Sang Hyung; Na, Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play an important role in myocardial protection. We examined the effects of thromboxane A2 on the regulation of KATP channel activity in single ventricular myocytes. Subjects and Methods Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of adult Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by enzymatic digestion. Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at −60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. Results In the excised inside-out patches, the thromboxane A2 analog, U46619, decreased the KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner; however, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, did not significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of U46619. In the cell-attached patches, U46619 inhibited dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner, and SQ29548 attenuated the inhibitory effects of U46619 on DNP-induced KATP channel activity. Conclusion Thromboxane A2 may inhibit KATP channel activity, and may have a harmful effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:27482267

  3. Electromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells.

    PubMed

    Ketabi, N; Mobasheri, H; Faraji-Dana, R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultra high frequency (UHF) nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the channel activities of nanopore forming protein, OmpF porin, were investigated. The voltage clamp technique was used to study the single channel activity of the pore in an artificial bilayer in the presence and absence of the electromagnetic fields at 910 to 990 MHz in real time. Channel activity patterns were used to address the effect of EMF on the dynamic, arrangement and dielectric properties of water molecules, as well as on the hydration state and arrangements of side chains lining the channel barrel. Based on the varied voltage sensitivity of the channel at different temperatures in the presence and absence of EMF, the amount of energy transferred to nano-environments of accessible groups was estimated to address the possible thermal effects of EMF. Our results show that the effects of EMF on channel activities are frequency dependent, with a maximum effect at 930 MHz. The frequency of channel gating and the voltage sensitivity is increased when the channel is exposed to EMF, while its conductance remains unchanged at all frequencies applied. We have not identified any changes in the capacitance and permeability of membrane in the presence of EMF. The effect of the EMF irradiated by cell phones is measured by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in artificial model of human head, Phantom. Thus, current approach applied to biological molecules and electrolytes might be considered as complement to evaluate safety of irradiating sources on biological matter at molecular level.

  4. Chlorotoxin-sensitive Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in type R2 reactive astrocytes from adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Stanislava; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Chen, Mingkui; Dong, Yafeng; Shuba, Yaroslav; Simard, J Marc

    2003-06-01

    Astrocytes express four types of Cl(-) or anion channels, but Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (Cl(Ca)) channels have not been described. We studied Cl(-) channels in a morphologically distinct subpopulation ( approximately 5% of cells) of small (10-12 micro m, 11.8 +/- 0.6 pF), phase-dark, GFAP-positive native reactive astrocytes (NRAs) freshly isolated from injured adult rat brains. Their resting potential, -57.1 +/- 4.0 mV, polarized to -72.7 +/- 4.5 mV with BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and depolarized to -30.7 +/- 6.1 mV with thapsigargin, which mobilizes Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. With nystatin-perforated patch clamp, thapsigargin activated a current that reversed near the Cl(-) reversal potential, which was blocked by Cl(-) channel blockers, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and Zn(2+), by I(-) (10 mM), and by chlorotoxin (EC(50) = 47 nM). With conventional whole-cell clamp, NPPB- and Zn(2+)-sensitive currents became larger with increasing [Ca(2+)](i) (10, 150, 300 nM). Single-channel recordings of inside-out patches confirmed Ca(2+) sensitivity of the channel and showed open-state conductances of 40, 80, 130, and 180 pS, and outside-out patches confirmed sensitivity to chlorotoxin. In primary culture, small phase-dark NRAs developed into small GFAP-positive bipolar cells with chlorotoxin-sensitive Cl(Ca) channels. Imaging with biotinylated chlorotoxin confirmed the presence of label in GFAP-positive cells from regions of brain injury, but not from uninjured brain. Chlorotoxin-tagged cells isolated by flow cytometry and cultured up to two passages exhibit positive labeling for GFAP and vimentin, but not for prolyl 4-hydroxylase (fibroblast), A2B5 (O2A progenitor), or OX-42 (microglia). Expression of a novel chlorotoxin-sensitive Cl(Ca) channel in a morphologically distinct subpopulation of NRAs distinguishes these cells as a new subtype of reactive astrocyte.

  5. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiac KATP channels like phosphatidylinositols, but with novel gating kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Gao, Lizhi; Wang, Wenxia

    2003-01-01

    Membrane-bound anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositols have the capacity to modulate ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels through a mechanism involving long-range electrostatic interaction between the lipid headgroup and channel. However, it has not yet been determined whether the multiple effects of phosphatidylinositols reported in the literature all result from this general electrostatic interaction or require a specific headgroup structure. The present study investigated whether phosphatidic acid (PA), an anionic phospholipid substantially different in structure from phosphatidylinositols, evokes effects similar to phosphatidylinositols on native K(ATP) channels of rat heart and heterogeneous Kir6.2/SUR2A channels. Channels treated with PA (0.2-1 mg/ml applied to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane) exhibited higher activity, lower sensitivity to ATP inhibition, less Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotide stimulation, and poor sulfonylurea inhibition. These effects match the spectrum of phosphatidylinositols' effects, but, in addition, PA also induced a novel pattern in gating kinetics, represented by a decreased mean open time (from 12.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ms). This impact on gating kinetics clearly distinguishes PA's effects from those of phosphatidylinositols. Results indicate that multiple effects of anionic phospholipids on K(ATP) channels are related phenomena and can likely be attributed to a common mechanism, but additional specific effects due to other mechanisms may also coincide.

  6. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Hemicalcin, a new toxin from the Iranian scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus which is active on ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Feng, Wei; Ram, Narendra; Borchani, Lamia; Ronjat, Michel; Akbari, Abolfazl; Pessah, Isaac N.; De Waard, Michel; El Ayeb, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we purified and characterized a novel toxin named hemicalcin from the venom of the Iranian chactoid scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus where it represents 0.6% of the total protein content. It is a 33-mer basic peptide reticulated by three disulfide bridges, and that shares between 85 and 91% sequence identity with four other toxins, all known or supposed to be active on ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels. Hemicalcin differs from these other toxins by seven amino acids at positions 9 (leucine/arginine), 12 (alanine/glutamic acid), 13 (aspartic acid/asparagine), 14 (lysine/asparagine), 18 (serine/glycine), 26 (threonine/alanine) and 28 (proline/isoleucine/alanine). In spite of these differences, hemicalcin remains active on ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, since it increases [3H]ryanodine binding on RyR1 (ryanodine receptor type 1) and triggers Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic vesicles. Bilayer lipid membrane experiments, in which the RyR1 channel is reconstituted and its gating properties are analysed, indicate that hemicalcin promotes an increase in the opening probability at intermediate concentration and induces a long-lasting subconductance level of 38% of the original amplitude at higher concentrations. Mice intracerebroventricular inoculation of 300 ng of hemicalcin induces neurotoxic symptoms in vivo, followed by death. Overall, these data identify a new biologically active toxin that belongs to a family of peptides active on the ryanodine-sensitive channel. PMID:17291197

  8. Crystal structures of two novel sulfonylurea herbicides in complex with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Lee, Patrick K.-M.; Dong, Yu-Hui; Pang, Siew Siew; Duggleby, Ronald G.; Li, Zheng-Ming; Guddat, Luke W.

    2009-08-17

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 2.2.1.6) is the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. It catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of pyruvate into 2-acetolactate or one molecule of pyruvate and one molecule of 2-ketobutyrate into 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate. AHAS requires the cofactors thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), Mg{sup 2+} and FAD for activity. The herbicides that target this enzyme are effective in protecting a broad range of crops from weed species. However, resistance in the field is now a serious problem worldwide. To address this, two new sulfonylureas, monosulfuron and monosulfuron ester, have been developed as commercial herbicides in China. These molecules differ from the traditional sulfonylureas in that the heterocyclic ring attached to the nitrogen atom of the sulfonylurea bridge is monosubstituted rather than disubstituted. The structures of these compounds in complex with the catalytic subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS have been determined to 3.0 and 2.8 {angstrom}, respectively. In both complexes, these molecules are bound in the tunnel leading to the active site, such that the sole substituent of the heterocyclic ring is buried deepest and oriented towards the ThDP. Unlike the structures of Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS in complex with the classic disubstituted sulfonylureas, where ThDP is broken, this cofactor is intact and present most likely as the hydroxylethyl intermediate.

  9. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  10. The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cellular function and protection in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Andrew; Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) are widely distributed and present in a number of tissues including muscle, pancreatic beta cells and the brain. Their activity is regulated by adenine nucleotides, characteristically being activated by falling ATP and rising ADP levels. Thus, they link cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. Recent studies using genetically modified mice and genomic studies in patients have implicated K(ATP) channels in a number of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we focus on their role in cellular function and protection particularly in the cardiovascular system.

  11. Correlation between potassium channel expression and sensitivity to drug-induced cell death in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Leanza, Luigi; O'Reilly, Paul; Doyle, Anne; Venturini, Elisa; Zoratti, Mario; Szegezdi, Eva; Szabo, Ildiko

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) and mitochondrial (mt) ion channels - particularly potassium channels - became oncological targets soon after the discovery that they are involved both in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Some members of the Kv Shaker family, namely Kv1.1, Kv1.3, Kv1.5 and Kv11.1 (Herg), and the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium KCa3.1 (IK) channels have been shown to contribute to apoptosis in various cell lines. Kv1.3, Kv1.5 and IK are located in the plasma membrane but also in the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they participate in apoptotic signalling. Interestingly, an altered protein expression of some of the channels mentioned above has been reported in neoplastic cell lines/tissues, but a systematic quantification addressing the protein expression of the above potassium channels in tumor cell lines of different origin has not been carried out yet. In the present study we investigated whether expression of specific potassium channels, at the mRNA and protein level, can be correlated with cell sensitivity to various apoptotic stimuli, including chemotherapeutic drugs, in a panel of cancer cell lines. The results show correlation between the protein expression of the Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels and susceptibility to death upon treatment with staurosporine, C2-ceramide and cisplatin. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between Kv channel expression and sensitivity to three distinct membrane-permeant Kv1.3 inhibitors, since these drugs have recently been shown to be able to induce apoptosis and also reduce tumor volume in an in vivo model. Higher protein expression of Kv1.3 significantly correlated with lower cell survival upon treatment with clofazimine, one of the Kv1.3 inhibitors. These results suggest that expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 sensitizes tumour cells of various origins to cytotoxins. Data reported in this work regarding potassium channel protein expression in different cancer cell lines may be exploited

  12. A new sea anemone peptide, APETx2, inhibits ASIC3, a major acid-sensitive channel in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Diochot, Sylvie; Baron, Anne; Rash, Lachlan D; Deval, Emmanuel; Escoubas, Pierre; Scarzello, Sabine; Salinas, Miguel; Lazdunski, Michel

    2004-04-01

    From a systematic screening of animal venoms, we isolated a new toxin (APETx2) from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, which inhibits ASIC3 homomeric channels and ASIC3-containing heteromeric channels both in heterologous expression systems and in primary cultures of rat sensory neurons. APETx2 is a 42 amino-acid peptide crosslinked by three disulfide bridges, with a structural organization similar to that of other sea anemone toxins that inhibit voltage-sensitive Na+ and K+ channels. APETx2 reversibly inhibits rat ASIC3 (IC50=63 nM), without any effect on ASIC1a, ASIC1b, and ASIC2a. APETx2 directly inhibits the ASIC3 channel by acting at its external side, and it does not modify the channel unitary conductance. APETx2 also inhibits heteromeric ASIC2b+3 current (IC50=117 nM), while it has less affinity for ASIC1b+3 (IC50=0.9 microM), ASIC1a+3 (IC50=2 microM), and no effect on the ASIC2a+3 current. The ASIC3-like current in primary cultured sensory neurons is partly and reversibly inhibited by APETx2 with an IC50 of 216 nM, probably due to the mixed inhibitions of various co-expressed ASIC3-containing channels. PMID:15044953

  13. The super-cooling agent icilin reveals a mechanism of coincidence detection by a temperature-sensitive TRP channel.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Huai-hu; Neuhausser, Werner M; Julius, David

    2004-09-16

    TRPM8, a member of the transient receptor potential family of ion channels, depolarizes somatosensory neurons in response to cold. TRPM8 is also activated by the cooling agents menthol and icilin. When exposed to menthol or cold, TRPM8 behaves like many ligand-gated channels, exhibiting rapid activation followed by moderate Ca(2+)-dependent adaptation. In contrast, icilin activates TRPM8 with extremely variable latency followed by extensive desensitization, provided that calcium is present. Here, we show that, to achieve full efficacy, icilin requires simultaneous elevation of cytosolic Ca2+, either via permeation through TRPM8 channels or by release from intracellular stores. Thus, two stimuli must be paired to elicit full channel activation, illustrating the potential for coincidence detection by TRP channels. Determinants of icilin sensitivity map to a region of TRPM8 that corresponds to the capsaicin binding site on the noxious heat receptor TRPV1, suggesting a conserved molecular logic for gating of these thermosensitive channels by chemical agonists. PMID:15363396

  14. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE) via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl), saltiness (NaCl), sweetness (glucose) and bitterness (quinine-HCl), were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to

  15. Aging, motor function, and sensitivity to calcium channel blockers: An investigation using chronic methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Andrew Nathanael; Cummings, Craig; Hoffman, Daniel; Pope, Derek; Arnold, Megan; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-12-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) neurotoxicity is thought to be mediated, in part, by dysregulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, a mechanism that may also slowly and progressively degrade neuronal function during normal aging. Longitudinal studies of MeHg exposure provide a powerful approach to studying neural and behavioral mechanisms by which both MeHg toxicity and aging affect motor function. Wheel-running and rotarod performance were assessed in two age groups of BALB/c mice chronically exposed to 0 or 1.2mg/kg/day MeHg and 0 or 20mg/kg/day nimodipine, a 1,4-dihyrdopyridine L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), for approximately 8.5 months. Adults began exposure on postnatal day (PND) 72 and retired breeders on PND 296. A log-survivor bout analysis partitioned wheel-running into bouts that identified motor (within-bout rates) and motivational (bout-initiation rates) influences. Retired breeders ran farther, because of a higher bout-initiation rates, but performed more poorly on the rotarod than younger adults, a difference unaffected by nimodipine. MeHg produced relatively age-independent deficits in wheel-running and rotarod performance, whereas nimodipine afforded greater protection to adult mice than to retired breeders. Rotarod performance and within-bout response rate were more sensitive to and more reliable predictors of MeHg toxicity than bout-initiation rate, which was least affected by MeHg exposure. Thus the motivation to run was unimpaired as the ability to do so declined. While chronic MeHg exposure produced functionally similar behavior deficits between age groups, the age-dependent neuroprotection by nimodipine supports the notion that underlying neurobiological systems mediated by Ca(2+) signaling, are differentially affected in older adults. PMID:27481695

  16. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  17. Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and KATP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christian R.; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid (FFA), implicating transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of FFA revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea-pig SNr, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output. PMID:21503158

  18. Temperature-sensitive gating of TRPV1 channel as probed by atomistic simulations of its trans- and juxtamembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Chugunov, Anton O; Volynsky, Pavel E; Krylov, Nikolay A; Nolde, Dmitry E; Efremov, Roman G

    2016-01-01

    Heat-activated transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is one of the most studied eukaryotic proteins involved in temperature sensation. Upon heating, it exhibits rapid reversible pore gating, which depolarizes neurons and generates action potentials. Underlying molecular details of such effects in the pore region of TRPV1 is of a crucial importance to control temperature responses of the organism. Despite the spatial structure of the channel in both open (O) and closed (C) states is known, microscopic nature of channel gating and mechanism of thermal sensitivity are still poorly understood. In this work, we used unrestrained atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of TRPV1 (without N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains) embedded into explicit lipid bilayer in its O- and C-states. We found that the pore domain with its neighboring loops undergoes large temperature-dependent conformational transitions in an asymmetric way, when fragments of only one monomer move with large amplitude, freeing the pore upon heating. Such an asymmetrical gating looks rather biologically relevant because it is faster and more reliable than traditionally proposed "iris-like" symmetric scheme of channel opening. Analysis of structural, dynamic, and hydrophobic organization of the pore domain revealed entropy growth upon TRPV1 gating, which is in line with current concepts of thermal sensitivity. PMID:27612191

  19. Temperature-sensitive gating of TRPV1 channel as probed by atomistic simulations of its trans- and juxtamembrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Chugunov, Anton O.; Volynsky, Pavel E.; Krylov, Nikolay A.; Nolde, Dmitry E.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-activated transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is one of the most studied eukaryotic proteins involved in temperature sensation. Upon heating, it exhibits rapid reversible pore gating, which depolarizes neurons and generates action potentials. Underlying molecular details of such effects in the pore region of TRPV1 is of a crucial importance to control temperature responses of the organism. Despite the spatial structure of the channel in both open (O) and closed (C) states is known, microscopic nature of channel gating and mechanism of thermal sensitivity are still poorly understood. In this work, we used unrestrained atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of TRPV1 (without N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains) embedded into explicit lipid bilayer in its O- and C-states. We found that the pore domain with its neighboring loops undergoes large temperature-dependent conformational transitions in an asymmetric way, when fragments of only one monomer move with large amplitude, freeing the pore upon heating. Such an asymmetrical gating looks rather biologically relevant because it is faster and more reliable than traditionally proposed “iris-like” symmetric scheme of channel opening. Analysis of structural, dynamic, and hydrophobic organization of the pore domain revealed entropy growth upon TRPV1 gating, which is in line with current concepts of thermal sensitivity. PMID:27612191

  20. A residue in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain I in insect and mammalian sodium channels regulate differential sensitivities to pyrethroid insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Eugênio E.; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system. Pyrethroid insecticides exert their toxic action by modifying the gating of sodium channels. A valine to methionine mutation in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain I (IS6) of sodium channels from tobacco budworms (Heliothis virescens) has been shown to alter channel gating and reduce insect sodium channel sensitivity to pyrethroids. A valine to leucine substitution was subsequently reported in pyrethroid-resistant bedbug populations. Intriguingly, pyrethroid-resistant mammalian sodium channels possess an isoleucine at the corresponding position. To determine whether different substitutions at this position alter channel gating and confer pyrethroid resistance, we made valine to methionine, isoleucine or leucine substitutions at the corresponding position, V409, in a cockroach sodium channel and examined the gating properties and pyrethroid sensitivity of the three mutants in Xenopus oocytes. All three mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to three pyrethroids (permethrin, cismethrin and deltamethrin). V409M, but not V409I or V409L, caused 6-7 mV depolarizing shifts in the voltage dependences of both activation and inactivation. V409M and V409L slowed channel activation kinetics and accelerated open-state deactivation kinetics, but V409I did not. Furthermore, the substitution of isoleucine with valine, but not with methionine nor leucine, at the corresponding position in a rat skeletal muscle sodium channel, rNav1.4, enhanced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. Collectively, our study highlights an important role of residues at 409 in regulating not only sodium channel gating, but also the differential sensitivities of insect and mammalian sodium channels to pyrethroids. PMID:23764339

  1. Phosphorylation of BK channels modulates the sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

    PubMed Central

    Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Fuchs, Roman; Kainz, Verena; Weiger, Thomas M.; Hermann, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gases, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), or hydrogen sulfide (H2S), termed gasotransmitters, play an increasingly important role in understanding of how electrical signaling of cells is modulated. H2S is well-known to act on various ion channels and receptors. In a previous study we reported that H2S increased calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel activity. Aims: The goal of the present study is to investigate the modulatory effect of BK channel phosphorylation on the action of H2S on the channel as well as to recalculate and determine the H2S concentrations in aqueous sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) solutions. Methods: Single channel recordings of GH3, GH4, and GH4 STREX cells were used to analyze channel open probability, amplitude, and open dwell times. H2S was measured with an anion selective electrode. Results: The concentration of H2S produced from NaHS was recalculated taking pH, temperature salinity of the perfusate, and evaporation of H2S into account. The results indicate that from a concentration of 300 μM NaHS, only 11–13%, i.e., 34–41 μM is effective as H2S in solution. GH3, GH4, and GH4 STREX cells respond differently to phosphorylation. BK channel open probability (Po) of all cells lines used was increased by H2S in ATP-containing solutions. PKA prevented the action of H2S on channel Po in GH4 and GH4 STREX, but not in GH3 cells. H2S, high significantly increased Po of all PKG pretreated cells. In the presence of PKC, which lowers channel activity, H2S increased channel Po of GH4 and GH4 STREX, but not those of GH3 cells. H2S increased open dwell times of GH3 cells in the absence of ATP significantly. A significant increase of dwell times with H2S was also observed in the presence of okadaic acid. Conclusions: Our results suggest that phosphorylation by PKG primes the channels for H2S activation and indicate that channel phosphorylation plays an important role in the response to H2S. PMID:25429270

  2. Exercise-induced expression of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels promotes action potential shortening and energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Zingman, Leonid V; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Stepniak, Elizabeth; Burnett, Colin M-L; Maksymov, Gennadiy; Anderson, Mark E; Coetzee, William A; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M

    2011-07-01

    Physical activity is one of the most important determinants of cardiac function. The ability of the heart to increase delivery of oxygen and metabolic fuels relies on an array of adaptive responses necessary to match bodily demand while avoiding exhaustion of cardiac resources. The ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel has the unique ability to adjust cardiac membrane excitability in accordance with ATP and ADP levels, and up-regulation of its expression that occurs in response to exercise could represent a critical element of this adaption. However, the mechanism by which K(ATP) channel expression changes result in a beneficial effect on cardiac excitability and function remains to be established. Here, we demonstrate that an exercise-induced rise in K(ATP) channel expression enhanced the rate and magnitude of action potential shortening in response to heart rate acceleration. This adaptation in membrane excitability promoted significant reduction in cardiac energy consumption under escalating workloads. Genetic disruption of normal K(ATP) channel pore function abolished the exercise-related changes in action potential duration adjustment and caused increased cardiac energy consumption. Thus, an expression-driven enhancement in the K(ATP) channel-dependent membrane response to alterations in cardiac workload represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for adaptation to physical activity and a potential target for cardioprotection.

  3. Opening of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels enhance hydroxyl radical generation induced by MPP(+) in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Obata, Toshio; Nakashima, Michiko

    2016-07-15

    The present study examined whether opening of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels can enhance 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced hydroxyl radical (OH) generation in rat striatum. Rats were anesthetized, and sodium salicylate in Ringer's solution (0.5nmol/ml per min) was infused through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of OH as reflected by the non-enzymatic formation of 2.3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in the striatum. MPP(+) (5mM) enhanced generation of OH with concomitant increased efflux of dopamine (DA). Cromakalim (100μM), a KATP channel opener, through the microdialysis probe significantly increased both DA efflux and OH formation induced by MPP(+). Another KATP channel opener, nicorandil (1mM), also increased the level DA or DHBA, but these changes were not significant. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (10μM), a KATP channel antagonist, and the increase of MPP(+)-induced DA or DHBA were not observed. Cromakalim (10, 50 and 100μM) increased MPP(+)-induced DHBA formation in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the effects of cromakalim in the presence of glibenclamide were abolished. These results suggest that opening of KATP channels may cause OH generation by MPP(+). PMID:27288802

  4. Characteristics and roles of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) anion channel in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Akita, T; Okada, Y

    2014-09-01

    Cell volume regulation (CVR) is essential for all types of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) to counteract cell volume changes that may be associated with neuronal activities or diseases and with osmosensing in the hypothalamus, to facilitate morphological changes during cell proliferation, differentiation and migration, and to execute apoptosis of cells. The regulation is attained by regulating the net influx or efflux of solutes and water across the plasma membrane. The volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) anion channel plays a major role in providing a pathway for anion flux during the regulation. The VSOR anion channel is permeable not only to Cl(-) ions but also to amino acids like glutamate and taurine. This property confers a means of intercellular communications through the opening of the channel in the CNS. Thus exploring the roles of VSOR anion channels is crucial to understand the basic principles of cellular functions in the CNS. Here we review biophysical and pharmacological characteristics of the VSOR anion channel in the CNS, discuss its activation mechanisms and roles in the CNS reported so far, and give some perspectives on the next issues to be examined in the near future.

  5. Characteristics and roles of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) anion channel in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Akita, T; Okada, Y

    2014-09-01

    Cell volume regulation (CVR) is essential for all types of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) to counteract cell volume changes that may be associated with neuronal activities or diseases and with osmosensing in the hypothalamus, to facilitate morphological changes during cell proliferation, differentiation and migration, and to execute apoptosis of cells. The regulation is attained by regulating the net influx or efflux of solutes and water across the plasma membrane. The volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) anion channel plays a major role in providing a pathway for anion flux during the regulation. The VSOR anion channel is permeable not only to Cl(-) ions but also to amino acids like glutamate and taurine. This property confers a means of intercellular communications through the opening of the channel in the CNS. Thus exploring the roles of VSOR anion channels is crucial to understand the basic principles of cellular functions in the CNS. Here we review biophysical and pharmacological characteristics of the VSOR anion channel in the CNS, discuss its activation mechanisms and roles in the CNS reported so far, and give some perspectives on the next issues to be examined in the near future. PMID:24937753

  6. Reduced Nav1.6 Sodium Channel Activity in Mice Increases In Vivo Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dinesh; Jones, Julie M.; Wisidagamage, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nav1.6 is a major voltage-gated sodium channel in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Within neurons, the channel protein is concentrated at the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier, where it functions in initiation and propagation of action potentials. We examined the role of Nav1.6 in general anesthesia using two mouse mutants with reduced activity of Nav1.6, Scn8amedJ/medJ and Scn8a9J/9J. The mice were exposed to the general anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane in step-wise increments; the concentration required to produce loss of righting reflex, a surrogate for anesthetic-induced unconsciousness in rodents, was determined. Mice homozygous for these mutations exhibited increased sensitivity to both isoflurane and sevoflurane. The increased sensitivity was observed during induction of unconsciousness but not during the recovery phase, suggesting that the effect is not attributable to compromised systemic physiology. Electroencephalographic theta power during baseline waking was lower in mutants, suggesting decreased arousal and reduced neuronal excitability. This is the first report linking reduced activity of a specific voltage-gated sodium channel to increased sensitivity to general anesthetics in vivo. PMID:26252017

  7. Numerical sensitivity analysis of passive EHF and SMMW channels to tropospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential uses of specific extremely High Frequency (EHF) and Sub-Millimeter-Wave (SMMW) channels at 90, 166, 183, 220, 325, 340, and 410 GHz for passive spaceborne remote sensing of the troposphere and lower stratosphere are investigated using an iterative numerical radiative transfer model. Collectively, these channels offer potential for high spatial resolution imaging using diffraction-limited apertures of practical size, along with the ability to profile water vapor, map precipitation beneath optically opaque cloud cover, and to measure nonprecipitating cloud (e.g., cirrus) parameters. A widely-spaced set of EHF and SMMW channels can yield observable degrees of freedom related to clouds and precipitation not available by exclusively using the more thoroughly studied microwave channels below 183 GHz. A new passive airborne imaging instrument for tropospheric meteorological sensing is described.

  8. PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE Ca2+ CHANNEL FUNCTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms underlying the acute neurophysiological and behavioral effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain to be elucidated. However, the function of neuronal ion channels is perturbed by VOCs. The present study examined effects of toluene (TOL), trichloroethylene ...

  9. Dynamic subunit stoichiometry confers a progressive continuum of pharmacological sensitivity by KCNQ potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Lin, Zhihong; Mattmann, Margrith E; Zou, Beiyan; Terrenoire, Cecile; Zhang, Hongkang; Wu, Meng; McManus, Owen B; Kass, Robert S; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Li, Min

    2013-05-21

    Voltage-gated KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) potassium channels are expressed abundantly in heart but they are also found in multiple other tissues. Differential coassembly with single transmembrane KCNE beta subunits in different cell types gives rise to a variety of biophysical properties, hence endowing distinct physiological roles for KCNQ1-KCNEx complexes. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes result in diseases in brain, heart, and the respiratory system. In addition to complexities arising from existence of five KCNE subunits, KCNE1 to KCNE5, recent studies in heterologous systems suggest unorthodox stoichiometric dynamics in subunit assembly is dependent on KCNE expression levels. The resultant KCNQ1-KCNE channel complexes may have a range of zero to two or even up to four KCNE subunits coassembling per KCNQ1 tetramer. These findings underscore the need to assess the selectivity of small-molecule KCNQ1 modulators on these different assemblies. Here we report a unique small-molecule gating modulator, ML277, that potentiates both homomultimeric KCNQ1 channels and unsaturated heteromultimeric (KCNQ1)4(KCNE1)n (n < 4) channels. Progressive increase of KCNE1 or KCNE3 expression reduces efficacy of ML277 and eventually abolishes ML277-mediated augmentation. In cardiomyocytes, the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current, or IKs, is believed to be a heteromultimeric combination of KCNQ1 and KCNE1, but it is not entirely clear whether IKs is mediated by KCNE-saturated KCNQ1 channels or by channels with intermediate stoichiometries. We found ML277 effectively augments IKs current of cultured human cardiomyocytes and shortens action potential duration. These data indicate that unsaturated heteromultimeric (KCNQ1)4(KCNE1)n channels are present as components of IKs and are pharmacologically distinct from KCNE-saturated KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels. PMID:23650380

  10. Effects of intracellular pH on ATP-sensitive K+ channels in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Proks, P; Takano, M; Ashcroft, F M

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of intracellular pH (pHi) on the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K+ATP channel) from mouse pancreatic beta-cells were examined in inside-out patches exposed to symmetrical 140 mM K+ solutions. 2. The relationship between channel activity and pHi was described by the Hill equation with half-maximal inhibition (Ki) at pHi 6.25 and a Hill coefficient of 3.7. 3. Following exposure to pHi < 6.8, channel activity did not recover to its original level. Subsequent application of trypsin to the intracellular membrane surface restored channel activity to its initial level or above. 4. At -60 mV the relationship between pHi and the single-channel current amplitude was described by a modified Hill equation with a Hill coefficient of 2.1, half-maximal inhibition at pHi 6.48 and a maximum inhibition of 18.5%. 5. A decrease in pHi reduced the extent of channel inhibition by ATP: Ki was 18 microM at pH 7.2 and 33 microM at pH 6.4. The Hill coefficient was also reduced, being 1.65 at pH 7.2 and 1.17 at pH 6.4. 6. When channel activity was plotted as a function of ATP4- (rather than total ATP) there was no effect of pHi on the relationship. This suggests that ATP4- is the inhibitory ion species and that the effects of reducing pHi are due to the lowered concentration of ATP4-. 7. Changes in external pH had little effect on either single-channel or whole-cell K+ATP currents. 8. The effects of pHi do not support a role for H+ in linking glucose metabolism to K+ATP channel inhibition in pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:8189391

  11. Numerical sensitivity analysis of 3- and 2- dimensional rib-roughened channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshmiri, Amir

    2012-07-01

    Rough surfaces have been used as a tool to enhance heat transfer by increasing the level of turbulence mixing in the flow. In numerically simulating such flows, it is common to simulate a 3D rib-roughened channel with a 2D domain in order to reduce the computational time and power. The main purpose of the present work is to investigate the accuracy of the above approximation. In order to do so, initially a 3D channel is simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes technique and comparison is made against 2D simulations as well as experimental data. In addition, the effects of rib thermal boundary condition and near-wall treatments are also investigated. All computations are undertaken using the commercial CFD code `STAR-CD'. The Reynolds number, based on the channel bulk velocity and hydraulic diameter, is 30,000. Two low-Reynolds-number linear Eddy-Viscosity Models, namely the Lien-Chen-Leschziner k - ɛ model and a variant of Durbin's v 2 - f formulation are used. In the CFD simulations reported here, the focus is on the experimental data of Rau et al. (ASME J Turbomach 120:368-375, 1998). It was found that the present results for a 3D channel are in relatively good agreement with the data. It was also shown that a 2D channel can be used to represent the flow in the centre-line of a 3D channel with relatively good accuracy.

  12. Discovery and pharmacological characterization of a novel potent inhibitor of diacylglycerol-sensitive TRPC cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Maier, T; Follmann, M; Hessler, G; Kleemann, H-W; Hachtel, S; Fuchs, B; Weissmann, N; Linz, W; Schmidt, T; Löhn, M; Schroeter, K; Wang, L; Rütten, H; Strübing, C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The cation channel transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 6 has been associated with several pathologies including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and ischaemia reperfusion-induced lung oedema. We set out to discover novel inhibitors of TRPC6 channels and investigate the therapeutic potential of these agents. Experimental Approach A library of potential TRPC channel inhibitors was designed and synthesized. Activity of the compounds was assessed by measuring intracellular Ca2+ levels. The lead compound SAR7334 was further characterized by whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The effects of SAR7334 on acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and systemic BP were investigated. Key Results SAR7334 inhibited TRPC6, TRPC3 and TRPC7-mediated Ca2+ influx into cells with IC50s of 9.5, 282 and 226 nM, whereas TRPC4 and TRPC5-mediated Ca2+ entry was not affected. Patch-clamp experiments confirmed that the compound blocked TRPC6 currents with an IC50 of 7.9 nM. Furthermore, SAR7334 suppressed TRPC6-dependent acute HPV in isolated perfused lungs from mice. Pharmacokinetic studies of SAR7334 demonstrated that the compound was suitable for chronic oral administration. In an initial short-term study, SAR7334 did not change mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Conclusions and Implications Our results confirm the role of TRPC6 channels in hypoxic pulmonary vasoregulation and indicate that these channels are unlikely to play a major role in BP regulation in SHR. SAR7334 is a novel, highly potent and bioavailable inhibitor of TRPC6 channels that opens new opportunities for the investigation of TRPC channel function in vivo. PMID:25847402

  13. Inhibitory effects of Tyrphostin AG-related compounds on oxidative stress-sensitive transient receptor potential channel activation.

    PubMed

    Toda, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Yonezawa, Ryo; Mori, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Some transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins including TRPA1, TPRM2 and TRPV1 are oxidative stress-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channels. Ca(2+) signaling via these TRP channels activated by oxidative stress has been implicated in the aggravation of various inflammatory diseases and pain sensation. We recently reported that Tyrphostin AG490 exerted inhibitory effects on H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation by scavenging the hydroxyl radical. In order to identify stronger inhibitors of oxidative stress-sensitive TRP channels than AG490, we examined the inhibitory effects of Tyrphostin AG-related compounds on H2O2-induced TRP channel activation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing TRP channels. AG555 and AG556 blocked the activation of TRPM2 by H2O2 more strongly than AG490. Regarding TRPV1 and TRPA1, none of the three compounds tested affected H2O2-induced TRPV1 activation; however, AG555 and AG556 reduced H2O2-induced TRPA1 activation more than AG490. Thus, we herein identified AG555 and AG556 as new compounds that exert stronger inhibitory effects on H2O2-induced TRPM2 and TRPA1 activation than AG490. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenger used in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, did not affect H2O2-induced TRPM2 or TRPA1 activation. AG555 and AG556 may be useful seed compounds as therapeutic agents for several TRP-related diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27238971

  14. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (Kir6.1/SUR1) regulate gap junctional coupling in cochlear-supporting cells.

    PubMed

    Blödow, Alexander; Begandt, Daniela; Bader, Almke; Becker, Annegret; Burghard, Alice; Kühne, Daniela; Kral, Andrej; Ngezahayo, Anaclet

    2016-07-01

    Using the double whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we found that the absence of intracellular ATP led to gap junction uncoupling in cochlear-supporting Hensen cells. The uncoupling was observed as a progressive reduction of the gap junctional electrical conductance from a starting value of approximately 40 nS to less than 0.04 nS within 10-20 min. The conductance rundown was partly avoided by at least 3 mM ATP and completely suppressed by 5 mM ATP or 5'-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), the non-hydrolysable ATP analog, in the pipette filling solution, suggesting that ATP was needed as ligand and not as a hydrolysable energy supplier or substrate for enzymatic reactions. The effect of intracellular ATP was mimicked by the external application of barium, a nonselective blocker of inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels, and glibenclamide, an inhibitor of the ATP-sensitive Kir channels (KATP). Moreover a Ba(2+)-sensitive whole-cell inward current was observed in absence of internal ATP. We propose that the internal ATP kept the KATP channels in a closed state, thereby maintaining the gap junction coupling of Hensen cells. The immunostaining of guinea pig cochlear tissue revealed for the first time the expression of the KATP channel subunits Kir6.1 and SUR1 in Hensen cells and supported the proposed hypothesis. The results suggest that KATP channels, as regulator of the gap junction coupling in Hensen cells, could be the physiological link between the metabolic state of the supporting cells and K(+) recycling in the organ of Corti. PMID:27030354

  15. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (Kir6.1/SUR1) regulate gap junctional coupling in cochlear-supporting cells.

    PubMed

    Blödow, Alexander; Begandt, Daniela; Bader, Almke; Becker, Annegret; Burghard, Alice; Kühne, Daniela; Kral, Andrej; Ngezahayo, Anaclet

    2016-07-01

    Using the double whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we found that the absence of intracellular ATP led to gap junction uncoupling in cochlear-supporting Hensen cells. The uncoupling was observed as a progressive reduction of the gap junctional electrical conductance from a starting value of approximately 40 nS to less than 0.04 nS within 10-20 min. The conductance rundown was partly avoided by at least 3 mM ATP and completely suppressed by 5 mM ATP or 5'-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), the non-hydrolysable ATP analog, in the pipette filling solution, suggesting that ATP was needed as ligand and not as a hydrolysable energy supplier or substrate for enzymatic reactions. The effect of intracellular ATP was mimicked by the external application of barium, a nonselective blocker of inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels, and glibenclamide, an inhibitor of the ATP-sensitive Kir channels (KATP). Moreover a Ba(2+)-sensitive whole-cell inward current was observed in absence of internal ATP. We propose that the internal ATP kept the KATP channels in a closed state, thereby maintaining the gap junction coupling of Hensen cells. The immunostaining of guinea pig cochlear tissue revealed for the first time the expression of the KATP channel subunits Kir6.1 and SUR1 in Hensen cells and supported the proposed hypothesis. The results suggest that KATP channels, as regulator of the gap junction coupling in Hensen cells, could be the physiological link between the metabolic state of the supporting cells and K(+) recycling in the organ of Corti.

  16. Molecular packing and magnetic properties of lithium naphthalocyanine crystals: hollow channels enabling permeability and paramagnetic sensitivity to molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Ramasamy P; Dolgos, Michelle; Marginean, Camelia; Woodward, Patrick M; Hammel, P Chris; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, structural framework, magnetic and oxygen-sensing properties of a lithium naphthalocyanine (LiNc) radical probe are presented. LiNc was synthesized in the form of a microcrystalline powder using a chemical method and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and mass spectrometry. X-Ray powder diffraction studies revealed a structural framework that possesses long, hollow channels running parallel to the packing direction. The channels measured approximately 5.0 × 5.4 Å(2) in the two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the length of the channel, enabling diffusion of oxygen molecules (2.9 × 3.9 Å(2)) through the channel. The powdered LiNc exhibited a single, sharp EPR line under anoxic conditions, with a peak-to-peak linewidth of 630 mG at room temperature. The linewidth was sensitive to surrounding molecular oxygen, showing a linear increase in pO(2) with an oxygen sensitivity of 31.2 mG per mmHg. The LiNc microcrystals can be further prepared as nano-sized crystals without the loss of its high oxygen-sensing properties. The thermal variation of the magnetic properties of LiNc, such as the EPR linewidth, EPR intensity and magnetic susceptibility revealed the existence of two different temperature regimes of magnetic coupling and hence differing columnar packing, both being one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chains but with differing magnitudes of exchange coupling constants. At a temperature of ∼50 K, LiNc crystals undergo a reversible phase transition. The high degree of oxygen-sensitivity of micro- and nano-sized crystals of LiNc, combined with excellent stability, should enable precise and accurate measurements of oxygen concentration in biological systems using EPR spectroscopy.

  17. [IP3-sensitive Ca(2+)-channels of endoplasmic reticulum in secretory cells of the rat exorbital lacrimal gland].

    PubMed

    Kotliarova, A B; Man'ko, V V

    2013-01-01

    The role of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate of (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ channels in Ca2+ homeostasis maintenance under activation of M-cholinergic receptors and P2Y receptors in the secretory cells of the rat lacrimal gland was investigated. The study was carried out on intact and permeabilized secretory cells of exorbital lacrimal glands of rats. The cells were isolated using the modified Herzog, Sides, Miller method (1976) and permeabilized with digitonin (50 mg per 0.5 million cells). The functioning of the Ca(2+)-transport systems was estimated by changes of Ca2+ content in the studied cells, which was determined by the spectrophotometric method using arsenazo III. It was shown that IP3-sensitive Ca2+ channels (IP3Rs) of investigated cells are directly inhibited by 2-APB (10 microM/l). On the other hand, the channels are activated by IP3, cholinomimetic (carbacholine) and purine receptor agonist (ATP). When both M-cholinergic receptors and P2Y receptors were activated Ca2+ was released from the same IP3-sensitive store because the effects of ATP and carbacholine at high concentrations (1mM/l and 10 microM/l, respectively) on the Ca2+ content were non-additive. The presence of the store-operated Ca(2+)-channels in secretory cells of the lacrimal gland is confirmed by the observed increase of cellular Ca2+ content as a result of Ca2+ mobilization from the store by carbacholine or thapsigargin and following restoration of Ca2+ concentration in the extracellular solution.

  18. [Sulfonylureas in today's blood glucose lowering therapy. New data on advantages and potential barriers of an "old" antidiabetic group].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gábor

    2015-03-29

    Sulfonylurea compounds have been basic elements of antidiabetic treatment in type 2 diabetes for a long time. However, with the introduction of incretin type insulin secretagogues it is often arises, whether is still there a place for sulfonylureas in the today's therapy. To answer this question the author overviews general pharmaceutical characteristics of the sulfonylurea compounds as well as individual particularities of the second generation derivatives used at present in Hungary. The author details also the most important differences between incretin type drugs - first of all dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors - and sulfonylureas. On the basis of available data it can be concluded in accordance with the latest international guidelines, that sulfonylureas have still role in the blood glucose lowering therapy of type 2 diabetes, though they became somewhat pushed back among insulin secretagogue type drugs. If a sulfonylurea compound is the drug of choice, it is important to select the appropriate molecule (in case of normal renal function gliclazide or glimepiride). It is also important to re-educate the patient, as well as to apply the minimal dose providing the desired glycaemic effect. PMID:25796278

  19. Role of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in interplay between incretin and sulfonylurea in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Harumi; Shibasaki, Tadao; Park, Jae-Hyung; Hidaka, Shihomi; Takahashi, Toshimasa; Ono, Aika; Song, Dae-Kyu; Seino, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas are currently used worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We recently found that Epac2A, a cAMP binding protein having guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward Rap, is a target of both incretin and sulfonylurea. This suggests the possibility of interplay between incretin and sulfonylurea through Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in insulin secretion. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effects of incretin and various sulfonylureas on insulin secretion and activation of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling. A strong augmentation of insulin secretion by combination of GLP-1 and glibenclamide or glimepiride, which was found in Epac2A(+/+) mice, was markedly reduced in Epac2A(-/-) mice. In contrast, the combinatorial effect of GLP-1 and gliclazide was rather mild, and the effect was not altered by Epac2A ablation. Activation of Rap1 was enhanced by the combination of an Epac-selective cAMP analog with glibenclamide or glimepiride but not gliclazide. In diet-induced obese mice, ablation of Epac2A reduced the insulin secretory response to coadministration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and glimepiride. These findings clarify the critical role of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in the augmenting effect of incretin and sulfonylurea on insulin secretion and provide the basis for the effects of combination therapies of incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas. PMID:25315008

  20. Long-range interactions, voltage sensitivity, and ion conduction in S4 segments of excitable channels.

    PubMed Central

    Leuchtag, H R

    1994-01-01

    Forces acting on the S4 segments of the channel, the voltage-sensing structures, are analyzed. The conformational change in the Na channel is modeled as a helix-coil transition in the four S4 segments, coupled to the membrane voltage by electrical forces. In the model, repulsions between like charges make the S4 segment unstable, but field-dependent forces hold it in an alpha-helix configuration at resting potential. At threshold depolarization, the S4 helices cooperatively expand into random coils, breaking the hydrogen bonds connecting adjacent loops of the alpha helices. Exposed electron pairs left on the carbonyl oxygens constitute sites at which cations can bind selectively. The first hydrogen bond to break is at the channel exterior, then the second breaks, and so on in a zipper-like motion along the entire segment. The Na+ ions hop from one site to the next until all H bonds are broken and all sites are filled with ions. This completes the pathway over which the permeant ions move through the channel, driven by the electrochemical potential difference across the membrane. This microscopic mechanism is consistent with the thermodynamic explanation of ion-channel gating previously formulated as the ferroelectric-superionic transition hypothesis. PMID:7510528

  1. Fast and sensitive DNA analysis using changes in the FRET signals of molecular beacons in a PDMS microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehyun; Chen, Lingxin; Lee, Sangyup; Kim, Sungyong; Seong, Gi Hun; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Eun Kyu; Oh, Chil-Hwan; Lee, Sanghoon

    2007-04-01

    A new DNA hybridization analytical method using a microfluidic channel and a molecular beacon-based probe (MB-probe) is described. A stem-loop DNA oligonucleotide labeled with two fluorophores at the 5' and 3' termini (a donor dye, TET, and an acceptor dye, TAMRA, respectively) was used to carry out a fast and sensitive DNA analysis. The MB-probe utilized the specificity and selectivity of the DNA hairpin-type probe DNA to detect a specific target DNA of interest. The quenching of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal between the two fluorophores, caused by the sequence-specific hybridization of the MB-probe and the target DNA, was used to detect a DNA hybridization reaction in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channel. The azoospermia gene, DYS 209, was used as the target DNA to demonstrate the applicability of the method. A simple syringe pumping system was used for quick and accurate analysis. The laminar flow along the channel could be easily controlled by the 3-D channel structure and flow speed. By injecting the MB-probe and target DNA solutions into a zigzag-shaped PDMS microfluidic channel, it was possible to detect their sequence-specific hybridization. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was also used to provide complementary evidence of the DNA hybridization. Our data show that this technique is a promising real-time detection method for label-free DNA targets in the solution phase. Figure FRET-based DNA hybridization detection using a molecular beacon in a zigzag-shaped PDMS microfluidic channel.

  2. Inactivating and non-inactivating dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels in mouse cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Slesinger, P A; Lansman, J B

    1991-01-01

    1. Granule cells were dissociated from mouse cerebellum and grown in vitro. Currents through single Ca2+ channels were recorded from the cell body with the patch clamp technique. 2. Voltage steps to 0 mV produced brief channel openings with a mean open time of approximately 0.5 ms. The single-channel conductance measured from the amplitude of the single-channel current with 90 mM-Ba2+ in the patch electrode was 22 pS. 3. The probability of Ca2+ channel opening increased with test potentials more positive than -30 mV, with half-activation near 0 mV, and followed the Boltzmann relation for the activation of whole-cell Ca2+ current. 4. Voltage steps to potentials more positive than 0 mV produced more channel activity at the beginning than at the end of the voltage step. The average of the single-channel currents decayed to a non-zero level with a time course similar to that of the whole-cell Ca2+ current. 5. The amplitude as well as the decay of the mean current measured during a test pulse to 0 mV was reduced as the holding potential was made more positive than approximately -90 mV. The change in the open channel probability with holding potential followed the Boltzmann relation which described the inactivation of the whole-cell Ca2+ current. 6. Ca2+ channel activity persisted for over several minutes after excising the patch from the cell body when intracellular cyclic AMP was increased. After patch excision, the number of functional channels decreased to a level where only one channel at a time was active. Ca2+ channel openings appeared as either short bursts at the beginning of the voltage step or long bursts that lasted throughout the pulse. 7. Exposing the cell to the dihydropyridine agonist +(S)-202-791 markedly increased the fraction of sweeps with long openings and produced a non-decaying mean current that was approximately 5 times larger than control. In a fraction of the sweeps, however, long openings occurred more frequently at the beginning than at the

  3. Down regulation of Kv3.4 channels by chronic hypoxia increases acute oxygen sensitivity in rabbit carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Kääb, Stefan; Miguel-Velado, Eduardo; López-López, José Ramón; Pérez-García, M Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors participate in the ventilatory responses to acute and chronic hypoxia (CH). Arterial hypoxaemia increases breathing within seconds, and CB chemoreceptors are the principal contributors to this reflex hyperventilatory response. Acute hypoxia induces depolarization of CB chemoreceptors by inhibiting certain K+ channels, but the role of these channels in CH, as in high-altitude acclimatization, is less known. Here we explored the effects of prolonged (24–48 h) hypoxic exposure of rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in primary cultures on the voltage-dependent K+ currents and on their response to acute hypoxia. We found that CH induces a decrease in the amplitude of outward K+ currents due to a reduction in a fast-inactivating BDS- and highly TEA-sensitive component of the current. In spite of this effect, acute hypoxic inhibition of K+ currents is increased in CH cultures, as well as hypoxia-induced depolarization. These data suggest that downregulation of this component (that does not contribute to the oxygen-sensitive K+ current (IKO2)) participates in the hypoxic sensitization. Pharmacological, immunocytochemical and quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments demonstrate that CH-induced decrease in outward K+ currents is due to a downregulation of the expression of Kv3.4 channels. Taken together, our results suggest that CH sensitization in rabbit CB could be achieved by an increase in the relative contribution of IKO2 to the outward K+ current as a consequence of the decreased expression of the oxygen-insensitive component of the current. We conclude that acute and chronic hypoxia can exert their effects acting on different molecular targets. PMID:15890707

  4. Application of modified in vitro screening procedure for identifying herbals possessing sulfonylurea-like activity.

    PubMed

    Rotshteyn, Y; Zito, S W

    2004-08-01

    We describe here the application of a modified in vitro procedure for identifying herbs potentially possessing sulfonylurea-like activity. The procedure consists of the combination of an SUR1 receptor binding assay and an insulin secretion assay in cultures of HIT-T15 cells. This procedure could be used as an initial step in identifying new safe and efficacious agents for the management of Type II diabetes. The application of this screening procedure to a set of selected herbs produced results that were consistent with the previously reported properties of those herbs. The collected data suggest that the hypoglycemic properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia, Linn. Family, Cucurbitacea), cerasse (Momordica charantia, Linn. wild variety, Family, Cucurbitacea) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, Linn., Family Araliacea) are at least partially due to their sulfonylurea-like activity.

  5. In Liddle Syndrome, Epithelial Sodium Channel Is Hyperactive Mainly in the Early Part of the Aldosterone-Sensitive Distal Nephron.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Viatcheslav; Krueger, Bettina; Bertog, Marko; Dahlmann, Anke; Palmisano, Ralf; Korbmacher, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is rate limiting for Na(+) absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron comprising the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT2), the connecting tubule (CNT), and the entire collecting duct. Liddle syndrome (pseudohyperaldosteronism), a severe form of salt-sensitive hypertension, is caused by gain-of-function mutations of ENaC, but the precise tubular site of increased ENaC function is unknown. In the cortical collecting duct (CCD), ENaC is known to be regulated by aldosterone. In contrast, we recently reported aldosterone-independent ENaC regulation in the early part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Here, we investigated ENaC function in the transition zone of DCT2/CNT or CNT/CCD microdissected from mice homozygous for Liddle syndrome mutation or from wild-type control mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to measure amiloride-sensitive ENaC currents in nephron fragments from mice maintained on different sodium diets to vary plasma aldosterone levels. Our data indicate that in mice with Liddle syndrome, the primary site of increased Na(+) reabsorption is the DCT2/CNT. In addition, increased aldosterone responsiveness of ENaC in CNT/CCD may contribute to salt-sensitive hypertension in Liddle syndrome. Single channel properties of ENaC were similar in Liddle syndrome mutation and wild-type mice, but ENaC expression at the apical membrane was increased in Liddle syndrome mutation when compared with wild-type mice, in particular, in animals maintained on a high salt diet. Our findings highlight the importance of ENaC function and regulation in the early part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron for the maintenance of sodium balance and blood pressure control.

  6. In Liddle Syndrome, Epithelial Sodium Channel Is Hyperactive Mainly in the Early Part of the Aldosterone-Sensitive Distal Nephron.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Viatcheslav; Krueger, Bettina; Bertog, Marko; Dahlmann, Anke; Palmisano, Ralf; Korbmacher, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is rate limiting for Na(+) absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron comprising the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT2), the connecting tubule (CNT), and the entire collecting duct. Liddle syndrome (pseudohyperaldosteronism), a severe form of salt-sensitive hypertension, is caused by gain-of-function mutations of ENaC, but the precise tubular site of increased ENaC function is unknown. In the cortical collecting duct (CCD), ENaC is known to be regulated by aldosterone. In contrast, we recently reported aldosterone-independent ENaC regulation in the early part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Here, we investigated ENaC function in the transition zone of DCT2/CNT or CNT/CCD microdissected from mice homozygous for Liddle syndrome mutation or from wild-type control mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to measure amiloride-sensitive ENaC currents in nephron fragments from mice maintained on different sodium diets to vary plasma aldosterone levels. Our data indicate that in mice with Liddle syndrome, the primary site of increased Na(+) reabsorption is the DCT2/CNT. In addition, increased aldosterone responsiveness of ENaC in CNT/CCD may contribute to salt-sensitive hypertension in Liddle syndrome. Single channel properties of ENaC were similar in Liddle syndrome mutation and wild-type mice, but ENaC expression at the apical membrane was increased in Liddle syndrome mutation when compared with wild-type mice, in particular, in animals maintained on a high salt diet. Our findings highlight the importance of ENaC function and regulation in the early part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron for the maintenance of sodium balance and blood pressure control. PMID:27170740

  7. Reduced thermal sensitivity and Nav1.8 and TRPV1 channel expression in sensory neurons of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuying; Davis, Brian M; Zwick, Melissa; Waxman, Stephen G; Albers, Kathryn M

    2006-06-01

    Sensory neurons in aging mammals undergo changes in anatomy, physiology and gene expression that correlate with reduced sensory perception. In this study we compared young and aged mice to identify proteins that might contribute to this loss of sensation. We first show using behavioral testing that thermal sensitivity in aged male and female mice is reduced. Expression of sodium channel (Nav1.8 and Nav1.9) and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels in DRG and peripheral nerves of young and old male mice was then examined. Immunoblotting and RT-PCR assays showed reduced Nav1.8 levels in aged mice. No change was measured in TRPV1 mRNA levels in DRG though TRPV1 protein appeared reduced in the DRG and peripheral nerves. The GFRalpha3 receptor, which binds the growth factor artemin and is expressed by TRPV1-positive neurons, was also decreased in the DRG of aged animals. These findings indicate that loss of thermal sensitivity in aging animals may result from a decreased level of TRPV1 and Nav1.8 and decreased trophic support that inhibits efficient transport of channel proteins to peripheral afferents. PMID:15979214

  8. Involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and the opioid system in the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem in mice.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mehdi; Shirzadian, Armin; Dehdashtian, Amir; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic medication that mainly exerts its function through activating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. There is some evidence that zolpidem may have anticonvulsive effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been elucidated yet. In the present study, we used the pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizure model in mice to investigate whether zolpidem can affect seizure threshold. We also further evaluated the roles of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels as well as μ-opioid receptors in the effects of zolpidem on seizure threshold. Our data showed that zolpidem in a dose-dependent manner increased the PTZ-induced seizure threshold. The noneffective (i.e., did not significantly alter the PTZ-induced seizure threshold by itself) doses of KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide) and nonselective opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) were able to inhibit the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem. Additionally, noneffective doses of either KATP channel opener (cromakalim) or nonselective μ-opioid receptor agonist (morphine) in combination with a noneffective dose of zolpidem exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. A combination of noneffective doses of naloxone and glibenclamide, which separately did not affect zolpidem effect on seizure threshold, inhibited the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. These results suggest a role for KATP channels and the opioid system, alone or in combination, in the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. PMID:27521722

  9. Use of octreotide acetate to prevent rebound hypoglycaemia in sulfonylurea overdose.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ziauddin; Wright, John

    2007-08-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether octreotide can prevent rebound hypoglycaemia after sulfonylurea overdose. Fourteen papers were found using the reported searches, of which two presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are summarised in table 2. It is concluded that octreotide may be safe and effective in this situation.

  10. Rational design and validation of a vanilloid-sensitive TRPV2 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Vu, Simon; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2016-06-28

    Vanilloids activation of TRPV1 represents an excellent model system of ligand-gated ion channels. Recent studies using cryo-electron microcopy (cryo-EM), computational analysis, and functional quantification revealed the location of capsaicin-binding site and critical residues mediating ligand-binding and channel activation. Based on these new findings, here we have successfully introduced high-affinity binding of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin to the vanilloid-insensitive TRPV2 channel, using a rationally designed minimal set of four point mutations (F467S-S498F-L505T-Q525E, termed TRPV2_Quad). We found that binding of resiniferatoxin activates TRPV2_Quad but the ligand-induced open state is relatively unstable, whereas binding of capsaicin to TRPV2_Quad antagonizes resiniferatoxin-induced activation likely through competition for the same binding sites. Using Rosetta-based molecular docking, we observed a common structural mechanism underlying vanilloids activation of TRPV1 and TRPV2_Quad, where the ligand serves as molecular "glue" that bridges the S4-S5 linker to the S1-S4 domain to open these channels. Our analysis revealed that capsaicin failed to activate TRPV2_Quad likely due to structural constraints preventing such bridge formation. These results not only validate our current working model for capsaicin activation of TRPV1 but also should help guide the design of drug candidate compounds for this important pain sensor. PMID:27298359

  11. Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in corneal tissue layers and cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Valtink, Monika; Takayoshi, Sumioka; Okada, Yuka; Miyajima, Masayasu; Saika, Shizuya; Reinach, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    We here provide a brief summary of the characteristics of transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) identified in corneal tissue layers and cells. In general, TRPs are nonselective cation channels which are Ca(2+) permeable. Most TRPs serve as thermosensitive molecular sensors (thermo-TRPs). Based on their functional importance, the possibilities are described for drug-targeting TRP activity in a clinical setting. TRPs are expressed in various tissues of the eye including both human corneal epithelial and endothelial layers as well as stromal fibroblasts and stromal nerve fibers. TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) heat receptor, also known as capsaicin receptor, along with TRP melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) cold receptor, which is also known as menthol receptor, are prototypes of the thermo-TRP family. The TRPV1 functional channel is the most investigated TRP channel in these tissues, owing to its contribution to maintaining tissue homeostasis as well as eliciting wound healing responses to injury. Other thermo-TRP family members identified in these tissues are TRPV2, 3 and 4. Finally, there is the TRP ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) cold receptor. All of these thermo-TRPs can be activated within specific temperature ranges and transduce such inputs into chemical and electrical signals. Although several recent studies have begun to unravel complex roles for thermo-TRPs such as TRPV1 in corneal layers and resident cells, additional studies are needed to further elucidate their roles in health and disease.

  12. Rational design and validation of a vanilloid-sensitive TRPV2 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Vu, Simon; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2016-06-28

    Vanilloids activation of TRPV1 represents an excellent model system of ligand-gated ion channels. Recent studies using cryo-electron microcopy (cryo-EM), computational analysis, and functional quantification revealed the location of capsaicin-binding site and critical residues mediating ligand-binding and channel activation. Based on these new findings, here we have successfully introduced high-affinity binding of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin to the vanilloid-insensitive TRPV2 channel, using a rationally designed minimal set of four point mutations (F467S-S498F-L505T-Q525E, termed TRPV2_Quad). We found that binding of resiniferatoxin activates TRPV2_Quad but the ligand-induced open state is relatively unstable, whereas binding of capsaicin to TRPV2_Quad antagonizes resiniferatoxin-induced activation likely through competition for the same binding sites. Using Rosetta-based molecular docking, we observed a common structural mechanism underlying vanilloids activation of TRPV1 and TRPV2_Quad, where the ligand serves as molecular "glue" that bridges the S4-S5 linker to the S1-S4 domain to open these channels. Our analysis revealed that capsaicin failed to activate TRPV2_Quad likely due to structural constraints preventing such bridge formation. These results not only validate our current working model for capsaicin activation of TRPV1 but also should help guide the design of drug candidate compounds for this important pain sensor.

  13. Ca2+ Changes the Force Sensitivity of the Hair-Cell Transduction Channel

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Eunice L. M.; Corey, David P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanically gated transduction channels of vertebrate hair cells tend to close in ∼1 ms after their activation by hair bundle deflection. This fast adaptation is correlated with a quick negative movement of the bundle (a “twitch”), which can exert force and may mediate an active mechanical amplification of sound stimuli in hearing organs. We used an optical trap to deflect bullfrog hair bundles and to measure bundle movement while controlling Ca2+ entry with a voltage clamp. The twitch elicited by repolarization of the cell varied with force applied to the bundle, going to zero where channels were all open or closed. The force dependence is quantitatively consistent with a model in which a Ca2+-bound channel requires ∼3 pN more force to open, and rules out other models for the site of Ca2+ action. In addition, we characterized a faster, voltage-dependent “flick”, which requires intact tip links but not current through transduction channels. PMID:16214875

  14. Design, Synthesis, Activity and Docking Study of Sorafenib Analogs Bearing Sulfonylurea Unit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunjiang; Wang, Min; Tang, Qidong; Luo, Rong; Chen, Le; Zheng, Pengwu; Zhu, Wufu

    2015-10-23

    Two series of novel sorafenib analogs containing a sulfonylurea unit were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, MS spectrum and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, Hela, MCF-7, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Some of the compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity, especially compounds 1-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6c) and 1-(4-bromophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6f) with the IC50 values against four cancer cell lines ranging from 16.54±1.22 to 63.92±1.81 μM, respectively. Inhibitory rates against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) kinase at 10 μM of target compounds were further carried out in this paper in order to investigate the target of these compounds. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that the sulfonylurea unit was important to these kinds of compounds. None of the substitutions in the phenoxy group and small halogen atoms such as 2,4-difluoro substitution of the aryl group contributed to the activity. The results suggested that sulfonylurea sorafenib analogs are worthy of further study.

  15. Design, Synthesis, Activity and Docking Study of Sorafenib Analogs Bearing Sulfonylurea Unit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunjiang; Wang, Min; Tang, Qidong; Luo, Rong; Chen, Le; Zheng, Pengwu; Zhu, Wufu

    2015-01-01

    Two series of novel sorafenib analogs containing a sulfonylurea unit were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, MS spectrum and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, Hela, MCF-7, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Some of the compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity, especially compounds 1-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6c) and 1-(4-bromophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6f) with the IC50 values against four cancer cell lines ranging from 16.54±1.22 to 63.92±1.81 μM, respectively. Inhibitory rates against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) kinase at 10 μM of target compounds were further carried out in this paper in order to investigate the target of these compounds. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that the sulfonylurea unit was important to these kinds of compounds. None of the substitutions in the phenoxy group and small halogen atoms such as 2,4-difluoro substitution of the aryl group contributed to the activity. The results suggested that sulfonylurea sorafenib analogs are worthy of further study. PMID:26512636

  16. Insulin-mimetic signaling by the sulfonylurea glimepiride and phosphoinositolglycans involves distinct mechanisms for redistribution of lipid raft components.

    PubMed

    Müller, G; Jung, C; Wied, S; Welte, S; Frick, W

    2001-12-01

    The insulin signal transduction cascade provides a number of sites downstream of the insulin receptor (IR) for cross-talk from other signaling pathways. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR substrates IRS-1/2 and metabolic insulin-mimetic activity in insulin-responsive cells can be provoked by soluble phosphoinositolglycans (PIG), which trigger redistribution from detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (DIGs) to other areas of the plasma membrane and thereby activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTK) [Müller, G., Jung, C., Wied, S., Welte, S., Jordan, H., and Frick, W. (2001) Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 4553-4567]. Here we describe that stimulation of glucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes by a different stimulus, the sulfonylurea glimepiride, is also based on IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream insulin-mimetic signaling involving activation of the NRTK, pp59(Lyn), and pp125(Fak), as well as tyrosine phosphoryation of the DIGs component caveolin. As is the case for PIG 41, glimepiride causes the concentration-dependent dissociation of pp59(Lyn) from caveolin and release of this NRTK and the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins, Gce1 and 5'-nucleotidase, from total and anti-caveolin-immunoisolated DIGs. This results in their movement to detergent-insoluble raft domains of higher buoyant density (non-DIGs areas). IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose transport activation by both glimepiride and PIG are blocked by introduction into adipocytes of the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide which mimicks the negative effect of caveolin on pp59(Lyn) activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NRTK, IRS-1/2, and caveolin as well as release of the NRTK and GPI proteins from DIGs and their redistribution into non-DIGs areas in response to PIG is also inhibited by treatment of intact adipocytes with either trypsin plus salt or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In contrast, the putative trypsin/salt/NEM-sensitive cell surface component

  17. Physiological and behavioral evidence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Summers, Torrie; Holec, Sara; Burrell, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are found throughout the animal kingdom, where they play an important role in sensory transduction. In this study, we combined physiological studies with in vivo behavioral experiments to examine the presence of a putative TRPV-like receptor in the medicinal leech, building upon earlier studies in this lophotrochozoan invertebrate. The leech polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPV1-activator capsaicin in a concentration-dependent manner, with 100 μmol l(-1) being the lowest effective concentration. Responses to capsaicin were inhibited by the selective TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. The polymodal nociceptive neuron also responded to noxious thermal stimuli (>40°C), and this response was also blocked by SB366791. Capsaicin sensitivity was selective to the polymodal nociceptor with no direct response being elicited in the mechanical nociceptive neuron or in the non-nociceptive touch- or pressure-sensitive neurons. Capsaicin also elicited nocifensive behavioral responses (withdrawals and locomotion) in a concentration-dependent manner, and these behavioral responses were significantly attenuated with SB366791. These results suggest the presence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech central nervous system and are relevant to the evolution of nociceptive signaling.

  18. In vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel naphthylamide ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, A-151892

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Buckner, Steven A; Shieh, Char-Chang; Fey, Thomas; Fabiyi, Adebola; Whiteaker, Kristi L; Davis-Taber, Rachel; Milicic, Ivan; Daza, Anthony V; Scott, Victoria E S; Castle, Neil A; Printzenhoff, David; London, Brecht; Turner, Sean C; Carroll, William A; Sullivan, James P; Coghlan, Michael J; Brune, Michael E

    2004-01-01

    Openers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels are of interest in several therapeutic indications including overactive bladder and other lower urinary tract disorders. This study reports on the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a structurally novel naphthylamide N-[2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-trifluoromethyl-ethyl)-naphthalen-1-yl]-acetamide (A-151892), as an opener of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels. A-151892 was found to be a potent and efficacious potassium channel opener (KCO) as assessed by glibenclamide-sensitive whole-cell current and fluorescence-based membrane potential responses (−log EC50=7.63) in guinea-pig bladder smooth muscle cells. Evidence for direct interaction with KCO binding sites was derived from displacement of binding of the 1,4-dihydropyridine opener [125I]A-312110. A-151892 displaced [125I]A-312110 binding to bladder membranes with a −log Ki value of 7.45, but lacked affinity against over 70 neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel binding sites. In pig bladder strips, A-151892 suppressed phasic, carbachol-evoked and electrical field stimulus-evoked contractility in a glibenclamide-reversible manner with −log IC50 values of 8.07, 7.33 and 7.02 respectively, comparable to that of the potencies of the prototypical cyanoguanidine KCO, P1075. The potencies to suppress contractions in thoracic aorta (−log IC50=7.81) and portal vein (−log IC50=7.98) were not substantially different from those observed for suppression of phasic contractility of the bladder smooth muscle. In vivo, A-151892 was found to potently suppress unstable bladder contractions in obstructed models of unstable contractions in both pigs and rats with pED35% values of 8.05 and 7.43, respectively. These results demonstrate that naphthylamide analogs exemplified by A-151892 are novel KATP channel openers and may serve as chemotypes to exploit additional analogs with potential for the treatment of overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:15302680

  19. TRPC1 and TRPC6 channels cooperate with TRPV4 to mediate mechanical hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri-Haber, Nicole; Dina, Olayinka A.; Chen, Xiaoje; Levine, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) contributes to mechanical hyperalgesia of diverse etiologies, presumably as part of a mechanoreceptor signaling complex (Alessandri-Haber et al., 2008). To investigate the hypothesis that a functional interaction between TRPV4 and stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) is involved in this mechanical transduction mechanism, we used a selective SACs inhibitor, GsMTx-4. Intradermal injection of GsMTx-4 in the rat hind paw reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators. In vivo single fiber recordings showed that GsMTx-4 reversed inflammatory mediator-induced decrease in mechanical threshold in half of sensitized C-fibers. Furthermore, GsMTx-4 reduced hyperalgesia to both mechanical and hypotonic stimuli in different models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain while it had no effect on baseline mechanical nociceptive thresholds. TRPC1 and TRPC6, two GsMTx-4-sensitive SACs are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG). Single-cell RT-PCR showed that messenger RNAs for TRPV4, TRPC1 and TRPC6 are frequently co-expressed in DRG neurons. Spinal intrathecal administration of oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to TRPC1 and TRPC6, like that to TRPV4, reversed the hyperalgesia to mechanical and hypotonic stimuli induced by inflammatory mediators without affecting baseline mechanical nociceptive threshold. However, antisense to TRPC6, but not to TRPC1, reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by a thermal injury or the TRPV4 selective agonist 4α-PDD. We conclude that TRPC1 and TRPC6 channels cooperate with TRPV4 channels to mediate mechanical hyperalgesia and primary afferent nociceptor sensitization although they may have distinctive roles. PMID:19439599

  20. A Conserved Residue Cluster That Governs Kinetics of ATP-dependent Gating of Kir6.2 Potassium Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Roger S.; Wright, Jordan D.; Pless, Stephan A.; Nunez, John-Jose; Kim, Robin Y.; Li, Jenny B. W.; Yang, Runying; Ahern, Christopher A.; Kurata, Harley T.

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors. Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of ∼60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly modest effects on gating kinetics despite significant changes in ATP sensitivity and open probability. However, we identified a pair of highly conserved neighboring amino acids (Trp-68 and Lys-170) that control the rate of channel opening and inhibition in response to ATP. Paradoxically, mutations of Trp-68 or Lys-170 markedly slow the kinetics of channel opening (500 and 700 ms for W68L and K170N, respectively), while increasing channel open probability. Examining the functional effects of these residues using φ value analysis revealed a steep negative slope. This finding implies that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, which is potentially necessary to localize the ϵ-amine of Lys-170 in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Overall, our findings identify a discrete pair of highly conserved residues with an essential role for controlling gating kinetics of Kir channels. PMID:25934393

  1. A Conserved Residue Cluster That Governs Kinetics of ATP-dependent Gating of Kir6.2 Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Roger S; Wright, Jordan D; Pless, Stephan A; Nunez, John-Jose; Kim, Robin Y; Li, Jenny B W; Yang, Runying; Ahern, Christopher A; Kurata, Harley T

    2015-06-19

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors. Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of ∼60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly modest effects on gating kinetics despite significant changes in ATP sensitivity and open probability. However, we identified a pair of highly conserved neighboring amino acids (Trp-68 and Lys-170) that control the rate of channel opening and inhibition in response to ATP. Paradoxically, mutations of Trp-68 or Lys-170 markedly slow the kinetics of channel opening (500 and 700 ms for W68L and K170N, respectively), while increasing channel open probability. Examining the functional effects of these residues using φ value analysis revealed a steep negative slope. This finding implies that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, which is potentially necessary to localize the ϵ-amine of Lys-170 in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding site. Overall, our findings identify a discrete pair of highly conserved residues with an essential role for controlling gating kinetics of Kir channels.

  2. Reconnaissance survey of sulfonamide, sulfonylurea, and imidazolinone herbicides in surface streams and groundwater of the Midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Pfeiffer, R.L.; Scoggin, K.D.; Battaglin, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The study objective was to conduct a small scale synoptic survey of representative water resources draining agricultural land for occurrence of several herbicide residues. These new classes of herbicides are commonly applied pre-emergence or post-emergence in conservation tillage systems to control grasses and broadleaf weeds in cropped and noncropped areas. Both surface water and groundwater samples were collected from 44 midwestern locations during the summer of 1997, and analyzed for herbicide residues of 15 sulfonylurea and imidazolinone chemicals, and one sulfonamide. Each site was sampled between mid-June and late-October with several stream sites sampled twice. The method, developed jointly by the chemical manufacturer's and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, provides a 100 ng/L limit of quantitation in surface water for all analytes. Analytes were detected and identity confirmed in surface water at six sites and in ground water at two sites. The most frequently detected herbicides were imazaquin, imazethapyr, and nicosulfuron. For field studies in which the source of surface and ground water associated with the farming system on the agricultural landscape is known, the sensitivity of the method can be improved with only minor modifications in detection criteria.

  3. Role of nonacidic endosomes in recycling of ADH-sensitive water channel structures.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R A; Wade, J B

    1992-06-01

    Toad urinary bladder epithelial cells respond to the hormone ADH by increasing the water permeability of their luminal membrane. This action is mediated by insertion into the apical membrane of specific water channels. In the absence of ADH these channels appear to be present in tubular cytoplasmic vesicles as morphologically distinctive intramembrane structures called particle aggregates. ADH induces these vesicles to fuse with the apical membrane, transferring their aggregate-water channels into the apical membrane. When ADH stimulation is removed (ADH reversal), aggregates and fluid-phase markers from the mucosal bath appear in water-permeable vesicles in the cytoplasm. We have examined the fate of fluid-phase markers and aggregates with time after ADH reversal. Although the fluid-phase markers horseradish peroxidase and colloidal gold are initially found predominantly in tubular vesicles near the apical surface, by 30 min the markers were found in perinuclear multivesicular bodies (MVBs) of heterogeneous size and shape. These MVBs appear to be nonacidic since they fail to accumulate DAMP. Acid phosphatase (AcPase) was undetectable in these structures. After 60 min, labeled MVBs tended to be smaller, and some of these structures displayed DAMP accumulation and AcPase activity. By evaluation of uncleaned replicas it was possible to localize recycled aggregate-water channels with respect to internalized fluid-phase markers. Thirty minutes after retrieval from the apical surface in tubular vesicles, aggregates could be localized to both the central body and tubular projections of labeled MVBs. At 60 min following reversal, most MVBs had a reduced number of aggregates compared with 30 min, and compact structures could be identified that contained markers but no detectable aggregates. These observations show that aggregates and fluid-phase markers enter a nonacidic endosomal compartment with an MVB morphology following ADH reversal. At extended times following

  4. Domain organization of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex examined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhen; Makhina, Elena N; Masia, Ricard; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Formanack, Mary Lynn; Nichols, Colin G

    2013-02-01

    K(ATP) channels link cell metabolism to excitability in many cells. They are formed as tetramers of Kir6.2 subunits, each associated with a SUR1 subunit. We used mutant GFP-based FRET to assess domain organization in channel complexes. Full-length Kir6.2 subunits were linked to YFP or cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) at N or C termini, and all such constructs, including double-tagged YFP-Kir6.2-CFP (Y6.2C), formed functional K(ATP) channels. In intact COSm6 cells, background emission of YFP excited by 430-nm light was ∼6%, but the Y6.2C construct expressed alone exhibited an apparent FRET efficiency of ∼25%, confirmed by trypsin digestion, with or without SUR1 co-expression. Similar FRET efficiency was detected in mixtures of CFP- and YFP-tagged full-length Kir6.2 subunits and transmembrane domain only constructs, when tagged at the C termini but not at the N termini. The FRET-reported Kir6.2 tetramer domain organization was qualitatively consistent with Kir channel crystal structures: C termini and M2 domains are centrally located relative to N termini and M1 domains, respectively. Additional FRET analyses were performed on cells in which tagged full-length Kir6.2 and tagged SUR1 constructs were co-expressed. These analyses further revealed that 1) NBD1 of SUR1 is closer to the C terminus of Kir6.2 than to the N terminus; 2) the Kir6.2 cytoplasmic domain is not essential for complexation with SUR1; and 3) the N-terminal half of SUR1 can complex with itself in the absence of either the C-terminal half or Kir6.2.

  5. Spicy science: David Julius and the discovery of temperature-sensitive TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Diana M

    2015-01-01

    This invited biographical review covers the career of Dr. David Julius and his discovery of thermosensitive TRP channels. Dr. Julius is currently the Morris Herzstein Chair in Molecular Biology and Medicine and Professor and Chair of Physiology at the University of California, San Francisco Medical School. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has received many distinguished awards for his landmark discoveries of the molecular basis of pain and thermosensation. PMID:27227012

  6. Developmentally-regulated sodium channel subunits are differentially sensitive to α–cyano containing pyrethroids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Juvenile rats have been reported to be more sensitive to the acute neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid deltamethrin than adults. While toxicokinetic differences between juveniles and adults are documented, toxicodynamic differences have not been examined. Voltage-gated sodium ch...

  7. Aerosol Retrievals over the Ocean using Channel 1 and 2 AVHRR Data: A Sensitivity Analysis and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Cairns, Brian; Rossow, William B.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology of interpreting channel 1 and 2 AVHRR radiance data over the oceans and describes a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of monthly averages of retrieved aerosol parameters to the assumptions made in different retrieval algorithms. The analysis is based on using real AVHRR data and exploiting accurate numerical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering and spectral absorption of light in the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere-ocean system. We show that two-channel algorithms can be expected to provide significantly more accurate and less biased retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness than one-channel algorithms and that imperfect cloud screening and calibration uncertainties are by far the largest sources of errors in the retrieved aerosol parameters. Both underestimating and overestimating aerosol absorption as well as the potentially strong variability of the real part of the aerosol refractive index may lead to regional and/or seasonal biases in optical thickness retrievals. The Angstrom exponent appears to be the most invariant aerosol size characteristic and should be retrieved along with optical thickness as the second aerosol parameter.

  8. Proton-sensitive cation channels and ion exchangers in ischemic brain injury: new therapeutic targets for stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Tiandong; Shi, Yejie; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury results from complicated cellular mechanisms. The present therapy for acute ischemic stroke is limited to thrombolysis with the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and mechanical recanalization. Therefore, a better understanding of ischemic brain injury is needed for the development of more effective therapies. Disruption of ionic homeostasis plays an important role in cell death following cerebral ischemia. Glutamate receptor-mediated ionic imbalance and neurotoxicity have been well established in cerebral ischemia after stroke. However, non-NMDA receptor-dependent mechanisms, involving acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a), transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), and Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1), have recently emerged as important players in the dysregulation of ionic homeostasis in the CNS under ischemic conditions. These H+-sensitive channels and/or exchangers are expressed in the majority of cell types of the neurovascular unit. Sustained activation of these proteins causes excessive influx of cations, such as Ca2+, Na+, and Zn2+, and leads to ischemic reperfusion brain injury. In this review, we summarize recent pre-clinical experimental research findings on how these channels/exchangers are regulated in both in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia. The blockade or transgenic knockdown of these proteins was shown to be neuroprotective in these ischemia models. Taken together, these non-NMDA receptor-dependent mechanisms may serve as novel therapeutic targets for stroke intervention. PMID:24467911

  9. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. )

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  10. Glucose sensitivity of mouse olfactory bulb neurons is conveyed by a voltage-gated potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Kristal; Cho, Sukhee; Thiebaud, Nicolas; Henderson, Michael X; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory bulb has recently been proposed to serve as a metabolic sensor of internal chemistry, particularly that modified by metabolism. Because the voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv1.3 regulates a large proportion of the outward current in olfactory bulb neurons and gene-targeted deletion of the protein produces a phenotype of resistance to diet-induced obesity in mice, we hypothesized that this channel may play a role in translating energy availability into a metabolic signal. Here we explored the ability of extracellular glucose concentration to modify evoked excitability of the mitral neurons that principally regulate olfactory coding and processing of olfactory information. Using voltage-clamp electrophysiology of heterologously expressed Kv1.3 channels in HEK 293 cells, we found that Kv1.3 macroscopic currents responded to metabolically active (d-) rather than inactive (l-) glucose with a response profile that followed a bell-shaped curve. Olfactory bulb slices stimulated with varying glucose concentrations showed glucose-dependent mitral cell excitability as evaluated by current-clamp electrophysiology. While glucose could be either excitatory or inhibitory, the majority of the sampled neurons displayed a decreased firing frequency in response to elevated glucose concentration that was linked to increased latency to first spike and decreased action potential cluster length. Unlike modulation attributed to phosphorylation, glucose modulation of mitral cells was rapid, less than one minute, and was reversible within the time course of a patch recording. Moreover, we report that modulation targets properties of spike firing rather than action potential shape, involves synaptic activity of glutamate or GABA signalling circuits, and is dependent upon Kv1.3 expression. Given the rising incidence of metabolic disorders attributed to weight gain, changes in neuronal excitability in brain regions regulating sensory perception of food are of consequence

  11. pH-sensitive K(+) channel TREK-1 is a novel target in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Daniel R P; Sørensen, Christiane E; Rapedius, Markus; Brüggemann, Andrea; Novak, Ivana

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. One of the hallmarks of cancer is changed pH-homeostasis and potentially pH-sensors may play an important role in cancer cell behavior. Two-pore potassium channels (K2P) are pH-regulated channels that conduct a background K(+) current, which is involved in setting the plasma membrane potential (Vm). Some members of the K2P superfamily were reported as crucial players in driving tumor progression. The aim of this study was to investigate pH-regulated K(+) currents in PDAC cells and determine possible effects on their pathological phenotype. Using a planar high-throughput patch-clamp system (SyncroPatch 384PE) we identified a pH-regulated K(+) current in the PDAC cell line BxPC-3. The current was inhibited by extracellular acidification and intracellular alkalization. Exposure to a set of different K(+) channel inhibitors, and the TREK-1 (K2P2.1)-specific activator BL1249, TREK-1 was identified as the main component of pH-regulated current. A voltage-sensor dye (VF2.1.Cl) was used to monitor effects of pH and BL1249 on Vm in more physiological conditions and TREK-1-mediated current was found as critical player in setting Vm. We assessed a possible role of TREK-1 in PDAC progression using cell proliferation and migration assays and observed similar trends with attenuated proliferation/migration rates in acidic (pH<7.0) and alkaline (pH>7.4) conditions. Notably, BL1249 inhibited both PDAC cell proliferation and migration indicating that hyperpolarization of Vm attenuates cancer cell behavior. TREK-1 may therefore be a promising novel target for PDAC therapy.

  12. pH-sensitive K(+) channel TREK-1 is a novel target in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Daniel R P; Sørensen, Christiane E; Rapedius, Markus; Brüggemann, Andrea; Novak, Ivana

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. One of the hallmarks of cancer is changed pH-homeostasis and potentially pH-sensors may play an important role in cancer cell behavior. Two-pore potassium channels (K2P) are pH-regulated channels that conduct a background K(+) current, which is involved in setting the plasma membrane potential (Vm). Some members of the K2P superfamily were reported as crucial players in driving tumor progression. The aim of this study was to investigate pH-regulated K(+) currents in PDAC cells and determine possible effects on their pathological phenotype. Using a planar high-throughput patch-clamp system (SyncroPatch 384PE) we identified a pH-regulated K(+) current in the PDAC cell line BxPC-3. The current was inhibited by extracellular acidification and intracellular alkalization. Exposure to a set of different K(+) channel inhibitors, and the TREK-1 (K2P2.1)-specific activator BL1249, TREK-1 was identified as the main component of pH-regulated current. A voltage-sensor dye (VF2.1.Cl) was used to monitor effects of pH and BL1249 on Vm in more physiological conditions and TREK-1-mediated current was found as critical player in setting Vm. We assessed a possible role of TREK-1 in PDAC progression using cell proliferation and migration assays and observed similar trends with attenuated proliferation/migration rates in acidic (pH<7.0) and alkaline (pH>7.4) conditions. Notably, BL1249 inhibited both PDAC cell proliferation and migration indicating that hyperpolarization of Vm attenuates cancer cell behavior. TREK-1 may therefore be a promising novel target for PDAC therapy. PMID:27443495

  13. Prevention of paralytic neurotoxin action on voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Catterall, W.A.

    1993-10-11

    This final report summarizes the conclusions from research in the first half of this contract that was presented in detail in the midterm report, presents a detailed description of the research carried out in the second half of this contract, and, where appropriate proposes potentially fruitful directions for future research on the mechanisms of action of paralytic neurotoxins and on approaches to prevention of their action. The presentation is organized in sequence according to the ten Tasks undertaken as proposed in the original contract. Sections describing Experimental Procedures, Results, Discussion, and Figures are presented for each Task undertaken. RA I, Lab animals, Rats, Rabbits, Synthetic peptides, Neurotoxins, Sodium channels, Receptor sites.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide prevents ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice: role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Jand Venes R; Bezerra, Víctor H; Gomes, Antoniella S; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Lima-Júnior, Roberto César P; Soares, Pedro Marcos G; Brito, Gerly Anne C; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Cunha, Fernando Q; Souza, Marcellus H L P

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice and the influence of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferent neurons, and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 receptors on such an effect. Saline and L-cysteine alone or with propargylglycine, sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), or Lawesson's reagent were administrated for testing purposes. For other experiments, mice were pretreated with glibenclamide, neurotoxic doses of capsaicin, or capsazepine. Afterward, mice received L-cysteine, NaHS, or Lawesson's reagent. After 30 min, 50% ethanol was administrated by gavage. After 1 h, mice were sacrificed, and gastric damage was evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic analyses. L-cysteine, NaHS, and Lawesson's reagent treatment prevented ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric damage in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of propargylglycine, an inhibitor of endogenous H(2)S synthesis, reversed gastric protection induced by L-cysteine. Glibenclamide reversed L-cysteine, NaHS, or Lawesson's reagent gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced macroscopic damage in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical ablation of sensory afferent neurons by capsaicin reversed gastroprotective effects of L-cysteine or H(2)S donors (NaHS or Lawesson's reagent) in ethanol-induced macroscopic gastric damage. Likewise, in the presence of the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, the gastroprotective effects of L-cysteine, NaHS, or Lawesson's reagent were also abolished. Our results suggest that H(2)S prevents ethanol-induced gastric damage. Although there are many mechanisms through which this effect can occur, our data support the hypothesis that the activation of K(ATP) channels and afferent neurons/TRPV1 receptors is of primary importance. PMID:19491326

  15. Impact of Mitochondrial Ca2+-Sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels in Sildenafil-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Behmenburg, Friederike; Dorsch, Marianne; Huhn, Ragnar; Mally, David; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels are involved in myocardial ischemic preconditioning. Their role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection is unknown. We investigated whether sildenafil-induced acute cardioprotection is mediated by activation of mBKCa channels in the rat heart in vitro. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were randomized and anesthetized with pentobarbital (90 mg/kg). Hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff system and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at a constant pressure of 80 mmHg. Hearts underwent 30 min of global ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. At the end of the experiments infarct size was determined by TTC staining. In the control group rats were not further treated. Sildenafil (3 μM) was administered over 10 min before the beginning of ischemia. The mBKCa channel inhibitor paxilline (1 μM) was administered with and without sildenafil before the onset of ischemia. The pathway underlying sildenafil-induced cardioprotection was further investigated with the protein kinase G blocker KT5823 (1 μM). Myocardial cGMP concentration was measured by ELISA. Data (mean±SD) were analysed with a one and two-way analysis of variance as appropriate. Results In control animals infarct size was 52±8%. Sildenafil increased cGMP concentration and reduced infarct size to 35±6% (P<0.05 vs. control). Paxilline and KT5823 completely blocked sildenafil-induced cardioprotection (paxilline+sildenafil: 50±8%, KT5823+sildenafil: 45±8%; both P<0.05 vs. sildenafil). Functional heart parameters and coronary flow were not different between the study groups. Conclusion This study shows that in male rats protein kinase G-dependent opening of mBKCa channels plays a pivotal role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection. PMID:26671662

  16. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Niaki, Seyed Esfandiar Akhavan; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shakiba, Bijan; Fakhimi, Ali; Dehpour, Ahamd Reza

    2008-08-01

    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which play a crucial role in the function of the central nervous system (CNS), for example, in modulating seizure threshold. Thus, in the study described here, we examined whether mouth breathing, induced by surgical ligation of nostrils, could affect the seizure threshold induced by pentylenetetrazole in male NMRI mice. Using the selective K(ATP) channel opener (diazoxide) and blocker (glibenclamide), we also evaluated the possible role of K(ATP) channels in this process. Our data revealed that seizure threshold was increased 6 to 72 hours after nasal obstruction, reaching a peak 48 hours afterward, compared with either control or sham-operated mice (P<0.01). There was a significant decrease in pH of arterial blood samples and increase in CO(2) partial pressure (PCO(2)) during this time. Systemic injection of glibenclamide (1 and 2mg/kg, ip, daily) significantly prevented the increase in seizure threshold in 48-hour bilaterally nasally obstructed mice, whereas it had no effect on seizure threshold in sham-operated mice. Systemic injection of diazoxide (25mg/kg, ip, daily) had no effect on seizure threshold in all groups, whereas higher doses (50 and 100mg/kg, ip, daily) significantly increased seizure threshold in both 48-hour-obstructed and sham-operated mice. The decrease in seizure threshold induced by glibenclamide (2mg/kg, ip, daily) was prevented by diazoxide (25mg/kg, ip, daily). These results demonstrate for the first time that mouth breathing, which could result in respiratory acidosis, increases seizure threshold in mice and K(ATP) channels may play a role in this effect.

  17. Possible involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the relaxant response of dog middle cerebral artery to cromakalim

    SciTech Connect

    Masuzawa, K.; Asano, M.; Matsuda, T.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M. )

    1990-11-01

    To determine the functions of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in cerebral arterial smooth muscle, the effects of cromakalim, an opener of these channels, on tension and 86Rb efflux were investigated in endothelium-removed strips of dog middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). Cromakalim relaxed the strips that were precontracted with 20.9 mM K+ with a small maximum response. The relaxant responses to cromakalim were competitively antagonized by glibenclamide, a blocker of KATP channels. In strips precontracted with 65.9 mM K+, cromakalim failed to relax the strips. The addition of cromakalim to a resting strip caused a dose-dependent relaxation. In the resting strips of MCAs preloaded with 86Rb, cromakalim did not increase the 86Rb efflux. With 42K as the tracer ion, cromakalim still had no effect on the efflux from the resting strips. On the other hand, cromakalim increased the 86Rb and 42K efflux from the strips of dog coronary arteries (CAs). In 20.9 mM K(+)-contracted strips of MCAs, cromakalim significantly decreased the 86Rb efflux. However, after the inactivation of Ca(++)-activated K+ channels by the addition of 1 x 10(-7) M nifedipine to the 20.9 mM K(+)-contracted strips of MCAs, cromakalim produced a small but significant increase in the 86Rb efflux. Similarly, when the resting strips of MCAs were placed in the Ca(++)-free 12 mM-Mg(+)+ solution, cromakalim increased the 86Rb efflux. In 65.9 mM K(+)-contracted strips, cromakalim increased the 86Rb efflux from both arteries. However, the extent of the increase in 86Rb efflux was significantly smaller in the MCA than in the CA.

  18. A single crossing-over event in voltage-sensitive Na+ channel genes may cause critical failure of dengue mosquito control by insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Koichi; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tomita, Takashi; Kasai, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    The voltage-sensitive sodium (Na+) channel (Vssc) is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Pest insects develop resistance to this class of insecticide by acquisition of one or multiple amino acid substitution(s) in this channel. In Southeast Asia, two major Vssc types confer pyrethroid resistance in the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, namely, S989P+V1016G and F1534C. We expressed several types of Vssc in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of amino acid substitutions in Vssc on pyrethroid susceptibilities. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 100- and 25-fold, respectively, while S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 1100-fold. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 10- and 1-fold (no reduction), respectively, but S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 90-fold. These results imply that pyrethroid insecticides are highly likely to lose their effectiveness against A. aegypti if such a Vssc haplotype emerges as the result of a single crossing-over event; thus, this may cause failure to control this key mosquito vector. Here, we strongly emphasize the importance of monitoring the occurrence of triple mutations in Vssc in the field population of A. aegypti.

  19. Serotonin contracts the rat mesenteric artery by inhibiting 4-aminopyridine-sensitive Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong Jun; Noh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Gon; Park, Sang Woong; Kim, Bokyung; Cho, Hana; Bae, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of functions in the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Despite such importance, 5-HT signaling pathways are not entirely clear. We demonstrated previously that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels determine the resting membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells and that the Kv channels are inhibited by 5-HT, which depolarizes the membranes. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT contracts arteries by inhibiting Kv channels. Here we studied 5-HT signaling and the detailed role of Kv currents in rat mesenteric arteries using patch-clamp and isometric tension measurements. Our data showed that inhibiting 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels contracted arterial rings, whereas inhibiting Ca(2+)-activated K(+), inward rectifier K(+) and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels had little effect on arterial contraction, indicating a central role of Kv channels in the regulation of resting arterial tone. 5-HT-induced arterial contraction decreased significantly in the presence of high KCl or the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) inhibitor nifedipine, indicating that membrane depolarization and the consequent activation of VGCCs mediate the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. The effects of 5-HT on Kv currents and arterial contraction were markedly prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Consistently, α-methyl 5-HT, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, mimicked the 5-HT action on Kv channels. Pretreatment with a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, prevented both the 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction and Kv current inhibition. Our data suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels are the primary regulator of the resting tone in rat mesenteric arteries. 5-HT constricts the arteries by inhibiting Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase pathway. PMID:24336234

  20. THE PRESENCE OF A B SUBUNIT INCREASES SENSITIVITY OF SODIUM CHANNEL NAV1.3, BUT NOT NAV1.2, TO TYPE II PYRETHROIDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are a primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. VSSCs are comprised of a pore-forming ¿ and auxillary ß subunits, and multiple isoforms of both subunit types exist. The sensitivity of different isoform combinations to pyrethroids has not...

  1. ADULT AND JUVENILE RAT SODIUM CHANNEL (NAV1.2 AND NAV1.3) SENSITIVITY TO THE PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE DELTAMETHRIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult rats are less sensitive than juveniles to the acute neurotoxicity of the Type II pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin (DLT). Voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are the primary target of DLT and are differentially expressed during development, with expression of Nav1.2...

  2. The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.

    PubMed

    Lutas, Andrew; Lahmann, Carolina; Soumillon, Magali; Yellen, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Certain neuron types fire spontaneously at high rates, an ability that is crucial for their function in brain circuits. The spontaneously active GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output of the basal ganglia, provide tonic inhibition of downstream brain areas. A depolarizing 'leak' current supports this firing pattern, but its molecular basis remains poorly understood. To understand how SNr neurons maintain tonic activity, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome of individual mouse SNr neurons. We discovered that SNr neurons express the sodium leak channel, NALCN, and that SNr neurons lacking NALCN have impaired spontaneous firing. In addition, NALCN is involved in the modulation of excitability by changes in glycolysis and by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings suggest that disruption of NALCN could impair the basal ganglia circuit, which may underlie the severe motor deficits in humans carrying mutations in NALCN. PMID:27177420

  3. Calcium regulation by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Derckx, Raissa; Reinach, Peter S; Garreis, Fabian; Böhm, Arina; Schmelzer, Lisa; Skosyrski, Sergej; Ramesh, Niraja; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Polat, Onur Kerem; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Riechardt, Aline Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is both the most common and fatal intraocular cancer among adults worldwide. As with all types of neoplasia, changes in Ca(2+) channel regulation can contribute to the onset and progression of this pathological condition. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) are two different types of Ca(2+) permeation pathways that can be dysregulated during neoplasia. We determined in malignant human UM and healthy uvea and four different UM cell lines whether there is gene and functional expression of TRP subtypes and CB1 since they could serve as drug targets to either prevent or inhibit initiation and progression of UM. RT-PCR, Ca(2+) transients, immunohistochemistry and planar patch-clamp analysis probed for their gene expression and functional activity, respectively. In UM cells, TRPV1 and TRPM8 gene expression was identified. Capsaicin (CAP), menthol or icilin induced Ca(2+) transients as well as changes in ion current behavior characteristic of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression. Such effects were blocked with either La(3+), capsazepine (CPZ) or BCTC. TRPA1 and CB1 are highly expressed in human uvea, but TRPA1 is not expressed in all UM cell lines. In UM cells, the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, induced Ca(2+) transients, which were suppressed by La(3+) and CPZ whereas CAP-induced Ca(2+) transients could also be suppressed by CB1 activation. Identification of functional TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPA1 and CB1 expression in these tissues may provide novel drug targets for treatment of this aggressive neoplastic disease.

  4. KCa3.1 channel inhibition sensitizes malignant gliomas to temozolomide treatment

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Grimaldi, Alfonso; Chece, Giuseppina; Porzia, Alessandra; Esposito, Vincenzo; Santoro, Antonio; Salvati, Maurizio; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Ragozzino, Davide; Angelantonio, Silvia Di; Wulff, Heike; Catalano, Myriam; Limatola, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are among the most frequent and aggressive cerebral tumors, characterized by high proliferative and invasive indexes. Standard therapy for patients, after surgery and radiotherapy, consists of temozolomide (TMZ), a methylating agent that blocks tumor cell proliferation. Currently, there are no therapies aimed at reducing tumor cell invasion. Ion channels are candidate molecular targets involved in glioma cell migration and infiltration into the brain parenchyma. In this paper we demonstrate that: i) blockade of the calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 with TRAM-34 has co-adjuvant effects with TMZ, reducing GL261 glioma cell migration, invasion and colony forming activity, increasing apoptosis, and forcing cells to pass the G2/M cell cycle phase, likely through cdc2 de-phosphorylation; ii) KCa3.1 silencing potentiates the inhibitory effect of TMZ on glioma cell viability; iii) the combination of TMZ/TRAM-34 attenuates the toxic effects of glioma conditioned medium on neuronal cultures, through a microglia dependent mechanism since the effect is abolished by clodronate-induced microglia killing; iv) TMZ/TRAM-34 co-treatment increases the number of apoptotic tumor cells, and the mean survival time in a syngeneic mouse glioma model (C57BL6 mice implanted with GL261 cells); v) TMZ/TRAM-34 co-treatment reduces cell viability of GBM cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) freshly isolated from patients. Taken together, these data suggest a new therapeutic approach for malignant glioma, targeting both glioma cell proliferating and migration, and demonstrate that TMZ/TRAM-34 co-treatment affects both glioma cells and infiltrating microglia, resulting in an overall reduction of tumor cell progression. PMID:27096953

  5. The pore region of the Kv1.2alpha subunit is an important component of recombinant Kv1.2 channel oxygen sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Laura; Takimoto, Koichi; Petrovic, Milan; Pongs, Olaf; Millhorn, David

    2003-06-27

    Oxygen-sensitive K(+) channels are important elements in the cellular response to hypoxia. Although much progress has been made in identifying their molecular composition, the structural components associated to their O(2)-sensitivity are not yet understood. Recombinant Kv1.2 currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes are inhibited by a decrease in O(2) availability. On the contrary, heterologous Kv2.1 channels are O(2)-insensitive. To elucidate the protein segment responsible for the O(2)-sensitivity of Kv1.2 channels, we analyzed the response to anoxia of Kv1.2/Kv2.1 chimeric channels. Expression of chimeric Kv2.1 channels each containing the S4, the S1-S3 or the S6-COOH segments of Kv1.2 polypeptide resulted in a K(+) current insensitive to anoxia. In contrast, transferring the S5-S6 segment of Kv1.2 into Kv2.1 produced an O(2)-sensitive K(+) current. Finally, mutating a redox-sensitive methionine residue (M380) of Kv1.2 polypeptide did not affect O(2)-sensitivity. Thus, the pore and its surrounding regions of Kv1.2 polypeptide confer its hypoxic inhibition. This response is independent on the redox modulation of methionine residues in this protein segment. PMID:12804584

  6. Molecular Aspects of Structure, Gating, and Physiology of pH-Sensitive Background K2P and Kir K+-Transport Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Pablo Cid, L.; Teulon, Jacques; Niemeyer, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    K+ channels fulfill roles spanning from the control of excitability to the regulation of transepithelial transport. Here we review two groups of K+ channels, pH-regulated K2P channels and the transport group of Kir channels. After considering advances in the molecular aspects of their gating based on structural and functional studies, we examine their participation in certain chosen physiological and pathophysiological scenarios. Crystal structures of K2P and Kir channels reveal rather unique features with important consequences for the gating mechanisms. Important tasks of these channels are discussed in kidney physiology and disease, K+ homeostasis in the brain by Kir channel-equipped glia, and central functions in the hearing mechanism in the inner ear and in acid secretion by parietal cells in the stomach. K2P channels fulfill a crucial part in central chemoreception probably by virtue of their pH sensitivity and are central to adrenal secretion of aldosterone. Finally, some unorthodox behaviors of the selectivity filters of K2P channels might explain their normal and pathological functions. Although a great deal has been learned about structure, molecular details of gating, and physiological functions of K2P and Kir K+-transport channels, this has been only scratching at the surface. More molecular and animal studies are clearly needed to deepen our knowledge. PMID:25540142

  7. Molecular aspects of structure, gating, and physiology of pH-sensitive background K2P and Kir K+-transport channels.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Pablo Cid, L; Teulon, Jacques; Niemeyer, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    K(+) channels fulfill roles spanning from the control of excitability to the regulation of transepithelial transport. Here we review two groups of K(+) channels, pH-regulated K2P channels and the transport group of Kir channels. After considering advances in the molecular aspects of their gating based on structural and functional studies, we examine their participation in certain chosen physiological and pathophysiological scenarios. Crystal structures of K2P and Kir channels reveal rather unique features with important consequences for the gating mechanisms. Important tasks of these channels are discussed in kidney physiology and disease, K(+) homeostasis in the brain by Kir channel-equipped glia, and central functions in the hearing mechanism in the inner ear and in acid secretion by parietal cells in the stomach. K2P channels fulfill a crucial part in central chemoreception probably by virtue of their pH sensitivity and are central to adrenal secretion of aldosterone. Finally, some unorthodox behaviors of the selectivity filters of K2P channels might explain their normal and pathological functions. Although a great deal has been learned about structure, molecular details of gating, and physiological functions of K2P and Kir K(+)-transport channels, this has been only scratching at the surface. More molecular and animal studies are clearly needed to deepen our knowledge.

  8. Acute inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels impairs skeletal muscle vascular control in rats during treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Steven W.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Sims, Gabrielle E.; Poole, David C.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is part of a class of inward rectifier K+ channels that can link local O2 availability to vasomotor tone across exercise-induced metabolic transients. The present investigation tested the hypothesis that if KATP channels are crucial to exercise hyperemia, then inhibition via glibenclamide (GLI) would lower hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (BF) and vascular conductance during treadmill exercise. In 27 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, mean arterial pressure, blood lactate concentration, and hindlimb muscle BF (radiolabeled microspheres) were determined at rest (n = 6) and during exercise (n = 6–8, 20, 40, and 60 m/min, 5% incline, i.e., ∼60–100% maximal O2 uptake) under control and GLI conditions (5 mg/kg intra-arterial). At rest and during exercise, mean arterial pressure was higher (rest: 17 ± 3%, 20 m/min: 5 ± 1%, 40 m/min: 5 ± 2%, and 60 m/min: 5 ± 1%, P < 0.05) with GLI. Hindlimb muscle BF (20 m/min: 16 ± 7%, 40 m/min: 30 ± 9%, and 60 m/min: 20 ± 8%) and vascular conductance (20 m/min: 20 ± 7%, 40 m/min: 33 ± 8%, and 60 m/min: 24 ± 8%) were lower with GLI during exercise at 20, 40, and 60 m/min, respectively (P < 0.05 for all) but not at rest. Within locomotory muscles, there was a greater fractional reduction present in muscles comprised predominantly of type I and type IIa fibers at all exercise speeds (P < 0.05). Additionally, blood lactate concentration was 106 ± 29% and 44 ± 15% higher during exercise with GLI at 20 and 40 m/min, respectively (P < 0.05). That KATP channel inhibition reduces hindlimb muscle BF during exercise in rats supports the obligatory contribution of KATP channels in large muscle mass exercise-induced hyperemia. PMID:25820394

  9. Acute inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels impairs skeletal muscle vascular control in rats during treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Clark T; Copp, Steven W; Ferguson, Scott K; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2015-06-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is part of a class of inward rectifier K(+) channels that can link local O2 availability to vasomotor tone across exercise-induced metabolic transients. The present investigation tested the hypothesis that if KATP channels are crucial to exercise hyperemia, then inhibition via glibenclamide (GLI) would lower hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (BF) and vascular conductance during treadmill exercise. In 27 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, mean arterial pressure, blood lactate concentration, and hindlimb muscle BF (radiolabeled microspheres) were determined at rest (n = 6) and during exercise (n = 6-8, 20, 40, and 60 m/min, 5% incline, i.e., ~60-100% maximal O2 uptake) under control and GLI conditions (5 mg/kg intra-arterial). At rest and during exercise, mean arterial pressure was higher (rest: 17 ± 3%, 20 m/min: 5 ± 1%, 40 m/min: 5 ± 2%, and 60 m/min: 5 ± 1%, P < 0.05) with GLI. Hindlimb muscle BF (20 m/min: 16 ± 7%, 40 m/min: 30 ± 9%, and 60 m/min: 20 ± 8%) and vascular conductance (20 m/min: 20 ± 7%, 40 m/min: 33 ± 8%, and 60 m/min: 24 ± 8%) were lower with GLI during exercise at 20, 40, and 60 m/min, respectively (P < 0.05 for all) but not at rest. Within locomotory muscles, there was a greater fractional reduction present in muscles comprised predominantly of type I and type IIa fibers at all exercise speeds (P < 0.05). Additionally, blood lactate concentration was 106 ± 29% and 44 ± 15% higher during exercise with GLI at 20 and 40 m/min, respectively (P < 0.05). That KATP channel inhibition reduces hindlimb muscle BF during exercise in rats supports the obligatory contribution of KATP channels in large muscle mass exercise-induced hyperemia. PMID:25820394

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BINDING OF SULFONYLUREA DRUGS TO HSA BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfonylurea drugs are often prescribed as a treatment for type II diabetes to help lower blood sugar levels by stimulating insulin secretion. These drugs are believed to primarily bind in blood to human serum albumin (HSA). This study used high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) to examine the binding of sulfonylureas to HSA. Frontal analysis with an immobilized HSA column was used to determine the association equilibrium constants (Ka) and number of binding sites on HSA for the sulfonylurea drugs acetohexamide and tolbutamide. The results from frontal analysis indicated HSA had a group of relatively high affinity binding regions and weaker binding sites for each drug, with average Ka values of 1.3 (± 0.2) × 105 M−1 and 3.5 (± 3.0) × 102 M−1 for acetohexamide and values of 8.7 (± 0.6) × 104 and 8.1 (± 1.7) × 103 M−1 for tolbutamide. Zonal elution and competition studies with site-specific probes were used to further examine the relatively high affinity interactions of these drugs by looking directly at the interactions that were occurring at Sudlow sites I and II of HSA (i.e., the major drug binding sites on this protein). It was found that acetohexamide was able to bind at both Sudlow sites I and II, with Ka values of 1.3 (± 0.1) × 105 and 4.3 (± 0.3) × 104 M−1, respectively, at 37°C. Tolbutamide also appeared to interact with both Sudlow sites I and II, with Ka values of 5.5 (± 0.2) × 104 and 5.3 (± 0.2) × 104 M−1, respectively. The results provide a more quantitative picture of how these drugs bind with HSA and illustrate how HPAC and related tools can be used to examine relatively complex drug-protein interactions. PMID:20435530

  11. Can water sensitive urban design systems help to preserve natural channel-forming flow regimes in an urbanised catchment?

    PubMed

    Wella-Hewage, Chathurika Subhashini; Alankarage Hewa, Guna; Pezzaniti, David

    2016-01-01

    Increased stormwater runoff and pollutant loads due to catchment urbanisation bring inevitable impacts on the physical and ecological conditions of environmentally sensitive urban streams. Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has been recognised as a possible means to minimise these negative impacts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the ability of infiltration-based WSUD systems to replicate the predevelopment channel-forming flow (CFF) regime in urban catchments. Catchment models were developed for the 'pre-urban', 'urban' and 'managed' conditions of a case study catchment and the hydrological effect on CFF regime was investigated using a number of flow indices. The results clearly show that changes to flow regime are apparent under urban catchment conditions and are even more severe under highly urbanised conditions. The use of WSUD systems was found to result in the replication of predevelopment flow regimes, particularly at low levels of urbanisation. Under highly urbanised conditions (of managed catchments) overcontrol of the CFF indices was observed as indicated by flow statistics below their pre-urban values. The overall results suggest that WSUD systems are highly effective in replicating the predevelopment CFF regime in urban streams and could be used as a means to protect environmentally sensitive urban streams.

  12. Can water sensitive urban design systems help to preserve natural channel-forming flow regimes in an urbanised catchment?

    PubMed

    Wella-Hewage, Chathurika Subhashini; Alankarage Hewa, Guna; Pezzaniti, David

    2016-01-01

    Increased stormwater runoff and pollutant loads due to catchment urbanisation bring inevitable impacts on the physical and ecological conditions of environmentally sensitive urban streams. Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has been recognised as a possible means to minimise these negative impacts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the ability of infiltration-based WSUD systems to replicate the predevelopment channel-forming flow (CFF) regime in urban catchments. Catchment models were developed for the 'pre-urban', 'urban' and 'managed' conditions of a case study catchment and the hydrological effect on CFF regime was investigated using a number of flow indices. The results clearly show that changes to flow regime are apparent under urban catchment conditions and are even more severe under highly urbanised conditions. The use of WSUD systems was found to result in the replication of predevelopment flow regimes, particularly at low levels of urbanisation. Under highly urbanised conditions (of managed catchments) overcontrol of the CFF indices was observed as indicated by flow statistics below their pre-urban values. The overall results suggest that WSUD systems are highly effective in replicating the predevelopment CFF regime in urban streams and could be used as a means to protect environmentally sensitive urban streams. PMID:26744937

  13. Regulation of myometrial contraction by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel via activation of SUR2B and Kir 6.2 in mouse.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Hwa; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kim, Young Chul; Choi, Woong; Yoo, Ra Young; Kim, Hun Sik; Park, Yeon Jin; Ji, Il Woon; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Kim, Hak Soon; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-08-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are well characterized in cardiac, pancreatic and many other muscle cells. In the present study, functional expression of the KATP channel was examined in non-pregnant murine longitudinal myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and Western blot were used. KATP channel openers (KCOs), such as pinacidil, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil, inhibited spontaneous myometrial contractions in a reversible and glibenclamide-sensitive manner. KCOs inhibited oxytocin (OXT)- and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-induced phasic contractions in a glibenclamide-sensitive manner. SUR2B and Kir6.2 were detected by Western blot, whereas SUR1, SUR2A and Kir6.1 were not. These results show that pinacidl, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil-sensitive KATP channels exist in murine myometrium, which are composed of SUR2B and Kir6.2. Based on the modulatory effects of the KATP channel on spontaneous contraction, OXT- and PGF2α-induced contractions, KATP channels seem to play an essential role in murine myometrial motility via activation of SUR2B and Kir6.2.

  14. Regulation of myometrial contraction by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel via activation of SUR2B and Kir 6.2 in mouse

    PubMed Central

    HONG, Seung Hwa; KYEONG, Kyu-Sang; KIM, Chan Hyung; KIM, Young Chul; CHOI, Woong; YOO, Ra Young; KIM, Hun Sik; PARK, Yeon Jin; JI, Il Woon; JEONG, Eun-Hwan; KIM, Hak Soon; XU, Wen-Xie; LEE, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are well characterized in cardiac, pancreatic and many other muscle cells. In the present study, functional expression of the KATP channel was examined in non-pregnant murine longitudinal myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and Western blot were used. KATP channel openers (KCOs), such as pinacidil, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil, inhibited spontaneous myometrial contractions in a reversible and glibenclamide-sensitive manner. KCOs inhibited oxytocin (OXT)- and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-induced phasic contractions in a glibenclamide-sensitive manner. SUR2B and Kir6.2 were detected by Western blot, whereas SUR1, SUR2A and Kir6.1 were not. These results show that pinacidl, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil-sensitive KATP channels exist in murine myometrium, which are composed of SUR2B and Kir6.2. Based on the modulatory effects of the KATP channel on spontaneous contraction, OXT- and PGF2α-induced contractions, KATP channels seem to play an essential role in murine myometrial motility via activation of SUR2B and Kir6.2. PMID:27086859

  15. Regulation of myometrial contraction by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel via activation of SUR2B and Kir 6.2 in mouse.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Hwa; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kim, Young Chul; Choi, Woong; Yoo, Ra Young; Kim, Hun Sik; Park, Yeon Jin; Ji, Il Woon; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Kim, Hak Soon; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-08-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are well characterized in cardiac, pancreatic and many other muscle cells. In the present study, functional expression of the KATP channel was examined in non-pregnant murine longitudinal myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and Western blot were used. KATP channel openers (KCOs), such as pinacidil, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil, inhibited spontaneous myometrial contractions in a reversible and glibenclamide-sensitive manner. KCOs inhibited oxytocin (OXT)- and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-induced phasic contractions in a glibenclamide-sensitive manner. SUR2B and Kir6.2 were detected by Western blot, whereas SUR1, SUR2A and Kir6.1 were not. These results show that pinacidl, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil-sensitive KATP channels exist in murine myometrium, which are composed of SUR2B and Kir6.2. Based on the modulatory effects of the KATP channel on spontaneous contraction, OXT- and PGF2α-induced contractions, KATP channels seem to play an essential role in murine myometrial motility via activation of SUR2B and Kir6.2. PMID:27086859

  16. Altered KATP Channel Subunits Expression and Vascular Reactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats With Age

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Duan, Peng; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Ruisheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels link membrane excitability to metabolic state to regulate a series of biological activities including the vascular tone. However, their ability to influence hypertension is controversial. Here we aim to investigate possible alteration of KATP channel in vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) during hypertension development process. In this study, we used 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), 49-week-old SHRs, and their age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats to study the expression of VSM KATP subunits at the mRNA and protein level and the function of VSM KATP by observing the relaxation reactivity of isolated aorta rings to KATP modulators. We found that the expression of VSM KATP subunits Kir6.1 and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR2B) decreased during hypertension. Moreover, the expression of SUR2B and Kir6.1 in 49-week-old SHRs decreased much more than that in 16-week-old SHRs. Furthermore, the aorta rings of 49-week-old SHRs showed lower reactivity to diazoxide than 16-week-old SHRs. This study suggests that KATP channels in VSM subunits Kir6.1 and SUR2B contribute to modify the functionality of this channel in hypertension with age. PMID:27035370

  17. The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lutas, Andrew; Lahmann, Carolina; Soumillon, Magali; Yellen, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Certain neuron types fire spontaneously at high rates, an ability that is crucial for their function in brain circuits. The spontaneously active GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output of the basal ganglia, provide tonic inhibition of downstream brain areas. A depolarizing 'leak' current supports this firing pattern, but its molecular basis remains poorly understood. To understand how SNr neurons maintain tonic activity, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome of individual mouse SNr neurons. We discovered that SNr neurons express the sodium leak channel, NALCN, and that SNr neurons lacking NALCN have impaired spontaneous firing. In addition, NALCN is involved in the modulation of excitability by changes in glycolysis and by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings suggest that disruption of NALCN could impair the basal ganglia circuit, which may underlie the severe motor deficits in humans carrying mutations in NALCN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15271.001 PMID:27177420

  18. Purification and reconstitution of the calcium antagonist receptor of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment with digitonin solubilized the calcium antagonist receptor as a stable complex with (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine from rat brain membranes. The solubilized complex retains allosteric coupling to binding sites for diltiazem, verapamil, and inorganic calcium antagonist sites. The calcium antagonist receptor from cardiac sarcolemma and the transverse-tubule membrane of skeletal muscle is also efficiently solubilized with digitonin and the receptor in all three tissues is a large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor complex was extensively purified by a combination of chromatography on WGA-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography, and sedimentation on sucrose gradients to yield preparations estimated to be 41% homogeneous by specific activity and 63% homogeneous by SDS gel electrophoresis. Analysis of SDS gels detect three polypeptides termed ..cap alpha..(Mr 135,000), ..beta..(Mr 50,000), and ..gamma..(Mr 32,000) as noncovalently associated subunits of the calcium antagonist receptor. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. subunits are glycosylated polypeptides, and the molecular weight of the core polypeptides are 108,000 and 24,000 respectively. The calcium antagonist receptor was reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer by adding CHAPS and exogeneous lipid to the purified receptor followed by rapid detergent removal. This procedure resulted in the incorporation of 45% of the calcium antagonist receptor into closed phospholipid vesicles. Data suggests that the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. subunits of the T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor are sufficient to form a functional calcium channel.

  19. P2X4 Activation Modulates Volume-sensitive Outwardly Rectifying Chloride Channels in Rat Hepatoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Diego; Penna, Antonello; Simon, Felipe; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Cerda, Oscar; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channels are critical for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response triggered upon cell swelling. Recent evidence indicates that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of these channels and that H2O2 per se activates the channels under isotonic isovolumic conditions. However, a significant difference in the time course for current onset between H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− activation is observed. In several cell types, cell swelling induced by hypotonic challenges triggers the release of ATP to the extracellular medium, which in turn, activates purinergic receptors and modulates cell volume regulation. In this study, we have addressed the effect of purinergic receptor activation on H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− current activation. Here we show that rat hepatoma cells (HTC) exposed to a 33% hypotonic solution responded by rapidly activating VSOR Cl− current and releasing ATP to the extracellular medium. In contrast, cells exposed to 200 μm H2O2 VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slower, and ATP release was not detected. In cells exposed to either 11% hypotonicity or 200 μm H2O2, exogenous addition of ATP in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in a decrease in the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset. Conversely, in cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the ionotropic receptor P2X4 challenged with a 33% hypotonic solution, the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slowed down. Our results indicate that, at high hypotonic imbalances, swelling-induced ATP release activates the purinergic receptor P2X4, which in turn modulates the time course of VSOR Cl− current onset in a extracellular Ca2+-dependent manner. PMID:20056605

  20. P2X4 activation modulates volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channels in rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Varela, Diego; Penna, Antonello; Simon, Felipe; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Cerda, Oscar; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-03-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channels are critical for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response triggered upon cell swelling. Recent evidence indicates that H(2)O(2) plays an essential role in the activation of these channels and that H(2)O(2) per se activates the channels under isotonic isovolumic conditions. However, a significant difference in the time course for current onset between H(2)O(2)-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl(-) activation is observed. In several cell types, cell swelling induced by hypotonic challenges triggers the release of ATP to the extracellular medium, which in turn, activates purinergic receptors and modulates cell volume regulation. In this study, we have addressed the effect of purinergic receptor activation on H(2)O(2)-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl(-) current activation. Here we show that rat hepatoma cells (HTC) exposed to a 33% hypotonic solution responded by rapidly activating VSOR Cl(-) current and releasing ATP to the extracellular medium. In contrast, cells exposed to 200 microm H(2)O(2) VSOR Cl(-) current onset was significantly slower, and ATP release was not detected. In cells exposed to either 11% hypotonicity or 200 microm H(2)O(2), exogenous addition of ATP in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) resulted in a decrease in the half-time for VSOR Cl(-) current onset. Conversely, in cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the ionotropic receptor P2X4 challenged with a 33% hypotonic solution, the half-time for VSOR Cl(-) current onset was significantly slowed down. Our results indicate that, at high hypotonic imbalances, swelling-induced ATP release activates the purinergic receptor P2X4, which in turn modulates the time course of VSOR Cl(-) current onset in a extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner. PMID:20056605

  1. Metabolism of omega-conotoxin-sensitive voltage-operated calcium channels in human neuroblastoma cells: modulation by cell differentiation and anti-channel antibodies.

    PubMed

    Passafaro, M; Clementi, F; Sher, E

    1992-09-01

    The turnover of voltage-operated calcium channels was studied in two different human neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32 and SH-SY5Y) using omega-conotoxin. The 125I-omega-conotoxin bound to surface channels was internalized and degraded by the cells in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The radioactive degradation products released in the medium were all trichloroacetic acid soluble and no longer recognized by anti-omega-conotoxin antibodies. Altering the pH of intracellular organelles with chloroquine and inhibiting lysosomal proteases with leupeptin reduced 125I-omega-conotoxin degradation but had no effect on its internalization. Postlabeling measurements showed that the rates of 125I-omega-conotoxin internalization and degradation were equal to the rate of channel removal from the cell surface after protein synthesis inhibition. The rate of removal of omega-conotoxin binding sites was parallel to the rate of loss of functional channels, as measured by means of the fura-2 technique. Drug-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells slowed down channel internalization and degradation rates, leading to the known increased expression of plasma membrane calcium channels in differentiated cells. On the other hand, both human (from Lambert-Eaton myasthenic patients) and murine (from immunized mice) anti-channel antibodies increased the rates of channel internalization and degradation, leading to channel downregulation. The activity of presynaptic calcium channels is already known to be acutely modulated by a number of different agents (e.g., hormones and neurotransmitters); our studies suggest that a different form of channel modulation (changes in the number of channels due to interference with channel turnover) may be active over a longer time scale in neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Channeling of electron transport to improve collection efficiency in mesoporous titanium dioxide dye sensitized solar cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan E-mail: joserajan@gmail.com; Khalidin, Zulkeflee

    2014-02-03

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) modules are generally made by interconnecting large photoelectrode strips with optimized thickness (∼14 μm) and show lower current density (J{sub SC}) compared with their single cells. We found out that the key to achieving higher J{sub SC} in large area devices is optimized photoelectrode volume (V{sub D}), viz., thickness and area which facilitate the electron channeling towards working electrode. By imposing constraints on electronic path in a DSC stack, we achieved >50% increased J{sub SC} and ∼60% increment in photoelectric conversion efficiency in photoelectrodes of similar V{sub D} (∼3.36 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 3}) without using any metallic grid or a special interconnections.

  3. [Determination of 32 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sweet corns and green soybeans by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianzhu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dengfei; Chen, Yong; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    A fast method based on QuEChERS methodology for the simultaneous determination of 32 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sweet corns and green soybeans was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The clean-up effects of three dispersive sorbents were evaluated in terms of the residue mass for extracts after evaporation and recoveries. The three sorbents were C18, a mixture of two sorbents--silica coated with zirconium dioxide (Z-Sep) and C18, a bonded C18 zirconia-coated silica (Z-Sep+). As a result, the best effects were obtained from using Z-Sep/C18 sorbents. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and salted out with anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction using Z-Sep/C18 sorbents. Chromatographic analysis was carried out using a CSH C18 column with gradient elution. The pesticides were analyzed by negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mode. The quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibrations as the external standard. The recoveries at fortification levels of 10, 20, 100 µg/kg in sweet corns and green beans ranged from 80.0% to 108.2% with the relative standard deviations of 1.2%-13.0%. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 0.2-5.0 µg/kg. The method has been proven to be simple, sensitive, environmental, and thus suitable for the determination of the 32 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sweet corns and green soy- beans. PMID:26387208

  4. Side-entry laser-beam zigzag irradiation of multiple channels in a microchip for simultaneous and highly sensitive detection of fluorescent analytes.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Takashi; Yokoi, Takahide; Uchiho, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    A simple and highly sensitive technique for laser-induced fluorescence detection on multiple channels in a plastic microchip was developed, and its effectiveness was demonstrated by laser-beam ray-trace simulations and experiments. In the microchip, with refractive index nC, A channels and B channels are arrayed alternately and respectively filled with materials with refractive indexes nA for electrophoresis analysis and nB for laser-beam control. It was shown that a laser beam entering from the side of the channel array traveled straight and irradiated all A channels simultaneously and effectively because the refractive actions by the A and B channels were counterbalanced according to the condition nA < nC < nB. This technique is thus called "side-entry laser-beam zigzag irradiation". As a demonstration of the technique, when nC = 1.53, nA = 1.41, nB = 1.66, and the cross sections of both eight A channels and seven B channels were the same isosceles trapezoids with 97° base angle, laser-beam irradiation efficiency on the eight A channels by the simulations was 89% on average and coefficient of variation was 4.4%. These results are far superior to those achieved by other conventional methods such as laser-beam expansion and scanning. Furthermore, fluorescence intensity on the eight A channels determined by the experiments agreed well with that determined by the simulations. Therefore, highly sensitive and uniform fluorescence detection on eight A channels was achieved. It is also possible to fabricate the microchips at low cost by plastic-injection molding and to make a simple and compact detection system, thereby promoting actual use of the proposed side-entry laser-beam zigzag irradiation in various fields. PMID:26296140

  5. Neonatal maternal deprivation sensitizes voltage-gated sodium channel currents in colon-specific dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shufen; Xiao, Ying; Zhu, Liyan; Li, Lin; Hu, Chuang-Ying; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2013-02-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain in association with altered bowel movements. The underlying mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity remain elusive. This study was designed to examine the role for sodium channels in a rat model of chronic visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD). Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores were performed on adult male rats. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were labeled with DiI and acutely dissociated for measuring excitability and sodium channel current under whole-cell patch-clamp configurations. The expression of Na(V)1.8 was analyzed by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. NMD significantly increased AWR scores, which lasted for ~6 wk in an association with hyperexcitability of colon DRG neurons. TTX-resistant but not TTX-sensitive sodium current density was greatly enhanced in colon DRG neurons in NMD rats. Compared with controls, activation curves showed a leftward shift in NMD rats whereas inactivation curves did not differ significantly. NMD markedly accelerated the activation time of peak current amplitude without any changes in inactivation time. Furthermore, NMD remarkably enhanced expression of Na(V)1.8 at protein levels but not at mRNA levels in colon-related DRGs. The expression of Na(V)1.9 was not altered after NMD. These data suggest that NMD enhances TTX-resistant sodium activity of colon DRG neurons, which is most likely mediated by a leftward shift of activation curve and by enhanced expression of Na(V)1.8 at protein levels, thus identifying a specific molecular mechanism underlying chronic visceral pain and sensitization in patients with IBS. PMID:23139220

  6. cAMP sensitivity conferred to the epithelial Na+ channel by alpha-subunit cloned from guinea-pig colon.

    PubMed

    Schnizler, M; Mastroberardino, L; Reifarth, F; Weber, W M; Verrey, F; Clauss, W

    2000-03-01

    The rate of Na+ (re)absorption across tight epithelia such as in distal kidney nephron and colon is to a large extent controlled at the level of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). In kidney, antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) stimulates the expression/activity of this channel by a cAMP/protein-kinase-A- (PKA-) mediated pathway. However, a clear upregulation of ENaC function by cAMP could not be reproduced with cloned channel subunits in the Xenopus oocyte expression system, suggesting the hypothesis that an additional factor is missing. In contrast, we show here that membrane-permeant cAMP can activate ENaC expressed in Xenopus oocytes (3.8-fold) upon replacement of the rat alpha-subunit by a new alpha-subunit cloned from guinea-pig colon (gpalpha). This alpha-subunit is 76% identical with its rat orthologue originating from ADH-insensitive rat colon. The biophysical fingerprints of the hybrid ENaC formed by this guinea-pig alpha-subunit together with rat beta- and gamma-subunits are indistinguishable from those of rat ENaC (rENaC). Injection of the PKA inhibitor PKI-(6-22)-amide into the oocyte had no effect on the basal activity of rat ENaC but inhibited the activity of gpalpha-containing hybrid ENaC and greatly decreased its stimulation by cAMP. This suggests that, unlike for rat ENaC, tonic PKA activity is required for basal function of gpalpha-containing ENaC and that PKA mediates its cAMP-induced activation. This regulatory behaviour is not common to all ENaCs containing an alpha-subunit cloned from an ADH-responsive tissue since xENaC, which was cloned from the ADH-sensitive Xenopus laevis A6 epithelia, is, when expressed in oocytes, resistant to cAMP, similar to rat ENaC. This study demonstrates that the PKA sensitivity of ENaC can depend on the nature of the ENaC alpha-subunit and raises the possibility that cAMP can stimulate ENaCs by different mechanisms. PMID:10764218

  7. Metabolic hyperemia requires ATP-sensitive K+ channels and H2O2 but not adenosine in isolated mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xueping; Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen; Ledent, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adenosine-mediated H2O2 production and opening of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels contributes to coronary reactive hyperemia. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of adenosine, H2O2, and KATP channels in coronary metabolic hyperemia (MH). Experiments were conducted on isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts using combined pharmacological approaches with adenosine receptor (AR) knockout mice. MH was induced by electrical pacing at graded frequencies. Coronary flow increased linearly from 14.4 ± 1.2 to 20.6 ± 1.2 ml·min−1·g−1 with an increase in heart rate from 400 to 650 beats/min in wild-type mice. Neither non-selective blockade of ARs by 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT; 50 μM) nor selective A2AAR blockade by SCH-58261 (1 μM) or deletion affected MH, although resting flow and left ventricular developed pressure were reduced. Combined A2AAR and A2BAR blockade or deletion showed similar effects as 8-SPT. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 μM) or combined 8-SPT administration failed to reduce MH, although resting flows were reduced (by ∼20%). However, glibenclamide (KATP channel blocker, 5 μM) decreased not only resting flow (by ∼45%) and left ventricular developed pressure (by ∼36%) but also markedly reduced MH by ∼94%, resulting in cardiac contractile dysfunction. Scavenging of H2O2 by catalase (2,500 U/min) also decreased resting flow (by ∼16%) and MH (by ∼24%) but to a lesser extent than glibenclamide. Our results suggest that while adenosine modulates coronary flow under both resting and ischemic conditions, it is not required for MH. However, H2O2 and KATP channels are important local control mechanisms responsible for both coronary ischemic and metabolic vasodilation. PMID:25108010

  8. Different Contribution of Redox-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels to Acetaminophen-Induced Death of Human Hepatoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Heba; Kozai, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Reiko; Numata, Tomohiro; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe analgesic antipyretic drug at prescribed doses. Its overdose, however, can cause life-threatening liver damage. Though, involvement of oxidative stress is widely acknowledged in APAP-induced hepatocellular death, the mechanism of this increased oxidative stress and the associated alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis are still unclear. Among members of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels activated in response to oxidative stress, we here identify that redox-sensitive TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels underlie Ca2+ entry and downstream cellular damages induced by APAP in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Our data indicate that APAP treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, and Ca2+ entry leading to increased apoptotic cell death. These responses were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with the ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (Tiron), and also by preincubation of cells with the glutathione inducer Dimethylfumarate (DMF). TRP subtype-targeted pharmacological blockers and siRNAs strategy revealed that suppression of either TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, or TRPM7 reduced APAP-induced ROS formation, Ca2+ influx, and cell death; the effects of suppression of TRPV1 or TRPC1, known to be activated by oxidative cysteine modifications, were stronger than those of TRPM2 or TRPM7. Interestingly, TRPV1 and TRPC1 were labeled by the cysteine-selective modification reagent, 5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)-2biotin (DTNB-2Bio), and this was attenuated by pretreatment with APAP, suggesting that APAP and/or its oxidized metabolites act directly on the modification target cysteine residues of TRPV1 and TRPC1 proteins. In human liver tissue, TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels transcripts were localized mainly to hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Our findings strongly suggest that APAP

  9. CNG-modulin: a novel Ca-dependent modulator of ligand sensitivity in cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Rebrik, Tatiana I; Botchkina, Inna; Arshavsky, Vadim Y; Craft, Cheryl M; Korenbrot, Juan I

    2012-02-29

    The transduction current in several different types of sensory neurons arises from the activity of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels. The channels in these sensory neurons vary in structure and function, yet each one demonstrates calcium-dependent modulation of ligand sensitivity mediated by the interaction of the channel with a soluble modulator protein. In cone photoreceptors, the molecular identity of the modulator protein was previously unknown. We report the discovery and characterization of CNG-modulin, a novel 301 aa protein that interacts with the N terminus of the β subunit of the cGMP-gated channel and modulates the cGMP sensitivity of the channels in cone photoreceptors of striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Immunohistochemistry and single-cell PCR demonstrate that CNG-modulin is expressed in cone but not rod photoreceptors. Adding purified recombinant CNG-modulin to cone membrane patches containing the native CNG channels shifts the midpoint of cGMP dependence from ∼91 μM in the absence of Ca(2+) to ∼332 μM in the presence of 20 μM Ca(2+). At a fixed cGMP concentration, the midpoint of the Ca(2+) dependence is ∼857 nM Ca(2+). These restored physiological features are statistically indistinguishable from the effects of the endogenous modulator. CNG-modulin binds Ca(2+) with a concentration dependence that matches the calcium dependence of channel modulation. We conclude that CNG-modulin is the authentic Ca(2+)-dependent modulator of cone CNG channel ligand sensitivity. CNG-modulin is expressed in other tissues, such as brain, olfactory epithelium, and the inner ear, and may modulate the function of ion channels in those tissues as well. PMID:22378887

  10. Cell signalling in insulin secretion: the molecular targets of ATP, cAMP and sulfonylurea.

    PubMed

    Seino, S

    2012-08-01

    Clarification of the molecular mechanisms of insulin secretion is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diabetes and for development of novel therapeutic strategies for the disease. Insulin secretion is regulated by various intracellular signals generated by nutrients and hormonal and neural inputs. In addition, a variety of glucose-lowering drugs including sulfonylureas, glinide-derivatives, and incretin-related drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are used for glycaemic control by targeting beta cell signalling for improved insulin secretion. There has been a remarkable increase in our understanding of the basis of beta cell signalling over the past two decades following the application of molecular biology, gene technology, electrophysiology and bioimaging to beta cell research. This review discusses cell signalling in insulin secretion, focusing on the molecular targets of ATP, cAMP and sulfonylurea, an essential metabolic signal in glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), a critical signal in the potentiation of GIIS, and the commonly used glucose-lowering drug, respectively.

  11. The Role of DPO-1 and XE991-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Mediated Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Tano, Jean-Yves; Kassmann, Mario; Wang, Ning; Schubert, Rudolf; Gollasch, Maik

    2016-01-01

    The anti-contractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is an important mechanism in the modulation of vascular tone in peripheral arteries. Recent evidence has implicated the XE991-sensitive voltage-gated KV (KCNQ) channels in the regulation of arterial tone by PVAT. However, until now the in vivo pharmacology of the involved vascular KV channels with regard to XE991 remains undetermined, since XE991 effects may involve Ca2+ activated BKCa channels and/or voltage-dependent KV1.5 channels sensitive to diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (DPO-1). In this study, we tested whether KV1.5 channels are involved in the control of mesenteric arterial tone and its regulation by PVAT. Our study was also aimed at extending our current knowledge on the in situ vascular pharmacology of DPO-1 and XE991 regarding KV1.5 and BKCa channels, in helping to identify the nature of K+ channels that could contribute to PVAT-mediated relaxation. XE991 at 30 μM reduced the anti-contractile response of PVAT, but had no effects on vasocontraction induced by phenylephrine (PE) in the absence of PVAT. Similar effects were observed for XE991 at 0.3 μM, which is known to almost completely inhibit mesenteric artery VSMC KV currents. 30 μM XE991 did not affect BKCa currents in VSMCs. Kcna5−/− arteries and wild-type arteries incubated with 1 μM DPO-1 showed normal vasocontractions in response to PE in the presence and absence of PVAT. KV current density and inhibition by 30 μM XE991 were normal in mesenteric artery VSMCs isolated from Kcna5−/− mice. We conclude that KV channels are involved in the control of arterial vascular tone by PVAT. These channels are present in VSMCs and very potently inhibited by the KCNQ channel blocker XE991. BKCa channels and/or DPO-1 sensitive KV1.5 channels in VSMCs are not the downstream mediators of the XE991 effects on PVAT-dependent arterial vasorelaxation. Further studies will need to be undertaken to examine the role of other KV channels in the

  12. The Role of DPO-1 and XE991-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Mediated Regulation of Vascular Tone.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Tano, Jean-Yves; Kassmann, Mario; Wang, Ning; Schubert, Rudolf; Gollasch, Maik

    2016-01-01

    The anti-contractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is an important mechanism in the modulation of vascular tone in peripheral arteries. Recent evidence has implicated the XE991-sensitive voltage-gated KV (KCNQ) channels in the regulation of arterial tone by PVAT. However, until now the in vivo pharmacology of the involved vascular KV channels with regard to XE991 remains undetermined, since XE991 effects may involve Ca(2+) activated BKCa channels and/or voltage-dependent KV1.5 channels sensitive to diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (DPO-1). In this study, we tested whether KV1.5 channels are involved in the control of mesenteric arterial tone and its regulation by PVAT. Our study was also aimed at extending our current knowledge on the in situ vascular pharmacology of DPO-1 and XE991 regarding KV1.5 and BKCa channels, in helping to identify the nature of K(+) channels that could contribute to PVAT-mediated relaxation. XE991 at 30 μM reduced the anti-contractile response of PVAT, but had no effects on vasocontraction induced by phenylephrine (PE) in the absence of PVAT. Similar effects were observed for XE991 at 0.3 μM, which is known to almost completely inhibit mesenteric artery VSMC KV currents. 30 μM XE991 did not affect BKCa currents in VSMCs. Kcna5 (-/-) arteries and wild-type arteries incubated with 1 μM DPO-1 showed normal vasocontractions in response to PE in the presence and absence of PVAT. KV current density and inhibition by 30 μM XE991 were normal in mesenteric artery VSMCs isolated from Kcna5 (-/-) mice. We conclude that KV channels are involved in the control of arterial vascular tone by PVAT. These channels are present in VSMCs and very potently inhibited by the KCNQ channel blocker XE991. BKCa channels and/or DPO-1 sensitive KV1.5 channels in VSMCs are not the downstream mediators of the XE991 effects on PVAT-dependent arterial vasorelaxation. Further studies will need to be undertaken to examine the role of other KV channels in the

  13. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Peter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are relatively new classes of chemical compounds that function by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs with over a 10000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the USA. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 212 water samples were collected from 75 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA and IMI herbicides by USGS Methods Research and Development Program staff using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were also analyzed for 47 pesticides or pesticide degradation products. At least one of the 16 SUs, SAs or IMIs was detected above the method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.01 ??g/l in 83% of 130 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (71% of samples) followed by flumetsulam (63% of samples) and nicosulfuron (52% of samples). The sum of SU, SA and IMI concentrations exceeded 0.5 ??g/l in less than 10% of stream samples. Acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were all detected in 90% or more of 129 stream samples. The sum of the concentration of these five herbicides exceeded 50 ??g/l in approximately 10% of stream samples. At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected above the MRL in 24% of 25 ground-water samples and 86% of seven reservoir samples. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat pancreatic beta-cells by linoleic acid through both intracellular metabolites and membrane receptor signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Feng; Pei, Jianming; Chen, Chen

    2008-09-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) determine the excitability of pancreatic beta-cells and importantly regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) decrease GSIS after long-term exposure to beta-cells, but the effects of exogenous FFAs on K(ATP) channels are not yet well clarified. In this study, the effects of linoleic acid (LA) on membrane potential (MP) and K(ATP) channels were observed in primary cultured rat pancreatic beta-cells. LA (20 microM) induced hyperpolarization of MP and opening of K(ATP) channels, which was totally reversed and inhibited by tolbutamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker. Inhibition of LA metabolism by acyl-CoA synthetase inhibitor, triacsin C (10 microM), partially inhibited LA-induced opening of K(ATP) channels by 64%. The non-FFA G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40 agonist, GW9508 (40 microM), induced an opening of K(ATP) channels, which was similar to that induced by LA under triacsin C treatment. Blockade of protein kinases A and C did not influence the opening of K(ATP) channels induced by LA and GW9508, indicating that these two protein kinase pathways are not involved in the action of LA on K(ATP) channels. The present study demonstrates that LA induces hyperpolarization of MP by activating K(ATP) channels via both intracellular metabolites and activation of GPR40. It indicates that not only intracellular metabolites of FFAs but also GPR40-mediated pathways take part in the inhibition of GSIS and beta-cell dysfunction induced by FFAs.

  15. Modulation of K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 K+ channel sensitivity to carvedilol by alternative mRNA translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Kisselbach, J; Seyler, C; Schweizer, P A; Gerstberger, R; Becker, R; Katus, H A; Thomas, D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The β-receptor antagonist carvedilol blocks a range of ion channels. K2P2.1 (TREK1) and K2P10.1 (TREK2) channels are expressed in the heart and regulated by alternative translation initiation (ATI) of their mRNA, producing functionally distinct channel variants. The first objective was to investigate acute effects of carvedilol on human K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 channels. Second, we sought to study ATI-dependent modulation of K2P K+ current sensitivity to carvedilol. Experimental Approach Using standard electrophysiological techniques, we recorded currents from wild-type and mutant K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 channels in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells. Key Results Carvedilol concentration-dependently inhibited K2P2.1 channels (IC50,oocytes = 20.3 μM; IC50,HEK = 1.6 μM) and this inhibition was frequency-independent. When K2P2.1 isoforms generated by ATI were studied separately in oocytes, the IC50 value for carvedilol inhibition of full-length channels (16.5 μM) was almost 5-fold less than that for the truncated channel variant (IC50 = 79.0 μM). Similarly, the related K2P10.1 channels were blocked by carvedilol (IC50,oocytes = 24.0 μM; IC50,HEK = 7.6 μM) and subject to ATI-dependent modulation of drug sensitivity. Conclusions and Implications Carvedilol targets K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 K+ channels. This previously unrecognized mechanism supports a general role of cardiac K2P channels as antiarrhythmic drug targets. Furthermore, the work reveals that the sensitivity of the cardiac ion channels K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 to block was modulated by alternative mRNA translation initiation. PMID:25168769

  16. Colonic Hypersensitivity and Sensitization of Voltage-gated Sodium Channels in Primary Sensory Neurons in Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ji; Song, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Hong; Qin, Xin; Hu, Shufen; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with long-standing diabetes often demonstrate intestinal dysfunction and abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of abdominal pain in diabetic patients remains elusive. The purpose of study was to determine roles of voltage-gated sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in colonic hypersensitivity of rats with diabetes. Methods Diabetic models were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg) in adult female rats, while the control rats received citrate buffer only. Behavioral responses to colorectal distention were used to determine colonic sensitivity in rats. Colon projection DRG neurons labeled with DiI were acutely dissociated for measuring excitability and sodium channel currents by whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Western blot analysis was employed to measure the expression of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 of colon DRGs. Results STZ injection produced a significantly lower distention threshold than control rats in responding to colorectal distention. STZ injection also depolarized the resting membrane potentials, hyperpolarized action potential threshold, decreased rheobase and increased frequency of action potentials evoked by 2 and 3 times rheobase and ramp current stimulation. Furthermore, STZ injection enhanced neuronal sodium current densities of DRG neurons innervating the colon. STZ injection also led to a significant upregulation of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 expression in colon DRGs compared with age and sex-matched control rats. Conclusions Our results suggest that enhanced neuronal excitability following STZ injection, which may be mediated by upregulation of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 expression in DRGs, may play an important role in colonic hypersensitivity in rats with diabetes. PMID:26459453

  17. Prostacyclin attenuates oxidative damage of myocytes by opening mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels via the EP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Ken; Tamaki, Kayoko; Sato, Toshiaki; Ishida, Hideyuki; Bolli, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) and the PGE family alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and limit oxidative damage. The cardioprotective effects of PGI2 have been traditionally ascribed to activation of IP receptors. Recent advances in prostanoid research have revealed that PGI2 can bind not only to IP, but also to EP, receptors, suggesting cross talk between PGI2 and PGEs. The mechanism(s) whereby PGI2 protects myocytes from oxidative damage and the specific receptors involved remain unknown. Thus fresh isolated adult rat myocytes were exposed to 200 microM H2O2 with or without carbaprostacyclin (cPGI2), IP-selective agonists, and ONO-AE-248 (an EP3-selective agonist). Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion after 30 min of H2O2 superfusion. cPGI2 and ONO-AE-248 significantly improved cell survival during H2O2 superfusion; IP-selective agonists did not. The protective effect of cPGI2 and ONO-AE-248 was completely abrogated by pretreatment with 5-hydroxydecanoate or glibenclamide. In the second series of experiments, the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel opener diazoxide (Dx) reversibly oxidized flavoproteins in control myocytes. Exposure to prostanoid analogs alone had no effect on flavoprotein fluorescence. A second application of Dx in the presence of cPGI2 or ONO-AE-248 significantly increased flavoprotein fluorescence compared with Dx alone, but IP-selective agonists did not. This study demonstrates that PGI2 analogs protect cardiac myocytes from oxidative stress mainly via activation of EP3. The data also indicate that activation of EP3 receptors primes the opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and that this mechanism is essential for EP3-dependent protection.

  18. Sodium channel diversity in the vestibular ganglion: NaV1.5, NaV1.8, and tetrodotoxin-sensitive currents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Wooltorton, Julian R A; Gaboyard-Niay, Sophie; Yang, Fu-Chia; Lysakowski, Anna; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2016-05-01

    Firing patterns differ between subpopulations of vestibular primary afferent neurons. The role of sodium (NaV) channels in this diversity has not been investigated because NaV currents in rodent vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) were reported to be homogeneous, with the voltage dependence and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity of most neuronal NaV channels. RT-PCR experiments, however, indicated expression of diverse NaV channel subunits in the vestibular ganglion, motivating a closer look. Whole cell recordings from acutely dissociated postnatal VGNs confirmed that nearly all neurons expressed NaV currents that are TTX-sensitive and have activation midpoints between -30 and -40 mV. In addition, however, many VGNs expressed one of two other NaV currents. Some VGNs had a small current with properties consistent with NaV1.5 channels: low TTX sensitivity, sensitivity to divalent cation block, and a relatively negative voltage range, and some VGNs showed NaV1.5-like immunoreactivity. Other VGNs had a current with the properties of NaV1.8 channels: high TTX resistance, slow time course, and a relatively depolarized voltage range. In two NaV1.8 reporter lines, subsets of VGNs were labeled. VGNs with NaV1.8-like TTX-resistant current also differed from other VGNs in the voltage dependence of their TTX-sensitive currents and in the voltage threshold for spiking and action potential shape. Regulated expression of NaV channels in primary afferent neurons is likely to selectively affect firing properties that contribute to the encoding of vestibular stimuli. PMID:26936982

  19. The involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in β2-adrenoceptor agonist-induced vasodilatation on rat diaphragmatic microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Han-Yu

    1997-01-01

    The effects of glibenclamide (GLB), a blocker of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, on diaphragmatic microcirculation in male Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed under basal conditions and after β2-adrenoceptor-agonist stimulation. In addition, forskolin was used to bypass β-adrenoceptors and GTP-binding proteins (G-protein) to explore the possible mechanism of GLB effects. For comparison, the relationships between KATP channel activity and cyclic GMP-mediated vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized with urethane and mechanically ventilated. The left hemi-diaphragm of each rat was prepared and microvascular blood flow (QLDF) was recorded with laser-Doppler flowmetry during continuous superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered, prewarmed Ringer solution. The drugs were topically applied to the surface of the hemi-diaphragm. Salbutamol (0.32–32 μM), terbutaline (0.32 μM–0.32 μM) and forskolin (0.32–10 μM) each elicited a concentration-dependent increase in QLDF. Baseline microvascular blood flow was unaffected by a 30 min suffusion of 1 μM GLB (295±51 mV vs 325±62 mV, P=0.738). The vasodilator response elicited by salbutamol (0.32 μM, 1 μM and 3.2 μM), was significantly attenuated by a 30 min superfusion with 1 μM GLB; this salbutamol-induced vasodilatation was mediated via an interaction with β-adrenoceptor receptors, as in other experiments it was greatly inhibited by 30-min superfusion with propranolol (10 μM). Similarly, following 30-min superfusion with GLB (1 μM), the terbutaline (1 μM, 3.2 μM and 10 μM)-induced vasodilator response was almost abolished and the vasodilator responses induced by incremental concentrations of forskolin (0.32 μM, 1 μM and 3.2 μM) were also significantly attenuated. Cromakalim (1.5 μM, 3 μM and 3.2 μM) produced an increase of QLDF in a dose-dependent manner

  20. Tunable sensitivity phase detection of transmitted-type dual-channel guided-mode resonance sensor based on phase-shift interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Syu, Siang-He; Lin, Peng-Zhi; Yu, Hsin Her

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a transmitted-type dual-channel guided-mode resonance (GMR) sensor system that uses phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) to achieve tunable phase detection sensitivity. Five interference images are captured for the PSI phase calculation within ∼15  s by using a liquid crystal retarder and a USB web camera. The GMR sensor structure is formed by a nanoimprinting process, and the dual-channel sensor device structure for molding is fabricated using a 3D printer. By changing the rotation angle of the analyzer in front of the camera in the PSI system, the sensor detection sensitivity can be tuned. The proposed system may achieve high throughput as well as high sensitivity. The experimental results show that an optimal detection sensitivity of 6.82×10(-4)  RIU can be achieved. PMID:26836099

  1. SUR2 subtype (A and B)-dependent differential activation of the cloned ATP-sensitive K+ channels by pinacidil and nicorandil

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Isomoto, Shojiro; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    1998-01-01

    The classical ATP sensitive K+ (KATP) channels are composed of a sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) and an inward rectifying K+ channel subunit (BIR/Kir6.2). They are the targets of vasorelaxant agents called K+ channel openers, such as pinacidil and nicorandil.In order to examine the tissue selectivity of pinacidil and nicorandil, in vitro, we compared the effects of these agents on cardiac type (SUR2A/Kir6.2) and vascular smooth muscle type (SUR2B/Kir6.2) of the KATP channels heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells, a human embryonic kidney cell line, by using the patch-clamp method.In the cell-attached recordings (145 mM K+ in the pipette), pinacidil and nicorandil activated a weakly inwardly-rectifying, glibenclamide-sensitive 80 pS K+ channel in both the transfected cells.In the whole-cell configuration, pinacidil showed a similar potency in activating the SUR2B/Kir6.2 and SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels (EC50 of ∼2 and ∼10 μM, respectively). On the other hand, nicorandil activated the SUR2B/Kir6.2 channel >100 times more potently than the SUR2A/Kir6.2 (EC50 of ∼10 μM and >500 μM, respectively).Thus, nicorandil, but not pinacidil, preferentially activates the KATP channels containing SUR2B. Because SUR2A and SUR2B are diverse only in 42 amino acids at their C-terminal ends, it is strongly suggested that this short part of SUR2B may play a critical role in the action of nicorandil on the vascular type classical KATP channel. PMID:9692785

  2. Contribution of potential EF hand motifs to the calcium-dependent gating of a mouse brain large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel.

    PubMed

    Braun, A P; Sy, L

    2001-06-15

    1. The large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel (BK(Ca) channel) is a unique member of the K(+)-selective ion channel family in that activation is dependent upon both direct calcium binding and membrane depolarization. Calcium binding acts to dynamically shift voltage-dependent gating in a negative or left-ward direction, thereby adjusting channel opening to changes in cellular membrane potential. 2. We hypothesized that the intrinsic calcium-binding site within the BK(Ca) channel alpha subunit may contain an EF hand motif, the most common, naturally occurring calcium binding structure. Following identification of six potential sites, we introduced a single amino acid substitution (D/E to N/Q or A) at the equivalent of the -z position of a bona fide EF hand that would be predicted to lower calcium binding affinity at each of the six sites. 3. Using macroscopic current recordings of wild-type and mutant BK(Ca) channels in excised inside-out membrane patches from HEK 293 cells, we observed that a single point mutation in the C-terminus (Site 6, FLD(923)QD to N), adjacent to the 'calcium bowl' described by Salkoff and colleagues, shifted calcium-sensitive gating right-ward by 50--65 mV over the range of 2--12 microM free calcium, but had little effect on voltage-dependent gating in the absence of calcium. Combining this mutation at Site 6 with a similar mutation at Site 1 (PVD(81)EK to N) in the N-terminus produced a greater shift (70--90 mV) in calcium-sensitive gating over the same range of calcium. We calculated that these combined mutations decreased the apparent calcium binding affinity approximately 11-fold (129.5 microM vs. 11.3 microm) compared to the wild-type channel. 4. We further observed that a bacterially expressed protein encompassing Site 6 of the BK(Ca) channel C-terminus and bovine brain calmodulin were both able to directly bind (45)Ca(2+) following denaturation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (e.g. SDS-PAGE). 5. Our results suggest

  3. Differential mechanisms of Cantú syndrome-associated gain of function mutations in the ABCC9 (SUR2) subunit of the KATP channel.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Paige E; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Lee, Sun Joo; Nichols, Colin G

    2015-12-01

    Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare disease characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinct facial features, osteochondrodysplasia, and cardiac defects. Recent genetic analysis has revealed that the majority of CS patients carry a missense mutation in ABCC9, which codes for the sulfonylurea receptor SUR2. SUR2 subunits couple with Kir6.x, inwardly rectifying potassium pore-forming subunits, to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which link cell metabolism to membrane excitability in a variety of tissues including vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and the heart. The functional consequences of multiple uncharacterized CS mutations remain unclear. Here, we have focused on determining the functional consequences of three documented human CS-associated ABCC9 mutations: human P432L, A478V, and C1043Y. The mutations were engineered in the equivalent position in rat SUR2A (P429L, A475V, and C1039Y), and each was coexpressed with mouse Kir6.2. Using macroscopic rubidium ((86)Rb(+)) efflux assays, we show that K(ATP) channels formed with P429L, A475V, or C1039Y mutants enhance K(ATP) activity compared with wild-type (WT) channels. We used inside-out patch-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition and to MgADP activation. For P429L and A475V mutants, sensitivity to ATP inhibition was comparable to WT channels, but activation by MgADP was significantly greater. C1039Y-dependent channels were significantly less sensitive to inhibition by ATP or by glibenclamide, but MgADP activation was comparable to WT. The results indicate that these three CS mutations all lead to overactive K(ATP) channels, but at least two mechanisms underlie the observed gain of function: decreased ATP inhibition and enhanced MgADP activation. PMID:26621776

  4. Differential mechanisms of Cantú syndrome–associated gain of function mutations in the ABCC9 (SUR2) subunit of the KATP channel

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Paige E.; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Lee, Sun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare disease characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinct facial features, osteochondrodysplasia, and cardiac defects. Recent genetic analysis has revealed that the majority of CS patients carry a missense mutation in ABCC9, which codes for the sulfonylurea receptor SUR2. SUR2 subunits couple with Kir6.x, inwardly rectifying potassium pore-forming subunits, to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which link cell metabolism to membrane excitability in a variety of tissues including vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and the heart. The functional consequences of multiple uncharacterized CS mutations remain unclear. Here, we have focused on determining the functional consequences of three documented human CS-associated ABCC9 mutations: human P432L, A478V, and C1043Y. The mutations were engineered in the equivalent position in rat SUR2A (P429L, A475V, and C1039Y), and each was coexpressed with mouse Kir6.2. Using macroscopic rubidium (86Rb+) efflux assays, we show that KATP channels formed with P429L, A475V, or C1039Y mutants enhance KATP activity compared with wild-type (WT) channels. We used inside-out patch-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition and to MgADP activation. For P429L and A475V mutants, sensitivity to ATP inhibition was comparable to WT channels, but activation by MgADP was significantly greater. C1039Y-dependent channels were significantly less sensitive to inhibition by ATP or by glibenclamide, but MgADP activation was comparable to WT. The results indicate that these three CS mutations all lead to overactive KATP channels, but at least two mechanisms underlie the observed gain of function: decreased ATP inhibition and enhanced MgADP activation. PMID:26621776

  5. Voltage-Sensitive K+ Channels Inhibit Parasympathetic Ganglion Transmission and Vagal Control of Heart Rate in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Torill

    2015-01-01

    Parasympathetic withdrawal plays an important role in the autonomic dysfunctions in hypertension. Since hyperpolarizing, voltage-sensitive K+ channels (KV) hamper transmitter release, elevated KV-activity may explain the disturbed vagal control of heart rate (HR) in hypertension. Here, the KV inhibitor 3,4-diaminopyridine was used to demonstrate the impact of KV on autonomic HR control. Cardiac output and HR were recorded by a flow probe on the ascending aorta in anesthetized, normotensive (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and blood pressure by a femoral artery catheter. 3,4-diaminopyridine induced an initial bradycardia, which was greater in SHR than in WKY, followed by sustained tachycardia in both strains. The initial bradycardia was eliminated by acetylcholine synthesis inhibitor (hemicholinium-3) and nicotinic receptor antagonist/ganglion blocker (hexamethonium), and reversed to tachycardia by muscarinic receptor (mAchR) antagonist (atropine). The latter was abolished by sympatho-inhibition (reserpine). Reserpine also eliminated the late, 3,4-diaminopyridine-induced tachycardia in WKY, but induced a sustained atropine-sensitive bradycardia in SHR. Inhibition of the parasympathetic component with hemicholinium-3, hexamethonium, or atropine enhanced the late tachycardia in SHR, whereas hexamethonium reduced the tachycardia in WKY. In conclusion, 3,4-diaminopyridine-induced acetylcholine release, and thus enhanced parasympathetic ganglion transmission, with subsequent mAchR activation and bradycardia. 3,4-diaminopyridine also activated tachycardia, initially by enhancing sympathetic ganglion transmission, subsequently by activation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve terminals. The 3,4-diaminopyridine-induced parasympathetic activation was stronger and more sustained in SHR, demonstrating an enhanced inhibitory control of KV on parasympathetic ganglion transmission. This enhanced KV activity may explain the dysfunctional vagal HR

  6. Characterization of the driving force as a modulator of gating in cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ channels - evidence for specific elementary properties.

    PubMed

    Benz, I; Haverkampf, K; Kohlhardt, M

    1998-09-01

    Single cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ channels and, comparatively, two other members of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel family, cardiac K+(ir) and K+(ACh) channels, were studied in the inside-out recording mode in order to analyze influence and significance of the electrochemical K+ gradient for open-state kinetics of these K+ channels. The conductive state of K+(ATP) channels was defined as a function of the electrochemical K+ gradient in that increased driving force correlates with shortened open-channel lifetime. Flux coupling of gating can be largely excluded as the underlying mechanism for two reasons: (i) tauopen proved identical in 23 pS, 56 pS and 80 pS channels; (ii) K+(ATP) channel protonation by an external pH shift from 9.5 to 5.5 reduced conductance without a concomitant detectable change of tauopen. Since gating continued to operate at EK, i.e., in the absence of K+ permeation through the pore, K+ driving force cannot be causally involved in gating. Rather the driving force acts to modulate the gating process similar to Rb+ whose interference with an externally located binding site stabilizes the open state. In K+(ir) and K+(ACh) channels, the open state is essentially independent on driving force meaning that their gating apparatus does not sense the electrochemical K+ gradient. Thus, K+(ATP) channels differ in an important functional aspect which may be tentatively explained by a structural peculiarity of their gating apparatus.

  7. Contribution of K+ channels and ouabain-sensitive mechanisms to the endothelium-dependent relaxations of horse penile small arteries

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Dolores; Simonsen, Ulf; Hernández, Medardo; García-Sacristán, Albino

    1998-01-01

    Penile small arteries (effective internal lumen diameter of 300–600 μm) were isolated from the horse corpus cavernosum and mounted in microvascular myographs in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) and bradykinin (BK).In arteries preconstricted with the thromboxane analogue U46619 (3–30 nM), ACh and BK elicited concentration-dependent relaxations, pD2 and maximal responses being 7.71±0.09 and 91±1% (n=23), and 8.80±0.07 and 89±2% (n=24) for ACh and BK, respectively. These relaxations were abolished by mechanical endothelial cell removal, attenuated by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM) and unchanged by indomethacin (3 μM). However, raising extracellular K+ to concentrations of 20–30 mM significantly inhibited the ACh and BK relaxant responses to 63±4% (P<0.01, n=7) and to 59±4% (P<0.01, n=6), respectively. ACh- and BK-elicited relaxations were abolished in arteries preconstricted with K+ in the presence of 100 μM L-NOARG.In contrast to the inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, charybdotoxin (30 nM) and apamin (0.3 μM), each induced slight but significant rightward shifts of the relaxations to ACh and BK without affecting the maximal responses. Combination of charybdotoxin and apamin did not cause further inhibition of the relaxations compared to either toxin alone. In the presence of L-NOARG (100 μM), combined application of the two toxins resulted in the most effective inhibition of the relaxations to both ACh and BK. Thus, pD2 and maximal responses for ACh and BK were 7.65±0.08 and 98±1%, and 9.17±0.09 and 100±0%, respectively, in controls, and 5.87±0.09 (P<0.05, n=6) and 38±11% (P<0.05, n=6), and 8.09±0.14 (P<0.01, n=6) and 98±1% (n=6), respectively, after combined application of charybdotoxin plus apamin and L-NOARG.The selective inhibitor of

  8. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  9. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels mediate the antioxidative influence of diosgenin on myocardial reperfusion injury in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Yavari, Raana; Chalabiani, Dorna

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been supported by many studies. The effect of diosgenin on oxidative stress induced by I/R injury was evaluated in this study. Rat hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of global ischemia followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was used before administration of diosgenin and before ischemia. The activities of myocardial creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured. Administration of diosgenin before ischemia significantly lowered CK and MDA levels as compared with control group (p < 0.05) and increased GPX (p < 0.05) and SOD (p < 0.01) activities in comparison with control group. Pre-administration of 5-HD significantly attenuated the protective effects of diosgenin. In conclusion, opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and attenuating of oxidative stress can be suggested as underlying mechanisms for cardioprotective effect of diosgenin in I/R injury. PMID:26001291

  10. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Craig T; Mason, Philip E; Anderson, J L Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  11. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  12. TPC2 Is a Novel NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ Release Channel, Operating as a Dual Sensor of Luminal pH and Ca2+*

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Samantha J.; Funnell, Tim M.; Sitsapesan, Mano; Venturi, Elisa; Rietdorf, Katja; Ruas, Margarida; Ganesan, A.; Gosain, Rajendra; Churchill, Grant C.; Zhu, Michael X.; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a molecule capable of initiating the release of intracellular Ca2+ required for many essential cellular processes. Recent evidence links two-pore channels (TPCs) with NAADP-induced release of Ca2+ from lysosome-like acidic organelles; however, there has been no direct demonstration that TPCs can act as NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ release channels. Controversial evidence also proposes ryanodine receptors as the primary target of NAADP. We show that TPC2, the major lysosomal targeted isoform, is a cation channel with selectivity for Ca2+ that will enable it to act as a Ca2+ release channel in the cellular environment. NAADP opens TPC2 channels in a concentration-dependent manner, binding to high affinity activation and low affinity inhibition sites. At the core of this process is the luminal environment of the channel. The sensitivity of TPC2 to NAADP is steeply dependent on the luminal [Ca2+] allowing extremely low levels of NAADP to open the channel. In parallel, luminal pH controls NAADP affinity for TPC2 by switching from reversible activation of TPC2 at low pH to irreversible activation at neutral pH. Further evidence earmarking TPCs as the likely pathway for NAADP-induced intracellular Ca2+ release is obtained from the use of Ned-19, the selective blocker of cellular NAADP-induced Ca2+ release. Ned-19 antagonizes NAADP-activation of TPC2 in a non-competitive manner at 1 μm but potentiates NAADP activation at nanomolar concentrations. This single-channel study provides a long awaited molecular basis for the peculiar mechanistic features of NAADP signaling and a framework for understanding how NAADP can mediate key physiological events. PMID:20720007

  13. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli.

  14. ATP sensitive K(+) channels are critical for maintaining myocardial perfusion and high energy phosphates in the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Jameel, Mohammad N; Xiong, Qiang; Mansoor, Abdul; Bache, Robert J; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with intrinsic alterations of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation which lead to increased myocardial cytosolic free ADP. ATP sensitive K(+) channels (KATP) act as metabolic sensors that are important for maintaining coronary blood flow (MBF) and in mediating the response of the myocardium to stress. Coronary adenosine receptors (AdR) are not normally active but cause vasodilation during myocardial ischemia. This study examined the myocardial energetic response to inhibition of KATP and AdR in CHF. CHF (as evidenced by LVEDP>20mmHg) was produced in adult mongrel dogs (n=12) by rapid ventricular pacing for 4weeks. MBF was measured with radiolabeled microspheres during baseline (BL), AdR blockade with 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT; 5mg/kg iv), and KATP blockade with glibenclamide (GLB; 20μg/kg/min ic). High energy phosphates were examined with (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) while myocardial oxygenation was assessed from the deoxymyoglobin signal (Mb-δ) using (1)H MRS. During basal conditions the phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP ratio (1.73±0.15) was significantly lower than in previously studied normal dogs (2.42±0.11) although Mb-δ was undetectable. 8-PT caused ≈21% increase in MBF with no change in PCr/ATP. GLB caused a 33±0.1% decrease in MBF with a decrease in PCr/ATP from 1.65±0.17 to 1.11±0.11 (p<0.0001). GLB did not change the pseudo-first-order rate constant of ATP production via CK (kf), but the ATP production rate via CK was reduced by 35±0.08%; this was accompanied by an increase in Pi/PCr and appearance of a Mb-δ signal indicating tissue hypoxia. Thus, in the failing heart the balance between myocardial ATP demands and oxygen delivery is critically dependent on functioning KATP channels.

  15. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.

  16. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  17. The sensitivity and selectivity of an implantable two-channel peroneal nerve stimulator system for restoration of dropped foot.

    PubMed

    Kottink, Anke I R; Buschman, Hendrik P J; Kenney, Laurence P J; Veltink, Peter H; Slycke, Per; Bultstra, Gerrit; Hermens, Hermie J

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stimulation responses on each channel of an implantable two-channel stimulator that stimulates the peroneal nerve branches innervating the muscles for dorsiflexion and eversion movements. Currently five Dutch patients and five English patients have been implanted with this system. Isometric ankle torque measurements were carried out in the patient with the longest follow-up period (1 y). A force sensor measured the three components of moment generated at the ankle joint. Stimulation intensity can be adjusted with great accuracy. Dorsiflexion moments are almost entirely determined by the setting of channel 1. Eversion moments are determined mainly by channel 2 and to a lesser extent by channel 1. Both channels determined abduction/adduction moments. We conclude that stimulation responses in both dorsiflexion and eversion direction can be set individually and with great accuracy and are reproducible over a prolonged period. PMID:22151337

  18. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a Selective GPR40 Agonist, Improves Hyperglycemia in Rats Unresponsive to Sulfonylureas and Acts Additively with Sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Masami; Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Matsuda, Kae; Takeuchi, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are widely used insulin secretagogues, but they have adverse effects including hypoglycemia and secondary failure. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a selective GPR40 agonist, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. In the present study, we compared the in vivo glucose-lowering effects of fasiglifam with SUs. The risk of secondary failure of fasiglifam and the efficacy in rats desensitized to SUs were also evaluated. Moreover, we assessed whether fasiglifam was effective when combined with SUs. In diabetic neonatally streptozotocin-induced rats 1.5 days after birth (N-STZ-1.5), oral administrations of fasiglifam (3-30 mg/kg) dose dependently improved glucose tolerance; the effect was greater than that of glibenclamide at maximal effective doses (glucose AUC: fasiglifam, -37.6%; glibenclamide, -12.3%). Although the glucose-lowering effects of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day) were completely diminished in N-STZ-1.5 rats after 4 weeks of treatment, effects were maintained in rats receiving fasiglifam (10 mg/kg/day), even after 15 weeks. Fasiglifam (3-10 mg/kg) was still effective in two models desensitized to SUs: 15-week glibenclamide-treated N-STZ-1.5 rats and aged Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Acute administration of fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) and glimepiride (10 mg/kg) in combination additively decreased glucose AUC (fasiglifam, -25.3%; glimepiride, -20.0%; combination, -43.1%). Although glimepiride (10 mg/kg) decreased plasma glucose below normal in nonfasted control rats, fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) maintained normoglycemia, and no further exaggeration of hypoglycemia was observed with combination treatment. These results indicate that GPR40 agonists could be more effective and durable than SUs. Our results also provide new insights into GPR40 pharmacology and rationale for the use of GPR40 agonists in diabetic patients with SU failure. PMID:26813930

  19. Bidirectional Modulation of Thermal and Chemical Sensitivity of TRPM8 Channels by the Initial Region of the N-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-01-01

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40–60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel. PMID:24917670

  20. Bidirectional modulation of thermal and chemical sensitivity of TRPM8 channels by the initial region of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-08-01

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40-60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel.

  1. Cd(2+) sensitivity and permeability of a low voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel with CatSper-like selectivity filter.

    PubMed

    Garza-López, Edgar; Chávez, Julio César; Santana-Calvo, Carmen; López-González, Ignacio; Nishigaki, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    CatSper is a sperm-specific Ca(2+) channel that plays an essential role in the male fertility. However, its biophysical properties have been poorly characterized mainly due to its deficient heterologous expression. As other voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaVs), CatSper possesses a conserved Ca(2+)-selective filter motif ([T/S]x[D/E]xW) in the pore region. Interestingly, CatSper conserves four aspartic acids (DDDD) as the negatively charged residues in this motif while high voltage-activated CaVs have four glutamic acids (EEEE) and low voltage-activated CaVs possess two glutamic acids and two aspartic acids (EEDD). Previous studies based on site-directed mutagenesis of L- and T-type channels showed that the number of D seems to have a negative correlation with their cadmium (Cd(2+)) sensitivity. These results suggest that CatSper (DDDD) would have low sensitivity to Cd(2+). To explore Cd(2+)-sensitivity and -permeability of CatSper, we performed two types of experiments: 1) Electrophysiological analysis of heterologously expressed human CaV3.1 channel and three pore mutants (DEDD, EDDD and DDDD), 2) Cd(2+) imaging of human spermatozoa with FluoZin-1. Electrophysiological studies showed a significant increase in Cd(2+) and manganese (Mn(2+)) currents through the CaV3.1 mutants as well as a reduction in the inhibitory effect of Cd(2+) on the Ca(2+) current. In fluorescence imaging with human sperm, we observed an increase in Cd(2+) influx potentiated by progesterone, a potent activator of CatSper. These results support our hypothesis, namely that Cd(2+)-sensitivity and -permeability are related to the absolute number of D in the Ca(2+)-selective filter independently to the type of the Cav channels.

  2. Impaired exercise tolerance and skeletal muscle myopathy in sulfonylurea receptor-2 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Douglas; Pytel, Peter; Katz, Sophie; Earley, Judy U.; Collins, Keith; Metcalfe, Jamie; Lang, Roberto M.

    2009-01-01

    By sensing intracellular energy levels, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels help regulate vascular tone, glucose metabolism, and cardioprotection. SUR2 mutant mice lack full-length KATP channels in striated and smooth muscle and display a complex phenotype of hypertension and coronary vasospasm. SUR2 mutant mice also display baseline cardioprotection and can withstand acute sympathetic stress better than normal mice. We now studied response to a form of chronic stress, namely that induced by 4 wk of daily exercise on SUR2 mutant mice. Control mice increased exercise capacity by 400% over the training period, while SUR2 mutant mice showed little increase in exercise capacity. Unexercised SUR2 mutant showed necrotic and regenerating fibers in multiple muscle skeletal muscles, including quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and diaphragm muscles. Unlike exercised control animals, SUR2 mutant mice did not lose weight, presumably due to less overall exertion. Unexercised SUR2 mutant mice showed a trend of mildly reduced cardiac function, measured by fractional shortening, (46 ± 4% vs. 57 ± 7% for SUR2 mutant and control, respectively), and this decrease was not exacerbated by chronic exercise exposure. Despite an improved response to acute sympathetic stress and baseline cardioprotection, exercise intolerance results from lack of SUR2 KATP channels in mice. PMID:19675276

  3. Determination of the specific interaction between sulfonylurea-incorporated polymer and rat islets.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun-Hong; Song, Soo Chang; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2002-03-01

    A SU derivative, mimicking glibenclamide in chemical structure, was synthesized to incorporate it into a water-soluble polymeric backbone as a biospecific and stimulating polymer for insulin secretion. The ability of insulin secretion was examined with different glucose concentrations (3.3 and 11.6 mM). Although the vinylated SU did not exhibit significant activity compared to the control, the SU-incorporated copolymer could enhance insulin secretion as much as or more than glibenclamide did. In this study, a polymer fluorescence-labeled with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was used to visualize the interactions and we found that the labeled polymer was strongly absorbed to rat islets, probably due to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K+ channel closer)-incorporated copolymer and rat islets, cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K+ channel opener), before adding the incorporated polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the action of SUs on rat islets. A confocal laser microscopic study further confirmed this interaction. The results of this study provided evidence that the SU-incorporated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion through specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with rat islets.

  4. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in cardiac and skeletal muscle membranes: studies with antibodies against the. cap alpha. subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Catterall, W.A.

    1987-08-25

    Polyclonal antibodies (PAC-2) against the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel were prepared and shown to be directed against ..cap alpha.. subunits of this protein by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. These polypeptides have an apparent molecular weight of 162,000 without reduction of disulfide bonds. Under conditions where the functional properties of the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel are retained, ..beta.. subunits (M/sub r/ 50,000) and lambda subunits (M/sub r/ 33,000) are coprecipitated, demonstrating specific noncovalent association of these three polypeptides in the purified skeletal muscle channel. PAC-2 immunoprecipitated cardiac calcium channels labeled with (/sup 3/H)isopropyl 4-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-(methoxycarbonyl)pyridine-3-carboxylate ((/sup 3/H)PN200-110) at a 3-fold higher concentration than skeletal muscle channels. Preincubation with cardiac calcium channels blocked only 49% of the immunoreactivity of PAC-2 toward skeletal muscle channels, indicating that these two proteins have both homologous and distinct epitopes. The immunoreactive component of the cardiac calcium channel was identified by immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 170,000 before reduction of disulfide bonds and 141,000 after reduction, in close analogy with the properties of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ subunits of the skeletal muscle channel. The calcium channels were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and /sup 125/I. It is concluded that these two calcium channels have a homologous, but distinct, ..cap alpha.. subunit as a major polypeptide component.

  5. Contactin regulates the current density and axonal expression of tetrodotoxin-resistant but not tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels in DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Rush, Anthony M; Craner, Matthew J; Kageyama, Takashi; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G; Ranscht, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    Contactin, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored predominantly neuronal cell surface glycoprotein, associates with sodium channels Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.9, and enhances the density of these channels on the plasma membrane in mammalian expression systems. However, a detailed functional analysis of these interactions and of untested putative interactions with other sodium channel isoforms in mammalian neuronal cells has not been carried out. We examined the expression and function of sodium channels in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from contactin-deficient (CNTN-/-) mice, compared to CNTN+/+ litter mates. Nav1.9 is preferentially expressed in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons and thus we used this marker to subdivide small-diameter DRG neurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we observed a greater than two-fold reduction of tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 current densities in IB4+ DRG neurons cultured from CNTN-/- vs. CNTN+/+ mice. Current densities for TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels were unaffected. Contactin's effect was selective for IB4+ neurons as current densities for both TTX-R and TTX-S channels were not significantly different in IB4- DRG neurons from the two genotypes. Consistent with these results, we have demonstrated a reduction in Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 immunostaining on peripherin-positive unmyelinated axons in sciatic nerves from CNTN-/- mice but detected no changes in the expression for the two major TTX-S channels Nav1.6 and Nav1.7. These data provide evidence of a role for contactin in selectively regulating the cell surface expression and current densities of TTX-R but not TTX-S Na+ channel isoforms in nociceptive DRG neurons; this regulation could modulate the membrane properties and excitability of these neurons. PMID:16029194

  6. Mutations within the P-Loop of Kir6.2 Modulate the Intraburst Kinetics of the Atp-Sensitive Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Proks, Peter; Capener, Charlotte E.; Jones, Phillippa; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2001-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel exhibits spontaneous bursts of rapid openings, which are separated by long closed intervals. Previous studies have shown that mutations at the internal mouth of the pore-forming (Kir6.2) subunit of this channel affect the burst duration and the long interburst closings, but do not alter the fast intraburst kinetics. In this study, we have investigated the nature of the intraburst kinetics by using recombinant Kir6.2/SUR1 KATP channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Single-channel currents were studied in inside-out membrane patches. Mutations within the pore loop of Kir6.2 (V127T, G135F, and M137C) dramatically affected the mean open time (τo) and the short closed time (τC1) within a burst, and the number of openings per burst, but did not alter the burst duration, the interburst closed time, or the channel open probability. Thus, the V127T and M137C mutations produced longer τo, shorter τC1, and fewer openings per burst, whereas the G135F mutation had the opposite effect. All three mutations also reduced the single-channel conductance: from 70 pS for the wild-type channel to 62 pS (G135F), 50 pS (M137C), and 38 pS (V127T). These results are consistent with the idea that the KATP channel possesses a gate that governs the intraburst kinetics, which lies close to the selectivity filter. This gate appears to be able to operate independently of that which regulates the long interburst closings. PMID:11585848

  7. Loss of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Surface Expression in Heart Failure Underlies Dysregulation of Action Potential Duration and Myocardial Vulnerability to Injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Sierra, Ana; Zhu, Zhiyong; Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Maheshwari, Ankit; Anderson, Mark E; Zingman, Leonid V; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    The search for new approaches to treatment and prevention of heart failure is a major challenge in medicine. The adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel has been long associated with the ability to preserve myocardial function and viability under stress. High surface expression of membrane KATP channels ensures a rapid energy-sparing reduction in action potential duration (APD) in response to metabolic challenges, while cellular signaling that reduces surface KATP channel expression blunts APD shortening, thus sacrificing energetic efficiency in exchange for greater cellular calcium entry and increased contractile force. In healthy hearts, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates the Kir6.2 KATP channel subunit initiating a cascade responsible for KATP channel endocytosis. Here, activation of CaMKII in a transaortic banding (TAB) model of heart failure is coupled with a 35-40% reduction in surface expression of KATP channels compared to hearts from sham-operated mice. Linkage between KATP channel expression and CaMKII is verified in isolated cardiomyocytes in which activation of CaMKII results in downregulation of KATP channel current. Accordingly, shortening of monophasic APD is slowed in response to hypoxia or heart rate acceleration in failing compared to non-failing hearts, a phenomenon previously shown to result in significant increases in oxygen consumption. Even in the absence of coronary artery disease, failing myocardium can be further injured by ischemia due to a mismatch between metabolic supply and demand. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, following ischemic preconditioning, is diminished in hearts with CaMKII inhibition compared to wild-type hearts and this advantage is largely eliminated when myocardial KATP channel expression is absent, supporting that the myocardial protective benefit of CaMKII inhibition in heart failure may be substantially mediated by KATP channels. Recognition of Ca

  8. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Giovambattista; Rizzo, Maria; Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Mugione, Alessandra; Ferrari, Patrizia; Paulmichl, Markus; Lang, Florian; Loffing, Johannes; Carrel, Monique; Damiano, Sara; Wagner, Carsten A; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC2), but higher (119%, n = 5, P < 0.005) for Na+-Cl- (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules (DCT). These results were confirmed by Western blots, which revealed: 1) unchanged NHE3 in the cortex and NKCC2 in the outer medulla; 2) a significant increase (52%, n = 6, P < 0.001) of NCC in the cortex; 3) alpha- and beta-sodium channels [epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)] unaffected in renal cortex and slightly reduced in the outer medulla, while gamma-ENaC remained unchanged. Pendrin protein expression was unaffected. The role of NCC was reinforced by immunocytochemical studies showing increased NCC on the apical membrane of DCT cells of MHS animals, and by clearance experiments demonstrating a larger sensitivity (P < 0.001) to bendroflumethiazide in MHS rats. Kidney-specific chloride channels (ClC-K) were studied by Western blot experiments on renal cortex and by patch-clamp studies on primary culture of DCT dissected from MNS and MHS animals. Electrophysiological characteristics of ClC-K channels were unchanged in MHS rats, but the number of active channels in a patch was 0.60 +/- 0.21 (n = 35) in MNS rats and 2.17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension.

  9. Synergistic interaction between metformin and sulfonylureas on diclofenac-induced antinociception measured using the formalin test in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence that biguanides and sulfonylureas block diclofenac-induced antinociception (DIA) in rat models. However, little is known about the interaction between these hypoglycemics with respect to DIA. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin-sulfonylurea combinations affect DIA during the formalin test. METHODS: Rats received the appropriate vehicle or diclofenac before 1% formaldehyde was injected into the paw. Rats were also pretreated with vehicle, glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin or glibenclamide/metformin and glipizide/metformin combinations before the diclofenac and formaldehyde injections, and the effect on antinociception was assessed. Isobolograms of the combinations were constructed to test for a synergistic interaction. RESULTS: Systemic injection of diclofenac resulted in antinociception during the second phase of the test. Systemic pretreatment with the combinations of glibenclamide (0.56 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg)/metformin (10 mg/kg to 180 mg/kg) and glipizide (0.56 mg/kg to10 mg/kg)/metformin (10 mg/kg to 180 mg/kg) blocked DIA. The derived theoretical effective doses for 50% of subjects (ED50) for the glibenclamide/metformin and glipizide/metformin combinations were 32.52 mg/kg and 32.42 mg/kg, respectively, and were significantly higher than the actual observed experimental ED50 values (7.57 mg/kg and 8.43 mg/kg, respectively). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide or metformin blocked DIA in a dose-dependent manner, and combining either sulfonylurea with metformin produced even greater effects. The observed ED50s for the combinations were approximately fourfold lower than the calculated additive effects. These data indicate that sulfonylureas interact to produce antagonism of DIA. Combination therapy is a common second-line treatment for patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, a group that experiences pain from multiple sources. The results suggest that at least some anti-inflammatory agents may not be

  10. A contrast-sensitive channelized-Hotelling observer to predict human performance in a detection task using lumpy backgrounds and Gaussian signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Subok; Badano, Aldo; Gallas, Brandon D.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2007-03-01

    Previously, a non-prewhitening matched filter (NPWMF) incorporating a model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system was introduced for modeling human performance in detection tasks with different viewing angles and white-noise backgrounds by Badano et al. But NPWMF observers do not perform well detection tasks involving complex backgrounds since they do not account for random backgrounds. A channelized-Hotelling observer (CHO) using difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) channels has been shown to track human performance well in detection tasks using lumpy backgrounds. In this work, a CHO with DOG channels, incorporating the model of the human contrast sensitivity, was developed similarly. We call this new observer a contrast-sensitive CHO (CS-CHO). The Barten model was the basis of our human contrast sensitivity model. A scalar was multiplied to the Barten model and varied to control the thresholding effect of the contrast sensitivity on luminance-valued images and hence the performance-prediction ability of the CS-CHO. The performance of the CS-CHO was compared to the average human performance from the psychophysical study by Park et al., where the task was to detect a known Gaussian signal in non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds. Six different signal-intensity values were used in this study. We chose the free parameter of our model to match the mean human performance in the detection experiment at the strongest signal intensity. Then we compared the model to the human at five different signal-intensity values in order to see if the performance of the CS-CHO matched human performance. Our results indicate that the CS-CHO with the chosen scalar for the contrast sensitivity predicts human performance closely as a function of signal intensity.

  11. High-sensitivity two-terminal magnetoresistance devices using InGaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional channel on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di-Cheng; Pan, You-Wei; Wu, Jenq-Shinn; Lin, Shih-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the two-terminal magnetic sensors exhibiting an extraordinary magneto-resistance effect by using an InGaAs quantum well channel with a metal-shunting structure. A high magneto-resistance of 17.3% and a sensitivity of 488.1 Ω/T have been obtained at 1 T and room temperature with our geometrical design. The two-contact configuration and the high-mobility electron transistor-compatible epitaxy structure make the devices promising for high-sensitivity magnetic sensing integration and applications.

  12. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels enhances DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xixun; Xu, Huamin; Shi, Limin; Jiang, Zhifeng; Song, Ning; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) plays a crucial role in the nigal iron accumulation in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Membrane hyperpolarization is one of the factors that could affect its iron transport function. Besides iron, selective activation of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels also contributes to the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Interestingly, activation of KATP channels could induce membrane hyperpolarization. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study the effects of activation of KATP channels on DMT1-mediated iron uptake function. In the present study, activation of KATP channels by diazoxide resulted in the hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and increased DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells. This led to an increase in intracellular iron levels and a subsequent decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in ROS production. Delayed inactivation of the Fe2+-evoked currents by diazoxide was recorded by patch clamp in HEK293 cells, which demonstrated that diazoxide could prolonged DMT1-facilitated iron transport. While inhibition of KATP channels by glibenclamide could block ferrous iron influx and the subsequent cell damage. Overexpression of Kir6.2/SUR1 resulted in an increase in iron influx and intracellular iron levels, which was markedly increased after diazoxide treatment. PMID:27646472

  13. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels enhances DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Du, Xixun; Xu, Huamin; Shi, Limin; Jiang, Zhifeng; Song, Ning; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2016-09-20

    Iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) plays a crucial role in the nigal iron accumulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Membrane hyperpolarization is one of the factors that could affect its iron transport function. Besides iron, selective activation of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels also contributes to the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Interestingly, activation of KATP channels could induce membrane hyperpolarization. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study the effects of activation of KATP channels on DMT1-mediated iron uptake function. In the present study, activation of KATP channels by diazoxide resulted in the hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and increased DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells. This led to an increase in intracellular iron levels and a subsequent decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in ROS production. Delayed inactivation of the Fe(2+)-evoked currents by diazoxide was recorded by patch clamp in HEK293 cells, which demonstrated that diazoxide could prolonged DMT1-facilitated iron transport. While inhibition of KATP channels by glibenclamide could block ferrous iron influx and the subsequent cell damage. Overexpression of Kir6.2/SUR1 resulted in an increase in iron influx and intracellular iron levels, which was markedly increased after diazoxide treatment.

  14. Synthesis and biological characterization of synthetic analogs of Huwentoxin-IV (Mu-theraphotoxin-Hh2a), a neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meichun; Luo, Xuan; Jiang, Liping; Chen, Hanchun; Wang, Jun; He, Hailun; Liang, Songping

    2013-09-01

    Huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV, also named Mu-theraphotoxin-Hh2a) is a typical inhibitor cystine knot peptide isolated from the venom of Chinese tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena and is found to inhibit tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels from mammalian sensory neurons. This peptide binds to neurotoxin receptor site 4 located at the extracellular S3-S4 linker of domain II in neuronal sodium channels. However, the molecular surface of HWTX-IV interaction with sodium channels remains unknown. In this study, we synthesized HWTX-IV and three mutants (T28D, R29A and Q34D) and characterized their functions on TTX-S sodium channels from adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Analysis of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectrum indicated that all four synthetic peptides are properly folded. Synthetic HWTX-IV exhibited the same activity as native HWTX-IV, while three mutations reduced toxin binding affinities by 10-200 fold, indicating that the basic or vicinal polar residues Thr²⁸, Arg²⁹, and Gln³⁴ in C-terminus might play critical roles in the interaction of HWTX-IV with TTX-S sodium channels. PMID:23726857

  15. Src mediates endocytosis of TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ 1 channels in PC12 cells in response to nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hidetada; Inoue, Masumi

    2015-08-15

    TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) (TASK) channels produce background K(+) currents. We elucidated that TASK1 channels in rat adrenal medullary cells and PC12 cells are internalized in a clathrin-dependent manner in response to nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, the molecular mechanism for this internalization in PC12 cells was explored. The combination of enzyme inhibitors with tropomyosin receptor kinase A mutants revealed that the internalization was mediated by both phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways that converge on protein kinase C with the consequent activation of Src, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase. The NGF-induced endocytosis of TASK1 channels did not occur in the presence of the Src inhibitor or with the expression of a kinase-dead Src mutant. Additionally, NGF induced a transient colocalization of Src with the TASK1 channel, but not the TASK1 mutant, in which tyrosine at 370 was replaced with phenylalanine. This TASK1 mutant showed no increase in tyrosine phosphorylation and markedly diminished internalization in response to NGF. We concluded that NGF induces endocytosis of TASK1 channels via tyrosine phosphorylation in its carboxyl terminus.

  16. Detection of calcium activity in human monocytes by the fura-2 fluorescence method: in vitro differentiation sensitizes cells to dihydropyridine calcium channel modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Cabello, Olga A.; Shan, Qin; Tittel, Frank K.; Henry, Philip D.

    1994-07-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers have been shown to suppress atherogenesis in various species and controlled angiographic trials suggest that these drugs may retard the progression of occlusive coronary disease in humans. Because mononuclear leukocytes play a key role in the formation of early and advanced atheromatous lesions, we determined effects of DHP calcium channel modulators on calcium uptake by cells of the monocytic lineage. Human peripheral blood monocytes were evaluated before and after undergoing in vitro differentiation induced by two days of culture with fetal calf serum and FMLP. Changes in intracellular calcium activity were estimated with fura-2, a fluorescent calcium indicator. Freshly isolated (unactivated) monocytes were insensitive to DHP drugs both in the presence and absence of high potassium membrane depolarization. In contrast, nisoldipine, a DHP calcium channel blocker, and BAY K 8644, a DHP calcium channel activator, decreased and increased calcium uptake by KC1-depolarized differentiated monocytes. Results suggest that differentiation of monocytes to macrophages may involve a change in the expression and/or regulation of DHP- sensitive calcium channels.

  17. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels enhances DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Du, Xixun; Xu, Huamin; Shi, Limin; Jiang, Zhifeng; Song, Ning; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) plays a crucial role in the nigal iron accumulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Membrane hyperpolarization is one of the factors that could affect its iron transport function. Besides iron, selective activation of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels also contributes to the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Interestingly, activation of KATP channels could induce membrane hyperpolarization. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study the effects of activation of KATP channels on DMT1-mediated iron uptake function. In the present study, activation of KATP channels by diazoxide resulted in the hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and increased DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells. This led to an increase in intracellular iron levels and a subsequent decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in ROS production. Delayed inactivation of the Fe(2+)-evoked currents by diazoxide was recorded by patch clamp in HEK293 cells, which demonstrated that diazoxide could prolonged DMT1-facilitated iron transport. While inhibition of KATP channels by glibenclamide could block ferrous iron influx and the subsequent cell damage. Overexpression of Kir6.2/SUR1 resulted in an increase in iron influx and intracellular iron levels, which was markedly increased after diazoxide treatment. PMID:27646472

  18. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R. )

    1990-12-01

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of (3H) saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites.

  19. The Methanolic Extract from Murraya koenigii L. Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Pain and Involves ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel as Antinociceptive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin Ani, Nushrat; Chakraborty, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant's leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK) leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models. The antinociceptive effects of MEMK were evaluated using formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced writhing tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In addition, we also justified the possible participations of glutamatergic system and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the observed activities. Our results demonstrated that MEMK significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the pain thresholds induced by formalin and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. MEMK also significantly (p < 0.01) suppressed glutamate-induced pain. Moreover, pretreatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) at 10 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the MEMK-mediated antinociception. These revealed that MEMK might have the potential to interact with glutamatergic system and the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to exhibit its antinociceptive activities. Therefore, our results strongly support the antinociceptive effects of M. koenigii leaves and provide scientific basis of their analgesic uses in the traditional medicine. PMID:27812367

  20. The residue I257 at S4–S5 linker in KCNQ1 determines KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel sensitivity to 1-alkanols

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chang; Liu, Hao-wen; Pan, Na; Ding, Jiu-ping; Yao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: KCNQ1 and KCNE1 form a complex in human ventricular cardiomyocytes, which are important in maintaining a normal heart rhythm. In the present study we investigated the effects of a homologous series of 1-alkanols on KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Methods: ECG recording was made in rats injected with ethanol-containing solution (0.3 mL, ip). Human KCNQ1 channel and its auxiliary subunit KCNE1 were heterologously coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, which were superfused with ND96 solution; 1-alkanols (ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol) were delivered through a gravity-driven perfusion device. The slow-delayed rectifier potassium currents IKs (KCNQ1/KCNE1 currents) were recorded using a two-electrode voltage clamp method. Site-directed mutations (I257A) were made in KCNQ1. Results: In ECG recordings, a low concentration of ethanol (3%, v/v) slightly increased the heart rate of rats, whereas the higher concentrations of ethanol (10%, 50%, v/v) markedly reduced it. In oocytes coexpressing KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol dose-dependently inhibited IKs currents with IC50 values of 80, 11 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, the 1-alkanols blocked the KCNQ1 channel in both open and closed states, and a four-state model could adequately explain the effects of 1-alkanols on the closed-state channel block. Moreover, the mutation of I257A at the intracellular loop between S4 and S5 in KCNQ1 greatly decreased the sensitivity to 1-alkanols; and the IC50 values of ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol were increased to 634, 414 and 7.4 mmol/L, respectively. The mutation also caused the ablation of closed-state channel block. Conclusion: These findings provide new insight into the intricate mechanisms of the blocking effects of ethanol on the KCNQ1 channel. PMID:26725740

  1. Polymorphisms of amiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunits in five sporadic cases of pseudohypoaldosteronism: do they have pathologic potential?

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Zachman, K; Shibasaki, T; Chrousos, G P

    1999-07-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is characterized by congenital resistance of the kidney and/or other mineralocorticoid target tissues to aldosterone, resulting in excessive salt wasting. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and postreceptor defects in the aldosterone-responsive amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ENaC) subunits have been suggested as potential loci of the defect in this disease, whereas recently defects in MR and ENaC subunits were reported in familial PHA cases. Here we studied the ENaC subunit alpha, beta, and gamma complementary DNAs (cDNAs) in a series of five sporadic cases of PHA, whose MR cDNA contained nonconservative homozygous (C944-->T944, Ala241-->Val241) and/or a conservative heterozygous substitutions (A760-->G760, Ileu180-->Val180), which, however, were also present at high frequencies in a control population with apparently normal salt conservation. We found a nonconservative substitution (A2086-->G2086, Thr663-->Ala663) in the alphaENaC in all five of our patients, two of whom were homozygous and three of whom were heterozygous for this alteration, which was also present in the homozygous and heterozygous form in 31% and 64% of control subjects, respectively. We also found a nonconservative homozygous substitution (C1006-->G1006, Pro336-->Ara336) in the betaENaC and three nonconservative and conservative homozygous substitutions (T554-->A554, Trp178-->Arg178; C1526-->G1526, Pro501-->Ala501; T1862-->G1862, Ser614-->Ala614) in the gammaENaC of all five of our patients and in a substantial proportion of control subjects. Interestingly, when the patient group was compared to controls, a significantly increased concurrence of the MR and alphaENaC polymorphisms was found in the patients (P<0.025). We conclude that the changes identified in the cDNA of the three ENaC subunits in the patients with sporadic PHA are polymorphisms, which on their own have no apparent pathophysiological significance. We hypothesize, however, that these polymorphisms

  2. Dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca/sup 2 +/ channels in mammalian skeletal muscle cells in culture: electrophysiological properties and interactions with Ca/sup 2 +/ channel activator (Bay K8644) and inhibitor (PN 200-110)

    SciTech Connect

    Cognard, C.; Romey, G.; Galizzi, J.P.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M.

    1986-03-01

    The whole-cell patch-clamp technique has been used to analyze the properties of the dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca/sup 2 +/ channel in rat skeletal muscle cells (myoballs) in culture. The potential dependence of Ca/sup 2 +/ -channel activation is similar to that observed in cardiac cells. However, the skeletal muscle Ca/sup 2 +/ channel is activated more slowly. The voltage dependence of Ca/sup 2 +/-channel inactivation indicates a half-maximal inactivation (V/sub h0.5/) at -72 mV as compared to V/sub h0.5/ = -35 mV for cardiac cells. Blockade of the skeletal muscle Ca/sup 2 +/ channel by the dihydrophyridine (+)-PN 200-110 is voltage dependent, with a half-maximal effect of 13 nM for an application of the drug to the myoball membrane held at -90 mV and of 0.15 nM for an application at a potential of -65 mV. The 100-fold difference in apparent affinity is interpreted as a preferential association of PN 200-110 with the inactivated form of the Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The K/sub 0.5/ value found from electrophysiological experiments for the binding to the inactivated state is nearly identical to the equilibrium dissociation constant found from binding experiments with (+)-(/sup 3/H)PN 200-110 using transverse-tubular membranes. The dihydropyridine activator Bay K8644 acts by increasing Ca/sup 2 +/ current amplitude and by slowing down deactivation.

  3. Sorption, desorption and leaching potential of sulfonylurea herbicides in Argentinean soils.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Mariela P; Montoya, Jorgelina C; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    The sulfonylurea (SUs) herbicides are used to control broadleaf weeds and some grasses in a variety of crops. They have become popular because of their low application rates, low mammalian toxicity and an outstanding herbicidal activity. Sorption is a major process influencing the fate of pesticides in soil. The objective of this study was to characterize sorption-desorption of four sulfonylurea herbicides: metsulfuron-methyl (methyl 2-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl)]benzoate), sulfometuron-methyl (methyl 2-[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]benzoate), rimsulfuron (1-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-(3-ethylsulfonyl-2-pyridylsulfonyl)urea) and nicosulfuron (2-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]-N,N-dimethylnicotinamide) from different soil horizons of different landscape positions. Sorption was studied in the laboratory by batch equilibration method. Sorption coefficients (K(d-SE)) showed that rimsulfuron (K(d-SE) = 1.18 to 2.08 L kg(-1)) and nicosulfuron (K(d-SE) = 0.02 to 0.47 L kg(-1)) were more highly sorbed than metsulfuron-methyl (K(d-SE) = 0.00 to 0.05 L kg(-1)) and sulfometuron-methyl (K(d-SE) = 0.00 to 0.05 L kg(-1)). Sorption coefficients (K(d-SE)) were correlated with pH and organic carbon content. All four herbicides exhibited desorption hysteresis where the desorption coefficients (K(d-D)) > K(d-SE). To estimate the leaching potential, K(oc) and ground-water ubiquity score (GUS) were used to calculate the half-life (t1/2) required to be classified as "leacher" or "nonleacher". According to the results, rimsulfuron and nicosulfuron herbicides would be classified as leachers, but factors such as landscape position, soil depth and the rate of decomposition in surface and subsurface soils could change the classification. In contrast, these factors do not affect classification of sulfometuron-methyl and metsulfuron-methyl; they would rank as leachers.

  4. Activation of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 4 and ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Cumulatively Decreases Superoxide Production in Insect Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Slocińska, Malgorzata; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-01-01

    It has been evidenced that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and ATP-regulated potassium channel (mKATP channel) of insect Gromphadorhina coqereliana mitochondria decrease superoxide anion production. We elucidated whether the two energy-dissipating systems work together on a modulation of superoxide level in cockroach mitochondria. Our data show that the simultaneous activation of UCP4 by palmitic acid and mKATP channel by pinacidil revealed a cumulative effect on weakening mitochondrial superoxide formation. The inhibition of UCP4 by GTP (and/or ATP) and mKATP channel by ATP elevated superoxide production. These results suggest a functional cooperation of both energy-dissipating systems in protection against oxidative stress in insects.

  5. Multilevel fitting of {sup 235}U resonance data sensitive to Bohr-and Brosa-fission channels

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.S.

    1995-05-01

    The recent determination of the K, J dependence of the neutron induced fission cross section of {sup 235}U by the Dubna group has led to a renewed interest in the mechanism of fission from saddle to scission. The K quantum numbers designate the so-called Bohr fission channels, which describe the fission properties at the saddle point. Certain other fission properties, e.g., the fragment mass and kinetic-energy distribution, are related to the properties of the scission point. The neutron energy dependence of the fragment kinetic energies has been measured by Hambsch et al., who analyzed their data according to a channel description of Brosa et al. How these two channel descriptions, the saddle-point Bohr channels and the scission-point Brosa channels, relate to one another is an open question, and is the subject matter of the present paper. We use the correlation coefficient between various data sets, in which variations are reported from resonance to resonance, as a measure of both-the statistical reliability of the data and of the degree to which different scission variables relate to different Bohr channels. We have carried out an adjustment of the ENDF/B-VI multilevel evaluation of the fission cross section of {sup 235}U, one that provides a reasonably good fit to the energy dependence of the fission, capture, and total cross sections below 100 eV, and to the Bohr-channel structure deduced from an earlier measurement by Pattenden and Postma. We have also further explored the possibility of describing the data of Hambsch et al. in the Brosa-channel framework with the same set of fission-width vectors, only in a different reference system. While this approach shows promise, it is clear that better data are also needed for the neutron energy variation of the scission-point variables.

  6. Stromatoxin-sensitive, heteromultimeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels contribute to myogenic control of cerebral arterial diameter.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xi Zoë; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Liao, Chiu-Hsiang; El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Walsh, Emma J; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2010-11-15

    Cerebral vascular smooth muscle contractility plays a crucial role in controlling arterial diameter and, thereby, blood flow regulation in the brain. A number of K(+) channels have been suggested to contribute to the regulation of diameter by controlling smooth muscle membrane potential (E(m)) and Ca(2+) influx. Previous studies indicate that stromatoxin (ScTx1)-sensitive, Kv2-containing channels contribute to the control of cerebral arterial diameter at 80 mmHg, but their precise role and molecular composition were not determined. Here, we tested if Kv2 subunits associate with 'silent' subunits from the Kv5, Kv6, Kv8 or Kv9 subfamilies to form heterotetrameric channels that contribute to control of diameter of rat middle cerebral arteries (RMCAs) over a range of intraluminal pressure from 10 to 100 mmHg. The predominant mRNAs expressed by RMCAs encode Kv2.1 and Kv9.3 subunits. Co-localization of Kv2.1 and Kv9.3 proteins at the plasma membrane of dissociated single RMCA myocytes was detected by proximity ligation assay. ScTx1-sensitive native current of RMCA myocytes and Kv2.1/Kv9.3 currents exhibited functional identity based on the similarity of their deactivation kinetics and voltage dependence of activation that were distinct from those of homomultimeric Kv2.1 channels. ScTx1 treatment enhanced the myogenic response of pressurized RMCAs between 40 and 100 mmHg, but this toxin also caused constriction between 10 and 40 mmHg that was not previously observed following inhibition of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) and Kv1 channels. Taken together, this study defines the molecular basis of Kv2-containing channels and contributes to our understanding of the functional significance of their expression in cerebral vasculature. Specifically, our findings provide the first evidence of heteromultimeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channel expression in RMCA myocytes and their distinct contribution to control of cerebral arterial diameter over a wider range of E(m) and

  7. Cardiac K(ATP) channel alterations associated with acclimation to hypoxia in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Cameron, John S; DeWitt, Judy Park; Ngo, Thanh Thu; Yajnik, Tanya; Chan, Stefanie; Chung, Emma; Kang, Esther

    2013-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) are highly tolerant of environmental hypoxia, and with appropriate acclimation may survive and remain active for several days in the complete absence of oxygen. Previous work suggests that the hypoxia-induced activation of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels serves to increase tolerance of low oxygen in many species. For goldfish, we have previously characterized a nitric oxide (NO)- and cGMP-dependent pathway by which this channel activation occurs in acute hypoxia. The purpose of the present study was to resolve alterations in KATP channel activity and relevant gene expression in response to acclimation under moderately hypoxic conditions (2.6mg O2/L for seven days at 22°C). Intracellular action potential duration in excised ventricles from hypoxia-acclimated animals was significantly (p<0.05) reduced at both 50% and 90% of full repolarization relative to those from normoxia-acclimated fish. In cell-attached ventricular membrane patches from hypoxia-acclimated goldfish, sarcolemmal KATP channel open probability (NPo) was significantly enhanced vs. control. Of the two genes coding for the pore-forming subunits of cardiac KATP channels (Kir6.1 and Kir6.2), mRNA transcription of kcnj8 (revealed by quantitative real-time PCR) was unchanged while kcnj11 was downregulated in response to chronic low oxygen. The mRNA levels for hif1a (hypoxia inducible factor 1α) in the hearts of hypoxia-acclimated fish were significantly enhanced, as was nitric oxide synthase (nos2) and the sulfonylurea receptor regulatory subunit (sur2, abcc9). These data suggest that prior whole-animal acclimation to chronic hypoxia enhances cardioprotective sarcolemmal KATP currents by altering transcription of regulatory proteins.

  8. The Association between Sulfonylurea Use and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Varvaki Rados, Dimitris; Catani Pinto, Lana; Reck Remonti, Luciana; Bauermann Leitão, Cristiane; Gross, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Background Sulfonylureas are an effective and inexpensive treatment for type 2 diabetes. There is conflicting data about the safety of these drugs regarding mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of the sulfonylureas most frequently used and to use trial sequential analysis (TSA) to analyze whether the available sample was powered enough to support the results. Methods and Findings Electronic databases were reviewed from 1946 (Embase) or 1966 (MEDLINE) up to 31 December 2014. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of at least 52 wk in duration evaluating second- or third-generation sulfonylureas in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes and reporting outcomes of interest were included. Primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Additionally, myocardial infarction and stroke events were evaluated. Data were summarized with Peto odds ratios (ORs), and the reliability of the results was evaluated with TSA. Forty-seven RCTs with 37,650 patients and 890 deaths in total were included. Sulfonylureas were not associated with all-cause (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.96 to 1.30]) or cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.42]). Sulfonylureas were also not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.76 to 1.12]) or stroke (OR 1.16 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.66]). TSA could discard an absolute difference of 0.5% between the treatments, which was considered the minimal clinically significant difference. The major limitation of this review was the inclusion of studies not designed to evaluate safety outcomes. Conclusions Sulfonylureas are not associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Current evidence supports the safety of sulfonylureas; an absolute risk of 0.5% could be firmly discarded. Review registration PROSPERO CRD42014004330 PMID:27071029

  9. Design, synthesis and SAR study of novel sulfonylureas containing an alkenyl moiety.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Cheng, Dandan; Liu, Jingbo; Li, Yuxin; Ma, Yi; Li, Yonghong; Yu, Shujing; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Zhengming

    2016-09-21

    A series of sulfonylurea compounds was designed and synthesized via introducing an alkenyl moiety into the aryl-5 position and most title compounds exhibited enhanced antifungal activities and limited herbicidal activities compared with chlorsulfuron. Then, a CoMSIA calculation for antifungal activities was carried out to establish a 3D-QSAR model in which a cross-validated q(2) of 0.585 and a correlation coefficient r(2) of 0.989 were obtained. The derived model revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic fields were the two most important factors for antifungal activity. Structure optimization was performed according to the CoMSIA model and compound 9z was found to be as potent as chlorothalonil in vitro against C. cornigerum, the pathogen of the wheat sharp eyespot disease. In order to study the fungicidal mechanism, 9z was successfully docked into yeast AHAS using a flexible molecular docking method and the resulting binding pattern was similar to that of chlorimuron-ethyl, indicating that the antifungal activity of compounds 9 was probably due to the inhibition of fungal AHAS. PMID:27533925

  10. Growth inhibition and recovery of Lemna gibba after pulse exposure to sulfonylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke T; Baun, Anders; Kusk, K Ole

    2013-03-01

    The exposure of non-target aquatic organisms to pesticides often happens as short-term, high exposure events (pulses) and effects of these must be addressed in the current regulation in the EU. It is, however, questionable whether the effects of pulse exposures are adequately covered by the standardized ecotoxicological tests used in environmental effect assessments, since these aim at maintaining constant exposure concentrations during the incubation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of four sulfonylurea herbicides (flupyrsulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, rimsulfuron, and thifensulfuron-methyl) on the growth of Lemna gibba over a 6-day period after 24h of pulse exposure, and compared with effects observed in standard OECD tests with continuous exposure. It was observed that concentrations around the E(y)C50-values found in OECD tests did not affect the growth in the 6 days post-exposure period. Slightly higher concentrations initially resulted in lower growth in pulse exposure tests, but the growth rate of the plants reached the level of untreated plants during the 6 days post-exposure period. The 24h pulse exposure tests gave 2-6 times higher E(y)C50-values than the OECD 7-d continuous exposure tests. The approach of this study enables experimentally based comparisons between observations of effects between the two exposure regimes. We propose that results obtained in this way be applied in effect assessments for intermittent releases. PMID:23276408

  11. Bench-to-bedside review: Antidotal treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia with octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Lheureux, Philippe ER; Zahir, Soheil; Penaloza, Andrea; Gris, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    The major potential adverse effect of use of sulfonylurea agents (SUAs) is a hyperinsulinaemic state that causes hypoglycaemia. It may be observed during chronic therapeutic dosing, even with very low doses of a SUA, and especially in older patients. It may also result from accidental or intentional poisoning in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The traditional approach to SUA-induced hypoglycaemia includes administration of glucose, and glucagon or diazoxide in those who remain hypoglycaemic despite repeated or continuous glucose supplementation. However, these antidotal approaches are associated with several shortcomings, including further exacerbation of insulin release by glucose and glucagon, leading only to a temporary beneficial effect and later relapse into hypoglycaemia, as well as the adverse effects of both glucagon and diazoxide. Octreotide inhibits the secretion of several neuropeptides, including insulin, and has successfully been used to control life-threatening hypoglycaemia caused by insulinoma or persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy. Therefore, this agent should in theory also be useful to decrease glucose requirements and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with SUA-induced hypoglycaemia. This has apparently been confirmed by experimental data, one retrospective study based on chart review, and several anecdotal case reports. There is thus a need for further prospective studies, which should be adequately powered, randomized and controlled, to confirm the probable beneficial effect of octreotide in this setting. PMID:16356235

  12. Abatement kinetics of 30 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in water by photocatalytic treatment with semiconductor materials.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Sabater, Paula; Navarro, Ginés; Vela, Nuria; Pérez-Lucas, Gabriel; Navarro, Simón

    2013-11-30

    Sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) are a family of environmentally compatible herbicides but their high water solubility, moderate to high mobility through the soil profile, and slow degradation rate make them potential contaminants of groundwater as demonstrated in this paper. The photodegradation of a mixture of 30 SUHs in aqueous suspensions of semiconductor materials (ZnO and TiO2 in tandem with Na2S2O8 as electron acceptor) under artificial light (300-460 nm) irradiation was investigated. As expected, the influence of both semiconductors on the degradation of SUHs was very significant in all cases. Photocatalytic experiments show that the addition of photocatalyst, especially for the ZnO/Na2S2O8 system, greatly improves the removal of SUHs compared with photolytic tests, significantly increasing the reaction rates. The first-order equation (monophasic model) satisfactorily explained the disappearance process although it overlooked small residues remaining late in the process. These residues are important from an environmental point of view and the Hoerl function (biphasic model), was a better predicter of the results obtained. In our conditions, the average time required for 90% degradation was about 3 and 30 min for ZnO/Na2S2O8 and TiO2/Na2S2O8 systems, respectively.

  13. Isosteviol Sensitizes sarcKATP Channels towards Pinacidil and Potentiates Mitochondrial Uncoupling of Diazoxide in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhuo; Wen, Ting; Chen, Yaoxu; Huang, Lijie; Lin, Wei; Yin, Chunxia; Tan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    KATP channel is an important mediator or factor in physiological and pathological metabolic pathway. Activation of KATP channel has been identified to be a critical step in the cardioprotective mechanism against IR injury. On the other hand, desensitization of the channel to its opener or the metabolic ligand ATP in pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy, would decrease the adaption of myocardium to metabolic stress and is a disadvantage for drug therapy. Isosteviol, obtained by acid hydrolysis of stevioside, has been demonstrated to play a cardioprotective role against diseases of cardiovascular system, like anti-IR injury, antihypertension, antihyperglycemia, and so forth. The present study investigated the effect of isosteviol (STV) on sarcKATP channel current induced by pinacidil and mitochondrial flavoprotein oxidation induced by diazoxide. Our results showed that preincubating cells with STV not only increased the current amplitude and activating rate of sarcKATP channels induced by pinacidil but also potentiated diazoxide-elicited oxidation of flavoprotein in mitochondria. PMID:26949448

  14. Possible relationship of brain cytoplasmic tetrodotoxin-sensitive protein to voltage-gated sodium channel shown by monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, G V; Malysheva, M K; Pinchuk, L N; Gerasymenko, O V; Zhukareva, V A

    1990-02-01

    Biochemical events leading to the formation of mature membrane-associated sodium channel proteins are not completely understood. We have recently purified a protein from the cytoplasm of brain cells, which is able to become incorporated into liposomes and induce neurotoxin-dependent sodium permeability. Here we report data on a monoclonal antibody derived against this protein. This antibody crossreacts with cell membrane preparations. The antibody binding to viable neuroblastoma cells is inhibited by veratrine, indicating that membrane molecules antigenically related to the cytoplasmic protein may also be related to the voltage-gated sodium channel.

  15. Negatively Charged Amino Acids Near and in Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Domain of TRPM4 Channel Are One Determinant of Its Ca2+ Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Tanimoto, Akira; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Hibino, Hiroshi; Ito, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel melastatin subfamily member 4 (TRPM4) is a broadly expressed nonselective monovalent cation channel. TRPM4 is activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca2+, which is essential for the activation. The Ca2+ sensitivity is known to be regulated by calmodulin and membrane phosphoinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). Although these regulators must play important roles in controlling TRPM4 activity, mutation analyses of the calmodulin-binding sites have suggested that Ca2+ binds to TRPM4 directly. However, the intrinsic binding sites in TRPM4 remain to be elucidated. Here, by using patch clamp and molecular biological techniques, we show that there are at least two functionally different divalent cation-binding sites, and the negatively charged amino acids near and in the TRP domain in the C-terminal tail of TRPM4 (Asp-1049 and Glu-1062 of rat TRPM4) are required for maintaining the normal Ca2+ sensitivity of one of the binding sites. Applications of Co2+, Mn2+, or Ni2+ to the cytosolic side potentiated TRPM4 currents, increased the Ca2+ sensitivity, but were unable to evoke TRPM4 currents without Ca2+. Mutations of the acidic amino acids near and in the TRP domain, which are conserved in TRPM2, TRPM5, and TRPM8, deteriorated the Ca2+ sensitivity in the presence of Co2+ or PI(4,5)P2 but hardly affected the sensitivity to Co2+ and PI(4,5)P2. These results suggest a novel role of the TRP domain in TRPM4 as a site responsible for maintaining the normal Ca2+ sensitivity. These findings provide more insights into the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of TRPM4 by Ca2+. PMID:25378404

  16. Isoform-specific modulation of the chemical sensitivity of conserved TRPA1 channel in the major honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Kashio, Makiko; Peng, Guangda; Wang, Xinyue; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Tropilaelaps mercedesae (TmTRPA1), one of two major species of honeybee ectoparasitic mite. Three TmTRPA1 isoforms with unique N-terminal sequences were activated by heat, and the isoform highly expressed in the mite's front legs, TmTRPA1b, was also activated by 27 plant-derived compounds including electrophiles. This suggests that the heat- and electrophile-dependent gating mechanisms as nocisensitive TRPA1 channel are well conserved between arthropod species. Intriguingly, one TmTRPA1 isoform, TmTRPA1a, was activated by only six compounds compared with two other isoforms, demonstrating that the N-terminal sequences are critical determinants for the chemical sensitivity. This is the first example of isoform-specific modulation of chemical sensitivity of TRPA1 channel in one species. α-terpineol showed repellent activity towards T. mercedesae in a laboratory assay and repressed T. mercedesae entry for reproduction into the brood cells with fifth instar larvae in hives. Thus, α-terpineol could be used as the potential compound to control two major honeybee ectoparasitic mites, T. mercedesae and Varroa destructor, in the apiculture industry. PMID:27307515

  17. Nefopam inhibits calcium influx, cGMP formation, and NMDA receptor-dependent neurotoxicity following activation of voltage sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Novelli, A; Díaz-Trelles, R; Groppetti, A; Fernández-Sánchez, M T

    2005-03-01

    Nefopam hydrochloride is a potent non sedative benzoxazocine analgesic that possesses a profile distinct from that of anti-inflammatory drugs. Previous evidence suggested a central action of nefopam but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We have investigated the actions of nefopam on voltage sensitive calcium channels and calcium-mediated pathways. We found that nefopam prevented N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxicity following stimulation of L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels by the specific agonist BayK8644. Nefopam protection was concentration-dependent. 47 muM nefopam provided 50% protection while full neuroprotection was achieved at 100 muM nefopam. Neuroprotection was associated with a 73% reduction in the BayK8644-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Nefopam also inhibited intracellular cGMP formation following BayK8644 in a concentration-dependent manner, 100 muM nefopam providing full inhibition of cGMP synthesis and 58 muM allowing 50% cGMP formation. Nefopam reduced NMDA receptor-mediated cGMP formation resulting from the release of glutamate following activation of channels by BayK8644. Finally, we also showed that nefopam effectively reduced cGMP formation following stimulation of cultures with domoic acid, while not providing neuroprotection against domoic acid. Thus, the novel action of nefopam we report here may be important both for its central analgesic effects and for its potential therapeutic use in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders involving an excessive glutamate release.

  18. Isoform-specific modulation of the chemical sensitivity of conserved TRPA1 channel in the major honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Kashio, Makiko; Peng, Guangda; Wang, Xinyue; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    We identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Tropilaelaps mercedesae (TmTRPA1), one of two major species of honeybee ectoparasitic mite. Three TmTRPA1 isoforms with unique N-terminal sequences were activated by heat, and the isoform highly expressed in the mite's front legs, TmTRPA1b, was also activated by 27 plant-derived compounds including electrophiles. This suggests that the heat- and electrophile-dependent gating mechanisms as nocisensitive TRPA1 channel are well conserved between arthropod species. Intriguingly, one TmTRPA1 isoform, TmTRPA1a, was activated by only six compounds compared with two other isoforms, demonstrating that the N-terminal sequences are critical determinants for the chemical sensitivity. This is the first example of isoform-specific modulation of chemical sensitivity of TRPA1 channel in one species. α-terpineol showed repellent activity towards T. mercedesae in a laboratory assay and repressed T. mercedesae entry for reproduction into the brood cells with fifth instar larvae in hives. Thus, α-terpineol could be used as the potential compound to control two major honeybee ectoparasitic mites, T. mercedesae and Varroa destructor, in the apiculture industry. PMID:27307515

  19. Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers on vascular hyporeactivity, mesenteric blood flow, and survival in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock model.

    PubMed

    Boz, Mustafa; Atilla, Pergin; Iskit, Alper B; Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the possible therapeutic effects of various ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) blockers (glibenclamide, repaglinide, 5-HD, HMR-1098) have been tested in experimental septic shock model. Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1 mg·kg(-1)) to create experimental shock model and 4 h later, under 400 mg·kg(-1) chloral hydrate anesthesia, parameters such as blood pressure, mesenteric blood flow, the response of mesenteric circulation to phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor stimulation), and organ and oxidative damage were analyzed. Also 75 mg·kg(-1) lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide was given to mice and effects of KATP blockers on survival have been tested. Non-selective blocker glibenclamide with sulphonylurea structure and sarcolemmal KATP channel blocker HMR-1098, which have the similar chemical structure, have improved the pathological parameters such as decrease in mesenteric blood flow, vascular hyporeactivity, but could not prevent the decrease in blood pressure, and oxidative and organ damage that were observed in the shock model. Also, both blockers have decreased the mortality rate from 80% to 40%-50%. Similar (preventive) therapeutic effects were not observed with non-selective blocker repaglinide and mitochondrial KATP channel blocker 5-HD, which were non-sulphonylurea structure. As a result, only KATP channel blockers that have sulphonylurea structure can be a new therapeutic approach in septic shock. PMID:27239899

  20. TRPM4 channels in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Martin; Pongs, Olaf

    2014-04-01

    The non-selective Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4) cation channel is abundantly expressed in cardiac cells, being involved in several aspects of cardiac rhythmicity, including cardiac conduction, pace making and action-potential repolarization. Dominantly inherited mutations in the TRPM4 gene are associated with the cardiac bundle-branch disorder progressive familial heart block type I (PFHBI) and isolated cardiac conduction disease (ICCD) giving rise to atrio-ventricular conduction block (AVB), right bundle branch block, bradycardia, and the Brugada syndrome. The mutant phenotypes closely resemble those associated with mutations in the SCN5A gene, encoding the voltage-gated Na(+) channel NaV1.5. These observations and the unexpected partnership with sulfonylurea-receptors (SURs) makes the TRPM4 channel a promising novel target for treatment of cardiac disorders.

  1. Block of L-type calcium channels by charged dihydropyridines. Sensitivity to side of application and calcium

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have studied block of L-type calcium channels by intracellular and extracellular application of the ionized dihydropyridine derivatives amlodipine and SDZ 207-180. We find that extracellular application of either drug causes voltage-dependent block of calcium channels. However, neither drug is effective when applied intracellularly. The insensitivity of calcium channels to intracellular drug is not due to the low concentrations of cytosolic calcium, because voltage-dependent block by ionized amlodipine, SDZ 207-180, and the neutral drug nisoldipine persists under conditions in which Ca0 is buffered by EGTA. In fact, the time course of the development of block by the ionized but not neutral drug molecules studied, is slower in the presence than in the absence of calcium. Our results indicate that the DHP binding site of the L-type calcium channel is close to the extracellular surface of the cell membrane and that ionized DHP molecules may interact with the receptor in a manner that is uniquely affected by calcium. PMID:1658191

  2. Low-Timing-Jitter Near-Infrared Single-Photon-Sensitive 16-Channel Intensified-Photodiode Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Lu, Wei; Yang, Guangning; Sun, Xiaoli; Sykora, Derek; Jurkovic, Mike; Aebi, Verle; Costello, Ken; Burns, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We developed a 16-channel InGaAsP photocathode intensified-photodiode (IPD) detector with 78 ps (1-sigma) timing-jitter, less than 500 ps FWHM impulse response, greater than 15% quantum efficiency at 1064 nm wavelength with 131 kcps dark counts at 15 C.

  3. Kinetics of xylem loading, membrane potential maintenance, and sensitivity of K(+) -permeable channels to reactive oxygen species: physiological traits that differentiate salinity tolerance between pea and barley.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Pottosin, Igor; Zeng, Fanrong; Velarde-Buendía, Ana-Maria; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Hariadi, Yuda; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Salt sensitive (pea) and salt tolerant (barley) species were used to understand the physiological basis of differential salinity tolerance in crops. Pea plants were much more efficient in restoring otherwise depolarized membrane potential thereby effectively decreasing K(+) efflux through depolarization-activated outward rectifying potassium channels. At the same time, pea root apex was 10-fold more sensitive to physiologically relevant H2 O2 concentration and accumulated larger amounts of H2 O2 under saline conditions. This resulted in a rapid loss of cell viability in the pea root apex. Barley plants rapidly loaded Na(+) into the xylem; this increase was only transient, and xylem and leaf Na(+) concentration remained at a steady level for weeks. On the contrary, pea plants restricted xylem Na(+) loading during the first few days of treatment but failed to prevent shoot Na(+) elevation in the long term. It is concluded that superior salinity tolerance of barley plants compared with pea is conferred by at least three different mechanisms: (1) efficient control of xylem Na(+) loading; (2) efficient control of H2 O2 accumulation and reduced sensitivity of non-selective cation channels to H2 O2 in the root apex; and (3) higher energy saving efficiency, with less ATP spent to maintain membrane potential under saline conditions.

  4. Α-Dendrotoxin-sensitive Kv1 channels contribute to conduction failure of polymodal nociceptive C-fibers from rat coccygeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Chao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Fang; Yin, Chun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Ying; Hu, San-Jue; Duan, Jian-Hong

    2016-02-01

    It is known that some patients with diabetic neuropathy are usually accompanied by abnormal painful sensations. Evidence has accumulated that diabetic neuropathic pain is associated with the hyperexcitability of peripheral nociceptors. Previously, we demonstrated that reduced conduction failure of polymodal nociceptive C-fibers and enhanced voltage-dependent sodium currents of small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contribute to diabetic hyperalgesia. To further investigate whether and how potassium channels are involved in the conduction failure, α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX), a selective blocker of the low-threshold sustained Kv1 channel, was chosen to examine its functional capability in modulating the conduction properties of polymodal nociceptive C-fibers and the excitability of sensory neurons. We found that α-DTX reduced the conduction failure of C-fibers from coccygeal nerve in vivo accompanied by an increased initial conduction velocity but a decreased activity-dependent slowing of conduction velocity. In addition, the number of APs evoked by step currents was significantly enhanced after the treatment with α-DTX in small-diameter sensory neurons. Further study of the mechanism indicates α-DTX-sensitive K(+) current significantly reduced and the activation of this current in peak and steady state shifted to depolarization for diabetic neurons. Expression of Kv channel subunits Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 was downregulated in both small dorsal root ganglion neurons and peripheral C-fibers. Taken together, these results suggest that α-DTX-sensitive Kv1 channels might play an important role in regulating the conduction properties of polymodal nociceptive C-fibers and firing properties of sensory neurons.

  5. Dynamic imaging of free cytosolic ATP concentration during fuel sensing by rat hypothalamic neurones: evidence for ATP-independent control of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Ainscow, Edward K; Mirshamsi, Shirin; Tang, Teresa; Ashford, Michael L J; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-10-15

    Glucose-responsive (GR) neurons from hypothalamic nuclei are implicated in the regulation of feeding and satiety. To determine the role of intracellular ATP in the closure of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in these cells and associated glia, the cytosolic ATP concentration ([ATP](c)) was monitored in vivo using adenoviral-driven expression of recombinant targeted luciferases and bioluminescence imaging. Arguing against a role for ATP in the closure of K(ATP) channels in GR neurons, glucose (3 or 15 mM) caused no detectable increase in [ATP](c), monitored with cytosolic luciferase, and only a small decrease in the concentration of ATP immediately beneath the plasma membrane, monitored with a SNAP25-luciferase fusion protein. In contrast to hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic glia responded to glucose (3 and 15 mM) with a significant increase in [ATP](c). Both neurons and glia from the cerebellum, a glucose-unresponsive region of the brain, responded robustly to 3 or 15 mM glucose with increases in [ATP](c). Further implicating an ATP-independent mechanism of K(ATP) channel closure in hypothalamic neurons, removal of extracellular glucose (10 mM) suppressed the electrical activity of GR neurons in the presence of a fixed, high concentration (3 mM) of intracellular ATP. Neurons from both brain regions responded to 5 mM lactate (but not pyruvate) with an oligomycin-sensitive increase in [ATP](c). High levels of the plasma membrane lactate-monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1, were found in both cell types, and exogenous lactate efficiently closed K(ATP) channels in GR neurons. These data suggest that (1) ATP-independent intracellular signalling mechanisms lead to the stimulation of hypothalamic neurons by glucose, and (2) these effects may be potentiated in vivo by the release of lactate from neighbouring glial cells.

  6. Dynamic imaging of free cytosolic ATP concentration during fuel sensing by rat hypothalamic neurones: evidence for ATP-independent control of ATP-sensitive K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Ainscow, Edward K; Mirshamsi, Shirin; Tang, Teresa; Ashford, Michael L J; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-responsive (GR) neurons from hypothalamic nuclei are implicated in the regulation of feeding and satiety. To determine the role of intracellular ATP in the closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in these cells and associated glia, the cytosolic ATP concentration ([ATP]c) was monitored in vivo using adenoviral-driven expression of recombinant targeted luciferases and bioluminescence imaging. Arguing against a role for ATP in the closure of KATP channels in GR neurons, glucose (3 or 15 mm) caused no detectable increase in [ATP]c, monitored with cytosolic luciferase, and only a small decrease in the concentration of ATP immediately beneath the plasma membrane, monitored with a SNAP25–luciferase fusion protein. In contrast to hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic glia responded to glucose (3 and 15 mm) with a significant increase in [ATP]c. Both neurons and glia from the cerebellum, a glucose-unresponsive region of the brain, responded robustly to 3 or 15 mm glucose with increases in [ATP]c. Further implicating an ATP-independent mechanism of KATP channel closure in hypothalamic neurons, removal of extracellular glucose (10 mm) suppressed the electrical activity of GR neurons in the presence of a fixed, high concentration (3 mm) of intracellular ATP. Neurons from both brain regions responded to 5 mm lactate (but not pyruvate) with an oligomycin-sensitive increase in [ATP]c. High levels of the plasma membrane lactate-monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1, were found in both cell types, and exogenous lactate efficiently closed KATP channels in GR neurons. These data suggest that (1) ATP-independent intracellular signalling mechanisms lead to the stimulation of hypothalamic neurons by glucose, and (2) these effects may be potentiated in vivo by the release of lactate from neighbouring glial cells. PMID:12381816

  7. The role of Pre-H2 domains of alpha- and delta-epithelial Na+ channels in ion permeation, conductance, and amiloride sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong-Long; Bishop, LaToya R; Anderson, Susan J; Fuller, Catherine M; Benos, Dale J

    2004-02-27

    Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) regulate salt and water re-absorption across the apical membrane of absorptive epithelia such as the kidney, colon, and lung. Structure-function studies have suggested that the second transmembrane domain (M2) and the adjacent pre- and post-M2 regions are involved in channel pore formation, cation selectivity, and amiloride sensitivity. Because Na(+) selectivity, unitary Na(+) conductance (gamma(Na)), and amiloride sensitivity of delta-ENaC are strikingly different from those of alpha-ENaC, the hypothesis that the pre-H2 domain may contribute to these characterizations has been examined by swapping the pre-H2, H2, and both (pre-H2+H2) domains of delta- and alpha-ENaCs. Whole-cell and single channel results showed that the permeation ratio of Li(+) and Na(+) (P(Li)/P(Na)) for the swap alpha chimeras co-expressed with betagamma-ENaC in Xenopus oocytes decreased significantly. In contrast, the ratio of P(Li)/P(Na) for the swap delta constructs was not significantly altered. Single channel studies confirmed that swapping of the H2 and the pre-H2+H2 domains increased the gamma(Na) of alpha-ENaC but decreased the gamma(Na) of delta-ENaC. A significant increment in the apparent inhibitory dissociation constant for amiloride (K(i)(amil)) was observed in the alpha chimeras by swapping the pre-H2, H2, and pre-H2+H2 domains. In contrast, a striking decline of K(i)(amil) was obtained in the chimeric delta constructs with substitution of the H2 and pre-H2+H2 domains. Our results demonstrate that the pre-H2 domain, combined with the H2 domain, contributes to the P(Li)/P(Na) ratio, single channel Na(+) conductance, and amiloride sensitivity of alpha- and delta-ENaCs. PMID:14660613

  8. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ Channel Properties in Adult Inner Hair Cells Positioned in the Most Sensitive Region of the Gerbil Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L.; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C.; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca2+ inflow through CaV1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca2+ currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na+ based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca2+ current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼−18 mV). The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca2+ channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca2+ channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds. PMID:25409445

  9. ATP-sensitive K+ channels in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics: role in nitric oxide and β-adrenoceptor agonist-induced hyperpolarizations

    PubMed Central

    von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode recordings were performed to investigate the membrane K+ conductances involved in smooth muscle hyperpolarization of lymphatic vessels in the guinea-pig mesentery. Nitric oxide (NO), released either by the endothelium after acetylcholine (ACh; 10 μM) stimulation or by sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 50–100 μM), hyperpolarized lymphatic smooth muscle. These responses were inhibited with the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μM). ACh and SNP-induced hyperpolarizations were inhibited (by about 90%) upon application of the ATP-sensitive K+(KATP) channel blocker, glibenclamide (10 μM), or with 4-aminopyridine (2.5 mM), but were not affected by the Ca2+-activated K+ channels blocker, penitrem A (100 nM). Hyperpolarization caused by the K+ channel opener, cromakalim (0.1–10 μM), isoprenaline (0.1 μM) or forskolin (0.5 μM) were all significantly blocked by glibenclamide. Hyperpolarization evoked by ACh and SNP were inhibited with N-[2-(p-bromociannamylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide-dichloride (H89, 10 μM), suggesting the involvement of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA). These results suggest that KATP channels play a central role in lymphatic smooth muscle hyperpolarization evoked by a NO-induced increase in cyclic GMP synthesis, as well as by β-adrenoceptor-mediated production of cyclic AMP. Interestingly, both pathways lead to KATP channels opening through the activation of PKA. PMID:9776338

  10. Nitroxyl inhibits overt pain-like behavior in mice: role of cGMP/PKG/ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Longhi-Balbinot, Daniela T.; Marchesi, Mario; Cunha, Thiago M.; Alves-Filho, José C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Casagrande, Rubia; Miranda, Katrina M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) plays complex and diverse roles in modulation of pain/analgesia. However, the roles of charged and uncharged congeners of NO are less well understood. In the present study, the antinociceptive effect of the nitroxyl (HNO) donor, Angeli’s salt (Na2N2O3; AS) was investigated in models of overt pain-like behavior. Moreover, whether the antinociceptive effect of nitroxyl was dependent on the activation of cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate)/PKG (protein kinase G)/ATP-sensitive potassium channels was addressed. Methods The antinociceptive effect of AS was evaluated on phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ)- and acetic acid-induced writhings and via the formalin test. In addition, pharmacological treatments targeting guanylate cyclase (ODQ), PKG (KT5923) and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (glybenclamide) were used. Results PBQ and acetic acid induced significant writhing responses over 20 min. The nociceptive response in these models were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by subcutaneous pre-treatment with AS. Furthermore, AS also inhibited both phases of the formalin test. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of AS in writhing and flinching responses were prevented by ODQ, KT5823 and glybenclamide, although these inhibitors alone did not alter the writhing score. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-cysteine, an HNO scavenger, confirmed that the antinociceptive effect of AS depends on HNO. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a nitroxyl donor and its analgesic mechanisms in overt pain-like behavior by activating the cGMP/PKG/ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K+) signaling pathway. PMID:24948073

  11. Three-dimensional network electrolytes with highly efficient ion-transporting channels for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jifu; Chen, Jiubin; Li, Yujian; Zhu, Yanqing; Xu, Gang; Xu, Jiayou

    2015-05-01

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are fabricated with three-dimensional network poly(adipic acid pentaerythritol ester) (PAAPE). The PAAPEs are prepared by esterification of pentaerythritol and adipic acid. This three-dimensional structure provides highly efficient ion-transporting channels for iodide/triiodide (I-/I3-) transport in the gel electrolyte. The optimized gel electrolyte shows conductivity of 4.03 mS cm-1 at 25 °C. The fabricated DSC obtains a photoenergy conversion efficiency of 6.81% under AM 1.5 irradiation.

  12. Within-Sulfonylurea-Class Evaluation of Time to Intensification with Insulin (ZODIAC-43)

    PubMed Central

    Hartog, Laura C.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that many within-class differences exist between sulfonylureas (SUs), however, whether differences exist regarding the time it takes between initiating an SU and the need to intensify treatment with insulin is unclear. The aim of this study was investigate the relationships between the three frequently used sulphonylureas, prescribed as dual therapy next to metformin, and the time needed to treatment intensification with either insulin or oral triple therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) is a prospective observational cohort study set in primary care in the Netherlands. Annually collected data on diabetes medication and clinical variables within ZODIAC are used to evaluate the primary outcome, time to insulin and secondary outcome, time to either insulin or triple oral therapy. For statistical analysis a time-dependent cox proportional hazard model was used. Results 3507 patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 61 (SD 11.4) and a median HbA1c of 6.8% [IQR 6.4–7.4] (50.8 mmol/mol [IQR 46.4–57.4]).The hazard ratio (HR) for the primary endpoint was 1.10 (95% CI 0.78–1.54) for metformin/glimepiride and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.30) for metformin/tolbutamide with metformin/gliclazide as reference group. The HR for the secondary outcome was 1.04 (95% CI 0.78–1.40) and 0.85 (95% CI 0.64–1.13), respectively. Conclusion In this large Dutch primary care cohort, new users of neither gliclazide, glimepiride nor tolbutamide as dual therapy with metformin, resulted in differences in the time needed for further treatment intensification. PMID:27327605

  13. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.

  14. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail. PMID:27227027

  15. The Drosophila SK Channel (dSK) Contributes to Photoreceptor Performance by Mediating Sensitivity Control at the First Visual Network

    PubMed Central

    Abou Tayoun, Ahmad N.; Li, Xiaofeng; Chu, Brian; Hardie, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of the SK (small-conductance calcium-activated potassium) channel to neuronal functions in complex circuits underlying sensory processing and behavior is largely unknown in the absence of suitable animal models. Here, we generated a Drosophila line that lacks the single highly conserved SK gene in its genome (dSK). In R1–R6 photoreceptors, dSK encodes a slow Ca2+-activated K+ current similar to its mammalian counterparts. Compared with wild-type, dSK− photoreceptors and interneurons showed accelerated oscillatory responses and adaptation. These enhanced kinetics were accompanied with more depolarized dSK− photoreceptors axons, assigning a role for dSK in network gain control during light-to-dark transitions. However, compensatory network adaptation, through increasing activity between synaptic neighbors, overcame many detriments of missing dSK current enabling dSK− photoreceptors to maintain normal information transfer rates to naturalistic stimuli. While demonstrating important functional roles for dSK channel in the visual circuitry, these results also clarify how homeostatically balanced network functions can compensate missing or faulty ion channels. PMID:21957252

  16. The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schopman, J E; Simon, A C R; Hoefnagel, S J M; Hoekstra, J B L; Scholten, R J P M; Holleman, F

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using sulfonylurea derivatives or insulin may experience hypoglycaemia. However, recent data regarding the incidence of hypoglycaemia are scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that experience hypoglycaemia when treated with sulfonylurea or insulin. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials that compared incretin-based drugs to sulfonylureas or insulin and assessed hypoglycaemia incidence in the latter therapies. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to study possible associations with potential risk factors for hypoglycaemia. Data of 25 studies were extracted, 22 for sulfonylurea and 3 for insulin. Hypoglycaemia with glucose ≤3.1 mmol/L or ≤2.8 mmol/L was experienced by 10.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3-13.8%] and 5.9% (95% CI 2.5-13.4%) of patients with any sulfonylurea treatment. Severe hypoglycaemia was experienced by 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3%) of patients. Hypoglycaemia with glucose ≤3.1 mmol/L and severe hypoglycaemia occurred least frequently with gliclazide: in 1.4% (95% CI 0.8-2.4%) and 0.1% (95% CI 0-0.7%) of patients, respectively. None of the risk factors were significant in a stepwise multivariate meta-regression analysis. Too few studies had insulin as comparator, so these data could not be meta-analysed. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on sulfonylurea therapy in clinical trials remain free of any relevant hypoglycaemia. Gliclazide was associated with the lowest risk of hypoglycaemia. Because participants in randomized controlled trials differ from the general population, care should be taken when translating these data into clinical practice. PMID:24030920

  17. Temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia and burden of sulfonylurea-related hypoglycaemia in UK hospitals: a retrospective multicentre audit of hospitalised patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rajesh; Kerry, Christopher; Rayman, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia exist in inpatients with diabetes ‘at risk’ of hypoglycaemia (those on insulin and/or sulfonylureas), and if so whether patterns differ between hospitals and between these treatments. Setting Retrospective multicentre audit of inpatients with diabetes involving 11 acute UK National Health Service (NHS) trusts. Participants Capillary blood glucose readings of 3.9 mmol/L or less (hypoglycaemia) for all adult (≥18 years) inpatients with diabetes ‘at risk’ of hypoglycaemia were extracted from the Abbott PrecisionWeb Point-of-Care Data Management System over a 4-week period. Overall, 2521 readings of 3.9 mmol/L or less (hypoglycaemia) occurring in 866 participants between 1 June 2013 and 29 June 2013 were analysed. Results The majority (65%) occurred between 21:00 and 08:59, a pattern common to all Trusts. This was more frequent in sulfonylurea-treated than insulin-treated participants (75.3% vs 59.3%, p=0.0001). Furthermore, hypoglycaemic readings were more frequent between 5:00 and 7:59 in sulfonylurea-treated than insulin-treated participants (46.7% vs 22.7% of readings for respective treatments, p=0.0001). Sulfonylureas accounted for 31.8% of all hypoglycaemic readings. As a group, sulfonylurea-treated participants were older (median age 78 vs 73 years, p=0.0001) and had lower glycated haemoglobin (median 56 (7.3%) vs 69 mmol/mol (8.5%), p=0.0001). Hypoglycaemic readings per participant were as frequent for sulfonylurea-treated participants as for insulin-treated participants (median=2 for both) as were the proportions in each group with ≥5 hypoglycaemic readings (17.3% vs 17.7%). Conclusions In all Trusts, hypoglycaemic readings were more frequent between 21:00 and 08:59 in ‘at risk’ inpatients with diabetes, with a greater frequency in the early morning period (5:00–7:59) in sulfonylurea-treated inpatients. This may have implications for the continuing use of sulfonylureas

  18. Activation of activin type IB receptor signals in pancreatic β cells leads to defective insulin secretion through the attenuation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Morinaga, Hidetaka; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Wang, Lixiang; Hasuzawa, Nao; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Teramoto, Noriyoshi

    2014-07-18

    In studies of gene-ablated mice, activin signaling through activin type IIB receptors (ActRIIB) and Smad2 has been shown to regulate not only pancreatic β cell mass but also insulin secretion. However, it still remains unclear whether gain of function of activin signaling is involved in the modulation of pancreatic β cell mass and insulin secretion. To identify distinct roles of activin signaling in pancreatic β cells, the Cre-loxP system was used to activate signaling through activin type IB receptor (ActRIB) in pancreatic β cells. The resultant mice (pancreatic β cell-specific ActRIB transgenic (Tg) mice; ActRIBCAβTg) exhibited a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. Patch-clamp techniques revealed that the activity of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP channels) was decreased in mutant β cells. These results indicate that an appropriate level of activin signaling may be required for GSIS in pancreatic β cells, and that activin signaling involves modulation of KATP channel activity.

  19. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  20. Water Stress Inhibits Hydraulic Conductance and Leaf Growth in Rice Seedlings but Not the Transport of Water via Mercury-Sensitive Water Channels in the Root1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongjin; Neumann, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms by which moderate water stress (adding polyethylene glycol 6000 to the root medium) induces a sustained inhibition of growth in emerging first leaves of intact rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings was investigated under growth-chamber conditions. Early (24 h) inhibition of leaf growth was not related to changes in root size or in osmotic potential gradients and cell wall-yielding characteristics in the leaf-expansion zone of stressed seedlings. However, reductions in root-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (L) were measured in two rice cultivars after 4 or 24 h at various levels of water stress, and these reductions correlated well with the inhibition of leaf growth. We assayed L by a psychrometric method and, in intact seedlings, by a novel osmotic-jump method. The addition of 0.5 mm HgCl2 to the root medium to inhibit water transport through Hg-sensitive water channels in the roots did not inhibit leaf growth in unstressed seedlings. However, both leaf growth and L were additionally reduced (by 49% and 43%, respectively) within minutes of adding HgCl2 to roots of water-stressed seedlings. Water stress therefore appeared to increase the transport of water via Hg-sensitive water channels. Other mechanisms were apparently involved in inhibiting overall L and leaf growth. PMID:10318692

  1. Effect of salt and water intake on epithelial sodium channel mRNA abundance in the kidney of salt-sensitive Sabra rats.

    PubMed

    Nicco, Carole; Bankir, Lise; Bouby, Nadine

    2003-12-01

    1. The level of mRNA expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits was studied in a salt-dependent hypertensive rat strain (Sabra). These rats exhibit high vasopressin levels compared with their normotensive counterparts. We also investigated whether this expression is influenced by changes in the sodium intake/aldosterone axis or in the fluid intake/vasopressin axis. 2. A higher expression of beta- and gamma-subunit mRNA was found in salt-sensitive compared with salt-resistant rats on a normal salt diet. A high-sodium diet did not alter mRNA abundance in either substrain. In contrast, water supplementation in salt-sensitive rats fed the high-sodium diet induced a marked reduction in mRNA abundance of beta- and gamma-subunits. 3. The present study provides evidence that beta- and gamma-subunits of ENaC are differently expressed in the kidney of salt-sensitive and salt-resistant Sabra rats and that their abundance is regulated by vasopressin, not by sodium intake. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased vasopressin-dependent ENaC expression and activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in salt-sensitive Sabra rats. PMID:14678237

  2. The simultaneous detection of free and total prostate antigen in serum samples with high sensitivity and specificity by using the dual-channel surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongxiu; Qin, Yun; Peng, Zhen; Chen, Shenghua; Chen, Shu; Deng, Chunyan; Xiang, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Free/total prostate antigen (f/t-PSA) ratio in serum as a promising parameter has been used to improve the differentiation of benign and malignant prostate disease. In order to obtain the accurate and reliable f/t-PSA ratio, the simultaneous detection of f-PSA and t-PSA with high sensitivity and specificity is required. In this work, the dual-channel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been employed to meet the requirement. In one channel, t-PSA was directly measured with a linear range from 1.0 to 20.0 ng/mL. In another channel, due to the low concentration of f-PSA in serum, the asynchronous competitive inhibition immunoassay with f-PSA@Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. As expected, the detection sensitivity of f-PSA was greatly enhanced, and a linear correlation with wider linear range from 0.010 to 0.40 ng/mL was also achieved. On the other hand, a simple method was explored for significantly reducing the non-specific adsorption of co-existing proteins. On basis of this, the f/t-PSA ratios in serum samples from prostate cancer (PCa) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were measured. And it was found that there was significant difference between the distributions of f/t-PSA ratio in BPH patients (16.44±1.77%) and those in PCa patients (24.53±4.97%). This present work provides an effective method for distinguishing PCa from BPH, which lays a potential foundation for the early diagnosis of PCa.

  3. A highly sensitive flow-through amperometric immunosensor based on the Peroxidase chip and enzyme-channeling principle.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, J; Ruzgas, T; Fránek, M

    2003-10-01

    A concept based on the Peroxidase-chip (P-chip), antibody co-immobilization, competitive and enzyme-channeling principle was exploited to develop an integrated flow-through amperometric biosensor for detection of environmental pollutants such as s-triazine herbicides. In this concept, recombinant peroxidase is immobilized on the gold electrode (P-chip) in such a way that direct electron transfer is achieved. The recognition and quantitation the target analyte is realized through the competition between the simazine-glucose oxidase (GOD) conjugate and free simazine for the binding sites of the monoclonal antibody co-immobilized with peroxidase on the gold electrode. The arrangement allows to generate a specific signal in the presence of glucose through the channeling of H2O2 produced by GOD conjugate bound to the antibody. The immunosensor exhibited 50% signal decrease (IC50 value) at approximately 0.02 microg l(-1). A concentration of 0.1 ng l(-1) gave a signal clearly distinguishable from the blank whereas the ELISA using the same antibody had a typical detection limit of about 1 microg l(-1), which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to the presented biosensor system. The results demonstrated that gene engineering biomolecules, in this case recombinant peroxidase, might be attractive reagents for the development of electrochemical immunosensors. PMID:12896832

  4. Identification of a Binding Motif in the S5 Helix That Confers Cholesterol Sensitivity to the TRPV1 Ion Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Picazo-Juárez, Giovanni; Romero-Suárez, Silvina; Nieto-Posadas, Andrés; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Briggs, Margaret; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Simon, Sidney A.; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The TRPV1 ion channel serves as an integrator of noxious stimuli with its activation linked to pain and neurogenic inflammation. Cholesterol, a major component of cell membranes, modifies the function of several types of ion channels. Here, using measurements of capsaicin-activated currents in excised patches from TRPV1-expressing HEK cells, we show that enrichment with cholesterol, but not its diastereoisomer epicholesterol, markedly decreased wild-type rat TRPV1 currents. Substitutions in the S5 helix, rTRPV1-R579D, and rTRPV1-F582Q, decreased this cholesterol response and rTRPV1-L585I was insensitive to cholesterol addition. Two human TRPV1 variants, with different amino acids at position 585, had different responses to cholesterol with hTRPV1-Ile585 being insensitive to this molecule. However, hTRPV1-I585L was inhibited by cholesterol addition similar to rTRPV1 with the same S5 sequence. In the absence of capsaicin, cholesterol enrichment also inhibited TRPV1 currents induced by elevated temperature and voltage. These data suggest that there is a cholesterol-binding site in TRPV1 and that the functions of TRPV1 depend on the genetic variant and membrane cholesterol content. PMID:21555515

  5. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) induces vascular relaxation by activating Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in rat mesenteric artery

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Kamishima, Tomoko; Barrett-Jolley, Richard; Quayle, John M; Dart, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Vasodilator-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a central mechanism governing arterial relaxation but is incompletely understood due to the diversity of cAMP effectors. Here we investigate the role of the novel cAMP effector exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in mediating vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. In myography experiments, the Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM (5 μm, subsequently referred to as 8-pCPT-AM) elicited a 77.6 ± 7.1% relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted arteries over a 5 min period (mean ± SEM; n= 6). 8-pCPT-AM induced only a 16.7 ± 2.4% relaxation in arteries pre-contracted with high extracellular K+ over the same time period (n= 10), suggesting that some of Epac's relaxant effect relies upon vascular cell hyperpolarization. This involves Ca2+-sensitive, large-conductance K+ (BKCa) channel opening as iberiotoxin (100 nm) significantly reduced the ability of 8-pCPT-AM to reverse phenylephrine-induced contraction (arteries relaxed by only 35.0 ± 8.5% over a 5 min exposure to 8-pCPT-AM, n= 5; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM increased Ca2+ spark frequency in Fluo-4-AM-loaded mesenteric myocytes from 0.045 ± 0.008 to 0.103 ± 0.022 sparks s-1μm-1 (P < 0.05) and reversibly increased both the frequency (0.94 ± 0.25 to 2.30 ± 0.72 s−1) and amplitude (23.9 ± 3.3 to 35.8 ± 7.7 pA) of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) recorded in isolated mesenteric myocytes (n= 7; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM-activated STOCs were sensitive to iberiotoxin (100 nm) and to ryanodine (30 μm). Current clamp recordings of isolated myocytes showed a 7.9 ± 1.0 mV (n= 10) hyperpolarization in response to 8-pCPT-AM that was sensitive to iberiotoxin (n= 5). Endothelial disruption suppressed 8-pCPT-AM-mediated relaxation in phenylephrine-contracted arteries (24.8 ± 4.9% relaxation after 5 min of exposure, n= 5; P < 0.05), as did apamin and TRAM-34, blockers of Ca2+-sensitive, small- and intermediate

  6. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) induces vascular relaxation by activating Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Kamishima, Tomoko; Barrett-Jolley, Richard; Quayle, John M; Dart, Caroline

    2013-10-15

    Vasodilator-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a central mechanism governing arterial relaxation but is incompletely understood due to the diversity of cAMP effectors. Here we investigate the role of the novel cAMP effector exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in mediating vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. In myography experiments, the Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM (5 μM, subsequently referred to as 8-pCPT-AM) elicited a 77.6 ± 7.1% relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted arteries over a 5 min period (mean ± SEM; n = 6). 8-pCPT-AM induced only a 16.7 ± 2.4% relaxation in arteries pre-contracted with high extracellular K(+) over the same time period (n = 10), suggesting that some of Epac's relaxant effect relies upon vascular cell hyperpolarization. This involves Ca(2+)-sensitive, large-conductance K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel opening as iberiotoxin (100 nM) significantly reduced the ability of 8-pCPT-AM to reverse phenylephrine-induced contraction (arteries relaxed by only 35.0 ± 8.5% over a 5 min exposure to 8-pCPT-AM, n = 5; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM increased Ca(2+) spark frequency in Fluo-4-AM-loaded mesenteric myocytes from 0.045 ± 0.008 to 0.103 ± 0.022 sparks s(-1) μm(-1) (P < 0.05) and reversibly increased both the frequency (0.94 ± 0.25 to 2.30 ± 0.72 s(-1)) and amplitude (23.9 ± 3.3 to 35.8 ± 7.7 pA) of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) recorded in isolated mesenteric myocytes (n = 7; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM-activated STOCs were sensitive to iberiotoxin (100 nM) and to ryanodine (30 μM). Current clamp recordings of isolated myocytes showed a 7.9 ± 1.0 mV (n = 10) hyperpolarization in response to 8-pCPT-AM that was sensitive to iberiotoxin (n = 5). Endothelial disruption suppressed 8-pCPT-AM-mediated relaxation in phenylephrine-contracted arteries (24.8 ± 4.9% relaxation after 5 min of exposure, n = 5; P < 0.05), as did apamin and TRAM-34, blockers of Ca(2+)-sensitive, small- and

  7. ATP Sensitive Potassium Channels in the Skeletal Muscle Function: Involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2) Gene in the Determination of Mechanical Warner Bratzer Shear Force

    PubMed Central

    Tricarico, Domenico; Selvaggi, Maria; Passantino, Giuseppe; De Palo, Pasquale; Dario, Cataldo; Centoducati, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Curci, Angela; Maqoud, Fatima; Mele, Antonietta; Camerino, Giulia M.; Liantonio, Antonella; Imbrici, Paola; Zizzo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+-channels (KATP) are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K+ ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1), KCNJ11 (Kir6.2), ABCC8 (SUR1), and ABCC9 (SUR2) genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibers is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical, and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review. PMID:27242541

  8. Ionic-liquid-functionalized magnetic particles as an adsorbent for the magnetic SPE of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a new ionic-liquid-functionalized magnetic material was prepared based on the immobilization of an ionic liquid on silica magnetic particles that could be successfully used as an adsorbent for the magnetic SPE of five sulfonylurea herbicides (bensulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, chlorimuron-ethyl and triflusulfuron-methyl) from environmental water samples. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as desorption conditions, sample pH, extraction time and so on, were optimized using the Taguchi method. Good linearities were obtained with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9992 to 0.9999 in the concentration range of 0.1-50 μg L(-1) and the LODs were 0.053-0.091 μg L(-1). Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of the method were 1155-1380 and the recoveries ranged from 77.8 to 104.4%. The proposed method was reliable and could be applied to the residue analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental water samples (tap, reservoir and river).

  9. Ocular Hypotensive Effects of the ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener Cromakalim in Human and Murine Experimental Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Uttio; Bahler, Cindy K.; Holman, Bradley H.; Dosa, Peter I.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent and only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Unfortunately, all current therapeutics used to treat elevated IOP and glaucoma have significant and sometimes irreversible side effects necessitating the development of novel compounds. We evaluated the IOP lowering ability of the broad spectrum KATP channel opener cromakalim. Cultured human anterior segments when treated with 2 μM cromakalim showed a decrease in pressure (19.33 ± 2.78 mmHg at 0 hours to 13.22 ± 2.64 mmHg at 24 hours; p<0.001) when compared to vehicle treated controls (15.89 ± 5.33 mmHg at 0 h to 15.56 ± 4.88 mmHg at 24 hours; p = 0.89). In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, cromakalim reduced IOP by 18.75 ± 2.22% compared to vehicle treated contralateral eyes (17.01 ± 0.32 mmHg at 0 hours to 13.82 ± 0.37 mmHg at 24 hours; n = 10, p = 0.002). Cromakalim demonstrated an additive effect when used in conjunction with latanoprost free acid, a common ocular hypotensive drug prescribed to patients with elevated IOP. To examine KATP channel subunit specificity, Kir6.2(-/-) mice were treated with cromakalim, but unlike wild-type animals, no change in IOP was noted. Histologic analysis of treated and control eyes in cultured human anterior segments and in mice showed similar cell numbers and extracellular matrix integrity within the trabecular meshwork, with no disruptions in the inner and outer walls of Schlemm’s canal. Together, these studies suggest that cromakalim is a potent ocular hypotensive agent that lowers IOP via activation of Kir6.2 containing KATP channels, its effect is additive when used in combination with the commonly used glaucoma drug latanoprost, and is not toxic to cells and tissues of the aqueous humor outflow pathway, making it a candidate for future therapeutic development. PMID:26535899

  10. Different pH-sensitivity patterns of 30 sodium channel inhibitors suggest chemically different pools along the access pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Alexandra; Lenkey, Nora; Pesti, Krisztina; Fodor, Laszlo; Mike, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    The major drug binding site of sodium channels is inaccessible from the extracellular side, drug molecules can only access it either from the membrane phase, or from the intracellular aqueous phase. For this reason, ligand-membrane interactions are as important determinants of inhibitor properties, as ligand-protein interactions. One-way to probe this is to modify the pH of the extracellular fluid, which alters the ratio of charged vs. uncharged forms of some compounds, thereby changing their interaction with the membrane. In this electrophysiology study we used three different pH values: 6.0, 7.3, and 8.6 to test the significance of the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium in drug access and affinity. We investigated drugs of several different indications: carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mexiletine, flecainide, ranolazine, riluzole, memantine, ritanserin, tolperisone, silperisone, ambroxol, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, amitriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, maprotiline, nisoxetine, mianserin, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, nefazodone, and trazodone. We recorded the pH-dependence of potency, reversibility, as well as onset/offset kinetics. As expected, we observed a strong correlation between the acidic dissociation constant (pKa) of drugs and the pH-dependence of their potency. Unexpectedly, however, the pH-dependence of reversibility or kinetics showed diverse patterns, not simple correlation. Our data are best explained by a model where drug molecules can be trapped in at least two chemically different environments: A hydrophilic trap (which may be the aqueous cavity within the inner vestibule), which favors polar and less lipophilic compounds, and a lipophilic trap (which may be the membrane phase itself, and/or lipophilic binding sites on the channel). Rescue from the hydrophilic and lipophilic traps can be promoted by alkalic and acidic extracellular pH, respectively. PMID:26441665

  11. Different pH-sensitivity patterns of 30 sodium channel inhibitors suggest chemically different pools along the access pathway.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Alexandra; Lenkey, Nora; Pesti, Krisztina; Fodor, Laszlo; Mike, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    The major drug binding site of sodium channels is inaccessible from the extracellular side, drug molecules can only access it either from the membrane phase, or from the intracellular aqueous phase. For this reason, ligand-membrane interactions are as important determinants of inhibitor properties, as ligand-protein interactions. One-way to probe this is to modify the pH of the extracellular fluid, which alters the ratio of charged vs. uncharged forms of some compounds, thereby changing their interaction with the membrane. In this electrophysiology study we used three different pH values: 6.0, 7.3, and 8.6 to test the significance of the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium in drug access and affinity. We investigated drugs of several different indications: carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mexiletine, flecainide, ranolazine, riluzole, memantine, ritanserin, tolperisone, silperisone, ambroxol, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, amitriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, maprotiline, nisoxetine, mianserin, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, nefazodone, and trazodone. We recorded the pH-dependence of potency, reversibility, as well as onset/offset kinetics. As expected, we observed a strong correlation between the acidic dissociation constant (pKa) of drugs and the pH-dependence of their potency. Unexpectedly, however, the pH-dependence of reversibility or kinetics showed diverse patterns, not simple correlation. Our data are best explained by a model where drug molecules can be trapped in at least two chemically different environments: A hydrophilic trap (which may be the aqueous cavity within the inner vestibule), which favors polar and less lipophilic compounds, and a lipophilic trap (which may be the membrane phase itself, and/or lipophilic binding sites on the channel). Rescue from the hydrophilic and lipophilic traps can be promoted by alkalic and acidic extracellular pH, respectively. PMID:26441665

  12. Different pH-sensitivity patterns of 30 sodium channel inhibitors suggest chemically different pools along the access pathway.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Alexandra; Lenkey, Nora; Pesti, Krisztina; Fodor, Laszlo; Mike, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    The major drug binding site of sodium channels is inaccessible from the extracellular side, drug molecules can only access it either from the membrane phase, or from the intracellular aqueous phase. For this reason, ligand-membrane interactions are as important determinants of inhibitor properties, as ligand-protein interactions. One-way to probe this is to modify the pH of the extracellular fluid, which alters the ratio of charged vs. uncharged forms of some compounds, thereby changing their interaction with the membrane. In this electrophysiology study we used three different pH values: 6.0, 7.3, and 8.6 to test the significance of the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium in drug access and affinity. We investigated drugs of several different indications: carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mexiletine, flecainide, ranolazine, riluzole, memantine, ritanserin, tolperisone, silperisone, ambroxol, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, amitriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, maprotiline, nisoxetine, mianserin, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, nefazodone, and trazodone. We recorded the pH-dependence of potency, reversibility, as well as onset/offset kinetics. As expected, we observed a strong correlation between the acidic dissociation constant (pKa) of drugs and the pH-dependence of their potency. Unexpectedly, however, the pH-dependence of reversibility or kinetics showed diverse patterns, not simple correlation. Our data are best explained by a model where drug molecules can be trapped in at least two chemically different environments: A hydrophilic trap (which may be the aqueous cavity within the inner vestibule), which favors polar and less lipophilic compounds, and a lipophilic trap (which may be the membrane phase itself, and/or lipophilic binding sites on the channel). Rescue from the hydrophilic and lipophilic traps can be promoted by alkalic and acidic extracellular pH, respectively.

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Subjects with Sulfonylurea-Dependent Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Min, Se Hee; Kwak, Soo Heon; Cho, Young Min; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though several oral anti-diabetic drugs (OAD) with various modes of action are replacing sulfonylurea (SU), some patients seem to be dependent on SU for adequate glycemic control. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of such patients. Methods We selected the patients with type 2 diabetes who met following criteria from 2009 to 2014 at Seoul National University Hospital: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was maintained below 7.5% for at least 6 months under small dose of SU (glimepiride ≤2 mg/day or equivalent dose); after discontinuation of SU, HbA1c increased ≥1.2% within 3 months or ≥1.5% within 6 months; and after resuming SU, HbA1c reduction was ≥0.8% or reduction of fasting plasma glucose was ≥40 mg/dL within 3 months. Patients with impaired hepatic or renal function, and steroid users were excluded. Results Nineteen subjects were enrolled: after averaged 4.8±1.5 months of SU-free period, HbA1c increased from 6.7%±0.4% to 8.8%±0.8% even though adding other OAD such as gliptins. However, HbA1c decreased to 7.4%±0.7% after resuming SU within 2.4±0.8 months. There was no sexual predominance. Despite their old age (67±11 years) and long duration of diabetes (18±10 years), fasting C-peptide was relatively well-reserved (3.9±2.6 ng/mL), and nephropathy was not observed (albumin-creatinine ratio 21.2±16.6 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate 75.8±18.0 mL/min/1.73 m2). Strong family history was also noted (73.7%). Conclusion Despite hypoglycemia risk of SU, it seemed indispensable for a subset of patients with regard to insulin secretion. Genetic influences would be evaluated. PMID:26354492

  14. Concentration of Selected Sulfonylurea, Sulfonamide, and Imidazolinone Herbicides, Other Pesticides, and Nutrients in 71 Streams, 5 Reservoir Outflows, and 25 Wells in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are recently developed herbicides that function by inhibiting the action of a key plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but crop and non-crop plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs, with over a 10,000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the United States. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 214 water samples were collected from 76 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA, and IMI herbicides by using highperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples also were analyzed for 46 pesticides and pesticide degradation products and 13 herbicides and 10 herbicide degradates. At least 1 of the 16 SUs, SAs, or IMIs was detected at or above the method reporting limit of 0.010 microgram per liter (ug/L) in 83 percent of 133 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (69 percent of samples), followed by flumetsulam (65 percent of samples) and nicosulfuron (53 percent of samples). At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected at or above the method reporting limit in 6 of 8 reservoir samples and 5 of 25 ground-water samples. SU, SA, and IMI herbicides occurred less frequently and at a fraction (often 1/50th or less) of the concentrations of other herbicides such as atrazine. Acetochlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were all detected in 95 percent or more of 136 stream samples.

  15. Should sulfonylureas remain an acceptable first-line add-on to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes? No, it's time to move on!

    PubMed

    Genuth, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction to clinical practice in the 1950s, sulfonylureas have been widely prescribed for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Of all the other medications currently available for clinical use, only metformin has been used more frequently. However, several new drug classes have emerged that are reported to have equal glucose-lowering efficacy and greater safety when added to treatment of patients in whom metformin monotherapy is no longer sufficient. Moreover, current arguments also suggest that the alternative drugs may be superior to sulfonylureas with regard to the risk of cardiovascular complications. Thus, while there is universal agreement that metformin should remain the first-line pharmacologic therapy for those in whom lifestyle modification is insufficient to control hyperglycemia, there is no consensus as to which drug should be added to metformin. Therefore, given the current controversy, we provide a Point-Counterpoint on this issue. In the preceding point narrative, Dr. Abrahamson provides his argument suggesting that avoiding use of sulfonylureas as a class of medication as an add-on to metformin is not appropriate as there are many patients whose glycemic control would improve with use of these drugs with minimal risk of adverse events. In the counterpoint narrative below, Dr. Genuth suggests there is no longer a need for sulfonylureas to remain a first-line addition to metformin for those patients whose clinical characteristics are appropriate and whose health insurance and/or financial resources make an alternative drug affordable.

  16. Transcranial random noise stimulation-induced plasticity is NMDA-receptor independent but sodium-channel blocker and benzodiazepines sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Application of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) between 0.1 and 640 Hz of the primary motor cortex (M1) for 10 min induces a persistent excitability increase lasting for at least 60 min. However, the mechanism of tRNS-induced cortical excitability alterations is not yet fully understood. Objective: The main aim of this study was to get first efficacy data with regard to the possible neuronal effect of tRNS. Methods: Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure levels of cortical excitability before and after combined application of tRNS at an intensity of 1 mA for 10 min stimulation duration and a pharmacological agent (or sham) on eight healthy male participants. Results: The sodium channel blocker carbamazepine showed a tendency toward inhibiting MEPs 5–60 min poststimulation. The GABAA agonist lorazepam suppressed tRNS-induced cortical excitability increases at 0–20 and 60 min time points. The partial NMDA receptor agonist D-cycloserine, the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan and the D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole had no significant effects on the excitability increases seen with tRNS. Conclusions: In contrast to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), aftereffects of tRNS are seem to be not NMDA receptor dependent and can be suppressed by benzodiazepines suggesting that tDCS and tRNS depend upon different mechanisms. PMID:25914617

  17. Sensitivity of MIRO continuum channels to thermophysical and dielectric properties in preparation of the Rosetta observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukroun, Mathieu; Keihm, S.; von Allmen, P.; Lee, S.; Kamp, L.; Gulkis, S.; Hofstadter, M.; Janssen, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) is equipped with two channels at 0.5 and 1.6 mm (564 and 190 GHz), which provide continuum measurements of the thermal radiation at these frequencies. These measurements are sensitive to the thermophysical properties of the observed object, as the measured antenna temperatures correspond to two different emission depths, thereby allowing to constrain thermal inertia and its variability with location and time. However, the dielectric properties (loss tangent, dielectric constant) and viewing geometry come into play as the emission depth is dependent on the composition and porosity of the observed location and varies with emission angle. In preparation for the upcoming Rosetta observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, we use a cometary nucleus thermal model and a radiative transfer model to investigate the influence of dielectric properties of cometary materials and viewing geometry on the predicted antenna temperatures for a range of thermophysical properties.

  18. Genomic analyses of sodium channel α-subunit genes from strains of melon thrips, Thrips palmi, with different sensitivities to cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen Xue; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    We examined the genomic organization of the sodium channel α-subunit gene in two strains of melon thrips, Thrips palmi, having differing sensitivity to cypermethrin. The nucleotide sequences of the strains included 18 or 16 putative exons which covered the entire coding region of the gene producing 2039 amino acid residues. Deduced amino acid sequences of both strains showed 80% homology with those of Periplaneta americana and Cimex lectularius. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of both strains showed no consistent amino acid difference. In addition to the previously reported resistant amino acid (Ile) at the T929I site, both strains encoded another resistant amino acids at two positions which are involved in pyrethroid resistance in other arthropods. These amino acids might also involve in the basal levels of resistance to pyrethroids of both strains.

  19. Evaluation of an integrated Fourier-transform spectrometer utilizing a lateral effect position sensitive detector with a multi-channel Fabry Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, H. A.; Manuilskiy, A.; Thungström, G.; Nilsson, H.-E.

    2008-04-01

    The basis of this paper is the evaluation of an integrated multi-channel Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer based on a multi-channel wedge Fabry-Perot interferometer and a one-dimensional lateral effect position sensitive detector (PSD). The use of a PSD for an interferogram readout allows for a simple scanning mechanism with no requirement for any position reference. The use of a wedge-shaped interferometer makes it possible to integrate it directly onto the PSD surface, thus producing a very compact spectrometer. The capabilities of the spectrometer are demonstrated by absorption spectral measurements using a reference sample. In addition, spectral measurements on 532 nm DPSS and 632.8 nm He-Ne lasers are presented. The resolution of the spectrometer is approximately 5 nm. The evaluated spectrometer set-up can be used in applications where compact and low cost spectrometers are required, such as in process control and in education. Further, it is shown that there are deteriorations in very high accuracy position measurements, which are caused by changes in incident light intensity. A model describing the above-mentioned nonlinearities was developed based on analysing the equivalent circuit for PSDs and parameters such as leakage current and serial resistance. Additionally, a method is proposed to assist in the reduction of the nonlinearity caused by this effect.

  20. Diazoxide Attenuates Postresuscitation Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest by Opening Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Li, Yi; Wu, Manhui; Lin, Jiali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n = 10 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group), diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group), or diazoxide (10 mg/kg) plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group) 30 min after CPR. The control group (sham group, n = 5) underwent sham operation, without cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR) was determined. Brain cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in the cerebral cortex was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The neurological deficit scores (NDS) in the vehicle group decreased significantly at 24 h and 48 h after CPR. Diazoxide significantly improved NDS and mitochondrial RCR after CPR at both time points; 5-HD cotreatment abolished these effects. Diazoxide decreased TUNEL-positive cells following CPR, upregulated Bcl-2 and PKCε, downregulated Bax, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; 5-HD cotreatment reversed these effects. Conclusions. Diazoxide attenuates postresuscitation brain injury, protects mitochondrial function, inhibits brain cell apoptosis, and activates the PKC pathway by opening mitoKATP channels.

  1. Diazoxide Attenuates Postresuscitation Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest by Opening Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haidong; Wang, Peng; Li, Yi; Wu, Manhui; Lin, Jiali; Huang, Zitong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n = 10 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group), diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group), or diazoxide (10 mg/kg) plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group) 30 min after CPR. The control group (sham group, n = 5) underwent sham operation, without cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR) was determined. Brain cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in the cerebral cortex was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The neurological deficit scores (NDS) in the vehicle group decreased significantly at 24 h and 48 h after CPR. Diazoxide significantly improved NDS and mitochondrial RCR after CPR at both time points; 5-HD cotreatment abolished these effects. Diazoxide decreased TUNEL-positive cells following CPR, upregulated Bcl-2 and PKCε, downregulated Bax, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; 5-HD cotreatment reversed these effects. Conclusions. Diazoxide attenuates postresuscitation brain injury, protects mitochondrial function, inhibits brain cell apoptosis, and activates the PKC pathway by opening mitoKATP channels. PMID:27648441

  2. Diazoxide Attenuates Postresuscitation Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest by Opening Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Li, Yi; Wu, Manhui; Lin, Jiali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n = 10 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group), diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group), or diazoxide (10 mg/kg) plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group) 30 min after CPR. The control group (sham group, n = 5) underwent sham operation, without cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR) was determined. Brain cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in the cerebral cortex was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The neurological deficit scores (NDS) in the vehicle group decreased significantly at 24 h and 48 h after CPR. Diazoxide significantly improved NDS and mitochondrial RCR after CPR at both time points; 5-HD cotreatment abolished these effects. Diazoxide decreased TUNEL-positive cells following CPR, upregulated Bcl-2 and PKCε, downregulated Bax, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; 5-HD cotreatment reversed these effects. Conclusions. Diazoxide attenuates postresuscitation brain injury, protects mitochondrial function, inhibits brain cell apoptosis, and activates the PKC pathway by opening mitoKATP channels. PMID:27648441

  3. The existence of a highly tetrodotoxin sensitive Na channel in freshly dispersed smooth muscle cells of the rabbit main pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Okabe, K; Kitamura, K; Kuriyama, H

    1988-04-01

    To characterize the inward current recorded from single smooth muscle cells of the rabbit main pulmonary artery, a voltage clamp procedure using patch pipettes filled with high Cs solution to inhibit K currents was employed. Under superfusion with normal physiological salt solution, application of a command potential to -10 mV from the holding potential of -80 mV elicited an inward current comprising fast and slow components. In Ca-free solution containing 2.5 mM Mn and 134 mM Na, the major part of the slow inwart current (Islow) ceased, but a transient fast inward current (Ifast) remained. A reduction in the Na concentration in the bath solution inhibited the amplitude of Ifast. Both nicardipine (30 nM) and diltiazem (1-10 microM) inhibited Islow but had no effect on Ifast. Application of tetrodotoxin (greater than 1 nM) in Ca free solution inhibited the amplitude of Ifast in a dose-dependent manner with a dissociation constant of 8.7 nM. Chloramine-T (0.3 mM) increased the peak amplitude and reduced the rate of decay of Ifast and completely inhibited Islow. These results suggest that the inward curent generated in the smooth muscle cells of the rabbit main pulmonary artery is associated with activation of a voltage-dependent Ca channel and a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na channel. PMID:2456516

  4. Selected cysteine point mutations confer mercurial sensitivity to the mercurial-insensitive water channel MIWC/AQP-4.

    PubMed

    Shi, L B; Verkman, A S

    1996-01-16

    The mercurial-insensitive water channel (MIWC or AQP-4) is a 30-32 kDA integral membrane protein expressed widely in fluid-transporting epithelia [Hasegawa et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 5497-5500]. To investigate the mercurial insensitivity and key residues involved in MIWC-mediated water transport, amino acids just proximal to the conserved NPA motifs (residues 69-74 and 187-190) were mutated individually to cysteine. Complementary RNAs were expressed in Xenopus oocytes for assay of osmotic water permeability (Pf) and HgCl2 inhibition dose-response. Oocytes expressing the cysteine mutants were highly water permeable, with Pf values (24-33 x 10(-3) cm/s) not different from that of wild-type (WT) MIWC. Pf was reversibly inhibited by HgCl2 in mutants S70C, G71C, G72C, H73C, and S189C but insensitive to HgCl2 in the other mutants. K1/2 values for 50% inhibition of Pf by HgCl2 were as follows (in millimolar): 0.40 (S70C), 0.36 (G71C), 0.14 (G72C), 0.45 (H73C), 0.24 (S189C), and > 1 for WT MIWC and the other mutants. To test the hypothesis that these residues are near the MIWC aqueous pore, residues 72 and 188 were mutated individually to the larger amino acid tryptophan. Pf in oocytes expressing mutants G72W or A188W (1.3-1.4 x 10(-3) cm/s) was not greater than that in water-injected oocytes even though these proteins were expressed at the oocyte plasma membrane as shown by quantitative immunofluorescence. Coinjection of cRNAs encoding WT MIWC and G72W or A188W indicated a dominant negative effect; Pf (x 10(-3) cm/s) was 22 (0.25 ng of WT), 10 (0.25 ng of WT + 0.25 ng of G72W), and 12 (0.25 ng of WT + 0.25 ng of A188W). Taken together, these results suggest the MIWC is mercurial-insensitive because of absence of a cysteine residue near the NPA motifs and that residues 70-73 and 189 are located at or near the MIWC aqueous pore. In contrast to previous data for the channel-forming integral protein of 28kDa (CHIP28), the finding of a dominant negative phenotype for

  5. Parathyroid hormone enhances fluid shear-induced [Ca2+]i signaling in osteoblastic cells through activation of mechanosensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, K. D.; Duncan, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Osteoblasts respond to both fluid shear and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Because both stimuli modulate the kinetics of the mechanosensitive cation channel (MSCC), we postulated PTH would enhance the [Ca2+]i response to fluid shear by increasing the sensitivity of MSCCs. After a 3-minute preflow at 1 dyne/cm2, MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to various levels of shear and changes in [Ca2+]i were assessed using Fura-2. Pretreatment with 50 nM bovine PTH(1-34) [bPTH(1-34)] significantly enhanced the shear magnitude-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Gadolinium (Gd3+), an MSCC blocker, significantly inhibited the mean peak [Ca2+]i response to shear and shear + bPTH(1-34). Nifedipine (Nif), an L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) blocker, also significantly reduced the [Ca2+]i response to shear + bPTH(1-34), but not to shear alone, suggesting VSCC activation plays an interactive role in the action of these stimuli together. Activation of either the protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA) pathways with specific agonists indicated that PKC activation did not alter the Ca2+ response to shear, whereas PKA activation significantly increased the [Ca2+]i response to lower magnitudes of shear. bPTH(1-34), which activates both pathways, induced the greatest [Ca2+]i response at each level of shear, suggesting an interaction of these pathways in this response. These data indicate that PTH significantly enhances the [Ca2+]i response to shear primarily via PKA modulation of the MSCC and VSCC.

  6. Ang-(1-7) activates the NO/cGMP and ATP-sensitive K+ channels pathway to induce peripheral antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aline; Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago; Silva, Grazielle; Cortes, Steyner; Santos, Robson; Duarte, Igor

    2014-02-15

    Angiotensin-(1-7) is a bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system that is formed endogenously and induces nitric oxide release in several tissues. The L-arginine/NO/cyclic GMP pathway and ATP-sensitive K+ channels have been proposed as the mechanism of action for the peripheral antinociception of several groups of drug and endogenous substances, including opioids, non-steroidal analgesics, acetylcholine and others. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the L-arginine/NO/cGMP and KATP+ pathway on antinociception induced by angiotensin-(1-7). Paw pressure in rats was used to induce hyperalgesia via an intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2 μg/paw). Ang-(1-7) (2, 3 and 4 μg/paw) elicited a local peripheral antinociceptive effect that was antagonized by the nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NOarg and the selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor L-NPA. The selective inhibition of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) NOS by L-NIO and L-NIL, respectively, was ineffective at blocking the effects of a local Ang-(1-7) injection. In addition, the level of nitrite in the homogenized paw tissue, as determined by a colorimetric assay, indicated that exogenous Ang-(1-7) is able to induce NO release. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the specific blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 μg/paw) antagonized the Ang-(1-7) response. The results provide evidence that Ang-(1-7) most likely induces peripheral antinociceptive effects via the L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway and KATP+ pathway activation.

  7. Data pattern sensitivity in tracking performance of an AC coupled Costas loop with hard-limited in-phase channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with data pattern sensitivity in carrier tracking performance of an AC coupled Costas loop with a suppressed BPSK signal. The signal amplitude suppression factor is derived as a function of data 'asymmetry ratio' - the ratio of '1's to the total number of bits in a period of a periodic signal. For an asymmetric pattern, the effect of AC coupling is noticeable whereas there is almost no effect for symmetric square wave. The tracking performance with an asymmetric pattern is worse than that with a symmetric pattern. However, it is also shown that as expected, the tracking performance of a DC coupled loop with an asymmetric pattern is better than that with a symmetric pattern.

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibits L-Type Ca2+ Channels in Sensitized Guinea Pig Airway Smooth Muscle through ERK 1/2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-García, Jorge; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Sommer, Bettina; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Hernández, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. TNF-α diminishes the L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channel (L-VDCC) current in cardiac myocytes, an observation that seems paradoxical. In guinea pig sensitized tracheas KCl responses were lower than in control tissues. Serum from sensitized animals (Ser-S) induced the same phenomenon. In tracheal myocytes from nonsensitized (NS) and sensitized (S) guinea pigs, an L-VDCC current (ICa) was observed and diminished by Ser-S. The same decrease was detected in NS myocytes incubated with TNF-α, pointing out that this cytokine might be present in Ser-S. We observed that a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-α (SMI-TNF) and a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) antagonist (WP9QY) reversed ICa decrease induced by Ser-S in NS myocytes, confirming the former hypothesis. U0126 (a blocker of ERK 1/2 kinase) also reverted the decrease in ICa. Neither cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) nor actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) showed any effect on the TNF-α-induced ICa reduction. We found that CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in tracheal myocytes and that sensitization did not modify them. In cardiac myocytes, ERK 1/2 phosphorylates two sites of the L-VDCC, augmenting or decreasing ICa; we postulate that, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, TNF-α diminishes ICa probably by phosphorylating the L-VDCC site that reduces its activity through the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:27445440

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibits L-Type Ca(2+) Channels in Sensitized Guinea Pig Airway Smooth Muscle through ERK 1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Jorge; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Sommer, Bettina; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Hernández, Luz María; Montaño, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. TNF-α diminishes the L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) current in cardiac myocytes, an observation that seems paradoxical. In guinea pig sensitized tracheas KCl responses were lower than in control tissues. Serum from sensitized animals (Ser-S) induced the same phenomenon. In tracheal myocytes from nonsensitized (NS) and sensitized (S) guinea pigs, an L-VDCC current (ICa) was observed and diminished by Ser-S. The same decrease was detected in NS myocytes incubated with TNF-α, pointing out that this cytokine might be present in Ser-S. We observed that a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-α (SMI-TNF) and a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) antagonist (WP9QY) reversed ICa decrease induced by Ser-S in NS myocytes, confirming the former hypothesis. U0126 (a blocker of ERK 1/2 kinase) also reverted the decrease in ICa. Neither cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) nor actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) showed any effect on the TNF-α-induced ICa reduction. We found that CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in tracheal myocytes and that sensitization did not modify them. In cardiac myocytes, ERK 1/2 phosphorylates two sites of the L-VDCC, augmenting or decreasing ICa; we postulate that, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, TNF-α diminishes ICa probably by phosphorylating the L-VDCC site that reduces its activity through the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway.

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibits L-Type Ca(2+) Channels in Sensitized Guinea Pig Airway Smooth Muscle through ERK 1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Jorge; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Sommer, Bettina; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Hernández, Luz María; Montaño, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. TNF-α diminishes the L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) current in cardiac myocytes, an observation that seems paradoxical. In guinea pig sensitized tracheas KCl responses were lower than in control tissues. Serum from sensitized animals (Ser-S) induced the same phenomenon. In tracheal myocytes from nonsensitized (NS) and sensitized (S) guinea pigs, an L-VDCC current (ICa) was observed and diminished by Ser-S. The same decrease was detected in NS myocytes incubated with TNF-α, pointing out that this cytokine might be present in Ser-S. We observed that a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-α (SMI-TNF) and a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) antagonist (WP9QY) reversed ICa decrease induced by Ser-S in NS myocytes, confirming the former hypothesis. U0126 (a blocker of ERK 1/2 kinase) also reverted the decrease in ICa. Neither cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) nor actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) showed any effect on the TNF-α-induced ICa reduction. We found that CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in tracheal myocytes and that sensitization did not modify them. In cardiac myocytes, ERK 1/2 phosphorylates two sites of the L-VDCC, augmenting or decreasing ICa; we postulate that, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, TNF-α diminishes ICa probably by phosphorylating the L-VDCC site that reduces its activity through the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:27445440

  11. Association between use of warfarin with common sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemic events: retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Romley, John A; Gong, Cynthia; Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Williams, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is warfarin use associated with an increased risk of serious hypoglycemic events among older people treated with the sulfonylureas glipizide and glimepiride? Methods This was a retrospective cohort analysis of pharmacy and medical claims from a 20% random sample of Medicare fee for service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. It included 465 918 beneficiaries with diabetes who filled a prescription for glipizide or glimepiride between 2006 and 2011 (4 355 418 person quarters); 71 895 (15.4%) patients also filled a prescription for warfarin (416 479 person quarters with warfarin use). The main outcome measure was emergency department visit or hospital admission with a primary diagnosis of hypoglycemia in person quarters with concurrent fills of warfarin and glipizide/glimepiride compared with the rates in quarters with glipizide/glimepiride fills only, Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for individual characteristics. Secondary outcomes included fall related fracture and altered consciousness/mental status. Summary answer and limitations In quarters with glipizide/glimepiride use, hospital admissions or emergency department visits for hypoglycemia were more common in person quarters with concurrent warfarin use compared with quarters without warfarin use (294/416 479 v 1903/3 938 939; adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.42). The risk of hypoglycemia associated with concurrent use was higher among people using warfarin for the first time, as well as in those aged 65-74 years. Concurrent use of warfarin and glipizide/glimepiride was also associated with hospital admission or emergency department visit for fall related fractures (3919/416 479 v 20 759/3 938 939; adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 1.41 to 1.54) and altered consciousness/mental status (2490/416 479 v 14 414/3 938 939; adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 1.16 to 1.29). Unmeasured factors could be correlated with both warfarin use and

  12. Sensitivity of bronchopulmonary receptors to cold and heat mediated by transient receptor potential cation channel subtypes in an ex vivo rat lung preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Sun, Biying; Li, Qian; Luo, Pin; Dong, Li; Rong, Weifang

    2011-08-15

    Changes in airway temperature can result in respiratory responses such as cough, bronchoconstriction and mucosal secretion after cold exposure and hyperventilation after heat exposure. In the present investigation, we examined the activity of bronchopulmonary receptors in response to activators of thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TS-TRP) cation channels using an ex vivo rat lung preparation. Receptive fields in small bronchioles were probed with von Frey hair monofilaments, warm (50°C) or cold (8°C) saline or saline containing TS-TRP agonists. Among 233 fibers tested, 159 (68.2%) responded to heat (50°C). A large proportion of heat-responsive receptors (107/145) were also activated by capsaicin. Heat and capsaicin-evoked responses were both blocked by TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine. Only 15.3% of airway receptors responded to cold, which was associated with sensitivity to TRPM8 agonist menthol but not to TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA). Moreover, cold-evoked responses was unaffected by TRPA1 antagonist HC-03001. Our observations suggest that TRPV1 and TRPM8 are involved in transducing heat and cold in the lower respiratory tract, respectively.

  13. Highly sensitive and rapid assay of substance P and streptolysin O in human serum using immuno-liposomes and gramicidin channels.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Misato; Shoji, Atsushi; Sugawara, Masao

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and rapid method for the determination of substance P (SP) and streptolysin O (SLO) in human serum is described. The assay is based on enriching the analyte by agglutination/precipitation of immuno-liposomes and enhancing the fluorescence intensity by gramicidin A channels. A mixture of the immuno-liposomes encapsulating a pH-sensitive fluorescence dye BCECF, gramicidin A and a given concentration of SP (or SLO) is preincubated in a solution and captured on anti-SP (or anti-SLO)-modified cover slips, followed by measuring fluorescence images after removing excess liposomes. The method allowed quantifying SP and SLO in the range from sub-pg mL(-1) to pg mL(-1), with detection limits of 0.32 pg mL(-1) and 8 fg mL(-1), respectively. The present method could determine SP and SLO in 50-125 times diluted human serum without any extraction steps. The assay can be completed within 60 min.

  14. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na(+) extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; (ii) better root K(+) retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H(+)-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K(+)-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  15. Cocaine disinhibits dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via use-dependent blockade of GABA neuron voltage-sensitive sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Scott C; Taylor, Seth R; Horton, Malia L; Barber, Elise N; Lyle, Laura T; Stobbs, Sarah H; Allison, David W

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cocaine on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Utilizing single-unit recordings in vivo, microelectrophoretic administration of DA enhanced the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons via D2/D3 DA receptor activation. Lower doses of intravenous cocaine (0.25-0.5 mg/kg), or the DA transporter (DAT) blocker methamphetamine, enhanced VTA GABA neuron firing rate via D2/D3 receptor activation. Higher doses of cocaine (1.0-2.0 mg/kg) inhibited their firing rate, which was not sensitive to the D2/D3 antagonist eticlopride. The voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) blocker lidocaine inhibited the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons at all doses tested (0.25-2.0 mg/kg). Cocaine or lidocaine reduced VTA GABA neuron spike discharges induced by stimulation of the internal capsule (ICPSDs) at dose levels 0.25-2 mg/kg (IC(50) 1.2 mg/kg). There was no effect of DA or methamphetamine on ICPSDs, or of DA antagonists on cocaine inhibition of ICPSDs. In VTA GABA neurons in vitro, cocaine reduced (IC(50) 13 microm) current-evoked spikes and TTX-sensitive sodium currents in a use-dependent manner. In VTA DA neurons, cocaine reduced IPSCs (IC(50) 13 microm), increased IPSC paired-pulse facilitation and decreased spontaneous IPSC frequency, without affecting miniature IPSC frequency or amplitude. These findings suggest that cocaine acts on GABA neurons to reduce activity-dependent GABA release on DA neurons in the VTA, and that cocaine's use-dependent blockade of VTA GABA neuron VSSCs may synergize with its DAT inhibiting properties to enhance mesolimbic DA transmission implicated in cocaine reinforcement.

  16. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea. At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na+ extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchangers; (ii) better root K+ retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H+-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  17. The scorpion toxin Amm VIII induces pain hypersensitivity through gain-of-function of TTX-sensitive Na⁺ channels.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Najwa; Gaudioso-Tyzra, Christelle; Bonnet, Caroline; Gabriac, Mélanie; Amsalem, Muriel; Lonigro, Aurélie; Padilla, Françoise; Crest, Marcel; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Delmas, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) are the targets of a variety of scorpion toxins. Here, we investigated the effects of Amm VIII, a toxin isolated from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus, on pain-related behaviours in mice. The effects of Amm VIII were compared with the classic scorpion α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis. Contrary to AaH II, intraplantar injection of Amm VIII at relatively high concentrations caused little nocifensive behaviours. However, Amm VIII induced rapid mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivities. We evaluated the toxins' effects on Nav currents in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and immortalized DRG neuron-derived F11 cells. Amm VIII and AaH II enhanced tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) Nav currents in DRG and F11 cells. Both toxins impaired fast inactivation and negatively shifted activation. AaH II was more potent than Amm VIII at modulating TTX-S Nav currents with EC50 of 5 nM and 1 μM, respectively. AaH II and Amm VIII also impaired fast inactivation of Nav1.7, with EC50 of 6.8 nM and 1.76 μM, respectively. Neither Nav1.8 nor Nav1.9 was affected by the toxins. AaH II and Amm VIII reduced first spike latency and lowered action potential threshold. Amm VIII was less efficient than AaH II in increasing the gain of the firing frequency-stimulation relationship. In conclusion, our data show that Amm VIII, although less potent than AaH II, acts as a gating-modifier peptide reminiscent of classic α-toxins, and suggest that its hyperalgesic effects can be ascribed to gain-of-function of TTX-S Na(+) channels in nociceptors. PMID:23685008

  18. The scorpion toxin Amm VIII induces pain hypersensitivity through gain-of-function of TTX-sensitive Na⁺ channels.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Najwa; Gaudioso-Tyzra, Christelle; Bonnet, Caroline; Gabriac, Mélanie; Amsalem, Muriel; Lonigro, Aurélie; Padilla, Françoise; Crest, Marcel; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Delmas, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) are the targets of a variety of scorpion toxins. Here, we investigated the effects of Amm VIII, a toxin isolated from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus, on pain-related behaviours in mice. The effects of Amm VIII were compared with the classic scorpion α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis. Contrary to AaH II, intraplantar injection of Amm VIII at relatively high concentrations caused little nocifensive behaviours. However, Amm VIII induced rapid mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivities. We evaluated the toxins' effects on Nav currents in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and immortalized DRG neuron-derived F11 cells. Amm VIII and AaH II enhanced tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) Nav currents in DRG and F11 cells. Both toxins impaired fast inactivation and negatively shifted activation. AaH II was more potent than Amm VIII at modulating TTX-S Nav currents with EC50 of 5 nM and 1 μM, respectively. AaH II and Amm VIII also impaired fast inactivation of Nav1.7, with EC50 of 6.8 nM and 1.76 μM, respectively. Neither Nav1.8 nor Nav1.9 was affected by the toxins. AaH II and Amm VIII reduced first spike latency and lowered action potential threshold. Amm VIII was less efficient than AaH II in increasing the gain of the firing frequency-stimulation relationship. In conclusion, our data show that Amm VIII, although less potent than AaH II, acts as a gating-modifier peptide reminiscent of classic α-toxins, and suggest that its hyperalgesic effects can be ascribed to gain-of-function of TTX-S Na(+) channels in nociceptors.

  19. Kinetic interconversion of rat and bovine homologs of the alpha subunit of an amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel by C-terminal truncation of the bovine subunit.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C M; Ismailov, I I; Berdiev, B K; Shlyonsky, V G; Benos, D J

    1996-10-25

    We have recently cloned the alpha subunit of a bovine amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel (alphabENaC). This subunit shares extensive homology with both rat and human alphaENaC subunits but shows marked divergence at the C terminus beginning at amino acid 584 of the 697-residue sequence. When incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, alphabENaC almost exclusively exhibits a main transition to 39 picosiemens (pS) with very rare 13 pS step transitions to one of two subconductance states (26 and 13 pS). In contrast, the alpha subunit of the rat renal homolog of ENaC (alpharENaC) has a main transition step to 13 pS that is almost constituitively open, with a second stepwise transition of 26 to 39 pS. A deletion mutant of alphabENaC, encompassing the entire C-terminal region (R567X), converts the kinetic behavior of alphabENaC to that of alpharENaC, i. e. a transition to 13 pS followed by a second 26 pS transition to 39 pS. Chemical cross-linking of R567X restores the wild-type alphabENaC gating pattern, whereas treatment with the reducing agent dithiothreitol produced only 13 pS transitions. In contrast, an equivalent C-terminal truncation of alpharENaC (R613X) had no effect on the gating pattern of alpharENaC. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interactions between the C termini of alphabENaC account for the different kinetic behavior of this member of the ENaC family of Na+ channels. PMID:8900133

  20. Circulating insulin stimulates fatty acid retention in white adipose tissue via KATP channel activation in the central nervous system only in insulin-sensitive mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Coomans, Claudia P.; Geerling, Janine J.; Guigas, Bruno; van den Hoek, Anita M.; Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Ouwens, D. Margriet; Pijl, Hanno; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) is required for the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucose production. Our aim was to determine whether the CNS is also involved in the stimulatory effect of circulating insulin on the tissue-specific retention of fatty acid (FA) from plasma. In wild-type mice, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions stimulated the retention of both plasma triglyceride-derived FA and plasma albumin-bound FA in the various white adipose tissues (WAT) but not in other tissues, including brown adipose tissue (BAT). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin induced a similar pattern of tissue-specific FA partitioning. This effect of ICV insulin administration was not associated with activation of the insulin signaling pathway in adipose tissue. ICV administration of tolbutamide, a KATP channel blocker, considerably reduced (during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions) and even completely blocked (during ICV administration of insulin) WAT-specific retention of FA from plasma. This central effect of insulin was absent in CD36-deficient mice, indicating that CD36 is the predominant FA transporter in insulin-stimulated FA retention by WAT. In diet-induced insulin-resistant mice, these stimulating effects of insulin (circulating or ICV administered) on FA retention in WAT were lost. In conclusion, in insulin-sensitive mice, circulating insulin stimulates tissue-specific partitioning of plasma-derived FA in WAT in part through activation of KATP channels in the CNS. Apparently, circulating insulin stimulates fatty acid uptake in WAT but not in BAT, directly and indirectly through the CNS. PMID:21700834

  1. Cardioprotective Benefits of Adenosine Triphosphate: Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener Diazoxide Are Lost with Administration after the Onset of Stress in Mouse and Human Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, M Burhan; Makepeace, Carol M; Anastacio, Melissa M; Schuessler, Richard B; Nichols, Colin G; Lawton, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate - sensitive (KATP) potassium channel opener diazoxide (DZX) maintains myocyte volume and contractility during stress via an unknown mechanism when administered at the onset of stress. This study was performed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of DZX when added after the onset of the stresses of hyperkalemic cardioplegia, metabolic inhibition, and hypo osmotic stress. Study Design Isolated mouse ventricular and human atrial myocytes were exposed to control Tyrode’s solution (TYR) for 10–20 min, test solution for 30 min (hypothermic hyperkalemic cardioplegia (CPG), CPG + 100uM diazoxide (CPG+DZX), metabolic inhibition (MI), MI+DZX, mild hypo osmotic stress (0.9T), or 0.9T + DZX) with DZX added after 10 or 20 min stress, followed by 20 min re-exposure to TYR (+/− DZX). Myocyte volume (human + mouse) and contractility (mouse) were compared. Results Mouse and human myocytes demonstrated significant swelling during exposure to CPG, MI, and hypo osmotic stress that was not prevented by DZX when administered either at 10 or 20 min after the onset of stress. Contractility following the stress of CPG in mouse myocytes significantly declined when DZX was administered 20 min after the onset of stress (p<0.05 vs. TYR). Contractility following hypo osmotic stress in mouse myocytes was not altered by the addition of DZX. Conclusions To maintain myocyte volume homeostasis and contractility during stress (hyperkalemic cardioplegia, metabolic inhibition, and hypo osmotic stress), KATP channel opener diazoxide requires administration at the onset of stress in this isolated myocyte model. These data have potential implications for any future clinical application of diazoxide. PMID:25158912

  2. Hydrogen sulfide augments neutrophil migration through enhancement of adhesion molecule expression and prevention of CXCR2 internalization: role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Dal-Secco, Daniela; Cunha, Thiago M; Freitas, Andressa; Alves-Filho, José Carlos; Souto, Fabrício O; Fukada, Sandra Y; Grespan, Renata; Alencar, Nylane M N; Neto, Alberto F; Rossi, Marcos A; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Hothersall, John S; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2008-09-15

    In this study, we have addressed the role of H(2)S in modulating neutrophil migration in either innate (LPS-challenged naive mice) or adaptive (methylated BSA (mBSA)-challenged immunized mice) immune responses. Treatment of mice with H(2)S synthesis inhibitors, dl-propargylglycine (PAG) or beta-cyanoalanine, reduced neutrophil migration induced by LPS or methylated BSA (mBSA) into the peritoneal cavity and by mBSA into the femur/tibial joint of immunized mice. This effect was associated with decreased leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and P-selectin and ICAM-1 expression on endothelium. Predictably, treatment of animals with the H(2)S donors, NaHS or Lawesson's reagent, enhanced these parameters. Moreover, the NaHS enhancement of neutrophil migration was not observed in ICAM-1-deficient mice. Neither PAG nor NaHS treatment changed LPS-induced CD18 expression on neutrophils, nor did the LPS- and mBSA-induced release of neutrophil chemoattractant mediators TNF-alpha, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and LTB(4). Furthermore, in vitro MIP-2-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was inhibited by PAG and enhanced by NaHS treatments. Accordingly, MIP-2-induced CXCR2 internalization was enhanced by PAG and inhibited by NaHS treatments. Moreover, NaHS prevented MIP-2-induced CXCR2 desensitization. The PAG and NaHS effects correlated, respectively, with the enhancement and inhibition of MIP-2-induced G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression. The effects of NaHS on neutrophil migration both in vivo and in vitro, together with CXCR2 internalization and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression were prevented by the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)(+)) channel blocker, glybenclamide. Conversely, diazoxide, a K(ATP)(+) channel opener, increased neutrophil migration in vivo. Together, our data suggest that during the inflammatory response, H(2)S augments neutrophil adhesion and locomotion, by a mechanism dependent on K(ATP)(+) channels. PMID:18768887

  3. Gastroprotective effects of thymol on acute and chronic ulcers in rats: The role of prostaglandins, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and gastric mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    Thymol, a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, is found in abundance in the essential oils of Thymus, Origanum, and Lippia species. The present study investigated the gastroprotective actions of thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the acute (ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers) and chronic (acetic acid-induced ulcers) ulcer models in rats. Some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of thymol were investigated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligature model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of thymol was performed using the agar-well diffusion method. Thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) produced dose dependent reduction (P < 0.01) on the total lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective response caused by thymol (30 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) by intraperitoneal treatment of rats with indomethacin (a non-selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, 10 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 10 mg/kg), but not by DL-Propargylglycine (PAG, a cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor, 25 mg/kg) and Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 70 mg/kg). Thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg) also reduced the ulcer index (P < 0.05) and the total lesion area (P < 0.001) in the indomethacin- and acetic-acid-induced ulcer models, respectively. In the model pylorus ligature, the treatment with thymol failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in mucus production. Thymol no showed anti-H. pylori activity in vitro. Collectively, the present results provide convincing evidence that thymol displays gastroprotective actions on the acute and chronic

  4. Gastroprotective effects of thymol on acute and chronic ulcers in rats: The role of prostaglandins, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and gastric mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    Thymol, a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, is found in abundance in the essential oils of Thymus, Origanum, and Lippia species. The present study investigated the gastroprotective actions of thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the acute (ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers) and chronic (acetic acid-induced ulcers) ulcer models in rats. Some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of thymol were investigated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligature model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of thymol was performed using the agar-well diffusion method. Thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) produced dose dependent reduction (P < 0.01) on the total lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective response caused by thymol (30 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) by intraperitoneal treatment of rats with indomethacin (a non-selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, 10 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 10 mg/kg), but not by DL-Propargylglycine (PAG, a cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor, 25 mg/kg) and Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 70 mg/kg). Thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg) also reduced the ulcer index (P < 0.05) and the total lesion area (P < 0.001) in the indomethacin- and acetic-acid-induced ulcer models, respectively. In the model pylorus ligature, the treatment with thymol failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in mucus production. Thymol no showed anti-H. pylori activity in vitro. Collectively, the present results provide convincing evidence that thymol displays gastroprotective actions on the acute and chronic

  5. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  6. Loss of β2-laminin alters calcium sensitivity and voltage-gated calcium channel maturation of neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Schenning, Mitja P; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    β2-laminin is a key mediator in the differentiation and formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Loss of β2-laminin results in significant structural and functional aberrations such as decreased number of active zones and reduced spontaneous release of transmitter. In vitro β2-laminin has been shown to bind directly to the pore forming subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Neurotransmission is initially mediated by N-type VGCCs, but by postnatal day 18 switches to P/Q-type VGCC dominance. The present study investigated the changes in neurotransmission during the switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated transmitter release at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Analysis of the relationship between quantal content and extracellular calcium concentrations demonstrated a decrease in the calcium sensitivity, but no change in calcium dependence at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Electrophysiological studies on VGCC sub-types involved in transmitter release indicate N-type VGCCs remain the primary mediator of transmitter release at matured β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Immunohistochemical analyses displayed irregularly shaped and immature β2-laminin-deficient neuromuscular junctions when compared to matured wild-type junctions. β2-laminin-deficient junctions also maintained the presence of N-type VGCC clustering within the presynaptic membrane, which supported the functional findings of the present study. We conclude that β2-laminin is a key regulator in development of the NMJ, with its loss resulting in reduced transmitter release due to decreased calcium sensitivity stemming from a failure to switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:25556799

  7. Nicorandil improves ischemic changes in epicardial ECG during short-term coronary occlusion by opening ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pigs.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, A; Nakae, I; Liu, Q; Yamamoto, K; Ito, M; Kinoshita, M

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether nicorandil (NIC), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener and nitrate, has antiischemic effects during transient ischemia in pigs, and to investigate whether its effects are due to its KATP-opening action or nitrate action. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ligating the proximal portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 minute in anesthetized open-chest pigs, and was measured as the magnitude of ST-segment elevation on epicardial electrocardiogram (ECG). Epicardial ST-segment elevation during coronary occlusion was significantly reduced by pretreatment with NIC (3 mg, intracoronary [i.c.]), but not by pretreatment with nitroglycerin (NTG, 0.2 mg, i.c.). Pretreatment with glibenclamide (GLB, a KATP blocker, 6 mg, i.c.) significantly augmented the ST-segment elevation during coronary occlusion. The augmentation of ST-segment elevation by GLB was significantly reduced by subsequent administration of NIC, but not by that of NTG (0.2 mg, i.c.). There were no significant differences between hemodynamic variables immediately before coronary occlusion with and without pretreatment. The intracoronary administration of NIC (3 mg) significantly shortened the endocardial monophasic action potential durations at 50% (MAPD50) and 90% repolarization (MAPD90) by 28.3 +/- 6.9% and 17.0 +/- 4.7%, respectively. These results suggest that the intracoronary administration of NIC has antiischemic effects during transient ischemia via KATP activation in myocardium.

  8. The carboxyl terminus of the alpha-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel binds to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Mazzochi, Christopher; Bubien, James K; Smith, Peter R; Benos, Dale J

    2006-03-10

    The activity of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is modulated by F-actin. However, it is unknown if there is a direct interaction between alpha-ENaC and actin. We have investigated the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton directly binds to the carboxyl terminus of alpha-ENaC using a combination of confocal microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and protein binding studies. Confocal microscopy of Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers stably transfected with wild type, rat isoforms of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC revealed co-localization of alpha-ENaC with the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton both at the apical membrane and within the subapical cytoplasm. F-actin was found to co-immunoprecipitate with alpha-ENaC from whole cell lysates of this cell line. Gel overlay assays demonstrated that F-actin specifically binds to the carboxyl terminus of alpha-ENaC. A direct interaction between F-actin and the COOH terminus of alpha-ENaC was further corroborated by F-actin co-sedimentation studies. This is the first study to report a direct and specific biochemical interaction between F-actin and ENaC. PMID:16356937

  9. Determination of four sulfonylurea herbicides in tea by matrix solid-phase dispersion cleanup followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; Wang, Jinjin; Liu, Guojiao; Guan, Jinyan

    2014-09-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed as a new sample pretreatment method for the determination of four sulfonylurea herbicides (chlorsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, chlorimuron-ethyl, and pyrazosulfuron) in tea by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The extraction and cleanup by matrix solid-phase dispersion was carried out by using CN-silica as dispersant and carbon nanotubes as cleanup sorbent eluted with acidified dichloromethane. The eluent of matrix solid-phase dispersion was evaporated and redissolved in 0.5 mL methanol, and used as the dispersive solvent of the following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure for further purification and enrichment of the target analytes before high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the method yielded a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 5.0 to 10 000 ng/g for target analytes with a correlation coefficients (r(2)) ranging from 0.9959 to 0.9998. The limits of detection for the analytes were in the range of 1.31-2.81 ng/g. Recoveries of the four sulfonylurea herbicides at two fortification levels were between 72.8 and 110.6% with relative standard deviations lower than 6.95%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of four sulfonylurea herbicides in several tea samples.

  10. Synthesis of sulfonylurea conjugated copolymer via PEO spacer and its in vitro short-term bioactivity in insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J S; Chae, S Y; Lee, M K; Bae, Y H

    1998-07-01

    In order to reduce the number of immunoprotected islets required in xeno- or allogenic transplants for reversing diabetes, analogues of glyburide (a sulfonylurea), an extremely hydrophobic insulin secretagogue, were synthesized and used in an attempt to produce water soluble sulfonylurea (SU) grafted polymers. After synthesizing various polymers containing glyburide analogues, a poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-sulfonylurea succinyl PEO (Mw = 3000) acrylate) was found to be soluble in a cell culture medium at pH 7.4. However, solubility was only obtained by decreasing solution pH from 11 to 7.4. When the copolymer was added to the islet cell culture media at a concentration of 5 microg ml(-1) (based on the theoretical SU content of the copolymer), insulin secretion was enhanced by about 30% at low glucose concentrations of 50 and 100 mg dl(-1) compared to the control. This is equivalent to 40-60% bioactivity of glyburide. The polymer's effect on insulin secretion at a higher glucose concentration of 200 mg dl(-1) was not significant. Considering the previous results where a similar but insoluble polymer without a PEO spacer was used and the polymer showed SU bioactivity only at a glucose concentration of 50 mg dl(-1), the observations from this study indicates that the solubility of SU-grafted polymers may affect the binding of SU groups to SU receptors on the pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in improved pharmacodynamic effect of SU. PMID:9720902

  11. Cholesterol and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557

  12. Potentiation by nitric oxide of the ATP-sensitive K+ current induced by K+ channel openers in guinea-pig ventricular cells

    PubMed Central

    Shinbo, Atsushi; Iijima, Toshihiko

    1997-01-01

    Modulation by nitric oxide (NO) of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) current (IK (ATP)) was investigated in single ventricular cells dissociated from guinea-pig hearts. IK (ATP) was induced by 5-amino-N-[2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-N′-cyano-3-pyridinecarboxamidine (KRN4884) and cromakalim.In the whole-cell patch clamp configuration, KRN4884 (0.13 μM) increased the outward current in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 0.48 μM. This current was completely antagonized by glibenclamide (1 μM).IK (ATP) induced by either KRN4884 (0.3 μM) or cromakalim (10 μM) was significantly enhanced by the additional application of a NO donor (±)-(E)-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexeneamide (NOR3, 0.1 and 1 mM).The potentiating effect was observed only when NOR3 solution was prepared just before experiments, when release of NO was considered to be on-going. The effect was significantly eliminated in the presence of the NO scavenger oxyhaemoglobin (310 μM). Also, oxidative metabolites of NO, such as NO2− or NO3−, were without effect.8-Bromo-guanosine-3′ : 5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic GMP, 0.10.5 mM) significantly decreased IK (ATP) induced by KRN4884.In cell-attached patches, NOR3 (1 mM) potentiated the KRN4884-induced IK (ATP) in a way similar to that seen in whole-cell recordings. By contrast, NOR3 (1 mM) did not enhance the current in either inside-out or outside-out patches.These results indicate that NO potentiates the action of K+ channel openers on the KATP through a mechanism which remains to be determined. PMID:9113380

  13. [The dynamics of the domains of the IP3-binding site of the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate-sensitive calcium channel, induced by inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate and calcium].

    PubMed

    Veresov, V G; Konev, S V

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate-sensitive calcium channel after binding of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate and Ca2+ was analyzed by the Monte Carlo minimization technique. It was shown that the binding of Ca2+ with the unliganded receptor (channel) leads to a turning of the beta-sheet domain relative to the alpha-helical domain with the formation of the receptor conformation that is open for the entry of ions into the cytoplasmic channel vestibule, sterically closed for their passage through the vestibule in the part adjacent to the alpha-helical domains, and unfavourable for subsequent binding of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate with the receptor. When both co-agonists bind to the receptor, the structure rearrangements induced eliminate both these steric obstacles for the passage of ions through the IP3-binding domain: one at the entrance of the channel cytoplasmic vestibule and the other that is placed deeper in the vestibule near the alpha-domains. The role of the dynamics of the receptor binding core in the IP3-sensitive channel gating is discussed.

  14. Determination of six sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental water samples by magnetic solid-phase extraction using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Jiang, Lianhua; Wu, Gege; Xia, Yan; Lu, Wenhui; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-09-30

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mag-MWCNTs) as adsorbents, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD), was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of six types of sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) in environmental water samples. Several variables affecting MSPE efficiency were systematically investigated, including the type and volume of desorption solvent, sample solution pH, salt concentration, amount of mag-MWCNTs, and extraction and desorption time. Response surface was employed to assist in the MSPE optimization. Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity was achieved in the range of 0.05-5.0μg/L for all six SUs, with coefficients of correlation r>0.9994, and preconcentration factors ranging from 178 to 210. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.01-0.04μg/L and 0.03-0.13μg/L, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations, n=6, %) at three spiked levels were 2.0-11.0% and 2.1-12.9% in terms of peak area, respectively. The method recoveries at three fortified concentrations were obtained within 76.7-106.9% for reservoir water samples and 78.2-105.4% for tap water samples. The developed MSPE-HPLC method demonstrated high sensitivity, repeatability, simplicity, rapidity, and excellent practical applicability. PMID:27590086

  15. Human amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel gamma subunit promoter: functional analysis and identification of a polypurine-polypyrimidine tract with the potential for triplex DNA formation.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, S D; Loftus, R W; Itani, O A; Thomas, C P

    2000-01-01

    The mRNA for the epithelial Na(+) channel gamma subunit (gammaENaC) is regulated developmentally in the lung, colon and distal nephron and in response to Na(+) deprivation and systemic corticosteroids in the distal colon. Because such regulation is likely to be at the level of gene transcription, we examined the function of the promoter and other 5' flanking elements of the human gammaENaC gene. The proximal 5' flanking region contains two GC boxes but does not contain a TATA box. A 450 bp human gammaENaC fragment (-459 to +40) directed the expression of luciferase in H441 cells and primer extension analysis in transfected cells confirmed the correct initiation of human gammaENaC-luciferase chimaeric transcripts. By deletional analysis, GC boxes at -21 and -52 were found to be critical for this promoter activity. To begin to identify transcription factors that bind to the core promoter, a double-stranded oligonucleotide that corresponded to this region was synthesized and tested in a gel mobility-shift assay. Incubation of this radiolabelled oligonucleotide with nuclear extracts from H441 and FRTL5 cells resulted in the formation of four specific and distinct DNA-protein complexes. On the basis of antibody 'supershift' assays, one of these factors corresponds to Sp1, whereas the other three correspond to Sp3. Further upstream, an approx. 300 nt (-1143 to -839) polypurine-polypyrimidine tract (PPy tract) containing internal mirror repeats was identified. When contained in a supercoiled plasmid, the approx. 1200 nt 5' flanking region was sensitive to S1 endonuclease, which was consistent with the formation of an intramolecular triplex DNA ('H-DNA') structure with an unpaired single strand. High-resolution mapping with S1 endonuclease and sequencing of S1-generated clones confirmed that all S1-sensitive sites were within the PPy tract. Finally, a negative regulatory element was identified between -1525 and -1296 that functioned in lung, colon and collecting duct cell

  16. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with diazoxide, a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, promotes repair of myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaojun; Wang, Haijie; Guo, Haidong; Wang, Cun; Ao, Hong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Tan, Yu-zhen

    2010-02-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes myocardium injury and scar formation, and the transmural infarction is associated with ventricular hypofunction. Stem cell transplantation therapy has improved cardiac function in animal models of MI. However, the poor survival of the donor cells in the host myocardium hampers the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell transplantation. Diazoxide, a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, has been applied to suppress cell apoptosis and promote cell survival. We therefore assessed the effects of diazoxide on the selected mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs). Pretreatment of SMSCs with diazoxide (200 micromol/L) for 30 min protected cells from oxidative stress injury by upregulating the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor mRNAs and phospho-Akt and by preventing mitochondral cytochrome c translocation into the cytoplasm. Expression of mRNAs and proteins was detected by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Thirty min after establishment of MI (the ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary artery) in female rats, the male rat SMSCs preconditioned with diazoxide were injected at four sites on the edge of the infarcted area. At 4 weeks after cell tranplantation, the donor cells in the recipient myocardium were tracked with Y chromosome. Preconditioning with diazoxide improved the survival rate of the transplanted SMSCs, compared to the untreated SMSCs. Moreover, transplantation of the diazoxide-pretreated SMSCs reduced the infarct size and increased left ventricular function, as judged by transthoracic echocardiography. In conclusion, diazoxide preconditioning is effective to promote SMSCs survival under oxidative stress and attenuates cardiac injury in MI.

  17. Regression of Glomerular and Tubulointerstitial Injuries by Dietary Salt Reduction with Combination Therapy of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker and Calcium Channel Blocker in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Kazi; Nishiyama, Akira; Konishi, Yoshio; Morikawa, Takashi; Kitabayashi, Chizuko; Kohno, Masakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu; Mori, Hirohito; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) plus calcium channel blocker (CCB) reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl) for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl), NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day), NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day), NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day). Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an A