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Sample records for chaplygin gas model

  1. Thermodynamics of generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Sarwar, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we study thermal stability of an exotic fluid known as generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG). We evaluate different physical parameters and examine how this fluid describes accelerated expansion of the universe. The stability conditions are formulated from thermodynamics which indicate that the respective fluid is stable adiabatically but it cannot be checked under isothermal condition.

  2. Viscous dissipative Chaplygin gas dominated homogenous and isotropic cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, C. S. J.; Mak, M. K.; Harko, T.; Gergely, L. A.; Kovacs, Z.; Szabo, G. M.

    2008-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, which interpolates between a high density relativistic era and a nonrelativistic matter phase, is a popular dark energy candidate. We consider a generalization of the Chaplygin gas model, by assuming the presence of a bulk viscous type dissipative term in the effective thermodynamic pressure of the gas. The dissipative effects are described by using the truncated Israel-Stewart model, with the bulk viscosity coefficient and the relaxation time functions of the energy density only. The corresponding cosmological dynamics of the bulk viscous Chaplygin gas dominated universe is considered in detail for a flat homogeneous isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry. For different values of the model parameters we consider the evolution of the cosmological parameters (scale factor, energy density, Hubble function, deceleration parameter, and luminosity distance, respectively), by using both analytical and numerical methods. In the large time limit the model describes an accelerating universe, with the effective negative pressure induced by the Chaplygin gas and the bulk viscous pressure driving the acceleration. The theoretical predictions of the luminosity distance of our model are compared with the observations of the type Ia supernovae. The model fits well the recent supernova data. From the fitting we determine both the equation of state of the Chaplygin gas, and the parameters characterizing the bulk viscosity. The evolution of the scalar field associated to the viscous Chaplygin fluid is also considered, and the corresponding potential is obtained. Hence the viscous Chaplygin gas model offers an effective dynamical possibility for replacing the cosmological constant, and for explaining the recent acceleration of the universe.

  3. Statefinder analysis of the superfluid Chaplygin gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.A.

    2011-10-01

    The statefinder indices are employed to test the superfluid Chaplygin gas (SCG) model describing the dark sector of the universe. The model involves Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as dark energy (DE) and an excited state above it as dark matter (DM). The condensate is assumed to have a negative pressure and is embodied as an exotic fluid with the Chaplygin equation of state. Excitations forms the normal component of superfluid. The statefinder diagrams show the discrimination between the SCG scenario and other models with the Chaplygin gas and indicates a pronounced effect of the DM equation of state and an indirect interaction between their two components on statefinder trajectories and a current statefinder location.

  4. Matter power spectrum for the generalized Chaplygin gas model: The Newtonian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, J. C.; Goncalves, S. V. B.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2008-11-15

    We model the cosmic medium as the mixture of a generalized Chaplygin gas and a pressureless matter component. Within a neo-Newtonian approach (in which, different from standard Newtonian cosmology, the pressure enters the homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics) we compute the matter power spectrum. The 2dFGRS data are used to discriminate between unified models of the dark sector (a purely baryonic matter component of roughly 5% of the total energy content and roughly 95% generalized Chaplygin gas) and different models, for which there is separate dark matter, in addition to that accounted for by the generalized Chaplygin gas. Leaving the corresponding density parameters free, we find that the unified models are strongly disfavored. On the other hand, using unified model priors, the observational data are also well described, in particular, for small and large values of the generalized Chaplygin gas parameter {alpha}. The latter result is in agreement with a recent, more qualitative but fully relativistic, perturbation analysis in [V. Gorini, A. Y. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella, O. F. Piatella, and A. A. Starobinsky, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2008) 016.].

  5. Viscous Chaplygin gas models as spherical top-hat collapsing fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Iqbal, Ayesha

    2016-05-01

    We study the spherical top-hat collapse in Einstein gravity and loop quantum cosmology (LQC) by taking the nonlinear evolution of viscous modified variable Chaplygin gas (CG) and viscous generalized cosmic chaplygin gas (GCCG). We calculate the equation of state (EoS) parameter, square speed of sound, perturbed (EoS) parameter, perturbed square speed of sound, density contrast and divergence of peculiar velocity in perturbed region and discussed their behavior. It is observed that both CG models support the spherical collapse (SC) in Einstein as well as LQC because density contrast remains positive in both cases and the perturbed EoS parameter remains positive at the present epoch as well as near future. It is remarked here that these parameters provide consistent results for both CG models in both gravities.

  6. Phenomenological Varying Modified Chaplygin Gas with Variable G and Λ: Toy Models for Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Khurshudyan, M.; Farahani, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered varying modified Chaplygin gas in case of variable G and Λ. Since varying G and Λ give rises to modified form of field equations and conservation law, we have considered two different toy models. In the first model, the Universe is filled with a phenomenological gas while in the second one, there is the existence of gas and a matter with P = ω( t) ρ m . By considering sign changeable interaction between fluids we have analyzed important cosmological parameters such as EoS parameter of the fluids and deceleration parameter q of the models.

  7. Effects of viscous pressure on warm inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia E-mail: rabiasaleem1988@yahoo.com

    2014-12-01

    This paper is devoted to study the effects of bulk viscous pressure on an inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model using FRW background. The matter contents of the universe are assumed to be inflaton and imperfect fluid. We evaluate inflaton fields, potentials and entropy density for variable as well as constant dissipation and bulk viscous coefficients in weak as well as high dissipative regimes during intermediate era. In order to discuss inflationary perturbations, we evaluate entropy density, scalar (tensor) power spectra, their corresponding spectral indices, tensor-scalar ratio and running of spectral index in terms of inflaton which are constrained using recent Planck, WMAP7 and Bicep2 probes.

  8. Schrödinger Wheeler DeWitt Equation in Chaplygin Gas FRW Cosmological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, P.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Gousheh, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    We present a Chaplygin gas Friedmann Robertson Walker quantum cosmological model. In this work the Schutz’s variational formalism is applied with positive, negative, and zero constant spatial curvature. In this approach the notion of time can be recovered. These give rise to Schrödinger Wheeler DeWitt equation for the scale factor. We use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets for each case. We study the time dependent behavior of the expectation value of the scale factor, using the many-worlds interpretations of quantum mechanics.

  9. Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Chen, Pisin; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-06-06

    We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.

  10. Scalar perturbations in the late Universe: viability of the Chaplygin gas models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Brilenkov, Maxim; Brilenkov, Ruslan; Morais, João; Zhuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    We study the late-time evolution of the Universe where dark energy (DE) is parametrised by a modified generalised Chaplygin gas (mGCG) on top of cold dark matter (CDM) . We also take into account the radiation content of the Universe. In this context, the late stage of the evolution of the universe refers to the epoch where CDM is already clustered into inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Under these conditions, the mechanical approach is an adequate tool to study the Universe deep inside the cell of uniformity. To be more accurate, we study scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker metric due to inhomogeneities of CDM as well as fluctuations of radiation and mGCG, the later driving the late-time acceleration of the universe. Our analysis applies as well to the case where mGCG plays the role of DM and DE . We select the sets of parameters of the mGCG that are compatible with the mechanical approach. These sets define prospective mGCG models. By comparing the selected sets of models with some of the latest observational data results, we conclude that the mGCG is in tight agreement with those observations particularly for a mGCG playing the role of DE and DM.

  11. Thermodynamics of the variable modified Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-05-01

    A cosmological model with a new variant of Chaplygin gas obeying an equation of state(EoS), P = Aρ ‑ B/ρα where B= B0an is investigated in the context of its thermodynamical behaviour. Here B0 and n are constants and a is the scale factor. We show that the equation of state of this `Variable Modified Chaplygin gas' (VMCG) can describe the current accelerated expansion of the universe. Following standard thermodynamical criteria we mainly discuss the classical thermodynamical stability of the model and find that the new parameter, n introduced in VMCG plays a crucial role in determining the stability considerations and should always be negative. We further observe that although the earlier model of Lu explains many of the current observational findings of different probes it fails the desirable tests of thermodynamical stability. We also note that for 0n < our model points to a phantom type of expansion which, however, is found to be compatible with current SNe Ia observations and CMB anisotropy measurements. Further the third law of thermodynamics is obeyed in our case. Our model is very general in the sense that many of earlier works in this field may be obtained as a special case of our solution. An interesting point to note is that the model also apparently suggests a smooth transition from the big bang to the big rip in its whole evaluation process.

  12. Thermodynamics of the variable modified Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-05-01

    A cosmological model with a new variant of Chaplygin gas obeying an equation of state(EoS), P = Aρ - B/ρα where B= B0an is investigated in the context of its thermodynamical behaviour. Here B0 and n are constants and a is the scale factor. We show that the equation of state of this `Variable Modified Chaplygin gas' (VMCG) can describe the current accelerated expansion of the universe. Following standard thermodynamical criteria we mainly discuss the classical thermodynamical stability of the model and find that the new parameter, n introduced in VMCG plays a crucial role in determining the stability considerations and should always be negative. We further observe that although the earlier model of Lu explains many of the current observational findings of different probes it fails the desirable tests of thermodynamical stability. We also note that for 0n < our model points to a phantom type of expansion which, however, is found to be compatible with current SNe Ia observations and CMB anisotropy measurements. Further the third law of thermodynamics is obeyed in our case. Our model is very general in the sense that many of earlier works in this field may be obtained as a special case of our solution. An interesting point to note is that the model also apparently suggests a smooth transition from the big bang to the big rip in its whole evaluation process.

  13. Cosmological constraints on generalized Chaplygin gas model: Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lixin; Lu, Jianbo E-mail: lvjianbo819@163.com

    2010-03-01

    We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to investigate a global constraints on the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model as the unification of dark matter and dark energy from the latest observational data: the Constitution dataset of type supernovae Ia (SNIa), the observational Hubble data (OHD), the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO), and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. In a non-flat universe, the constraint results for GCG model are, Ω{sub b}h{sup 2} = 0.0235{sup +0.0021}{sub −0.0018} (1σ) {sup +0.0028}{sub −0.0022} (2σ), Ω{sub k} = 0.0035{sup +0.0172}{sub −0.0182} (1σ) {sup +0.0226}{sub −0.0204} (2σ), A{sub s} = 0.753{sup +0.037}{sub −0.035} (1σ) {sup +0.045}{sub −0.044} (2σ), α = 0.043{sup +0.102}{sub −0.106} (1σ) {sup +0.134}{sub −0.117} (2σ), and H{sub 0} = 70.00{sup +3.25}{sub −2.92} (1σ) {sup +3.77}{sub −3.67} (2σ), which is more stringent than the previous results for constraint on GCG model parameters. Furthermore, according to the information criterion, it seems that the current observations much support ΛCDM model relative to the GCG model.

  14. Extended Chaplygin gas in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhassan, B.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate cosmological models of the extended Chaplygin gas in a universe governed by Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The equation of state for an extended Chaplygin gas is a (n + 2) -variable equation determined by An, α, and B. In this work, we are interested to the case of second order (n = 2) equation of state which recovers quadratic barotropic equation of state. In that case there are four free parameters. We solve conservation equation approximately and obtain energy density in terms of scale factor with mentioned free parameters. Under some assumptions we relate free parameters to each other to have only one free independent parameter (A2) . It help us to obtain explicit expression for energy density in terms of scale factor. The allowed values of the second order extended Chaplygin gas parameter is fixed using the recent astrophysical and cosmological observational data. Thermodynamics of the model investigated based on the first and second law of thermodynamics.

  15. Dynamics of the early universe and the initial conditions for inflation in a model with radiation and a Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerat, G. A.; Oliveira-Neto, G.; Silva, E. V. Corrêa; Filho, L. G. Ferreira; Romildo, P., Jr.; Fabris, J. C.; Fracalossi, R.; Gonçalves, S. V. B.; Alvarenga, F. G.

    2007-07-01

    The early universe is modeled through the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model with positive curvature. In this model, the universe is filled by two fluids: radiation and Chaplygin gas. The quantization of these models is made by following the Wheeler-DeWitt prescriptions. Using the Schutz formalism, the time notion is recovered and the Wheeler-DeWitt equation transforms into a time dependent Schrödinger equation, which rules the dynamics of the early universe, under the action of an effective potential Veff. Using a finite differences method and the Crank-Nicholson scheme, in a code implemented in the program OCTAVE, we solve the corresponding time dependent Schrödinger equation and obtain the time evolution of an initial wave packet. This wave packet satisfies appropriate boundary conditions. The calculation of the tunneling probabilities shows that the universe may emerge from the Planck era in an inflationary phase. It also shows that the tunneling probability is a function of the mean energy of the initial wave packet and of the two parameters of the Chaplygin gas. We also show a comparison between these results and those obtained by the WKB approximation.

  16. Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Lamon, Raphael; Woehr, Andreas J.

    2010-01-15

    The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.

  17. Thermodynamical behavior of the variable Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D.

    2015-02-01

    The thermodynamical behavior of the variable Chaplygin gas (VCG) model is studied, using an equation-of-state (EoS) like P = - (B)/(ρ ), where B = B0V-{n/3}. Here B0 is a positive universal constant, n is also a constant and V is the volume of the fluid. From the consideration of thermodynamic stability, it is seen that only if the values of n are allowed to be negative, then ((∂ P)/(∂ V))S < 0 throughout the evolution. Again thermal capacity at constant volume cV shows positive expression. Using the best fit value of n = -3.4 as previously found by Guo and Zhang (Phys. Lett. B. 645 (2007) 326) gives that the fluid is thermodynamically stable throughout the evolution. The effective EoS for the special case of n = 0 goes to Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model. Again for n < 0, it favors phantom-like cosmology which is in agreement with the current SNe Ia constraints like VCG model. The deceleration parameter is also studied in the context of thermodynamics and the analysis shows that the flip occurs for the value of n < 4. Finally, the thermal EoS is discussed which is an explicit function of temperature only. It is also observed that the third law of thermodynamics is satisfied in this model. As expected, the volume increases as temperature falls during adiabatic expansions. In this case, for T → 0, the thermal EoS reduces to ( - 1 + (n)/(6)), which is identical with the EoS for the case of large volume.

  18. Generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas inspired intermediate standard scalar field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Mohsaneen, Sidra

    2016-08-01

    We study the warm intermediate inflationary regime in the presence of generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas and an inflaton decay rate proportional to the temperature. For this purpose, we consider standard scalar field model during weak and strong dissipative regimes. We explore inflationary parameters like spectral index, scalar and tensor power spectra, tensor to scalar ratio and decay rate in order to compare the present model with recent observational data. The physical behavior of inflationary parameters is presented and found that all the results are agreed with recent observational data such as WMAP7, WMAP9 and Planck 2015.

  19. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C. E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br

    2014-10-01

    In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.

  20. Chaplygin gas braneworld inflation according to WMAP7 data

    SciTech Connect

    Zarrouki, R.; Bennai, M.

    2010-12-15

    We consider a Chaplygin gas model with an exponential potential in framework of braneworld inflation. We apply the slow-roll approximation in the high-energy limit to derive various inflationary spectrum perturbation parameters. We show that the inflation observables depend only on the e-folding number N and the final value of the slow-roll parameter {epsilon}{sub end}. Whereas for small running of the scalar spectral index (dn{sub s}/dlnk), the inflation observables are in good agreement with recent WMAP7 data.

  1. Inflationary cosmology with Chaplygin gas in Palatini formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, Andrzej; Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydłowski, Marek; Wojnar, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple generalisation of the ΛCDM model which on the one hand reaches very good agreement with the present day experimental data and provides an internal inflationary mechanism on the other hand. It is based on Palatini modified gravity with quadratic Starobinsky term and generalized Chaplygin gas as a matter source providing, besides a current accelerated expansion, the epoch of endogenous inflation driven by type III freeze singularity. It follows from our statistical analysis that astronomical data favors negative value of the parameter coupling quadratic term into Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian and as a consequence the bounce instead of initial Big-Bang singularity is preferred.

  2. Constraints on modified Chaplygin gas from large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bikash Chandra; Thakur, Prasenjit; Beesham, Aroon

    2016-10-01

    We study cosmological models with modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) to determine observational constraints on its EoS parameters using the background and the growth tests data. The background test data consists of H(z)-z data, Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations peak parameter, CMB shift parameter, SN Ia data and the growth test data consists of the linear growth function for the large scale structures of the universe are considered to study MCG in favor of dark energy. For a given range of redshift, the Wiggle-Z measurements and rms mass fluctuations from Ly-α data, employed for analyzing cosmological models numerically to constrain the MCG parameters. The Wang-Steinhardt ansatz for the growth index (γ ) and growth function (f) are also considered for numerical analysis. The best-fit values of EoS parameters determined here are used to study the variation of f, growth index (γ ), EoS parameter, squared sound speed and deceleration parameter with redshift. The constraints on the MCG parameters found here are compared with that of GCG (generalized Chaplygin gas) model for viable cosmology. Cosmologies with MCG satisfactorily describe late acceleration followed by a matter dominated phase. The range of values of EoS parameters, the associated parameters (f, γ , ω , Ω, c2s, q) are also determined from observational data in order to understand the suitability of the MCG model.

  3. Quantum scalar-metric cosmology with Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Barun

    2011-02-01

    A spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model with generalized Chaplygin gas is studied in the context of scalar-metric formulation of cosmology. Schutz's mechanism for the perfect fluid is applied with generalized Chaplygin gas and the classical and quantum dynamics for this model is studied. It is found that the only surviving matter degree of freedom played the role of cosmic time. For the quantum mechanical description it is possible to find the wave packet which resulted from the linear superposition of the wave functions of the Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation, which is a consequence of the above formalism. The wave packets show two distinct dominant peaks and propagate in the direction of increasing scale factor. It may happen that our present universe originated from one of those peaks. The many-world and ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to investigate about the behavior of the scale factor and the scalar field (considered for this model). In both the cases the scale factor avoids singularity and a bouncing non-singular universe is found.

  4. Spherical thin-shell wormholes and modified Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M.; Azam, M. E-mail: azammath@gmail.com

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct spherical thin-shell wormhole solutions through cut and paste technique and investigate the stability of these solutions in the vicinity of modified Chaplygin gas. The Darmois-Israel formalism is used to formulate the stresses of the surface concentrating the exotic matter. We explore the stability of the wormhole solutions by using the standard potential method. We conclude that there exist more stable as well as unstable solutions than the previous study with generalized Chaplygin gas [19].

  5. Single-field inflation à la generalized Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del

    2013-11-01

    In the simplest scenario for inflation, i.e. in the single-field inflation, it is presented an inflaton field with properties equivalent to a generalized Chaplygin gas. Their study is performed using the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to cosmology. The main results are contrasted with the measurements recently released by the Planck data, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization. If the measurements released by Planck for the scalar spectral index together with its running are taken into account it is found a value for the α-parameter associated to the generalized Chaplygin gas given by α = 0.2578±0.0009.

  6. The extreme limit of the generalised Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Piattella, Oliver F.

    2010-03-01

    Unified Dark Matter models describe Dark Matter and Dark Energy as a single entity which is, in the simplest case, embodied in a perfect barotropic fluid. It is a well-established fact that small adiabatic perturbations of Unified Dark Matter have an evolution characterised by oscillations and decay which provide predictions on the Cosmic Background Radiation anisotropies which are in poor agreement with observation. In this paper we investigate the generalised Chaplygin gas and we find that the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect excludes the model for 10{sup −3} < α < 350. We discuss the implications on the background evolution of the Universe if large values of α are considered. In this case, the Universe expansion mimics a matter-dominated phase abruptly followed by a de Sitter one at the transition redshift z{sub tr}. Thanks to an analysis of the type Ia supernovae Constitution set we are able to place z{sub tr} = 0.22.

  7. Chaplygin gas inspired scalar fields inflation via well-known potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Butt, Sadaf; Rani, Shamaila

    2016-08-01

    Brane inflationary universe models in the context of modified Chaplygin gas and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas are being studied. We develop these models in view of standard scalar and tachyon fields. In both models, the implemented inflationary parameters such as scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and tensor to scalar ratio are derived under slow roll approximations. We also use chaotic and exponential potential in high energy limits and discuss the characteristics of inflationary parameters for both potentials. These models are compatible with recent astronomical observations provided by WMAP7{+}9 and Planck data, i.e., ηs=1.027±0.051, 1.009±0.049, 0.096±0.025 and r<0.38, 0.36, 0.11.

  8. Quantum FRW cosmological solutions in the presence of Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, P.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a Friedmann Robertson Walker quantum cosmological model in the presence of Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid for early and late time epochs. In this work, we consider perfect fluid as an effective potential and apply Schutz's variational formalism to the Chaplygin gas which recovers the notion of time. These give rise to Schrödinger Wheeler DeWitt equation for the scale factor. We use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets and study the time dependent behavior of the expectation value of the scale factor using the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. We show that contrary to the classical case, the expectation value of the scale factor avoids singularity at quantum level. Moreover, this model predicts that the expansion of Universe is accelerating for the late times.

  9. Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardehali, Hossein; Pedram, Pouria

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we study the Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology. Using Schutz formalism and Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition, we obtain the corresponding Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain exact classical and quantum mechanical solutions and construct wave packets to study the time evolution of the expectation value of the scale factor for two cases. We show that unlike classical solutions and upon choosing appropriate initial conditions, the expectation value of the scale factor never tends to the singular point which exhibits the singularity-free behavior of the solutions in the quantum domain.

  10. Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations in the presence of the Chaplygin gas: Stars and wormholelike solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorini, V.; Moschella, U.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Pasquier, V.; Starobinsky, A. A.

    2008-09-15

    We study static solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for spherically symmetric objects (stars) living in a space filled with the Chaplygin gas. Two cases are considered. In the normal case, all solutions (excluding the de Sitter one) realize a three-dimensional spheroidal geometry because the radial coordinate achieves a maximal value (the 'equator'). After crossing the equator, three scenarios are possible: a closed spheroid having a Schwarzschild-type singularity with infinite blueshift at the 'south pole', a regular spheroid, and a truncated spheroid having a scalar curvature singularity at a finite value of the radial coordinate. The second case arises when the modulus of the pressure exceeds the energy density (the phantom Chaplygin gas). There is no more equator and all solutions have the geometry of a truncated spheroid with the same type of singularity. We also consider static spherically symmetric configurations existing in a universe filled with only the phantom Chaplygin gas. In this case, two classes of solutions exist: truncated spheroids and solutions of the wormhole type with a throat. However, the latter are not asymptotically flat and possess curvature singularities at finite values of the radial coordinate. Thus, they may not be used as models of observable compact astrophysical objects.

  11. Reissner-Nordström thin-shell wormholes with generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Azam, M.

    2013-09-01

    Following Visser’s approach (Visser in Phys. Rev. D 39:3182, 1989; Nucl. Phys. B 328:203, 1989; Lorentzian wormholes. AIP Press, New York, 1996) of cut and paste, we construct Reissner-Nordström thin-shell wormholes by taking the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas for the exotic matter located at the wormhole throat. The Darmois-Israel conditions are used to determine the dynamical quantities of the system. The viability of the thin-shell wormholes is explored with respect to radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry. We find stable as well as unstable Reissner-Nordström thin-shell wormhole solutions depending upon the model parameters. Finally, we compare our results with both generalized and modified Chaplygin gases.

  12. Chaplygin gas quantum universe in the presence of the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, Pouria; Jalalzadeh, Shahram

    2010-04-01

    We present a Chaplygin gas Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model in the presence of the cosmological constant. We apply the Schutz’s variational formalism to recover the notion of time, and this gives rise to Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the scale factor. We study the early and late time universes and show that the presence of the Chaplygin gas leads to an effective positive cosmological constant for the late times. This suggests the possibility of changing the sign of the effective cosmological constant during the transition from the early times to the late times. For the case of an effective negative cosmological constant for both epoches, we solve the resulting Wheeler-DeWitt equation using the Spectral Method and find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for positive, zero, and negative constant spatial curvatures. Then, we use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets for each case and obtain the time-dependent expectation value of the scale factors, which are found to oscillate between finite maximum and minimum values. Since the expectation value of the scale factors never tend to the singular point, we have an initial indication that this model may not have singularities at the quantum level.

  13. Born-Infeld thin-shell wormholes supported by generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates thin-shell wormholes in Born-Infeld theory supported by generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG). We study their stability via radial perturbations for distinct values of charge and Born-Infeld parameter. The comparison of wormhole solutions corresponding to generalized Chaplygin gas, modified Chaplygin gas with GCCG quation of state is established. It is found that similar type of wormhole solutions exists for small value of charge and Born-Infeld parameter for all type of equation of state, while some extra stable as well as unstable solution are found corresponding to large value of charge and Born-Infeld parameter. Thus, it is concluded that GCCG and large value of charge may responsible for such extra solutions.

  14. Interacting closed string tachyon with modified Chaplygin gas and its stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Ali R.; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Faghani, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered a closed string tachyon model with a constant dilaton field and interacted it with Chaplygin gas for evaluating cosmology parameters. The model has been studied in 26 dimensions, with 22 dimensions related to compactification on an internal nonflat space and its other 4 dimensions related to the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric. By taking the internal curvature as a negative constant, we reconstructed the closed string tachyon potential in terms of tachyon field as a quartic equation. The tachyon field and the scale factor have been achieved as a function of time evolution and geometry of curved space where the behavior of the scale factor describes an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Next, we discussed the stability of our model by introducing a sound speed factor, which must be, in our case, a positive function. By drawing sound speed against time evolution, we investigated stability conditions for a nonflat universe in its three stages: early, late, and future time. As a result we shall see that in these cases there remains an instability at early time and a stability point at late time.

  15. Relativistic compact anisotropic charged stellar models with Chaplygin equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, Piyali; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new model of static spherically symmetric relativistic charged stellar objects with locally anisotropic matter distribution together with the Chaplygin equation of state. The interior spacetime has been matched continuously to the exterior Reissner-Nordström geometry. Different physical properties of the stellar model have been investigated, analyzed, and presented graphically.

  16. Chaplygin gas of Tachyon Nature Imposed by Noether Symmetry and constrained via H(z) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardai Collodel, Lucas; Medeiros Kremer, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    An action of general form is proposed for a Universe containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The latter is interpreted as a tachyon field non-minimally coupled to the scalar curvature. The Palatini approach is used when varying the action so the connection is given by a more generic form. Both the self-interaction potential and the non-minimally coupling function are obtained by constraining the system to present invariability under global point transformation of the fields (Noether Symmetry). The only possible solution is shown to be that of minimal coupling and constant potential (Chaplygin gas). The behavior of the dynamical properties of the system is compared to recent observational data, which infers that the tachyon field must indeed be dynamical.

  17. Duality gives rise to Chaplygin cosmologies with a big rip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    We consider modifications to the Friedmann equation motivated by recent proposals along these lines pursuing an explanation to the observed late time acceleration. Here we show that these approaches can be framed within a theory with modified gravity, and we discuss the construction of the duals of the cosmologies generated within that framework. We then investigate the modifications required to generate extended, generalized and modified Chaplygin cosmologies, and then show that their duals belong to a larger family of cosmologies we call enlarged Chaplygin cosmologies. Finally, by letting the parameters of these models take values not earlier considered in the literature we show that some representatives of that family of cosmologies display sudden future singularities. This fact indicates that the behaviour of these spacetimes is rather different from that of generalized or modified Chaplygin gas cosmologies. This reinforces the idea that modifications of gravity can be responsible for unexpected evolutionary features in the universe.

  18. Chaplygin traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2006-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) is a candidate for the unification of dark energy and dark matter, and is parametrized by an exotic equation of state given by p{sub ch}=-A/{rho}{sub ch}{sup {alpha}}, where A is a positive constant and 0<{alpha}{<=}1. In this paper, exact solutions of spherically symmetric traversable wormholes supported by the GCG are found, possibly arising from a density fluctuation in the GCG cosmological background. To be a solution of a wormhole, the GCG equation of state imposes the following generic restriction A<(8{pi}r{sub 0}{sup 2}){sup -(1+{alpha})}, where r{sub 0} is the wormhole throat radius, consequently violating the null energy condition. The spatial distribution of the exotic GCG is restricted to the throat neighborhood, and the physical properties and characteristics of these Chaplygin wormholes are further analyzed. Four specific solutions are explored in some detail, namely, that of a constant redshift function, a specific choice for the form function, a constant energy density, and finally, isotropic pressure Chaplygin wormhole geometries.

  19. Friedman—Robertson—Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussattar; Prajapati, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman—Robertson—Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  20. Comparison between different cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris

    2008-05-15

    Several cosmological models have been proposed in order to explain the current acceleration of the Universe. Recently, the normal branch of the DGP (after Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati) brane model with a generalized Chaplygin gas was studied as a model which can cross the phantom divide line avoiding the future singularity. In the present work, we wish to address the question of whether or not the aforementioned model has a better fit to supernovae data compared to cold dark matter with a cosmological constant, the (generalized) Chaplygin gas, and the DGP model with the self-accelerating branch without extra fluid for dark energy. We have found that the Chaplygin-DGP model has the worst fit, while the two-fluid model with Chaplygin gas and dust (baryons) has the best fit among the theoretical cosmological models considered here.

  1. A Cosmological Model of the Early Universe Based on ECG with Variable Λ-Term in Lyra Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, H.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study interacting extended Chaplygin gas as dark matter and quintessence scalar field as dark energy with an effective Λ-term in Lyra manifold. As we know Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early universe while cosmological constant at the late time. Modified field equations are given and motivation of the phenomenological models discussed in details. Four different models based on the interaction term are investigated in this work. Then, we consider other models where Extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence field play role of dark matter and dark energy respectively with two different forms of interaction between the extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence scalar field for both constant and varying Λ. Concerning to the mathematical hardness of the problems we discuss results numerically and graphically. Obtained results give us hope that proposed models can work as good models for the early universe with later stage of evolution containing accelerated expansion.

  2. Constraining the Generalized and Superfluid Chaplygin Gas Models with the Sandage-Loeb Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Tao; Wu, Pu-Xun; Yu, Hong-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants Nos 11175093, 11222545, 11435006, and 11375092, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No 20124306110001, and the K.C. Wong Magna Fund of Ningbo University.

  3. Discriminating dark energy models by using the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Yang, Rongjia; Chen, Bohai E-mail: yangrj08@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    We apply the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations to discriminate modified Chaplygin gas (MCG), generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), superfluid Chaplygin gas (SCG), purely kinetic k-essence (PKK), and ΛCDM model. We plot the evolutional trajectories of these models in the Statefinder plane and in the composite diagnostic plane. We find that GCG, MCG, SCG, PKK, and ΛCDM can be distinguished well from each other at the present epoch by using the composite diagnostic (ε(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 5}). Using other combinations, such as (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sup (1)}{sub 4}), (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sub 5}), (ε(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 3}), and (ε(z), S{sub 4}), some of these five dark energy models cannot be distinguished.

  4. Routh symmetry in the Chaplygin's rolling ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byungsoo

    2011-12-01

    The Routh integral in the symmetric Chaplygin's rolling ball has been regarded as a mysterious conservation law due to its interesting form of sqrt {I_1 I_3 + m< {I_s ,s} rangle } Ω _3 . In this paper, a new form of the Routh integral is proposed as a Noether's pairing form of a conservation law. An explicit symmetry vector for the Routh integral is proved to associate the conserved quantity with the invariance of the Lagrangian function under the rollingly constrained nonholonomic variation. Then, the form of the Routh symmetry vector is discussed for its origin as the linear combination of the configurational vectors.

  5. Studies of systems with nonholonomic constraints: The Segway and the Chaplygin sleigh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Joseph T.

    In this thesis, two systems with nonholonomic systems are investigated: the Segway and the Chaplygin sleigh. Using Lagrangian mechanics, the constrained nonlinear equations of motion for both systems are derived. By use of the nullspace of the constraint matrices, the unconstrained equations of motion can be obtained. For the Segway, these equations are linearized about a zero equilibrium state, placed into state space form and decoupled. A feedback controller is designed about the velocity and heading angle rate reference commands. To compare to the real data from the built Segway, measurement noise was also included in the model. Experimental data is taken for the case of both zero and constant reference commands. The data is then compared to the simulated results. The model is shown to be satisfactory, but better parameter measurements of the Segway is needed for a more conclusive comparison. The unconstrained equations of motion for the Chaplygin sleigh can not be linearized. Thus Lyapunov stability theory was used for analysis. The Chaplygin sleigh with constant input was shown to spiral outward and settle into a circle. If a PD feedback controller was designed about the heading angle, then the Chaplygin sleigh would be driven to the angle, but would eventually coast to a stop. From simulations, the addition of a sinusoidal component appears to move in the desired direction without slowing down. A sinusoidal component was also added to a constant input to result in roulette like paths in the simulation. Future investigation would require a more definite analysis of the sinusoidal term in the input.

  6. Strange star admitting Chaplygin equation of state in Finch-Skea spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, Piyali

    2015-10-01

    In the present paper we propose a new model of an anisotropic strange star which admits the Chaplygin equation of state. The exterior spacetime is described by a Schwarzschild line element. The model is developed by assuming the Finch-Skea ansatz (Finch and Skea in Class. Quantum Gravity 6:467, 1989. We obtain the model parameters in closed form. Our model is free from a central singularity. Choosing some particular values for the parameter we show that our model corroborates the observational data of the strange star PSR J1614-2230 (Gangopadhyay et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431:3216, 2013.

  7. World Natural Gas Model

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  8. On the Chaplygin system on the sphere with velocity dependent potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss how to get variables of separation, separated relations and the Lax matrix for the Chaplygin system on the sphere with velocity dependent potential starting with the Lax matrix for other integrable system separable in elliptic coordinates on the sphere.

  9. Singularity-free solutions for anisotropic charged fluids with Chaplygin equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Ray, Saibal; Jafry, Abdul Kayum; Chakraborty, Kausik

    2010-11-01

    We extend the Krori-Barua analysis of the static, spherically symmetric, Einstein-Maxwell field equations and consider charged fluid sources with anisotropic stresses. The inclusion of a new variable (tangential pressure) allows the use of a nonlinear, Chaplygin-type equation of state with coefficients fixed by the matching conditions at the boundary of the source. Some physical features are briefly discussed.

  10. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  11. Large N Model of Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Ke; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2010-03-01

    We construct the large N model of bose gas. Using an artificial parameter 1/N to do the perturbative analysis to study two models: U(N) bose gas and U(1) xO(N) bose gas. We find that for U(N) bose gas we get Bogoliubov spectrum and LHY thermal dynamical relations which is the same as the usual weak coupling bose gas models. For U(1) xO(N) bose gas model, however, we calculate the non-perturbative quantum correction to the depletion, chemical potential, free energy and dispersion relations.

  12. Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

    2007-08-20

    In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology

  13. Modelling magmatic gas scrubbing in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Rossella; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Valenza, Mariano; Bergsson, Baldur; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Rakel Guðjónsdóttir, Sylvía

    2015-04-01

    In volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems, the chemistry of deeply rising magmatic gases is extensively modified by gas-water-rock interactions taking place within the hydrothermal reservoir, and/or at shallow groundwaters conditions. These reactions can scrub reactive, water-soluble species (S, halogens) from the magmatic gas phase, so that their quantitative assessment is central to understanding the chemistry of surface gas manifestations, and brings profound implications to the interpretation of volcanic-hydrothermal unrests. Here, we present the results of numerical simulations of magmatic gas scrubbing, in which the reaction path modelling approach (Helgeson, 1968) is used to reproduce hydrothermal gas-water-rock interactions at both shallow (temperature up to 109°C; low-T model runs) and deep reservoir (temperature range: 150-250 °C; high-T model runs) conditions. The model was built based upon the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery and Daveler, 1992), and consisted into a step by step addition of a high-temperature magmatic gas to an initial meteoric water, in the presence of a dissolving aquifer rock. The model outputted, at each step of gas addition, the chemical composition of a new aqueous solution formed after gas-water-rock interactions; which, upon reaching gas over-pressuring (PgasTOT > Psat(H2O) at run T), is degassed (by single-step degassing) to separate a scrubbed gas phase. As an application of the model results, the model compositions of the separated gases are finally compared with compositions of natural gas emissions from Hekla volcano (T< 100°C) and from Krisuvik geothermal system (T> 100°C), resulting into an excellent agreement. The compositions of the model solutions are also in fair agreement with compositions of natural thermal water samples. We conclude that our EQ3/6-based reaction path simulations offer a realistic representation of gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring underneath active magmatic-hydrothermal systems

  14. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noohi, P.; Abdekhodaie, M. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  15. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics.

    PubMed

    Noohi, P; Abdekhodaie, M J; Cheng, Y L

    2015-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  16. Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-03-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  17. International Natural Gas Model 2011, Model Documentation Report

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the International Natural Gas Model (INGM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Natural Gas Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Natural Gas Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  19. Comet Gas and Dust Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Allmen, Paul A.; Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    This software models the gas and dust dynamics of comet coma (the head region of a comet) in order to support the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) project. MIRO will study the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma system. The instrument will measure surface temperature, gas-production rates and relative abundances, and velocity and excitation temperatures of each species along with their spatial temporal variability. This software will use these measurements to improve the understanding of coma dynamics. The modeling tool solves the equation of motion of a dust particle, the energy balance equation of the dust particle, the continuity equation for the dust and gas flow, and the dust and gas mixture energy equation. By solving these equations numerically, the software calculates the temperature and velocity of gas and dust as a function of time for a given initial gas and dust production rate, and a dust characteristic parameter that measures the ability of a dust particle to adjust its velocity to the local gas velocity. The software is written in a modular manner, thereby allowing the addition of more dynamics equations as needed. All of the numerical algorithms are added in-house and no third-party libraries are used.

  20. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  1. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  2. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  3. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur. PMID:26239103

  4. A topological classification of the Chaplygin systems in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaenko, S S

    2014-02-28

    The paper is concerned with the topological analysis of the Chaplygin integrable case in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid. A full list of the topological types of Chaplygin systems in their dependence on the energy level is compiled on the basis of the Fomenko-Zieschang theory. An effective description of the topology of the Liouville foliation in terms of natural coordinate variables is also presented, which opens a direct way to calculating topological invariants. It turns out that on all nonsingular energy levels Chaplygin systems are Liouville equivalent to the well-known Euler case in the dynamics of a rigid body with fixed point. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  5. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... provides guidance on the requirements for obtaining approval of alternative vapor-gas dispersion...

  6. A lattice gas model for thermohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiyi; Chen, Hudong; Doolen, G.D.; Gutman, S.; Lee, M.

    1990-05-03

    The FHP lattice gas model is extended to include a temperature variable in order to study thermohydrodynamics. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are derived using a Chapman-Enskog expansion. Heat conduction and convention problems are investigated, including Benard convention. It is shown that the usual FHP rescaling procedure can be avoided by controlling the temperature. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Multisite Interactions in Lattice-Gas Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, T. L.; Sathiyanarayanan, R.

    For detailed applications of lattice-gas models to surface systems, multisite interactions often play at least as significant a role as interactions between pairs of adatoms that are separated by a few lattice spacings. We recall that trio (3-adatom, non-pairwise) interactions do not inevitably create phase boundary asymmetries about half coverage. We discuss a sophisticated application to an experimental system and describe refinements in extracting lattice-gas energies from calculations of total energies of several different ordered overlayers. We describe how lateral relaxations complicate matters when there is direct interaction between the adatoms, an issue that is important when examining the angular dependence of step line tensions. We discuss the connector model as an alternative viewpoint and close with a brief account of recent work on organic molecule overlayers.

  8. Modelling hot corrosion in industrial gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, J.R.; Simms, N.J.; Encinas-Oropesa, A.

    2007-07-01

    Gas turbines are a critical component within combined cycle power systems that are being developed to generate electricity more cleanly and efficiently from solid fuel sources, that include coal and biomass. The use of such fuels, to produce fuel gases, increases the potential for significant corrosion and erosion damage to gas turbine blades and vanes. This paper addresses the modelling and prediction of type II hot corrosion in industrial gas turbines within the aim of given acceptable and predictable lifetimes. A matrix of corrosion tests have been undertaken using the 'deposit recoat' test procedure, with samples cooled periodically to re-apply controlled amounts of salt deposit. Deposited salt was 4/1 mole fraction of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, with deposited fluxes of 0, 1.5, 5.0 and 15.0 {mu} g/cm{sup 2}/h. Samples of polycrystalline (IN738 and IN792) and single crystal superalloys (CMSX4 and (SCB)-B-2) were exposed for test durations of 500 and 1000 h at 700 {sup o}C in a variety of gas compositions, consisting of air+50-500vppm SO{sub 2}+0-500vppm HCl+0-5vol% H{sub 2}O. Section loss data has been measured, using precision optical metrology and analysed statistically. Models have been developed that predict section loss as a function of salt deposition rate and gas composition to precisions of {+-} 20 gm loss, with 95% confidence (2 x standard deviation).

  9. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  10. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim; ,

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  11. Model of gas hydrate formation on the surface of a slug of a pure gas

    SciTech Connect

    Elperin, T.; Fominykh, A.

    1995-05-01

    A model of gas hydrate formation at a surface of a slug of a pure hydrate forming gas is suggested. Gas hydrate formation at a low degree of subcooling and at pressure that does not considerably exceed the equilibrium pressure are investigated. The investigation analyzes cases of gas hydrate formation at the surface of a gas slug fixed in a channel by a descending fluid flow and gas hydrate formation at the surface of a gas slug rising in a channel filled with liquid. An expression for the time dependence of a slug`s length is derived.

  12. Numerical modeling of the gas lift process in gas lift wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, N. M.; Turarov, A. K.; Baigereyev, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric motion of gas, liquid and a gas-liquid mixture in a gas-lift well is studied. Numerical simulation of the one-dimensional model of gas-lift process is considered where the movement in a gas-lift well is described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. Difference schemes for the gas-lift model of the process are developed on a nonuniform grid condensing in subdomains with big gradients of the solution. The results of the proposed algorithm are illustrated on the example of a real well.

  13. Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

  14. Modeling Gas Distribution in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Martin; Lewis, Josiah; Brittain, Sean

    2010-07-01

    Protoplanetary accretion disks are disks of dust and gas which surround and feed material onto a forming star in the earliest stages of its evolution. One of the most useful methods for studying these disks is near infrared spectroscopy of rovibrational CO emission. This paper presents the methods in which synthetically generated spectra are modeled and fit to spectral data gathered from protoplanetary disks. This paper also discussed the methods in which this code can be improved by modifying the code to run a Monte Carlo analysis of best fit across the CONDOR cluster at Clemson University, thereby allowing for the creation of a catalog of protoplanetary disks with detailed information about them as gathered from the model.

  15. Parametric modeling of exhaust gas emission from natural gas fired gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bakken, L.E.; Skogly, L.

    1996-07-01

    Increased focus on air pollution from gas turbines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has resulted in taxes on CO{sub 2}. Statements made by the Norwegian authorities imply regulations and/or taxes on NO{sub x} emissions in the near future. The existing CO{sub 2} tax of NOK 0.82/Sm{sup 3} (US Dollars 0.12/Sm{sup 3}) and possible future tax on NO{sub x} are analyzed mainly with respect to operating and maintenance costs for the gas turbine. Depending on actual tax levels, the machine should be operated on full load/optimum thermal efficiency or part load to reduce specific exhaust emissions. Based on field measurements, exhaust emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, UHC, etc.) are established with respect to load and gas turbine performance, including performance degradation. Different NO{sub x} emission correlations are analyzed based on test results, and a proposed prediction model presented. The impact of machinery performance degradation on emission levels is particularly analyzed. Good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted NO{sub x} emissions from the proposed correlation. To achieve continuous exhaust emission control, the proposed NO{sub x} model is implemented to the on-line condition monitoring system on the Sleipner A platform, rather than introducing sensitive emission sensors in the exhaust gas stack. The on-line condition monitoring system forms an important tool in detecting machinery condition/degradation and air pollution, and achieving optimum energy conservation.

  16. A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-12-01

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher

  17. Heavy gas dispersion: integral models and shallow layer models.

    PubMed

    Hankin, Robin K S

    2003-10-01

    Integral models for heavy gas dispersion approximate a dispersing cloud in terms of a small number of variables; each of these is ultimately a function of an independent variable which is usually time (instantaneous releases) or downwind distance (continuous releases). This type of model is used almost exclusively in risk assessment [HSE's risk assessment tool, RISKAT, in: Major Hazards: Onshore and Offshore, October 1992, pp. 607-638; Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 21 (1989) 317], but many distinct integral models exist. The code comparison exercise of Mercer et al. [CEA/AEA exchange agreement on external event. Comparison of heavy gas dispersion models for instantaneous releases: final report, Technical Report IR/L/HA/91/6, Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield, June 1991; J. Hazard. Mater. 36 (1994) 193] presented the results from a number of integral models in a common format; Mercer found that the range of predictions for some scenarios exceeded three orders of magnitude. Here, the TWODEE shallow layer model [J. Hazard. Mater. 66 (3) (1999) 211; J. Hazard. Mater. 66 (3) (1999) 227; J. Hazard. Mater. 66 (3) (1999) 239] is added to Mercer's code comparison exercise. The physical assumptions used in shallow layer models differ profoundly from those used in integral models and the implications of these differences for risk assessment are discussed. TWODEE was used to simulate four representative cases considered by Mercer. In terms of cloud averaged concentration (CAC) vs. centroid position, the present model gave predictions that were consistent with the integral models used by Mercer. As the model neglects horizontal diffusion for passive clouds, overprediction at large downwind distances was expected, but not generally observed.

  18. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  19. A FORTRAN program for modeling methane gas desorption from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V. U.

    Coal has a strong affinity for methane gas, and the process of gas adsorption (or desorption) is modeled customarily by empirical relations between the amount of gas adsorbed (or desorbed) and time. In this paper, a new and unified theory formulated to depict the process and mechanism of methane gas transport in coal is presented. The theory is validated by conventional sorption tests on cylindrical cores, and its description coded in FORTRAN is presented.

  20. On the flow of a compressible fluid by the hodograph method II : fundamental set of particular flow solutions of the Chaplygin differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, I E; Kaplan, Carl

    1944-01-01

    The differential equation of Chaplygin's jet problem is utilized to give a systematic development of particular solutions of the hodograph flow equations, which extends the treatment of Chaplygin into the supersonic range and completes the set of particular solutions. The particular solutions serve to place on a reasonable basis the use of velocity correction formulas for the comparison of incompressible and compressible flows. It is shown that the geometric-mean type of velocity correction formula introduced in part I has significance as an over-all type of approximation in the subsonic range. A brief review of general conditions limiting the potential flow of an adiabatic compressible fluid is given and application is made to the particular solutions, yielding conditions for the existence of singular loci in the supersonic range. The combining of particular solutions in accordance with prescribed boundary flow conditions is not treated in the present paper.

  1. On the Flow of a Compressible Fluid by the Hodograph Method. II - Fundamental Set of Particular Flow Solutions of the Chaplygin Differential Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, I. E.; Kaplan, Carl

    1944-01-01

    The differential equation of Chaplygin's jet problem is utilized to give a systematic development of particular solutions of the hodograph flow equations, which extends the treatment of Chaplygin into the supersonic range and completes the set of particular solutions. The particular solutions serve to place on a reasonable basis the use of velocity correction formulas for the comparison of incompressible and compressible flows. It is shown that the geometric-mean type of velocity correction formula introduced in part I has significance as an over-all type of approximation in the subsonic range. A brief review of general conditions limiting the potential flow of an adiabatic compressible fluid is given and application is made to the particular solutions, yielding conditions for the existence of singular loci in the supersonic range. The combining of particular solutions in accordance with prescribed boundary flow conditions is not treated in the present paper.

  2. Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ladshaw, A.; Sharma, K.; Yiacoumi, S.; Tsouris, C.; De Paoli, D.W.

    2013-07-01

    Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including {sup 129}I{sub 2}, {sup 85}Kr, HTO, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

  3. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  4. Goryachev-Chaplygin, Kovalevskaya, and Brdička-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-waves spacetimes with higher rank Stäckel-Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Rugina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Hidden symmetries of the Goryachev-Chaplygin and Kovalevskaya gyrostats spacetimes, as well as the Brdička-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-waves are studied. We find out that these spacetimes possess higher rank Stäckel-Killing tensors and that in the case of the pp-wave spacetimes, the symmetry group of the Stäckel-Killing tensors is the well-known Newton-Hooke group.

  5. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  6. Modeling of Devonian shale gas reservoirs. Task 16. Mathematical modeling of shale gas production (2D model). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are to: (1) develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales; (2) determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales; (3) recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales; (4) analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance; and (5) study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. During the previous annual period, a mathematical model describing gas flow through Devonian shales and the software for a radial one-dimensional numerical model for single well performance were completed and placed into operation. Although the radial flow model is a powerful tool for studying single well behavior, it is inadequate for determining the effects of well spacing, stimulation treatments, and variation in reservoir properties. Hence, it has been necessary to extend the model to two-dimensions, maintaining full capability regarding Klinkerberg effects, desorption, and shale matrix parameters. During the current annual period, the radial flow model has been successfully extended to provide the two-dimensional capability necessary for the attainment of overall program objectives, as described above.

  7. Theoretical study of gas hydrate decomposition kinetics: model predictions.

    PubMed

    Windmeier, Christoph; Oellrich, Lothar R

    2013-11-27

    In order to provide an estimate of intrinsic gas hydrate dissolution and dissociation kinetics, the Consecutive Desorption and Melting Model (CDM) was developed in a previous publication (Windmeier, C.; Oellrich, L. R. J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 10151-10161). In this work, an extensive summary of required model data is given. Obtained model predictions are discussed with respect to their temperature dependence as well as their significance for technically relevant areas of gas hydrate decomposition. As a result, an expression for determination of the intrinsic gas hydrate decomposition kinetics for various hydrate formers is given together with an estimate for the maximum possible rates of gas hydrate decomposition. PMID:24199870

  8. Modeling of Fission Gas Release in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    MH Krohn

    2006-01-23

    A two-stage gas release model was examined to determine if it could provide a physically realistic and accurate model for fission gas release under Prometheus conditions. The single-stage Booth model [1], which is often used to calculate fission gas release, is considered to be oversimplified and not representative of the mechanisms that occur during fission gas release. Two-stage gas release models require saturation at the grain boundaries before gas is release, leading to a time delay in release of gases generated in the fuel. Two versions of a two-stage model developed by Forsberg and Massih [2] were implemented using Mathcad [3]. The original Forsbers and Massih model [2] and a modified version of the Forsberg and Massih model that is used in a commercially available fuel performance code (FRAPCON-3) [4] were examined. After an examination of these models, it is apparent that without further development and validation neither of these models should be used to calculate fission gas release under Prometheus-type conditions. There is too much uncertainty in the input parameters used in the models. In addition. the data used to tune the modified Forsberg and Massih model (FRAPCON-3) was collected under commercial reactor conditions, which will have higher fission rates relative to Prometheus conditions [4].

  9. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  10. Development and evaluation of a dense gas plume model

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The dense gas plume model (continuous release) described in this paper has been developed using the same principles as for a dense gas puff model (instantaneous release). It is a box model for which the main goal is to predict the height H, width W, and maximum concentration C{sub b} for a steady dense plume. A secondary goal is to distribute the mass more realistically by empirically attaching Gaussian distributions in the horizontal and vertical directions. For ease of reference, the models and supporting programs will be referred to as DGM (Dense Gas Models).

  11. 3D modeling of gas/water distribution in water-bearing carbonate gas reservoirs: the Longwangmiao gas field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Chenghua; Li, ChaoChun; Ma, Zhonggao

    2016-10-01

    A water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir is an important natural gas resource being developed worldwide. Due to the long-term water/rock/gas interaction during geological evolution, complex gas/water distribution has formed under the superposed effect of sedimentary facies, reservoir space facies and gravity difference of fluid facies. In view of these challenges, on the basis of the conventional three-stage modeling method, this paper presents a modelling method controlled by four-stage facies to develop 3D model of a water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir. Key to this method is the reservoir property modelling controlled by two-stage facies, and the fluid property modelling controlled by another two-stage facies. The prerequisite of this method is a reliable database obtained from solid geological investigation. On the basis of illustrating the principles of the modelling method controlled by four-stage facies, this paper further implements systematically modeling of the heterogeneous gas/water distribution of the Longwangmiao carbonate formation in the Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan basin, China.

  12. Modeling biogenic gas bubbles formation and migration in coarse sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.

    2011-12-01

    Shujun Ye Department of Hydrosciences, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; sjye@nju.edu.cn Brent E. Sleep Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 CANADA; sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca Methane gas generation in porous media was investigated in an anaerobic two-dimensional sand-filled cell. Inoculation of the lower portion of the cell with a methanogenic culture and addition of methanol to the bottom of the cell led to biomass growth and formation of a gas phase. The formation, migration, distribution and saturation of gases in the cell were visualized by the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Gas generated at the bottom of the cell in the biologically active zone moved upwards in discrete fingers, so that gas phase saturations (gas-filled fraction of void space) in the biologically active zone at the bottom of the cell did not exceed 40-50%, while gas accumulation at the top of the cell produced gas phase saturations as high as 80%. Macroscopic invasion percolation (MIP) at near pore scale[Glass, et al., 2001; Kueper and McWhorter, 1992]was used to model gas bubbles growth in porous media. The nonwetting phase migration pathway can be yielded directly by MIP. MIP was adopted to simulate the expansion, fragmentation, and mobilization of gas clusters in the cell. The production of gas, and gas phash saturations were simulated by a continuum model - compositional simulator (COMPSIM) [Sleep and Sykes, 1993]. So a combination of a continuum model and a MIP model was used to simulate the formation, fragmentation and migration of biogenic gas bubbles. Key words: biogenic gas; two dimensional; porous media; MIP; COMPSIM

  13. Development of a gas systems analysis model (GSAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of developing a Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) are to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, PC based model of domestic gas industry activity. The system is capable of assessing the impacts of various changes in the natural gas system within North America. The individual and collective impacts due to changes in technology and economic conditions are explicitly modeled in GSAM. Major gas resources are all modeled, including conventional, tight, Devonian Shale, coalbed methane, and low-quality gas sources. The modeling system asseses all key components of the gas industry, including available resources, exploration, drilling, completion, production, and processing practices, both for now and in the future. The model similarly assesses the distribution, storage, and utilization of natural gas in a dynamic market-based analytical structure. GSAM is designed to provide METC managers with a tool to project the impacts of future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) benefits in order to determine priorities in a rapidly changing, market-driven gas industry.

  14. Physical modeling of gas dispersion over urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David

    2016-06-01

    Experimental study of gas dispersion over urban area model was conducted in boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. A scale model of urban area near the Centre of Liberec was made and dispersion of gas emissions from nearby heating plant was measured. The measurements included velocity field and concentration field by means of hot wire anemometer and flame ionization detector. The purpose of this work was to validate and verify a new computational dispersion model, which was developed in VZLU.

  15. A coupled model for solid deformation and gas leak flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peide; Wan, Huagen

    2004-09-01

    From the viewpoint of interaction mechanics of solid and gas, a coupled mathematical model is presented for solid coal/rock-mass deformation and gas leak flow in parallel deformable coal seams. Numerical solutions using the strong implicit procedure (SIP) method to the coupled mathematical model for double parallel coal seams are also developed in detail. Numerical simulations for the prediction of safety range using protection layer mining are performed with experimental data from a mine with potential danger of coal/gas outbursts. Analyses show that the numerical simulation results are consistent with the measured data on the spot. The coupled model shows a positive future for applications in a wide range of gas-leak-flow-related problems in mining engineering, gas drainage engineering and mining safety engineering. Copyright

  16. Computational modeling of Krypton Gas Puffs on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jones, B.; Hansen, S. B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Jobe, M. R. L.; Strizic, T.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2013-10-01

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator are able to produce high-intensity K-shell radiation. Experiments are underway to produce Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV, although efficiently radiating at these high photon energies represents a significant challenge. This necessitates the careful design and optimization of the distribution of gas in these loads. To facilitate this we hydro-dynamically model the flow of gas out of the nozzle, before imploding that mass distribution using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). Modeled gas profiles have been validated against 2-dimensional interferometric measurements of the gas distribution from these nozzles, and MHD calculations are validated against power, yield, spectral and imaging diagnostics of previous gas puff implosions on Z. This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and modeling gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations we have redesigned the gas nozzle to better optimize Krypton K-shell output and the evaluation of these designs is the subject of ongoing experiments. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model

    SciTech Connect

    Ermak, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments.

  18. Revisions to the hydrogen gas generation computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    Waste Management Technology has requested SRTC to maintain and extend a previously developed computer model, TRUGAS, which calculates hydrogen gas concentrations within the transuranic (TRU) waste drums. TRUGAS was written by Frank G. Smith using the BASIC language and is described in the report A Computer Model of gas Generation and Transport within TRU Waste Drums (DP- 1754). The computer model has been partially validated by yielding results similar to experimental data collected at SRL and LANL over a wide range of conditions. The model was created to provide the capability of predicting conditions that could potentially lead to the formation of flammable gas concentrations within drums, and to assess proposed drum venting methods. The model has served as a tool in determining how gas concentrations are affected by parameters such as filter vent sizes, waste composition, gas generation values, the number and types of enclosures, water instrusion into the drum, and curie loading. The success of the TRUGAS model has prompted an interest in the program`s maintenance and enhancement. Experimental data continues to be collected at various sites on such parameters as permeability values, packaging arrangements, filter designs, and waste contents. Information provided by this data is used to improve the accuracy of the model`s predictions. Also, several modifications to the model have been made to enlarge the scope of problems which can be analyzed. For instance, the model has been used to calculate hydrogen concentrations inside steel cabinets containing retired glove boxes (WSRC-RP-89-762). The revised TRUGAS computer model, H2GAS, is described in this report. This report summarizes all modifications made to the TRUGAS computer model and provides documentation useful for making future updates to H2GAS.

  19. Wet gas flow modeling for a vertically mounted Venturi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Wanlu; Li, Xiaomin

    2012-04-01

    Venturi meters are playing an increasingly important role in wet gas metering in natural gas and oil industries. Due to the effect of liquid in a wet gas, the differential pressure over the converging section of a Venturi meter is higher than that when a pure gas flows through with the same flow rate. This phenomenon is referred to as over-reading. Thus, a correction for the over-reading is required. Most of the existing wet gas models are more suitable for higher pressure (>2 MPa) than lower pressure (<1 MPa). Much attention has been paid on higher quality (>0.5) than lower quality (<0.5) in recent years. However, conditions of lower pressure and lower quality also widely exist in the gas and oil industries. By comparing the performances of eight existing wet gas models in low-pressure range of 0.26-0.86 MPa and low-quality range of 0.07-0.36 with a vertically mounted Venturi meter of diameter ratio 0.45, de Leeuw's model was proven to perform best. Derived from de Leeuw's model, a modified model with better performance for the low-pressure and low-quality ranges was obtained. Experimental data showed that the root mean square of the relative errors of the over-reading was 2.30%.

  20. Practical Techniques for Modeling Gas Turbine Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    The cost and risk associated with the design and operation of gas turbine engine systems has led to an increasing dependence on mathematical models. In this paper, the fundamentals of engine simulation will be reviewed, an example performance analysis will be performed, and relationships useful for engine control system development will be highlighted. The focus will be on thermodynamic modeling utilizing techniques common in industry, such as: the Brayton cycle, component performance maps, map scaling, and design point criteria generation. In general, these topics will be viewed from the standpoint of an example turbojet engine model; however, demonstrated concepts may be adapted to other gas turbine systems, such as gas generators, marine engines, or high bypass aircraft engines. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of gas turbine model generation and system performance analysis for educational uses, such as curriculum creation or student reference.

  1. RAETRAD MODEL OF RADON GAS GENERATION, TRANSPORT, AND INDOOR ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the theoretical basis, implementation, and validation of the Radon Emanation and Transport into Dwellings (RAETRAD) model, a conceptual and mathematical approach for simulating radon (222Rn) gas generation and transport from soils and building foundations to ...

  2. Revisions to the hydrogen gas generation computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    Waste Management Technology has requested SRTC to maintain and extend a previously developed computer model, TRUGAS, which calculates hydrogen gas concentrations within the transuranic (TRU) waste drums. TRUGAS was written by Frank G. Smith using the BASIC language and is described in the report A Computer Model of gas Generation and Transport within TRU Waste Drums (DP- 1754). The computer model has been partially validated by yielding results similar to experimental data collected at SRL and LANL over a wide range of conditions. The model was created to provide the capability of predicting conditions that could potentially lead to the formation of flammable gas concentrations within drums, and to assess proposed drum venting methods. The model has served as a tool in determining how gas concentrations are affected by parameters such as filter vent sizes, waste composition, gas generation values, the number and types of enclosures, water instrusion into the drum, and curie loading. The success of the TRUGAS model has prompted an interest in the program's maintenance and enhancement. Experimental data continues to be collected at various sites on such parameters as permeability values, packaging arrangements, filter designs, and waste contents. Information provided by this data is used to improve the accuracy of the model's predictions. Also, several modifications to the model have been made to enlarge the scope of problems which can be analyzed. For instance, the model has been used to calculate hydrogen concentrations inside steel cabinets containing retired glove boxes (WSRC-RP-89-762). The revised TRUGAS computer model, H2GAS, is described in this report. This report summarizes all modifications made to the TRUGAS computer model and provides documentation useful for making future updates to H2GAS.

  3. Computational modeling of Krypton Gas Puffs on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity K-shell radiation. Experiments are currently underway to produce Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV, from double annular shell gas puffs imploded from a 12 cm diameter onto a central gas jet. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies represents a significant challenge which necessitates the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this we hydro-dynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle, before imploding that mass distribution using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). We present details of how modeled gas profiles are validated against 2-dimensional interferometric measurements of the initial gas distribution, and MHD calculations are validated against power, yield, spectral and imaging diagnostics of the experiments. This approach has enabled us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations we have designed and implemented gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission. Predicted increases in yield from introducing a relief feature into the inner gas nozzle to create a radially increasing density distribution were recovered in experiment. K-shell yield is predicted to further increase by the introduction of an on-axis gas jet, although the mass of this jet must be carefully selected with respect to the delivered current to avoid reducing the yield. For Kr gas puffs the predicted K-shell yield increase from addition of a light central jet was realized in the experiments, considerably increasing the yield over previous results. Further confidence in our

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the fission gas behavior model in BISON.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Pastore, Giovanni; Perez, Danielle; Williamson, Richard

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of a new model for the fission gas behavior (release and swelling) in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the new model in BISON, the sensitivity of the calculated fission gas release and swelling to the involved parameters and the associated uncertainties is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of intrinsic uncertainties in the analysis of fission gas behavior in nuclear fuel.

  5. A dynamic plunger-lift model for gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    A free piston or plunger traveling up and down the tubing has been used for different applications in oil and gas production for decades. Its most widespread use is in conventional plunger lift, which is an artificial-lift technique characterized by use of reservoir energy stored in the gas phase to lift fluids to the surface. The plunger acts as an interface between the liquid slug and the gas to keep the ballistic-shaped flow pattern of the higher-velocity gas phase from breaking through the liquid phase during production. Several authors have modeled plunger-lift installations. Static models have been proposed and are widely accepted. Dynamic models also have been published to describe the phenomenon of a plunger-lift cycle. The dynamic model developed in the full-length paper overcomes some of the assumptions used in previous models. It includes reservoir performance, gas expansion with friction effects, and the transient behavior of the gas above the liquid slug when the surface valve is opened. It also includes a blow-down or afterflow period for production after the liquid slug surfaces. The upstroke model includes a transition phase that describes the production of the slug into the flowline.

  6. USERS MANUAL: LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL - VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's guide for a computer model, Version 2.0 of the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM), for estimating air pollution emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmet...

  7. A Generalized Kinetic Model for Heterogeneous Gas-Solid Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-15

    We present a generalized kinetic model for gas-solid heterogeneous reactions taking place at the interface between two phases. The model studies the reaction kinetics by taking into account the reactions at the interface, as well as the transport process within the product layer. The standard unreacted shrinking core model relies on the assumption of quasi-static diffusion that results in a steady-state concentration profile of gas reactant in the product layer. By relaxing this assumption and resolving the entire problem, general solutions can be obtained for reaction kinetics, including the reaction front velocity and the conversion (volume fraction of reacted solid). The unreacted shrinking core model is shown to be accurate and in agreement with the generalized model for slow reaction (or fast diffusion), low concentration of gas reactant, and small solid size. Otherwise, a generalized kinetic model should be used.

  8. Modeling of thermal steam cracking of an atmospheric gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Depeyre, D.; Flicoteaux, C.; Arbabzadeh, F.; Zabaniotou, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Gas oil cracking experiments in the presence of steam were performed in a loboratory-scale tubular quartz or Inconel reactor. The effects of temperature, inlet steam to gas oil ratio, and residence time on the major effluent products were investigated. The temperature, steam to gas oil weight ratio, and residence time were varied in the ranges 628-800 {degrees}C, 1-2 kg/kg, and 0.4-1.0's, respectively. The best yield of ethylene, 27% by weight, was obtained in the quartz reactor at 770 {degrees}C, residence time of 0.6 s, and mass ratio of steam to gas oil equal to 1. Experiments combined with a simulation model allows the authors to predict the effluent products distribution as a function of temperature and residence time. Several kinetic models were attempted. The best one was a mechanistic radical and molecular model. Gas oil feedstock composition was simplified, taking into account radical and molecular model. Gas oil feedstock composition was simplified, taking into account one compound as representative of the principle hydrocarbon families. For this study, the model proposed consisted of 138 reactions, 18 species, and 24 radicals.

  9. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  10. Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-07-01

    Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  11. A GIS-based Model for Natural Gas Data Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitik, E.; Seker, D. Z.; Denli, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    In Turkey gas utility sector has undergone major changes in terms of increased competition between gas providers, efforts in improving services, and applying new technological solutions. This paper discusses the challenges met by gas companies to switch from long workflows of gas distribution, sales and maintenance into IT driven efficient management of complex information both spatially and non-spatially. The aim of this study is migration of all gas data and information into a GIS environment in order to manage and operate all infrastructure investments with a Utility Management System. All data conversion model for migration was designed and tested during the study. A flowchart is formed to transfer the old data layers to the new structure based on geodatabase.

  12. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  13. Gas hydrate dynamics in heterogeneous media - challenges for numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwicz, Ewa; Ruepke, Lars; Wallmann, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline cage structures containing various greenhouse gases, such as methane or CO2, which are locked within their spatial structure. Gas hydrate distribution in oceanic settings is mainly controlled by three factors: 1) low temperature regimes, 2) high pressure regimes, and 3) presence of biodegradable organic matter. Due to their composition, hydrates are vulnerable to temperature, pressure, and, to a smaller degree, salinity changes. The occurrence of gas hydrates in marine sediments was discovered mainly along continental margins (slope and rise) where water depths exceed 400 m and the bottom water temperatures are small enough to sustain their presence. The amount of gas hydrates present in marine sediments on a global scale is still under debate. Several numerical models of a different complexity have been developed to estimate the potential amount of clathrates locked world-wide within marine sediments. The range of estimates starts from 500 Gt up to 57,000 Gt of methane carbon which implies a variation of several orders of magnitude. It has been already established that current climate changes are triggering some of the methane releases around the world. Prominent gas hydrate occurrence zones, such as Blake Ridge, can provide important information of the scale of potential hazards and help to predict a future impact of such events. Blake Ridge is a well investigated gas hydrate province containing a large amount of a locked methane gas. With the new numerical multiphase model we have been investigating 1) the potential risk of gas hydrate destabilization caused by several environmental factors (e.g. bottom water temperature rise, sea-level variations), 2) the effect of changing sedimentation regimes to the total amount of gas hydrate, 3) dynamics of hydrate formation in heterogeneous sediment layers, and 4) the impact of dynamic compaction on fluid and gas flow regimes. The model contains four phases (solid porous matrix, pore

  14. Transient Catalytic Combustor Model With Detailed Gas and Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Mellish, Benjamin P.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Tien, James S.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we numerically investigate the transient combustion of a premixed gas mixture in a narrow, perfectly-insulated, catalytic channel which can represent an interior channel of a catalytic monolith. The model assumes a quasi-steady gas-phase and a transient, thermally thin solid phase. The gas phase is one-dimensional, but it does account for heat and mass transfer in a direction perpendicular to the flow via appropriate heat and mass transfer coefficients. The model neglects axial conduction in both the gas and in the solid. The model includes both detailed gas-phase reactions and catalytic surface reactions. The reactants modeled so far include lean mixtures of dry CO and CO/H2 mixtures, with pure oxygen as the oxidizer. The results include transient computations of light-off and system response to inlet condition variations. In some cases, the model predicts two different steady-state solutions depending on whether the channel is initially hot or cold. Additionally, the model suggests that the catalytic ignition of CO/O2 mixtures is extremely sensitive to small variations of inlet equivalence ratios and parts per million levels of H2.

  15. Estimating Predictive Variance for Statistical Gas Distribution Modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Asadi, Sahar; Reggente, Matteo

    2009-05-23

    Recent publications in statistical gas distribution modelling have proposed algorithms that model mean and variance of a distribution. This paper argues that estimating the predictive concentration variance entails not only a gradual improvement but is rather a significant step to advance the field. This is, first, since the models much better fit the particular structure of gas distributions, which exhibit strong fluctuations with considerable spatial variations as a result of the intermittent character of gas dispersal. Second, because estimating the predictive variance allows to evaluate the model quality in terms of the data likelihood. This offers a solution to the problem of ground truth evaluation, which has always been a critical issue for gas distribution modelling. It also enables solid comparisons of different modelling approaches, and provides the means to learn meta parameters of the model, to determine when the model should be updated or re-initialised, or to suggest new measurement locations based on the current model. We also point out directions of related ongoing or potential future research work.

  16. Estimating Predictive Variance for Statistical Gas Distribution Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Asadi, Sahar; Reggente, Matteo

    2009-05-01

    Recent publications in statistical gas distribution modelling have proposed algorithms that model mean and variance of a distribution. This paper argues that estimating the predictive concentration variance entails not only a gradual improvement but is rather a significant step to advance the field. This is, first, since the models much better fit the particular structure of gas distributions, which exhibit strong fluctuations with considerable spatial variations as a result of the intermittent character of gas dispersal. Second, because estimating the predictive variance allows to evaluate the model quality in terms of the data likelihood. This offers a solution to the problem of ground truth evaluation, which has always been a critical issue for gas distribution modelling. It also enables solid comparisons of different modelling approaches, and provides the means to learn meta parameters of the model, to determine when the model should be updated or re-initialised, or to suggest new measurement locations based on the current model. We also point out directions of related ongoing or potential future research work.

  17. Statistical time-dependent model for the interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerola, H.; Kafatos, M.; Mccray, R.

    1974-01-01

    We present models for temperature and ionization structure of low, uniform-density (approximately 0.3 per cu cm) interstellar gas in a galactic disk which is exposed to soft X rays from supernova outbursts occurring randomly in space and time. The structure was calculated by computing the time record of temperature and ionization at a given point by Monte Carlo simulation. The calculation yields probability distribution functions for ionized fraction, temperature, and their various observable moments. These time-dependent models predict a bimodal temperature distribution of the gas that agrees with various observations. Cold regions in the low-density gas may have the appearance of clouds in 21-cm absorption. The time-dependent model, in contrast to the steady-state model, predicts large fluctuations in ionization rate and the existence of cold (approximately 30 K), ionized (ionized fraction equal to about 0.1) regions.

  18. Computer modeling of gas flow and gas loading of rock in a bench blasting environment

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Baer, M.R. ); Knudsen, S.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Numerical modeling can contribute greatly to an understanding of the physics involved in the blasting process. This paper will describe the latest enhancements to the blast modeling code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) (Taylor and Preece, 1989) and will demonstrate the ability of DMC to model gas flow and rock motion in a bench blasting environment. DMC has been used previously to model rock motion associated with blasting in a cratering environment (Preece and Taylor, 1990) and in confined volume blasting associated with in-situ oil shale retorting (Preece, 1990 a b). These applications of DMC treated the explosive loading as force versus time functions on specific spheres which were adjusted to obtain correct face velocities. It was recognized that a great need in explosives modeling was the coupling of an ability to simulate gas flow with the rock motion simulation capability of DMC. This was accomplished by executing a finite difference code that computes gas flow through a porous media (Baer and Gross, 1989) in conjunction with DMC. The marriage of these two capabilities has been documented by Preece and Knudsen, 1991. The capabilities that have been added recently to DMC and which will be documented in this paper include: (1) addition of a new equation of state for the explosive gases; (2) modeling of gas flow and sphere loading in a bench environment. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  19. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  20. Application of dispersion modeling to indoor gas release scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, F; Williams, T A

    1995-03-01

    Many complex models are available to study the dispersion of contaminants or ventilation effectiveness in indoor spaces. Because of the computationally complex numerical schemes employed, most of these models require mainframe computers or workstations. However, simple design tools or guidelines are needed, in addition to complicated models. A dispersion model based on the basic governing equations was developed and uses an analytical solution. Because the concentration is expressed by an analytical solution, the grid size and time steps are user definable. A computer program was used to obtain numerical results and to obtain release history from a thermodynamic source model. The model can be used to estimate three-dimensional spatial and temporal variations in concentrations resulting from transient gas releases in an enclosure. The model was used to study a gas release scenario from a pressurized cylinder into a large ventilated building, in this case, a transit parking and fueling facility. PMID:15658159

  1. Modeling natural gas market volatility using GARCH with different distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiaodong; Shan, Xian

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we model natural gas market volatility using GARCH-class models with long memory and fat-tail distributions. First, we forecast price volatilities of spot and futures prices. Our evidence shows that none of the models can consistently outperform others across different criteria of loss functions. We can obtain greater forecasting accuracy by taking the stylized fact of fat-tail distributions into account. Second, we forecast volatility of basis defined as the price differential between spot and futures. Our evidence shows that nonlinear GARCH-class models with asymmetric effects have the greatest forecasting accuracy. Finally, we investigate the source of forecasting loss of models. Our findings based on a detrending moving average indicate that GARCH models cannot capture multifractality in natural gas markets. This may be the plausible explanation for the source of model forecasting losses.

  2. Geomechanical Modeling of Gas Hydrate Bearing Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Gai, X., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    This contribution focuses on an advance geomechanical model for methane hydrate-bearing soils based on concepts of elasto-plasticity for strain hardening/softening soils and incorporates bonding and damage effects. The core of the proposed model includes: a hierarchical single surface critical state framework, sub-loading concepts for modeling the plastic strains generally observed inside the yield surface and a hydrate enhancement factor to account for the cementing effects provided by the presence of hydrates in sediments. The proposed framework has been validated against recently published experiments involving both, synthetic and natural hydrate soils, as well as different sediments types (i.e., different hydrate saturations, and different hydrates morphologies) and confinement conditions. The performance of the model in these different case studies was very satisfactory.

  3. Modeling of neutral gas dynamics in high-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canupp, Patrick Wellington

    This thesis describes a physical model of chemically reactive neutral gas flow and discusses numerical solutions of this model for the flow in an inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. To obtain these solutions, this research develops an efficient, implicit numerical method. As a result of the enhanced numerical stability of the scheme, large time steps advance the solution from initial conditions to a final steady state in fewer iterations and with less computational expense than simpler explicit methods. This method would incorporate suitably as a module in currently existing large scale plasma simulation tools. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis presents results from two simulations of flows that possess theoretical solutions. The first case is the inviscid flow of a gas through a converging nozzle. A comparison of the numerical solution to isentropic flow theory shows that the numerical technique capably captures the essential flow features of this environment. The second case is the Couette flow of a gas between two parallel plates. The simulation results compare well with the exact solution for this flow. After establishing the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis discusses results for the flow of chemically reactive gases in a chlorine plasma etch reactor. This research examines the influence of the plasma on the neutral gas and the dynamics exhibited by the neutral gas in the reactor. This research finds that the neutral gas temperature strongly depends on the rate at which inelastic, electron-impact dissociation reactions occur and on atomic chlorine wall recombination rates. Additionally, the neutral gas Aow in the reactor includes a significant mass flux of etch product from the wafer surface. Resolution of these effects is useful for neutral gas simulation. Finally, this thesis demonstrates that continuum fluid models provide reasonable accuracy for these low pressure reactor flows due to the fact

  4. Cytochrome C Biosensor—A Model for Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hulko, Michael; Hospach, Ingeborg; Krasteva, Nadejda; Nelles, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    This work is about gas biosensing with a cytochrome c biosensor. Emphasis is put on the analysis of the sensing process and a mathematical model to make predictions about the biosensor response. Reliable predictions about biosensor responses can provide valuable information and facilitate biosensor development, particularly at an early development stage. The sensing process comprises several individual steps, such as phase partition equilibrium, intermediate reactions, mass-transport, and reaction kinetics, which take place in and between the gas and liquid phases. A quantitative description of each step was worked out and finally combined into a mathematical model. The applicability of the model was demonstrated for a particular example of methanethiol gas detection by a cytochrome c biosensor. The model allowed us to predict the optical readout response of the biosensor from tabulated data and data obtained in simple liquid phase experiments. The prediction was experimentally verified with a planar three-electrode electro-optical cytochrome c biosensor in contact with methanethiol gas in a gas tight spectroelectrochemical measurement cell. PMID:22163937

  5. An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

  6. Mathematical modelling of landfill gas migration in MSW sanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Marañón, E; Sastre, H

    2001-10-01

    The laws that govern the displacement of landfill gas in a sanitary landfill are analysed. Subsequently, a 2-D finite difference flow model of a fluid in a steady state in a porous medium with infinite sources of landfill gas is proposed. The fact that landfill gas is continuously generated throughout the entire mass of the landfill differentiates this model from others extensively described in the literature and used in a variety of different applications, such as oil recovery, groundwater flow, etc. Preliminary results are then presented of the application of the model. Finally, the results obtained employing data from the literature and experimental assays carried out at the La Zoreda sanitary landfill (Asturias, Spain) are discussed and future lines of research are proposed.

  7. Microplume model of spatial-yield spectra. [applying to electron gas degradation in molecular nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Singhal, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    An analytic representation for the spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra is developed in terms of a model containing three simple 'microplumes'. The model is applied to electron energy degradation in molecular nitrogen gas for 0.1 to 5 keV incident electrons. From the nature of the cross section input to this model it is expected that the scaled spatial yield spectra for other gases will be quite similar. The model indicates that each excitation, ionization, etc. plume should have its individual spatial and energy dependence. Extensions and aeronomical and radiological applications of the model are discussed.

  8. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  9. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events. PMID:25812425

  10. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  11. Semiphenomenological model for gas-liquid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, E. S.; Benilov, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    We examine a rarefied gas with inter-molecular attraction. It is argued that the attraction force amplifies random density fluctuations by pulling molecules from lower-density regions into high-density regions and thus may give rise to an instability. To describe this effect, we use a kinetic equation where the attraction force is taken into account in a way similar to how electromagnetic forces in plasma are treated in the Vlasov model. It is demonstrated that the instability occurs when the temperature T is lower than a certain threshold value Ts depending on the gas density. It is further shown that, even if T is only marginally lower than Ts, the instability generates clusters with density much higher than that of the gas. These results suggest that the instability should be interpreted as a gas-liquid phase transition, with Ts being the temperature of saturated vapor and the high-density clusters representing liquid droplets.

  12. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  13. Off-gas Adsorption Model and Simulation - OSPREY

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2013-10-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed.

  14. Modelling and identification for control of gas bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    Gas bearings are popular for their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation, but suffer from poor damping, which poses challenges for safe operation in presence of disturbances. Feedback control can achieve enhanced damping but requires low complexity models of the dominant dynamics over its entire operating range. Models from first principles are complex and sensitive to parameter uncertainty. This paper presents an experimental technique for "in situ" identification of a low complexity model of a rotor-bearing-actuator system and demonstrates identification over relevant ranges of rotational speed and gas injection pressure. This is obtained using parameter-varying linear models that are found to capture the dominant dynamics. The approach is shown to be easily applied and to suit subsequent control design. Based on the identified models, decentralised proportional control is designed and shown to obtain the required damping in theory and in a laboratory test rig.

  15. Wind tunnel modeling of toxic gas releases at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Government agencies and the petroleum, chemical and gas industries in the US and abroad have become increasingly concerned about the issues of toxic gas dispersal. Because of this concern, research programs have been sponsored by these various groups to improve the capabilities in hazard mitigation and response. Present computer models used to predict pollutant concentrations at industrial facilities do not properly account for the effects of structures. Structures can act to trap or deflect the cloud and modify the cloud dimensions, thereby possibly increasing or reducing downwind concentrations. The main purpose of this evaluation was to develop a hybrid modeling approach, which combines wind tunnel and dispersion modeling, to obtain more accurate concentration estimates when buildings or structures affect the dispersion of hazardous chemical vapors. To meet the study objectives, wind tunnel testing was performed on a building cluster typical of two industrial settings where accidental releases of toxic gases might occur. This data set was used to test the validity of the AFTOX and SLAB models for estimating concentrations and was used to develop and test two hybrid models. Two accident scenarios were simulated, an evaporating pool of a gas slightly heavier than air (Hydrazine-N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and a liquid jet release of Nitrogen Tetroxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) where dense gas dispersion effects would be significant. Tests were conducted for a range of wind directions and wind speeds for two different building configurations (low rise and high rise structures).

  16. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  17. New research avenues in toxicology: 7-gas N-Gas Model, toxicant suppressants, and genetic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Levin, B C

    1996-12-31

    Three research areas -- a 7-gas N-Gas Model, toxicant suppressants, and genetic toxicology -- are presented as new research approaches in toxicology. The current 6-gas N-Gas Model predicts the toxic potency of the combustion products of materials based on the toxicological interactions of the fire gases carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), low oxygen (O2) concentrations, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen bromide. The present research includes nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a new 7-gas model which incorporates the synergistic effects of NO2 and CO2, the antagonistic effects of NO2 and HCN, and the additive effects of NO2 with CO and low O2. The area of toxicant suppressants concerns chemicals, which when added to a material, will inhibit or reduce the concentration of a specific toxic gas normally generated during thermal decomposition of that material. The effectiveness of this approach was demonstrated at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology when HCN generation was reduced by 90% and the resultant toxicity of the combustion products was lowered by 50% when a flexible polyurethane (FPU) foam was treated with 0.1% (by weight) cuprous oxide (Cu2O). Although melamine-treated FPU foams are being promoted as more fire safe than standard foams, a melamine-treated foam generated 10 times more HCN than a foam without melamine. The addition of Cu2O to this melamine foam also reduced the HCN generation by 90%. The genetic toxicology research entails the examination of DNA damage that results from the exposure of human cells to various environmental toxicants and gases.

  18. Off-gas adsorption model and simulation - OSPREY

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, V.J.

    2013-07-01

    A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and Recovery (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed. (author)

  19. Multiscale Aspects of Modeling Gas-Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, B.; Gröhn, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol reactors are utilized to manufacture nanoparticles in industrially relevant quantities. The development, understanding and scale-up of aerosol reactors can be facilitated with models and computer simulations. This review aims to provide an overview of recent developments of models and simulations and discuss their interconnection in a multiscale approach. A short introduction of the various aerosol reactor types and gas-phase particle dynamics is presented as a background for the later discussion of the models and simulations. Models are presented with decreasing time and length scales in sections on continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics models. PMID:23729992

  20. Modeling CO2 air dispersion from gas driven lake eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Rouwet, Dmitri; Tassi, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The most tragic event of gas driven lake eruption occurred at Lake Nyos (Cameroon) on 21 August 1986, when a dense cloud of CO2 suffocated more than 1700 people and an uncounted number of animals in just one night. The event stimulated a series of researches aimed to understand gas origins, gas release mechanisms and strategies for gas hazard mitigation. Very few studies have been carried out for describing the transport of dense CO2 clouds in the atmosphere. Although from a theoretical point of view, gas dispersion can be fully studied by solving the complete equations system for mass, momentum and energy transport, in actual practice, different simplified models able to describe only specific phases or aspects have to be used. In order to simulate dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard we used a model based on a shallow layer approach (TWODEE2). This technique which uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography represents a good compromise between the complexity of computational fluid dynamic models and the simpler integral models. Recently the model has been applied for simulating CO2 dispersion from natural gas emissions in Central Italy. The results have shown how the dispersion pattern is strongly affected by the intensity of gas release, the topography and the ambient wind speed. Here for the first time we applied TWODEE2 code to simulate the dispersion of the large CO2 clouds released by limnic eruptions. An application concerns the case of the 1986 event at lake Nyos. Some difficulties for the simulations were related to the lack of quantitative information: gas flux estimations are not well constrained, meteorological conditions are only qualitatively known, the digital model of the terrain is of poor quality. Different scenarios were taken into account in order to reproduce the qualitative observations available for such episode. The observations regard mainly the effects of gas on

  1. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation

  2. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  3. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  4. Gas Exchange Models for a Flexible Insect Tracheal System.

    PubMed

    Simelane, S M; Abelman, S; Duncan, F D

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two models for movement of respiratory gases in the insect trachea are presented. One model considers the tracheal system as a single flexible compartment while the other model considers the trachea as a single flexible compartment with gas exchange. This work represents an extension of Ben-Tal's work on compartmental gas exchange in human lungs and is applied to the insect tracheal system. The purpose of the work is to study nonlinear phenomena seen in the insect respiratory system. It is assumed that the flow inside the trachea is laminar, and that the air inside the chamber behaves as an ideal gas. Further, with the isothermal assumption, the expressions for the tracheal partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, rate of volume change, and the rates of change of oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide concentration are derived. The effects of some flow parameters such as diffusion capacities, reaction rates and air concentrations on net flow are studied. Numerical simulations of the tracheal flow characteristics are performed. The models developed provide a mathematical framework to further investigate gas exchange in insects. PMID:27209375

  5. Evaluation of dense-gas simulation models. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zapert, J.G.; Londergan, R.J.; Thistle, H.

    1991-05-01

    The report describes the approach and presents the results of an evaluation study of seven dense gas simulation models using data from three experimental programs. The models evaluated are two in the public domain (DEGADIS and SLAB) and five that are proprietary (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, SAFEMODE, and TRACE). The data bases used in the evaluation are the Desert Tortoise Pressurized Ammonia Releases, Burro Liquefied Natural Gas Spill Tests and the Goldfish Anhydrous Hydroflouric Acid Spill Experiments. A uniform set of performance statistics are calculated and tabulated to compare maximum observed concentrations and cloud half-width to those predicted by each model. None of the models demonstrated good performance consistently for all three experimental programs.

  6. An integral representation of functions in gas-kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelitsa, Misha

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the theory of kinetic models in gas dynamics, we obtain an integral representation of lower semicontinuous functions on {{{R}}^d,} {d≥1}. We use the representation to study the problem of compactness of a family of the solutions of the discrete time BGK model for the compressible Euler equations. We determine sufficient conditions for strong compactness of moments of kinetic densities, in terms of the measures from their integral representations.

  7. Thermo-Gas-Dynamic Model of Afterburning in Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Ferguson, R E; Bell, J B

    2003-07-27

    A theoretical model of afterburning in explosions created by turbulent mixing of the detonation products from fuel-rich charges with air is described. It contains three key elements: (i) a thermodynamic-equilibrium description of the fluids (fuel, air, and products), (ii) a multi-component gas-dynamic treatment of the flow field, and (iii) a sub-grid model of molecular processes of mixing, combustion and equilibration.

  8. Microeconomics of the ideal gas like market models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2009-10-01

    We develop a framework based on microeconomic theory from which the ideal gas like market models can be addressed. A kinetic exchange model based on that framework is proposed and its distributional features have been studied by considering its moments. Next, we derive the moments of the CC model (Eur. Phys. J. B 17 (2000) 167) as well. Some precise solutions are obtained which conform with the solutions obtained earlier. Finally, an output market is introduced with global price determination in the model with some necessary modifications.

  9. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations. PMID:26986408

  10. A heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiwei; Chen, Jianqiao; Zheng, Yaochen; Wei, Junhong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the cellular automata method (CA model) and the mobile lattice gas model (MLG model), we have developed a heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation processes in an emergency. A local population density concept is introduced first. The update rule in the new model depends on the local population density and the exit crowded degree factor. The drift D, which is one of the key parameters influencing the evacuation process, is allowed to change according to the local population density of the pedestrians. Interactions including attraction, repulsion, and friction between every two pedestrians and those between a pedestrian and the building wall are described by a nonlinear function of the corresponding distance, and the repulsion forces increase sharply as the distances get small. A critical force of injury is introduced into the model, and its effects on the evacuation process are investigated. The model proposed has heterogeneous features as compared to the MLG model or the basic CA model. Numerical examples show that the model proposed can capture the basic features of pedestrian evacuation, such as clogging and arching phenomena.

  11. A model for predicting laminar gas flow through micropassages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Ming; Wang, Bu-Xuan; Peng, Xiao-Feng

    1997-12-01

    An theoretical investigation was conducted to detect the gas-solid interface effect on laminar flow characteristics for gas flowing through micropassages. In the wall-adjacent region, the change in viscosity of fluid vs the distance from the wall surface, as derived from the kinetic theory of gases result in significant influence on the flow characteristics in micropassages. A model was proposed to account for the wall effect. Analytical expressions for velocity profiles and pressure drop were derived, respectively, for laminar flow of gases in microtubes and in extremely narrow parallel plates. The Knudsen number, Kn, as a criterion, that the flow can be treated reasonably as flow in macrochannels, is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  13. Natural gas production from hydrate dissociation: An axisymmetric model

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, G.; Ji, Chuang; Smith, D.H.

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes an axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. During the hydrate dissociation, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are analyzed. The system of governing equations is solved by a finite difference scheme. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well are evaluated. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by a linearization method. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure. The simulation results are compared with the linearization approach and the shortcomings of the earlier approach are discussed.

  14. Neural network models for biological waste-gas treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Rene, Eldon R; Estefanía López, M; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2011-12-15

    This paper outlines the procedure for developing artificial neural network (ANN) based models for three bioreactor configurations used for waste-gas treatment. The three bioreactor configurations chosen for this modelling work were: biofilter (BF), continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTB) and monolith bioreactor (MB). Using styrene as the model pollutant, this paper also serves as a general database of information pertaining to the bioreactor operation and important factors affecting gas-phase styrene removal in these biological systems. Biological waste-gas treatment systems are considered to be both advantageous and economically effective in treating a stream of polluted air containing low to moderate concentrations of the target contaminant, over a rather wide range of gas-flow rates. The bioreactors were inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus, and their performances were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRT), and at different inlet styrene concentrations (C(i)). The experimental data from these bioreactors were modelled to predict the bioreactors performance in terms of their removal efficiency (RE, %), by adequate training and testing of a three-layered back propagation neural network (input layer-hidden layer-output layer). Two models (BIOF1 and BIOF2) were developed for the BF with different combinations of easily measurable BF parameters as the inputs, that is concentration (gm(-3)), unit flow (h(-1)) and pressure drop (cm of H(2)O). The model developed for the CSTB used two inputs (concentration and unit flow), while the model for the MB had three inputs (concentration, G/L (gas/liquid) ratio, and pressure drop). Sensitivity analysis in the form of absolute average sensitivity (AAS) was performed for all the developed ANN models to ascertain the importance of the different input parameters, and to assess their direct effect on the bioreactors performance. The performance of the models was estimated by the regression

  15. Modeling signal loss in surficial marine sediments containing occluded gas.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Trevor

    2003-03-01

    The presence of occluded gas in inland lakes, harbor muds, and surficial marine sediments is well documented. Surficial gassy sediments cause underlying beds to be acoustically impenetrable to seismic surveys; therefore, the modeling of signal loss arising from mudline reflection and transmission absorption is of particular interest. The Anderson and Hampton [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 1890-1903 (1980)] model for attenuation in gassy sediments was evaluated against the physical and acoustical properties of eight laboratory silty clay soils containing different amounts of occluded gas in bubbles of 0.2- to 1.8-mm diameter. The model was shown to give good agreement with measured data over the lower frequencies of bubble resonance and above resonance. It did not agree with measured data at frequencies below resonance, for which the model did not simulate the bulk properties of the gassy soils. The Mackenzie [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 221-231 (1960)] model for reflection loss was also examined for the gassy soils. The maximum reflection losses of 6 dB, at a grazing angle of 40 degrees, does not wholly support speculation by Levin [Geophysics 27, 35-47 (1962)] of highly reflective pressure-release boundaries arising from substantial reflection and absorption losses in gassy sediments. It was found that mudlines formed from sediments with significant occluded gas may be successfully penetrated, although the substantial absorption loss arising from signal transmission through the sediment prevents penetration of the surficial layers to much beyond a meter in depth.

  16. Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    2000-08-23

    The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

  17. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2006-06-27

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

  18. Multidimensional modeling of pyrolysis gas transport inside orthotropic charring ablators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Haoyue

    During hypersonic atmospheric entry, spacecraft are exposed to enormous aerodynamic heat. To prevent the payload from overheating, charring ablative materials are favored to be applied as the heat shield at the exposing surface of the vehicle. Accurate modeling not only prevents mission failures, but also helps reduce cost. Existing models were mostly limited to one-dimensional and discrepancies were shown against measured experiments and flight-data. To help improve the models and analyze the charring ablation problems, a multidimensional material response module is developed, based on a finite volume method framework. The developed computer program is verified through a series of test-cases, and through code-to-code comparisons with a validated code. Several novel models are proposed, including a three-dimensional pyrolysis gas transport model and an orthotropic material model. The effects of these models are numerically studied and demonstrated to be significant.

  19. Parameters of cosmological models and recent astronomical observations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharov, G.S.; Vorontsova, E.G. E-mail: elenavor@inbox.ru

    2014-10-01

    For different gravitational models we consider limitations on their parameters coming from recent observational data for type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and from 34 data points for the Hubble parameter H(z) depending on redshift. We calculate parameters of 3 models describing accelerated expansion of the universe: the ΛCDM model, the model with generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) and the multidimensional model of I. Pahwa, D. Choudhury and T.R. Seshadri. In particular, for the ΛCDM model 1σ estimates of parameters are: H{sub 0}=70.262±0.319 km {sup -1}Mp {sup -1}, Ω{sub m}=0.276{sub -0.008}{sup +0.009}, Ω{sub Λ}=0.769±0.029, Ω{sub k}=-0.045±0.032. The GCG model under restriction 0α≥ is reduced to the ΛCDM model. Predictions of the multidimensional model essentially depend on 3 data points for H(z) with z≥2.3.

  20. Modeling and analysis of the Rimfire gas switch.

    SciTech Connect

    Gahl, John M.; Kemp, Mark A.; Struve, Kenneth William; Curry, Randy D.; McDonald, Ken F.

    2005-01-01

    Many accelerators at Sandia National Laboratories utilize the Rimfire gas switch for high-voltage, high-power switching. Future accelerators will have increased performance requirements for switching elements. When designing improved versions of the Rimfire switch, there is a need for quick and accurate simulation of the electrical effects of geometry changes. This paper presents an advanced circuit model of the Rimfire switch that can be used for these simulations. The development of the model is shown along with comparisons to past models and experimental results.

  1. Gas Modelling in the Disc of HD 163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, I.; Woitke, P.; Meeus, G.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W. -F.; Isella, A.; Roberge, A.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Sandell, G.; Vacca, W. D.; Menard, F.; Mendigutia, I.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed model fits to observations of the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. This well-studied object has an age of approx. 4Myr, with evidence of a circumstellar disc extending out to approx. 540AU. We use the radiation thermo-chemical disc code ProDiMo to model the gas and dust in the circumstellar disc of HD 163296, and attempt to determine the disc properties by fitting to observational line and continuum data. These include new Herschel/PACS observations obtained as part of the open-time key program GASPS (Gas in Protoplanetary Systems), consisting of a detection of the [Oi] 63 m line and upper limits for several other far infrared lines. We complement this with continuum data and ground-based observations of the CO-12 3-2, 2-1 and CO-13 J=1-0 line transitions, as well as the H2 S(1) transition. We explore the effects of stellar ultraviolet variability and dust settling on the line emission, and on the derived disc properties. Our fitting efforts lead to derived gas/dust ratios in the range 9-100, depending on the assumptions made. We note that the line fluxes are sensitive in general to the degree of dust settling in the disc, with an increase in line flux for settled models. This is most pronounced in lines which are formed in the warm gas in the inner disc, but the low excitation molecular lines are also affected. This has serious implications for attempts to derive the disc gas mass from line observations. We derive fractional PAH abundances between 0.007 and 0.04 relative to ISM levels. Using a stellar and UV excess input spectrum based on a detailed analysis of observations, we find that the all observations are consistent with the previously assumed disc geometry

  2. Multi-Scale Modeling of Hypersonic Gas Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Iain D.

    On March 27, 2004, NASA successfully flew the X-43A hypersonic test flight vehicle at a velocity of 5000 mph to break the aeronautics speed record that had stood for over 35 years. The final flight of the X-43A on November 16, 2004 further increased the speed record to 6,600 mph which is almost ten times the speed of sound. The very high speed attainable by hypersonic airplanes could revolutionize air travel by dramatically reducing inter-continental flight times. For example, a hypersonic flight from New York to Sydney, Australia, a distance of 10,000 miles, would take less than 2 h. Reusable hypersonic vehicles are also being researched to significantly reduce the cost of access to space. Computer modeling of the gas flows around hypersonic vehicles will play a critical part in their development. This article discusses the conditions that can prevail in certain hypersonic gas flows that require a multi-scale modeling approach.

  3. Calculations of hot gas ingestion for a STOVL aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, David M.; Holdeman, James D.; Vanka, Surya P.

    1992-01-01

    Hot gas ingestion problems for Short Take-Off, Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft are typically approached with empirical methods and experience. In this study, the hot gas environment around a STOVL aircraft was modeled as multiple jets in crossflow with inlet suction. The flow field was calculated with a Navier-Stokes, Reynolds-averaged, turbulent, 3D computational fluid dynamics code using a multigrid technique. A simple model of a STOVL aircraft with four choked jets at 1000 K was studied at various heights, headwind speeds, and thrust splay angles in a modest parametric study. Scientific visualization of the computed flow field shows a pair of vortices in front of the inlet. This and other qualitative aspects of the flow field agree well with experimental data.

  4. Urban multitarget tracking via gas-kinetic dynamics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Multitarget tracking in urban environments presents a major theoretical and practical challenge. A recently suggested approach is that of modeling traffic dynamics using the fluid-kinetic methods of traffic-flow theory (TFT). I propose use of the newer, more general, gas-kinetic (GK) approach to TFT. In GK, traffic flow is modeled as a one- or two-dimensional constrained gas. The paper demonstrates the following. (1) The foundational concept in GK--the "phase-space density"--is the same thing as the probability hypothesis density (PHD) of multitarget tracking theory. (2) The theoretically best-that-one-can do approach to TFT-based tracking is a PHD filter. (3) Better performance can be obtained by augmenting this PHD filter as a cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter. A simple example is presented to illustrate how PHD/CPHD filters can be integrated with conventional macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic TFT.

  5. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  6. Modeling Gas-Phase Chemistry in Cometary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.

    Gas-phase chemistry is central to understand the physics and chemistry of comets. Photochemistry is a major source of ions and electrons that further initiate key gas-phase reactions, leading to the plethora of molecules and atoms seen in cometary atmospheres. The relevant physico-chemical processes are identified within a modeling framework to understand observations and in situ measurements of comets (e.g., Halley, Borrelly, Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, Tempel 1, Wild 2) and to provide valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of their nuclei. Details of these processes are presented, from the collision-dominated inner coma to the solar wind interaction region. This extensive modeling effort to investigate these important cometary processes is highly relevant to ground-based observations of comets and past, on going, and future spacecraft missions to these primitive objects.Gas-phase chemistry is central to understand the physics and chemistry of comets. Photochemistry is a major source of ions and electrons that further initiate key gas-phase reactions, leading to the plethora of molecules and atoms seen in cometary atmospheres. The relevant physico-chemical processes are identified within a modeling framework to understand observations and in situ measurements of comets (e.g., Halley, Borrelly, Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, Tempel 1, Wild 2) and to provide valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of their nuclei. Details of these processes are presented, from the collision-dominated inner coma to the solar wind interaction region. This extensive modeling effort to investigate these important cometary processes is highly relevant to ground-based observations of comets and past, on going, and future spacecraft missions to these primitive objects.

  7. Modeling dissolved and free phase gas dynamics under decompression.

    PubMed

    Wienke, B R

    1990-04-01

    Dissolved and free gases do not behave the same way in tissue under pressure, and their interaction is complex. Differences are highlighted, particularly with respect to time scales, gradients and transport. Impacts of free phases on diving are described, contrasting increased off-gassing pressures, slower ascent rates, safety stops and reduced repetitive exposures as consistent practical measures within Haldane models (limited supersaturation) which can be played off against buildup of dissolved gas. Simple computations illustrate the points.

  8. Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T.

    2010-07-28

    Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

  9. Robustness of disaggregate oil and gas discovery forecasting models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The trend in forecasting oil and gas discoveries has been to develop and use models that allow forecasts of the size distribution of future discoveries. From such forecasts, exploration and development costs can more readily be computed. Two classes of these forecasting models are the Arps-Roberts type models and the 'creaming method' models. This paper examines the robustness of the forecasts made by these models when the historical data on which the models are based have been subject to economic upheavals or when historical discovery data are aggregated from areas having widely differing economic structures. Model performance is examined in the context of forecasting discoveries for offshore Texas State and Federal areas. The analysis shows how the model forecasts are limited by information contained in the historical discovery data. Because the Arps-Roberts type models require more regularity in discovery sequence than the creaming models, prior information had to be introduced into the Arps-Roberts models to accommodate the influence of economic changes. The creaming methods captured the overall decline in discovery size but did not easily allow introduction of exogenous information to compensate for incomplete historical data. Moreover, the predictive log normal distribution associated with the creaming model methods appears to understate the importance of the potential contribution of small fields. ?? 1989.

  10. Material point method modeling in oil and gas reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Vanderheyden, William Brian; Zhang, Duan

    2016-06-28

    A computer system and method of simulating the behavior of an oil and gas reservoir including changes in the margins of frangible solids. A system of equations including state equations such as momentum, and conservation laws such as mass conservation and volume fraction continuity, are defined and discretized for at least two phases in a modeled volume, one of which corresponds to frangible material. A material point model technique for numerically solving the system of discretized equations, to derive fluid flow at each of a plurality of mesh nodes in the modeled volume, and the velocity of at each of a plurality of particles representing the frangible material in the modeled volume. A time-splitting technique improves the computational efficiency of the simulation while maintaining accuracy on the deformation scale. The method can be applied to derive accurate upscaled model equations for larger volume scale simulations.

  11. Gas flow models in the Milky Way embedded bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Combes, F.

    2008-10-01

    Context: The gas distribution and dynamics in the inner Galaxy present many unknowns, such as the origin of the asymmetry of the lv-diagram of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). On the other hand, there is recent evidence in the stellar component of the presence of a nuclear bar that may be slightly lopsided. Aims: Our goal is to characterize the nuclear bar observed in 2MASS maps and to study the gas dynamics in the inner Milky Way taking into account this secondary bar. Methods: We have derived a realistic mass distribution by fitting the 2MASS star count map with a model including three components (disk, bulge and nuclear bar) and we have simulated the gas dynamics in the deduced gravitational potential using a sticky-particles code. Results: Our simulations of the gas dynamics successfully reproduce the main characteristics of the Milky Way for a bulge orientation of 20°-35°with respect to the Sun-Galactic Center (GC) line and a pattern speed of 30-40 km s-1 kpc-1. In our models the Galactic Molecular Ring (GMR) is not an actual ring but the inner parts of the spiral arms, while the 3-kpc arm and its far side counterpart are lateral arms that extend around the bar. Our simulations reproduce, for the first time, the parallelogram shape of the lv-diagram of the CMZ as the gas response to the nuclear bar. This bar should be oriented by an angle of ˜60°-75°with respect to the Sun-GC line and its mass amounts to (2-5.5) 109 M_⊙. We show that the observed asymmetry of the CMZ cannot be due to lopsidedness of the nuclear bar as suggested by the 2MASS maps. Conclusions: We do not find clear evidence of lopsidedness in the stellar potential. We propose that the observed asymmetry of the central gas layer can be due to the infalling of gas into the CMZ in the l = 1.3°-complex. Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Shawnee flue gas desulfurization computer model users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhoff, F.A.; Torstrick, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    In conjunction with the US Enviromental Protection Agency sponsored Shawnee test program, Bechtel National, Inc., and the Tennessee Valley Authority jointly developed a computer model capable of projecting preliminary design and economics for lime- and limestone-scrubbing flue gas desulfurization systems. The model is capable of projecting relative economics for spray tower, turbulent contact absorber, and venturi-spray tower scrubbing options. It may be used to project the effect on system design and economics of variations in required SO/sub 2/ removal, scrubber operating parameters (gas velocity, liquid-to-gas (L/G) ration, alkali stoichiometry, liquor hold time in slurry recirculation tanks), reheat temperature, and scrubber bypass. It may also be used to evaluate alternative waste disposal methods or additives (MgO or adipic acid) on costs for the selected process. Although the model is not intended to project the economics of an individual system to a high degree of accuracy, it allows prospective users to quickly project comparative design and costs for limestone and lime case variations on a common design and cost basis. The users manual provides a general descripton of the Shawnee FGD computer model and detailed instructions for its use. It describes and explains the user-supplied input data which are required such as boiler size, coal characteristics, and SO/sub 2/ removal requirments. Output includes a material balance, equipment list, and detailed capital investment and annual revenue requirements. The users manual provides information concerning the use of the overall model as well as sample runs to serve as a guide to prospective users in identifying applications. The FORTRAN-based model is maintained by TVA, from whom copies or individual runs are available. 25 refs., 3 figs., 36 tabs.

  13. Semiphenomenological model for gas-liquid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Benilov, E S; Benilov, M S

    2016-03-01

    We examine a rarefied gas with inter-molecular attraction. It is argued that the attraction force amplifies random density fluctuations by pulling molecules from lower-density regions into high-density regions and thus may give rise to an instability. To describe this effect, we use a kinetic equation where the attraction force is taken into account in a way similar to how electromagnetic forces in plasma are treated in the Vlasov model. It is demonstrated that the instability occurs when the temperature T is lower than a certain threshold value T(s) depending on the gas density. It is further shown that, even if T is only marginally lower than T(s), the instability generates clusters with density much higher than that of the gas. These results suggest that the instability should be interpreted as a gas-liquid phase transition, with T(s) being the temperature of saturated vapor and the high-density clusters representing liquid droplets.

  14. Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a lattice gas model.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Vera B; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2005-03-01

    We present a simple model for an associating liquid in which polymorphism and density anomaly are connected. Our model combines a two dimensional lattice gas with particles interacting through a soft core potential and orientational degrees of freedom represented through thermal "ice variables." The competition between the directional attractive forces and the soft core potential leads to a phase diagram in which two liquid phases and a density anomaly are present. The coexistence line between the low density liquid and the high density liquid has a positive slope contradicting the surmise that the presence of a density anomaly implies that the high density liquid is more entropic than the low density liquid.

  15. Gas dynamics modeling of the HYLIFE-II reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.

    1995-08-01

    Gas dynamics in the IFE reactor, HYLIFE-II is modeled using the code, TSUNAMI. This code is a 2-D shock-solver that uses the Godunov method with operator splitting. Results from a cylindrically symmetric simulation indicate an initial, low density, burst of high energy particles enters the final focus transport lens within 40 microseconds after the blast, much faster than the proposed 1 millisecond shutter closing time. After approximately 100 microseconds the chamber debris flux levels off to one eighth its peak value and maintains this intensity until the shutter closes. Although initial protective jet ablation is considered, neither secondary radiation nor condensation are modeled. Therefore results are conservative.

  16. Electro-thermal modeling of a microbridge gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, R.P.; Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Huber, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    Fully CMOS-compatible, surface-micromachined polysilicon microbridges have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in catalytic, calorimetric gas sensing. To improve sensor behavior, extensive electro-thermal modeling efforts were undertaken using SPICE. The validity of the SPICE model was verified comparing its simulated behavior with experiment. Temperature distribution of an electrically heated microbridges was measured using an infrared microscope. Comparisons among the measured distribution, the SPICE simulation, and distributions obtained by analytical methods show that heating at the ends of a microbridges has important implications for device response. Additional comparisons between measured and simulated current-voltage characteristics, as well as transient response, further support the accuracy of the model. A major benefit of electro- thermal modeling with SPICE is the ability to simultaneously simulate the behavior of a device and its control/sensing electronics. Results for the combination of a unique constant-resistance control circuit and microbridges gas sensor are given. Models of in situ techniques for monitoring catalyst deposition are shown to be in agreement with experiment. Finally, simulated chemical response of the detector is compared with the data, and methods of improving response through modifications in bridge geometry are predicted.

  17. Empirical slip and viscosity model performance for microscale gas flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Boyd, Iain D.; McNenly, Matthew J.

    2004-07-01

    For the simple geometries of Couette and Poiseuille flows, the velocity profile maintains a similar shape from continuum to free molecular flow. Therefore, modifications to the fluid viscosity and slip boundary conditions can improve the continuum based Navier-Stokes solution in the non-continuum non-equilibrium regime. In this investigation, the optimal modifications are found by a linear least-squares fit of the Navier-Stokes solution to the non-equilibrium solution obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Models are then constructed for the Knudsen number dependence of the viscosity correction and the slip model from a database of DSMC solutions for Couette and Poiseuille flows of argon and nitrogen gas, with Knudsen numbers ranging from 0.01 to 10. Finally, the accuracy of the models is measured for non-equilibrium cases both in and outside the DSMC database. Flows outside the database include: combined Couette and Poiseuille flow, partial wall accommodation, helium gas, and non-zero convective acceleration. The models reproduce the velocity profiles in the DSMC database within an L{sub 2} error norm of 3% for Couette flows and 7% for Poiseuille flows. However, the errors in the model predictions outside the database are up to five times larger.

  18. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; Lin, Ronghong; Nan, Yue; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; Ladshaw, Austin; Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; DePaoli, David

    2015-04-29

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient

  19. Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.

    2015-01-07

    Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can be further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set of

  20. Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria

    DOE PAGES

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.

    2015-01-07

    Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can bemore » further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set

  1. Power-loading effects in gas-discharge models

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchford, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effect is examined of the large discharge currents in the switch conduction stage on the transport and rate coefficients which appear in the rate equation for the electron density, the basic element in a discharge model. Measurements of translational and vibrational heating indicate that for the current levels of interest here, there will be significant heating. As a result, we must consider the related changes due to enhanced populations in the high energy states of the gas molecules: modified rates for translational gas heating and for excitation, dissociation, and perhaps ionization. It is concluded that it is primarily the high energy tail of the electron energy distribution that is affected. Thus, rate coefficients are more sensitive to power loading of the gas than are the drift velocity, average electron energy, and difusion rate. In terms of model predictions of switch performance, knowledge of the source function from the e-beam is important in calculations of switch current gain and for conductivities. These will be underestimated with the neglect of ionization produced by secondaries. The distribution function is modified at the high energies from its form characterized by E/N in the presence of the e-beam source. The subsequent changes in the rate coefficients due to the e-beam source and the excited state populations can affect the turn-on time of the switch.

  2. Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M.; Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F.; Knight, Connie D.; Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt; Holm, Gus; Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich; Engler, Thomas W.; Lorenz, John Clay

    2004-10-01

    Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

  3. A new model for gas/solid pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bangxian; Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1995-12-31

    A new model of particle turbulent dispersion in vertical gas/solid pipe flow is presented in this paper. The essence of the model is to pay more attention to the active and discrete behavior of particles in the dispersion process in non-homogeneous turbulent vertical pipe flows using two-fluid approaches. In the new model, a non-gradient type of diffusion term is included in the expression of radial particle dispersion flux; the transport equation for particle turbulent kinetic energy (PTKE) is developed and solved for its distribution; the effect of intra-particle collision is considered for the generation and dissipation of PTKE; turbulence modulation due to particle presence is taken into account. Preliminary numerical results based on this new model are also presented in this paper.

  4. The magnetic field of Mars - Implications from gas dynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1984-05-01

    On January 21, 1972, the Mars 3 spacecraft observed a variation in the magnetic field during its periapsis passage over the dayside of Mars that was suggestive of entry into a Martian magnetosphere. Original data and trajectory of the spacecraft have been obtained (Dolginov, 1983) and an attempt is made to simulate the observed variation of the magnetic field by using a gas dynamic simulation. In the gas dynamic model a flow field is generated and this flow field is used to carry the interplanetary magnetic field through the Martian magnetosheath. The independence of the flow field and magnetic field calculation makes it possible to converge rapidly on an IMF orientation that would result in a magnetic variation similar to that observed by Mars 3. There appears to be no need to invoke an entry into a Martian magnetosphere to explain these observations.

  5. The nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas: a chaotic model with flat obstacles?

    PubMed

    Bianca, Carlo; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the nonequilibrium version of the Lorentz gas (a billiard with dispersing obstacles [Ya. G. Sinai, Russ. Math. Surv. 25, 137 (1970)], electric field, and Gaussian thermostat) is hyperbolic if the field is small [N. I. Chernov, Ann. Henri Poincare 2, 197 (2001)]. Differently the hyperbolicity of the nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas constitutes an open problem since its obstacles are rhombi and the techniques so far developed rely on the dispersing nature of the obstacles [M. P. Wojtkowski, J. Math. Pures Appl. 79, 953 (2000)]. We have developed analytical and numerical investigations that support the idea that this model of transport of matter has both chaotic (positive Lyapunov exponent) and nonchaotic steady states with a quite peculiar sensitive dependence on the field and on the geometry, not observed before. The associated transport behavior is correspondingly highly irregular, with features whose understanding is of both theoretical and technological interests.

  6. The magnetic field of Mars - Implications from gas dynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    On January 21, 1972, the Mars 3 spacecraft observed a variation in the magnetic field during its periapsis passage over the dayside of Mars that was suggestive of entry into a Martian magnetosphere. Original data and trajectory of the spacecraft have been obtained (Dolginov, 1983) and an attempt is made to simulate the observed variation of the magnetic field by using a gas dynamic simulation. In the gas dynamic model a flow field is generated and this flow field is used to carry the interplanetary magnetic field through the Martian magnetosheath. The independence of the flow field and magnetic field calculation makes it possible to converge rapidly on an IMF orientation that would result in a magnetic variation similar to that observed by Mars 3. There appears to be no need to invoke an entry into a Martian magnetosphere to explain these observations.

  7. The nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas: A chaotic model with flat obstacles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carlo; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the nonequilibrium version of the Lorentz gas (a billiard with dispersing obstacles [Ya. G. Sinai, Russ. Math. Surv. 25, 137 (1970)], electric field, and Gaussian thermostat) is hyperbolic if the field is small [N. I. Chernov, Ann. Henri Poincare 2, 197 (2001)]. Differently the hyperbolicity of the nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas constitutes an open problem since its obstacles are rhombi and the techniques so far developed rely on the dispersing nature of the obstacles [M. P. Wojtkowski, J. Math. Pures Appl. 79, 953 (2000)]. We have developed analytical and numerical investigations that support the idea that this model of transport of matter has both chaotic (positive Lyapunov exponent) and nonchaotic steady states with a quite peculiar sensitive dependence on the field and on the geometry, not observed before. The associated transport behavior is correspondingly highly irregular, with features whose understanding is of both theoretical and technological interests.

  8. Self-similarity of phase-space networks of frustrated spin models and lattice gas models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Wang, Feng; Han, Yilong

    2013-03-01

    We studied the self-similar properties of the phase-spaces of two frustrated spin models and two lattice gas models. The frustrated spin models included (1) the anti-ferromagnetic Ising model on a two-dimensional triangular lattice (1a) at the ground states and (1b) above the ground states and (2) the six-vertex model. The two lattice gas models were (3) the one-dimensional lattice gas model and (4) the two-dimensional lattice gas model. The phase spaces were mapped to networks so that the fractal analysis of complex networks could be applied, i.e. the box-covering method and the cluster-growth method. These phase spaces, in turn, establish new classes of networks with unique self-similar properties. Models 1a, 2, and 3 with long-range power-law correlations in real space exhibit fractal phase spaces, while models 1b and 4 with short-range exponential correlations in real space exhibit nonfractal phase spaces. This behavior agrees with one of untested assumptions in Tsallis nonextensive statistics. Hong Kong GRC grants 601208 and 601911

  9. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Strongly Rotating Rarefied Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sahadev; Kumaran, Viswanathan

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal gas separation processes effect separation by utilizing the difference in the mole fraction in a high speed rotating cylinder caused by the difference in molecular mass, and consequently the centrifugal force density. These have been widely used in isotope separation because chemical separation methods cannot be used to separate isotopes of the same chemical species. More recently, centrifugal separation has also been explored for the separation of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. The efficiency of separation is critically dependent on the secondary flow generated due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall or due to inserts, and it is important to formulate accurate models for this secondary flow. The widely used Onsager model for secondary flow is restricted to very long cylinders where the length is large compared to the diameter, the limit of high stratification parameter, where the gas is restricted to a thin layer near the wall of the cylinder, and it assumes that there is no mass difference in the two species while calculating the secondary flow. There are two objectives of the present analysis of the rarefied gas flow in a rotating cylinder. The first is to remove the restriction of high stratification parameter, and to generalize the solutions to low rotation speeds where the stratification parameter may be O(1), and to apply for dissimilar gases considering the difference in molecular mass of the two species. Secondly, we would like to compare the predictions with molecular simulations based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows, in order to quantify the errors resulting from the approximations at different aspect ratios, Reynolds number and stratification parameter.

  10. GAS-GRAIN MODELS FOR INTERSTELLAR ANION CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-04-20

    Long-chain hydrocarbon anions C{sub n}H{sup -} (n = 4, 6, 8) have recently been found to be abundant in a variety of interstellar clouds. In order to explain their large abundances in the denser (prestellar/protostellar) environments, new chemical models are constructed that include gas-grain interactions. Models including accretion of gas-phase species onto dust grains and cosmic-ray-induced desorption of atoms are able to reproduce the observed anion-to-neutral ratios, as well as the absolute abundances of anionic and neutral carbon chains, with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Due to their destructive effects, the depletion of oxygen atoms onto dust results in substantially greater polyyne and anion abundances in high-density gas (with n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}>10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}). The large abundances of carbon-chain-bearing species observed in the envelopes of protostars such as L1527 can thus be explained without the need for warm carbon-chain chemistry. The C{sub 6}H{sup -} anion-to-neutral ratio is found to be most sensitive to the atomic O and H abundances and the electron density. Therefore, as a core evolves, falling atomic abundances and rising electron densities are found to result in increasing anion-to-neutral ratios. Inclusion of cosmic-ray desorption of atoms in high-density models delays freeze-out, which results in a more temporally stable anion-to-neutral ratio, in better agreement with observations. Our models include reactions between oxygen atoms and carbon-chain anions to produce carbon-chain-oxide species C{sub 6}O, C{sub 7}O, HC{sub 6}O, and HC{sub 7}O, the abundances of which depend on the assumed branching ratios for associative electron detachment.

  11. Gas-Grain Models for Interstellar Anion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnely, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain hydrocarbon anions C(sub n) H(-) (n = 4, 6, 8) have recently been found to be abundant in a variety of interstellar clouds. In order to explain their large abundances in the denser (prestellar/protostellar) environments, new chemical models are constructed that include gas-grain interactions. Models including accretion of gas-phase species onto dust grains and cosmic-ray-induced desorption of atoms are able to reproduce the observed anion-to-neutral ratios, as well as the absolute abundances of anionic and neutral carbon chains, with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Due to their destructive effects, the depletion of oxygen atoms onto dust results in substantially greater polyyne and anion abundances in high-density gas (with n(sub H2) approx > / cubic cm). The large abundances of carbon-chain-bearing species observed in the envelopes of protostars such as L1527 can thus be explained without the need for warm carbon-chain chemistry. The C6H(-) anion-to-neutral ratio is found to be most sensitive to the atomic O and H abundances and the electron density. Therefore, as a core evolves, falling atomic abundances and rising electron densities are found to result in increasing anion-to-neutral ratios. Inclusion of cosmic-ray desorption of atoms in high-density models delays freeze-out, which results in a more temporally stable anion-to-neutral ratio, in better agreement with observations. Our models include reactions between oxygen atoms and carbon-chain anions to produce carbon-chain-oxide species C6O, C7O, HC6O, and HC7O, the abundances of which depend on the assumed branching ratios for associative electron detachment

  12. MODELING THE POLLUTION OF PRISTINE GAS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Liubin; Scannapieco, Evan; Scalo, Jon E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu

    2013-10-01

    We conduct a comprehensive theoretical and numerical investigation of the pollution of pristine gas in turbulent flows, designed to provide useful new tools for modeling the evolution of the first generation of stars. The properties of such Population III (Pop III) stars are thought to be very different than those of later stellar generations, because cooling is dramatically different in gas with a metallicity below a critical value Z{sub c}, which lies between ∼10{sup –6} and ∼10{sup –3} Z{sub ☉}. The critical value is much smaller than the typical overall average metallicity, , and therefore the mixing efficiency of the pristine gas in the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in determining the transition from Pop III to normal star formation. The small critical value, Z{sub c}, corresponds to the far left tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the metal abundance. Based on closure models for the PDF formulation of turbulent mixing, we derive evolution equations for the fraction of gas, P, lying below Z{sub c}, in statistically homogeneous compressible turbulence. Our simulation data show that the evolution of the pristine fraction P can be well approximated by a generalized 'self-convolution' model, which predicts that P-dot = - (n/τ{sub con}) P (1-P{sup 1/n}), where n is a measure of the locality of the mixing or PDF convolution events and the convolution timescale τ{sub con} is determined by the rate at which turbulence stretches the pollutants. Carrying out a suite of numerical simulations with turbulent Mach numbers ranging from M = 0.9 to 6.2, we are able to provide accurate fits to n and τ{sub con} as a function of M, Z{sub c}/(Z), and the length scale, L{sub p}, at which pollutants are added to the flow. For pristine fractions above P = 0.9, mixing occurs only in the regions surrounding blobs of pollutants, such that n = 1. For smaller values of P, n is larger as the mixing process becomes more global. We show how

  13. Modeling coiled-tubing velocity strings for gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J.; Martinez, A.

    1998-02-01

    Because of its ability to prolong well life, its relatively low expense, and the relative ease with which it is installed, coiled tubing has become a preferred remedial method of tubular completion for gas wells. Of course, the difficulty in procuring wireline-test data is a drawback to verifying the accuracy of the assumptions and predictions used for coiled-tubing selection. This increases the importance of the prediction-making process, and, as a result, places great emphasis on the modeling methods that are used. This paper focuses on the processes and methods for achieving sound multiphase-flow predictions by looking at the steps necessary to arrive at coiled-tubing selection. Furthermore, this paper examines the variables that serve as indicators of the viability of each tubing size, especially liquid holdup. This means that in addition to methodology, emphasis is placed on the use of a good wellbore model. The computer model discussed is in use industry wide.

  14. Reactive Transport Modeling of Acid Gas Generation and Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    G. Zhahg; N. Spycher; E. Sonnenthal; C. Steefel

    2005-01-25

    Pulvirenti et al. (2004) recently conducted a laboratory evaporation/condensation experiment on a synthetic solution of primarily calcium chloride. This solution represents one potential type of evaporated pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a site proposed for geologic storage of high-level nuclear waste. These authors reported that boiling this solution to near dryness (a concentration factor >75,000 relative to actual pore waters) leads to the generation of acid condensate (pH 4.5) presumably due to volatilization of HCl (and minor HF and/or HNO{sub 3}). To investigate the various processes taking place, including boiling, gas transport, and condensation, their experiment was simulated by modifying an existing multicomponent and multiphase reactive transport code (TOUGHREACT). This code was extended with a Pitzer ion-interaction model to deal with high ionic strength. The model of the experiment was set-up to capture the observed increase in boiling temperature (143 C at {approx}1 bar) resulting from high concentrations of dissolved salts (up to 8 m CaCl{sub 2}). The computed HCI fugacity ({approx} 10{sup -4} bars) generated by boiling under these conditions is not sufficient to lower the pH of the condensate (cooled to 80 and 25 C) down to observed values unless the H{sub 2}O mass fraction in gas is reduced below {approx}10%. This is because the condensate becomes progressively diluted by H{sub 2}O gas condensation. However, when the system is modeled to remove water vapor, the computed pH of instantaneous condensates decreases to {approx}1.7, consistent with the experiment (Figure 1). The results also show that the HCl fugacity increases, and calcite, gypsum, sylvite, halite, MgCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O and CaCl{sub 2} precipitate sequentially with increasing concentration factors.

  15. Mathematical model of gas plasma applied to chronic wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Zhang, Y. T.

    2013-11-15

    Chronic wounds are a major burden for worldwide health care systems, and patients suffer pain and discomfort from this type of wound. Recently gas plasmas have been shown to safely speed chronic wounds healing. In this paper, we develop a deterministic mathematical model formulated by eight-species reaction-diffusion equations, and use it to analyze the plasma treatment process. The model follows spatial and temporal concentration within the wound of oxygen, chemoattractants, capillary sprouts, blood vessels, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix material, nitric oxide (NO), and inflammatory cell. Two effects of plasma, increasing NO concentration and reducing bacteria load, are considered in this model. The plasma treatment decreases the complete healing time from 25 days (normal wound healing) to 17 days, and the contributions of increasing NO concentration and reducing bacteria load are about 1/4 and 3/4, respectively. Increasing plasma treatment frequency from twice to three times per day accelerates healing process. Finally, the response of chronic wounds of different etiologies to treatment with gas plasmas is analyzed.

  16. Study on Turbulent Modeling in Gas Entrainment Evaluation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kei; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Nakamine, Yoshiaki; Imai, Yasutomo

    Suppression of gas entrainment (GE) phenomena caused by free surface vortices are very important to establish an economically superior design of the sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan (JSFR). However, due to the non-linearity and/or locality of the GE phenomena, it is not easy to evaluate the occurrences of the GE phenomena accurately. In other words, the onset condition of the GE phenomena in the JSFR is not predicted easily based on scaled-model and/or partial-model experiments. Therefore, the authors are developing a CFD-based evaluation method in which the non-linearity and locality of the GE phenomena can be considered. In the evaluation method, macroscopic vortex parameters, e.g. circulation, are determined by three-dimensional CFD and then, GE-related parameters, e.g. gas core (GC) length, are calculated by using the Burgers vortex model. This procedure is efficient to evaluate the GE phenomena in the JSFR. However, it is well known that the Burgers vortex model tends to overestimate the GC length due to the lack of considerations on some physical mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the authors develop a turbulent vortex model to evaluate the GE phenomena more accurately. Then, the improved GE evaluation method with the turbulent viscosity model is validated by analyzing the GC lengths observed in a simple experiment. The evaluation results show that the GC lengths analyzed by the improved method are shorter in comparison to the original method, and give better agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Effect of order fluid models on flue gas streamer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichwald, O.; Ducasse, O.; Merbahi, N.; Yousfi, M.; Dubois, D.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that in the case of a micro-discharge modelling using the hydrodynamics assumption, the second order fluid model involving the complete electron momentum conservation equation must be used in order to better quantify the radical formation in a micro-discharge applied to air pollution control. The present results show large differences in the micro-discharge parameters (such as velocity and electron density) between the three tested hydrodynamics models: the classical first order model using the local electric field approximation and two second order models using the local energy approximation with or without the drift-diffusion approximation. The tests have been carried out in the case of a wire-to-plane corona reactor filled with a typical flue gas (76% N2, 12% CO2, 6% O2, 6% H2O) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The simulation of the micro-discharge dynamics is performed using a 1.5D numerical streamer model coupled with a simple chemical kinetics model involving 31 species (charged and neutral particles in their fundamental or metastable state) reacting following 29 selected chemical reactions.

  18. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  19. New Constraints on Gas and Gas Hydrate Estimates in the Bering Sea using an Automated Sediment Physics Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, W. T.; Martin, K. M.; Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a technique to invert vertical sound speed profiles, like those obtained from reflection seismic data, for grain and pore fluid properties. We have applied this process to seismic data from the Bering Sea to better constrain gas and gas hydrate concentrations. The inversion is based on iterative forward modeling of the sediment constituents and pressure-temperature (PT) regime to match the observed sound speed profile. Inversion input can be either interval or stacking velocities, and we avoid the assumption that stacking velocities are the same as root mean square average velocities. We use a series of constituent sediment physics models whose inputs are mainly porosity, gas saturation, temperature, pressure, effective pressure and grain type (for calculation of effective elastic moduli). The value of this approach is that every model run in the forward algorithm is geologically consistent. Vast portions of model space are eliminated from searching because, e.g. gas hydrate cannot exist outside its PT stability zone. Of particular interest in the Bering Sea are large (~5 km wide) anomalies in seismic reflection profiles almost certainly associated with gas accumulation at the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS). We applied the inversion across one of these anomalies using stacking velocities from finely discretized semblance scans of seismic common midpoint gathers. Preliminary results suggest that little or no gas or gas hydrate need be present in areas away from the anomaly, in order to match the observed velocity profile. Directly over the center of the anomaly, the significantly reduced velocity below the BGHS requires at least 1-2% gas saturation, and the mildly elevated velocity above the BGHS requires 5-15% gas hydrate saturation.

  20. Phonon Gas Model (PGM) workflow in the VLab Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, P.; Zhang, D.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    This contribution describes a scientific workflow for first principles computations of free energy of crystalline solids using the phonon gas model (PGM). This model was recently implemented as a hybrid method combining molecular dynamics and phonon normal mode analysis to extract temperature dependent phonon frequencies and life times beyond perturbation theory. This is a demanding high throughout workflow and is currently being implemented in VLab Cyberinfrastructure [da Silveira et al., 2008], which has recently been integrated to the XSEDE. First we review the underlying PGM, its practical implementation, and calculation requirements. We then describe the workflow management and its general method for handling actions. We illustrate the PGM application with a calculation of MgSiO3-perovskite's anharmonic phonons. We conclude with an outlook of workflows to compute other material's properties that will use the PGM workflow. Research supported by NSF award EAR-1019853.

  1. Thermal mechanical modeling of gas tungsten arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Mahin, K.W.

    1986-05-01

    Welding problems encountered in development and production activities are typically solved in a ''let's try this'' approach, which can be costly and do not always provide the optimal solution. The Ongoing research at LLNL and Sandia is directed toward improving our basic understanding of what is actually occurring on a phenomenological basis in welding and to apply this knowledge to the development of a general computer-based weld model. Our approach has been to couple a well defined experiment with computer simulation to examine the effects of various moedling assumptions on the computer predictions. The application is confined to the inert gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) process. However, the results give insight into modeling other welding processes (e.g. laser, electron beam).

  2. Adapting a weather forecast model for greenhouse gas simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polavarapu, S. M.; Neish, M.; Tanguay, M.; Girard, C.; de Grandpré, J.; Gravel, S.; Semeniuk, K.; Chan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to simulate greenhouse gases on the global domain is useful for providing boundary conditions for regional flux inversions, as well as for providing reference data for bias correction of satellite measurements. Given the existence of operational weather and environmental prediction models and assimilation systems at Environment Canada, it makes sense to use these tools for greenhouse gas simulations. In this work, we describe the adaptations needed to reasonably simulate CO2 with a weather forecast model. The main challenges were the implementation of a mass conserving advection scheme, and the careful implementation of a mixing ratio defined with respect to dry air. The transport of tracers through convection was also added, and the vertical mixing through the boundary layer was slightly modified. With all these changes, the model conserves CO2 mass well on the annual time scale, and the high resolution (0.9 degree grid spacing) permits a good description of synoptic scale transport. The use of a coupled meteorological/tracer transport model also permits an assessment of approximations needed in offline transport model approaches, such as the neglect of water vapour mass when computing a tracer mixing ratio with respect to dry air.

  3. An empirical model for gas phase acidity and basicity estimation.

    PubMed

    You, H; Kim, G E; Na, C H; Lee, S; Lee, C J; Cho, K-H; Akiyama, Y; Ishida, T; No, K T

    2014-01-01

    Gas phase acidity and basicity estimation models have been developed for acidic and basic functional groups of amino acid side-chains and also for a number of small organic molecules. The acidic functional groups include aliphatic and aromatic alcohol, and aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid, and the basic functional groups include aliphatic, aromatic and hetero-aromatic amines, and also pyridino-, pyrazolo- and imidazolo-groupings. The models are described in terms of a linear combination of descriptors that highly influence reactivity at the reaction centres of the functional groups. In order to describe the chemical environments of the deprotonating and protonating sites, atomic descriptors such as the effective atomic electronegativity and effective atomic polarizability of the atoms in the reaction field and the electrostatic potentials at the reaction sites have been introduced. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) of each model is above 0.8, apart from the imidazole model. The models are readily applicable, ranging from simple organic molecules to proteins.

  4. Anyonic behavior of an intermediate-statistics fermion gas model.

    PubMed

    Algin, Abdullah; Irk, Dursun; Topcu, Gozde

    2015-06-01

    We study the high-temperature behavior of an intermediate-statistics fermionic gas model whose quantum statistical properties enable us to effectively deduce the details about both the interaction among deformed (quasi)particles and their anyonic behavior. Starting with a deformed fermionic grand partition function, we calculate, in the thermodynamical limit, several thermostatistical functions of the model such as the internal energy and the entropy by means of a formalism of the fermionic q calculus. For high temperatures, a virial expansion of the equation of state for the system is obtained in two and three dimensions and the first five virial coefficients are derived in terms of the model deformation parameter q. From the results obtained by the effect of fermionic deformation, it is found that the model parameter q interpolates completely between bosonlike and fermionic systems via the behaviors of the third and fifth virial coefficients in both two and three spatial dimensions and in addition it characterizes effectively the interaction among quasifermions. Our results reveal that the present deformed (quasi)fermion model could be very efficient and effective in accounting for the nonlinear behaviors in interacting composite particle systems.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhen; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib N.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; LaFranchi, Brian W.; Ivey, Mark D.; Schrader, Paul E.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  6. Simulation of gas-assisted injection mold-cooling process using line source model approach for gas channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.P.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, S.C.

    1998-10-01

    Gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) process, being an innovative injection molding process, can substantially reduce production expenses through reduction in material cost, reduction in clamp tonnage and reduction in cycle time. Whether it is feasible to perform an integrated simulation for process simulation based on a unified CAE model for gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) is a great concern. In the present study, numerical algorithms based on the same CAE model used for process simulation regarding filling and packaging stages were developed to simulate the cooling phase of GAIM using a cycle-averaged three-dimensional modified boundary element technique similar to that used for conventional injection molding. However, to use the current CAE model for analysis, gas channel was modeled by two-node elements using line source approach. It was found that this new modeling not only affects the mold wall temperature calculation very slightly but also reduces the computer time by 95% as compared with a full gas channel modeling required a lot of triangular elements on gas channel surface. This investigation indicates that it is feasible to achieve an integrated process simulation for GAIM under one CAE model resulting in great computational efficiency for industrial application.

  7. Ammonia concentration modeling based on retained gas sampler data

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, G.; Palmer, B.J.; Cuta, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    The vertical ammonia concentration distributions determined by the retained gas sampler (RGS) apparatus were modeled for double-shell tanks (DSTs) AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 and single-shell tanks (SSTs) A-101, S-106, and U-103. One the vertical transport of ammonia in the tanks were used for the modeling. Transport in the non-convective settled solids and floating solids layers is assumed to occur primarily via some type of diffusion process, while transport in the convective liquid layers is incorporated into the model via mass transfer coefficients based on empirical correlations. Mass transfer between the top of the waste and the tank headspace and the effects of ventilation of the headspace are also included in the models. The resulting models contain a large number of parameters, but many of them can be determined from known properties of the waste configuration or can be estimated within reasonable bounds from data on the waste samples themselves. The models are used to extract effective diffusion coefficients for transport in the nonconvective layers based on the measured values of ammonia from the RGS apparatus. The modeling indicates that the higher concentrations of ammonia seen in bubbles trapped inside the waste relative to the ammonia concentrations in the tank headspace can be explained by a combination of slow transport of ammonia via diffusion in the nonconvective layers and ventilation of the tank headspace by either passive or active means. Slow transport by diffusion causes a higher concentration of ammonia to build up deep within the waste until the concentration gradients between the interior and top of the waste are sufficient to allow ammonia to escape at the same rate at which it is being generated in the waste.

  8. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  9. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production. PMID:26657698

  10. Constraining Intracluster Gas Models with AMiBA13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Bryan, Greg; Haiman, Zoltán; Hearn, Nathan; Shang, Cien; Ho, Paul T. P.; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei Victor; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei

    2010-11-01

    Clusters of galaxies have been extensively used to determine cosmological parameters. A major difficulty in making the best use of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray observations of clusters for cosmology is that using X-ray observations it is difficult to measure the temperature distribution and therefore determine the density distribution in individual clusters of galaxies out to the virial radius. Observations with the new generation of SZ instruments are a promising alternative approach. We use clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations to study how well we should be able to constrain the large-scale distribution of the intracluster gas (ICG) in individual massive relaxed clusters using AMiBA in its configuration with 13 1.2 m diameter dishes (AMiBA13) along with X-ray observations. We show that non-isothermal β models provide a good description of the ICG in our simulated relaxed clusters. We use simulated X-ray observations to estimate the quality of constraints on the distribution of gas density, and simulated SZ visibilities (AMiBA13 observations) for constraints on the large-scale temperature distribution of the ICG. We find that AMiBA13 visibilities should constrain the scale radius of the temperature distribution to about 50% accuracy. We conclude that the upgraded AMiBA, AMiBA13, should be a powerful instrument to constrain the large-scale distribution of the ICG.

  11. Spatial concentration distribution model for short-range continuous gas leakage of small amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meirong; Wang, Lingxue; Li, Jiakun; Long, Yunting; Gao, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Passive infrared gas imaging systems have been utilized in the equipment leak detection and repair in chemical manufacturers and petroleum refineries. The detection performance mainly relates to the sensitivity of infrared detector, optical depth of gas, atmospheric transmission, wind speed, and so on. Based on our knowledge, the spatial concentration distribution of continuously leaking gas plays an important part in leak detection. Several computational model of gas diffusion were proposed by researchers, such as Gaussian model, BM model, Sutton model and FEM3 model. But these models focus on calculating a large scale gas concentration distribution for a great amount of gas leaks above over 100- meter height, and not applicable to assess detection limit of a gas imaging system in short range. In this paper, a wind tunnel experiment is designed. Under different leaking rate and wind speed, concentration in different spatial positions is measured by portable gas detectors. Through analyzing the experimental data, the two parameters σy(x) and σz (x) that determine the plume dispersion in Gaussian model are adjusted to produce the best curve fit to the gas concentration data. Then a concentration distribution model for small mount gas leakage in short range is established. Various gases, ethylene and methane are used to testify this model.

  12. Gas Phase Model of Surface Reactions for N{2} Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, V. Lj.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; Pejović, M. M.

    1996-07-01

    The adequacy of the homogeneous gas phase model as a representation of the surface losses of diffusing active particles in gas phase is studied. As an example the recent data obtained for the surface recombination coefficients are reanalyzed. The data were obtained by the application of the breakdown delay times which consists of the measurements of the breakdown delay times t_d as a function of the afterglow period tau. It was found that for the conditions of our experiment, the diffusion should not be neglected as the final results are significantly different when obtained by approximate gas phase representation and by exact numerical solution to the diffusion equation. While application of the gas phase effective coefficients to represent surface losses gives an error in the value of the recombination coefficient, it reproduces correctly other characteristics such as order of the process which can be obtained from simple fits to the experimental data. Dans cet article, nous étudions la validité du modèle approximatif représentant les pertes superficielles des particules actives qui diffusent de la phase gazeuse comme pertes dans la phase homogène du gaz. Les données actuelles du coefficient de recombination en surface sont utilisées par cette vérification . Les données experimentales sont obtenues en utilisant la technique qui consiste en la mesure du temps de retard du début de la décharge en fonction de la période de relaxation. Nous avons trouvé que, pour nos conditions expérimentales, la diffusion ne peut être négligée. Aussi, les résultats finals sont considérablement différents quand ils sont obtenus en utilisant le modèle approximatif par comparaison aves les résultats obtenus par la solution numérique exacte de l'équation de la diffusion. L'application des coefficients effectifs dans la phase gaseuse pour la présentation des pertes superficielles donne, pour les coefficients de la recombinaison, des valeurs qui diffèrent en

  13. Stochastic method for modeling of the rarefied gas transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya; Lezhnev, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for computation of the transport coefficients of rarefied gas, which is based on stochastic modeling of phase trajectories considered molecular system. The hard spheres potential is used. The number of operations is proportional to the number of used molecules. Naturally in this algorithm the conservation laws are performed. The efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by the calculation of the viscosity and diffusion coefficients of several noble gases (argon, neon, xenon, krypton). It was shown that the algorithm accuracy of the order of 1-2% can be obtained by using a relatively small number of molecules. The accuracy dependence on the number of used molecules, statistics (number of the used phase trajectories) and calculation time was analyzed.

  14. Modeling of information flows in natural gas storage facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbari, Leyla; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers the natural-gas storage valuation based on the information-based pricing framework of Brody-Hughston-Macrina (BHM). As opposed to many studies which the associated filtration is considered pre-specified, this work tries to construct the filtration in terms of the information provided to the market. The value of the storage is given by the sum of the discounted expectations of the cash flows under risk-neutral measure, conditional to the constructed filtration with the Brownian bridge noise term. In order to model the flow of information about the cash flows, we assume the existence of a fixed pricing kernel with liquid, homogenous and incomplete market without arbitrage.

  15. Hierarchical framework for coupling a biogeochemical trace gas model to a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Foster, I.T.

    1994-04-01

    A scheme is described for the computation of terrestrial biogeochemical trace gas fluxes in the context of a general circulation model. This hierarchical system flux scheme (HSFS) incorporates five major components: (1) a general circulation model (GCM), which provides a medium-resolution (i.e., 1{degrees} by 1{degrees}) simulation of the atmospheric circulation; (2) a procedure for identifying regions of defined homogeneity of surface type within GCM grid cells; (3) a set of surface process models, to be run within each homogeneous region, which include a biophysical model, the Biosphere Atmospheric Transfer Scheme (BATS), and a biogeochemical model (BGCM); (4) an interpolation/integration system that transfers information between the GCM and surface process models with finer resolution; and (5) an interactive data array based on a geographic information system (GIS), which provides land characteristic information via the interpolator. The goals of this detailed investigation are to compute the local and global sensitivities of trace gas fluxes to GCM and BATS variables, the effects of trace gas fluxes on global climate, and the effects of global climate on specific biomes.

  16. ALEGRA modeling of gas puff Z-pinch experiments at the ZR facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, P. L.; Flicker, Dawn G.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Kueny, Christopher Shane; Krishnan, Mahadevan

    2010-11-01

    Gas puff z-pinch experiments have been proposed for the refurbished Z (ZR) facility for CY2011. Previous gas puff experiments [Coverdale et. al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056309, 2007] on pre-refurbishment Z established a world record for laboratory fusion neutron yield. New experiments would establish ZR gas puff capability for x-ray and neutron production and could surpass previous yields. We present validation of ALEGRA simulations against previous Z experiments including X-ray and neutron yield, modeling of gas puff implosion dynamics for new gas puff nozzle designs, and predictions of X-ray and neutron yields for the proposed gas puff experiments.

  17. Experimental investigation of the gas flow in gas-assisted laser cutting by means of geometrically similar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makashev, N. K.; Buzykin, O. G.; Asmolov, E. S.

    1996-03-01

    The gas flow in the system of nozzle-cut is investigated for the case of gas-assisted laser cutting of materials. The direct measurement of pressure fields is used with geometrically similar models which simulate the configuration forming during the laser cutting of metal sheet. The effect of geometric parameters of the system on the flow pattern in the kerf and on its features responsible for the cutting quality is analyzed. The choice and proper implementation of the assisting gas blowing to the cut front zone if of great importance for the gas-assisted laser cutting. There exist many various methods and facilities for the gas delivery. Nozzle configurations of many kinds and the peculiarities of free jet streams formed by them was the subject of extensive exploration. The efficiency of the nozzle under investigation was evaluated empirically or by the pressure exerted to the flat plate in the stagnation point of normally impinging jet. Recently the attention of investigators has been redirected to the details of the gas flow in the cut kerf. This activity is connected with the development of the theoretical models of gas-assisted laser cutting which serves to appreciate the role of the gas flow parameters in the phenomena responsible for the cutting efficiency. The efficiency of the gas delivery which is characterized by the cutting speed, the maximum thickness of the cut material, or the quality parameters of cut edges depends mainly on the flow features in the cut kerf. In the present paper these features are discussed closely. The results of the investigation provide the ability to choose purposefully the geometrical parameters of the nozzle facilities for laser cutter.

  18. Grain Boundary Percolation Modeling of Fission Gas Release in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C. Millett; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach to fission gas release modeling in oxide fuels based on grain boundary network percolation. The method accounts for variability in the bubble growth and coalescence rates on individual grain boundaries, and the resulting effect on macroscopic fission gas release. Two-dimensional representa- tions of fuel pellet microstructures are considered, and the resulting gas release rates are compared with traditional two-stage Booth models, which do not account for long-range percolation on grain boundary net- works. The results show that the requirement of percolation of saturated grain boundaries can considerably reduce the total gas release rates, particularly when gas resolution is considered.

  19. Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-05-01

    Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.

  20. Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.

  1. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This report provides an overview of the activities to date and schedule for future testing, validation, and authorized enhancements of Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The goal of this report is to inform DOE managers of progress in model development and to provide a benchmark for ongoing and future research. Section II of the report provides a detailed discussion on the major GSAM development programs performed and completed during the period of performance, July 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. Key improvements in the new GSAM version are summarized in Section III. Programmer's guides for GSAM main modules were produced to provide detailed descriptions of all major subroutines and main variables of the computer code. General logical flowcharts of the subroutines are also presented in the guides to provide overall picture of interactions between the subroutines. A standard structure of routine explanation is applied in every programmer's guide. The explanation is started with a brief description or main purpose of the routine, lists of input and output files read and created, and lists of invoked/child and calling/parent routines. In some of the guides, interactions between the routine itself and its parent and child routines are presented in the form of graphical flowchart. The explanation is then proceeded with step by step description of computer code in the subroutine where each step delegates a section of related code. Between steps, if a certain section of code needs further explanation, a Note is inserted with relevant explanation.

  2. A lattice gas cellular automaton approach to model volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are the result of complex mechanisms that operate in a magma chamber within the crust. In a previous study, we showed that the dynamics of eruptions on Earth are the same and are quite independent of the location and type of volcanism. The goal of this study is to test the universality of volcanism by designing a simple, general model to simulate processes occurring within a magma chamber. We aim at reproducing the threshold behavior that operates in the magma chamber when pressure increase leads to an eruption. To simulate volcanic eruptions, we propose to use a lattice gas cellular automata (LGCA), which have been proven efficient to simulate fluid flow behavior. This type cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical model in space and time, where the fluid is represented at the microscopic level by discrete particles. We start with the simplest LGCA: the 2-dimensional HPP model (proposed in 1973 by Hardy, de Pazzis and Pomeau), which consists of a square lattice where particles interact with one another mimicking the fluid flow and conserving mass and momentum. We also consider the model on a hexagonal lattice to take anisotropy into account. In this model, magma propagates through a heterogeneous medium, and deformation and fracturing occurs on the walls of the chamber up until a pressure threshold is reached and an eruption or a cascade of eruptions occur. We record the size of each event and the number of time steps between consecutive events (or interevent time). The model simulation results for a large number of realizations are compared with observed data. The observations come from eruption records of 13 individual volcanoes located around the world as well as 11 groups of volcanoes located in various regions surrounded by different tectonic settings. From these, we computed the frequency-size distribution of eruptions and the interevent time distributions for a large number of active volcanoes on Earth. This model allows us to study a

  3. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-10-01

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn't cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along <110> directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along <110> directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  4. TESTING NONSTANDARD COSMOLOGICAL MODELS WITH SNLS3 SUPERNOVA DATA AND OTHER COSMOLOGICAL PROBES

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengxiang; Yu Hongwei; Wu Puxun

    2012-01-10

    We investigate the implications for some nonstandard cosmological models using data from the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3), assuming a spatially flat universe. A comparison between the constraints from the SNLS3 and those from other SN Ia samples, such as the ESSENCE, Union2, SDSS-II, and Constitution samples, is given and the effects of different light-curve fitters are considered. We find that analyzing SNe Ia with SALT2 or SALT or SiFTO can give consistent results and the tensions between different data sets and different light-curve fitters are obvious for fewer-free-parameters models. At the same time, we also study the constraints from SNLS3 along with data from the cosmic microwave background and the baryonic acoustic oscillations (CMB/BAO), and the latest Hubble parameter versus redshift (H(z)). Using model selection criteria such as {chi}{sup 2}/dof, goodness of fit, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, we find that, among all the cosmological models considered here ({Lambda}CDM, constant w, varying w, Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP), modified polytropic Cardassian, and the generalized Chaplygin gas), the flat DGP is favored by SNLS3 alone. However, when additional CMB/BAO or H(z) constraints are included, this is no longer the case, and the flat {Lambda}CDM becomes preferred.

  5. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  6. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Henry, P.; Winters, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a "capillary pressure" in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer to the seabed) than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. Capillary effects or a build up of salt in the system can expand the phase boundary between hydrate and free gas into a divariant field extending over a finite depth range dictated by total methane content and pore-size distribution. Hysteresis between the temperatures of crystallization and dissociation of the clathrate is also predicted. Growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, and lenses in muds; cements in sands) can largely be explained by capillary effects, but kinetics of nucleation and growth are also important. The formation of concentrated gas hydrates in a partially closed system with respect to material transport, or where gas can flush through the system, may lead to water depletion in the host sediment. This "freeze-drying" may be detectable through physical changes to the sediment (low water content and overconsolidation) and/or chemical anomalies in the pore waters and metastable

  7. A SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE GAS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Patej, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The dominant baryonic component of galaxy clusters is hot gas whose distribution is commonly probed through X-ray emission arising from thermal bremsstrahlung. The density profile thus obtained has been traditionally modeled with a β-profile, a simple function with only three parameters. However, this model is known to be insufficient for characterizing the range of cluster gas distributions and attempts to rectify this shortcoming typically introduce additional parameters to increase the fitting flexibility. We use cosmological and physical considerations to obtain a family of profiles for the gas with fewer parameters than the β-model but which better accounts for observed gas profiles over wide radial intervals.

  8. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  9. A New Unified Dark Fluid Model and Its Cosmic Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new unified dark fluid (UDF) model with equation of state (EoS) w( a)=- α/( β a - n +1), which includes the generalized Chaplygin gas model (gGg) as its special case, where α, β and n are three positive numbers. It is clear that this model reduces to the gCg model with EoS w( a)=- B s /( B s +(1- B s ) a -3(1+ α)), when α=1, β=(1- B s )/ B s and n=3(1+ α). By combination the cold dark matter and the cosmological constant, one can coin a EoS of unified dark fluid in the form of w( a)=-1/(1+(1-ΩΛ) a -3/ΩΛ). With this observations, our proposed EoS provides a possible deviation from ΛCDM model when the model parameters α and n deviate from 1 and 3 respectively. By using the currently available cosmic observations from type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) Union2.1, baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), we test the viability of this model and detect the possible devotion from the ΛCDM model. The results show that the new UDF model fits the cosmic observation as well as that of the ΛCDM model and no deviation is found from the ΛCDM model in 3 σ confidence level. However, our new UDF model can give a non-zero sound speed, as a contrast, which is zero for the ΛCDM model. We expect the large structure formation information can distinct the new UDF model from the ΛCDM model.

  10. Leakage detection of Marcellus Shale natural gas at an Upper Devonian gas monitoring well: a 3-d numerical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwei; Anderson, Nicole; Dilmore, Robert; Soeder, Daniel J; Bromhal, Grant

    2014-09-16

    Potential natural gas leakage into shallow, overlying formations and aquifers from Marcellus Shale gas drilling operations is a public concern. However, before natural gas could reach underground sources of drinking water (USDW), it must pass through several geologic formations. Tracer and pressure monitoring in formations overlying the Marcellus could help detect natural gas leakage at hydraulic fracturing sites before it reaches USDW. In this study, a numerical simulation code (TOUGH 2) was used to investigate the potential for detecting leaking natural gas in such an overlying geologic formation. The modeled zone was based on a gas field in Greene County, Pennsylvania, undergoing production activities. The model assumed, hypothetically, that methane (CH4), the primary component of natural gas, with some tracer, was leaking around an existing well between the Marcellus Shale and the shallower and lower-pressure Bradford Formation. The leaky well was located 170 m away from a monitoring well, in the Bradford Formation. A simulation study was performed to determine how quickly the tracer monitoring could detect a leak of a known size. Using some typical parameters for the Bradford Formation, model results showed that a detectable tracer volume fraction of 2.0 × 10(-15) would be noted at the monitoring well in 9.8 years. The most rapid detection of tracer for the leak rates simulated was 81 days, but this scenario required that the leakage release point was at the same depth as the perforation zone of the monitoring well and the zones above and below the perforation zone had low permeability, which created a preferred tracer migration pathway along the perforation zone. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the time needed to detect CH4 leakage at the monitoring well was very sensitive to changes in the thickness of the high-permeability zone, CH4 leaking rate, and production rate of the monitoring well. PMID:25144442

  11. Leakage detection of Marcellus Shale natural gas at an Upper Devonian gas monitoring well: a 3-d numerical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwei; Anderson, Nicole; Dilmore, Robert; Soeder, Daniel J; Bromhal, Grant

    2014-09-16

    Potential natural gas leakage into shallow, overlying formations and aquifers from Marcellus Shale gas drilling operations is a public concern. However, before natural gas could reach underground sources of drinking water (USDW), it must pass through several geologic formations. Tracer and pressure monitoring in formations overlying the Marcellus could help detect natural gas leakage at hydraulic fracturing sites before it reaches USDW. In this study, a numerical simulation code (TOUGH 2) was used to investigate the potential for detecting leaking natural gas in such an overlying geologic formation. The modeled zone was based on a gas field in Greene County, Pennsylvania, undergoing production activities. The model assumed, hypothetically, that methane (CH4), the primary component of natural gas, with some tracer, was leaking around an existing well between the Marcellus Shale and the shallower and lower-pressure Bradford Formation. The leaky well was located 170 m away from a monitoring well, in the Bradford Formation. A simulation study was performed to determine how quickly the tracer monitoring could detect a leak of a known size. Using some typical parameters for the Bradford Formation, model results showed that a detectable tracer volume fraction of 2.0 × 10(-15) would be noted at the monitoring well in 9.8 years. The most rapid detection of tracer for the leak rates simulated was 81 days, but this scenario required that the leakage release point was at the same depth as the perforation zone of the monitoring well and the zones above and below the perforation zone had low permeability, which created a preferred tracer migration pathway along the perforation zone. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the time needed to detect CH4 leakage at the monitoring well was very sensitive to changes in the thickness of the high-permeability zone, CH4 leaking rate, and production rate of the monitoring well.

  12. Calculating soil gas fluxes from gas concentration profiles: can we use standard DS models or should we use site-specific DS models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Sinikka; Jochheim, Hubert; Wirth, Stephan; Maier, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration. It also links the profiles of soil gas concentration and soil gas flux using Fick's law. Soil gas diffusivity depends mainly on the structure of the pore system and the soil moisture status. There are several standard DS-models available that can easily be used for calculating DS. Another, more laborious option is to calibrate site specific DS models on soil core samples from the respective profile. We tested 4 standard DS models and a site-specific model and compared the resulting soil gas fluxes in two forest soils. Differences between the models were substantial. Another very important effect, however, is that standard DS models are usually derived from a single soil moisture measurement (device), that can result in an substantial offset in soil moisture estimation. The mean soil moisture content at a depth can be addressed more accurately by taking several soil cores. As a consequence, using standard DS models in combination with a single soil moisture measurement is less reliable than using site-specific models based on several soil samples.

  13. Rarefied gas flow simulations using high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms for Boltzmann model equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Peng, Ao-Ping; Zhang, Han-Xin; Yang, Jaw-Yen

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews rarefied gas flow computations based on nonlinear model Boltzmann equations using deterministic high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms (GKUA) in phase space. The nonlinear Boltzmann model equations considered include the BGK model, the Shakhov model, the Ellipsoidal Statistical model and the Morse model. Several high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms, which combine the discrete velocity ordinate method in velocity space and the compact high-order finite-difference schemes in physical space, are developed. The parallel strategies implemented with the accompanying algorithms are of equal importance. Accurate computations of rarefied gas flow problems using various kinetic models over wide ranges of Mach numbers 1.2-20 and Knudsen numbers 0.0001-5 are reported. The effects of different high resolution schemes on the flow resolution under the same discrete velocity ordinate method are studied. A conservative discrete velocity ordinate method to ensure the kinetic compatibility condition is also implemented. The present algorithms are tested for the one-dimensional unsteady shock-tube problems with various Knudsen numbers, the steady normal shock wave structures for different Mach numbers, the two-dimensional flows past a circular cylinder and a NACA 0012 airfoil to verify the present methodology and to simulate gas transport phenomena covering various flow regimes. Illustrations of large scale parallel computations of three-dimensional hypersonic rarefied flows over the reusable sphere-cone satellite and the re-entry spacecraft using almost the largest computer systems available in China are also reported. The present computed results are compared with the theoretical prediction from gas dynamics, related DSMC results, slip N-S solutions and experimental data, and good agreement can be found. The numerical experience indicates that although the direct model Boltzmann equation solver in phase space can be computationally expensive

  14. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  15. The real-time estimation of hazardous gas dispersion by the integration of gas detectors, neural network and gas dispersion models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Bingzhen; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-30

    Release of hazardous materials in chemical industries is a major threat to surrounding areas. Current gas dispersion models like PHAST and FLACS, use release velocity, release elevation, meteorological parameters, and other related information as model input. In general, such information is not always available during an on-going accident. In this paper, we develop a fast prediction approach which could bypass the input parameters that are difficult to obtain and predict the released gas concentration at certain off-site location using parameters that could be obtained easily. The new approach is an integration of gas detectors, artificial neural network (ANN) and one of the aforementioned gas dispersion models. PHAST is applied to simulate numbers of release scenarios and the results containing the spatial and temporal distributions of released gas concentration are prepared as input and target data samples for training the neural network. The approach was applied to a case study involving a hypothetical chlorine release with varying release rates and atmospheric conditions. The results of the approach that are concentration and dispersion time profiles in the environmental sensitive locations were validated against PHAST. The validation shows highly correlations with PHAST and convincingly demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-05-04

    This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

  17. Mathematical modelling of the liquid atomization process by cocurrent gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Boiko, V. M.; Goldin, V. D.; Maslov, E. A.; Orlov, S. E.; Poplavskiy, S. V.; Usanina, A. S.; Zharova, I. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the physical-mathematical model of liquid atomization in the spray pattern of an ejection nozzle. A flow field of a gas phase behind the nozzle section is computed using the Ansys Fluent package. Dynamics of molten metal droplets in the gas phase within a trajectory approach is calculated. Using the presented model, numerical calculation results are given.

  18. FIRST ORDER KINETIC GAS GENERATION MODEL PARAMETERS FOR WET LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas is produced as a result of a sequence of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring within an anaerobic landfill. Landfill operators, energy recovery project owners, regulators, and energy users need to be able to project the volume of gas produced and re...

  19. Modeling Coma Gas Jets in Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Campins, H.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of OH, CN, and C2 jets observed in Comet Hale-Bopp. The relative contributions from and composition of the coma gas sources, and the parameters describing the active areas responsible for the gas jets will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Teaching Pulmonary Gas Exchange Physiology Using Computer Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitan, Kent S.

    2008-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding the relationship of O[subscript 2] consumption, CO[subscript 2] production, cardiac output, and distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios in the lung to the final arterial blood gas composition. To overcome this difficulty, I have developed an interactive computer simulation of pulmonary gas exchange…

  1. Numerical modeling of the interaction between an electric arc and a turbulent gas flow - A turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemov, V. I.; Sinkevich, O. A.

    1986-02-01

    A semiempirical turbulence model describing the interaction between an electric arc and a turbulent gas flow is proposed which is based on the closure of the balance equations of second-order moments. The model accounts for the effect of gas density and electrodynamic parameter fluctuations. Based on the model proposed here, an algorithm is developed for calculating turbulent plasma flows in channels with complex boundary conditions, such as injection and suction. The efficiency of the model is verified experimentally.

  2. Lorentz lattice-gas and kinetic-walk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziff, Robert M.; Kong, X. P.; Cohen, E. G. D.

    1991-08-01

    The Ruijgrok-Cohen (RC) mirror model [Phys. Lett. A 133, 415 (1988)] of a Lorentz lattice gas, in which particles are reflected by left and right diagonally oriented mirrors randomly placed on the sites of a square lattice, is further investigated. Extensive computer simulations of individual trajectories up to 224 steps in length, on a lattice of 65 536×65 536 sites, are carried out. This model generates particle trajectories that are related to a variety of kinetic growth and ``smart'' (nontrapping) walks, and provides a kinetic interpretation of them. When all sites are covered with mirrors of both orientations with equal probability, the trajectories are equivalent to smart kinetic walks that effectively generate the hulls of bond percolation clusters at criticality. For this case, 106 trajectories were generated, yielding with unprecedented accuracy an orbit size-distribution exponent of τ=2.1423+/-0.0003 and a fractal dimension of df=1.750 47+/-0.000 24 (without correcting for finite-size effects), compared with theoretical predictions of 15/7=2.142 857. . . and 7/4, respectively. When the total concentration of mirrors C is less than unity, so that the trajectories can cross, the size distribution of the closed orbits does not follow a power law, but appears to be described by a logarithmic function. This function implies that all trajectories eventually close. The geometry of the trajectories does not show clear self-similar or fractal behavior in that the dependence of the mean-square displacement upon the time also appears to follow a logarithmic function. These trajectories are related to the growing self-avoiding trail (GSAT) introduced by Lyklema [J. Phys. A 18, L617 (1985)], and the present work supports the conjecture of Bradley [Phys. Rev. A 41, 914 (1990)] that the GSAT (the RC model with C=2/3) is not at a critical point. It is observed that when C<1, the trajectories behave asymptotically like an unrestricted random walk, and so for comparison

  3. A petroleum system model for gas hydrate deposits in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, Timothy S.; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposits are common on the North Slope of Alaska around Prudhoe Bay, however the extent of these deposits is unknown outside of this area. As part of a United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) gas hydrate research collaboration, well cutting and mud gas samples have been collected and analyzed from mainly industry-drilled wells on the Alaska North Slope for the purpose of prospecting for gas hydrate deposits. On the Alaska North Slope, gas hydrates are now recognized as an element within a petroleum systems approach or TPS (Total Petroleum System). Since 1979, 35 wells have been samples from as far west as Wainwright to Prudhoe Bay in the east. Geochemical studies of known gas hydrate occurrences on the North Slope have shown a link between gas hydrate and more deeply buried conventional oil and gas deposits. Hydrocarbon gases migrate from depth and charge the reservoir rock within the gas hydrate stability zone. It is likely gases migrated into conventional traps as free gas, and were later converted to gas hydrate in response to climate cooling concurrent with permafrost formation. Gas hydrate is known to occur in one of the sampled wells, likely present in 22 others based gas geochemistry and inferred by equivocal gas geochemistry in 11 wells, and absent in one well. Gas migration routes are common in the North Slope and include faults and widespread, continuous, shallowly dipping permeable sand sections that are potentially in communication with deeper oil and gas sources. The application of this model with the geochemical evidence suggests that gas hydrate deposits may be widespread across the North Slope of Alaska.

  4. Multiscale development of a fission gas thermal conductivity model: Coupling atomic, meso and continuum level simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, Michael R.; Millett, Paul C.; Nerikar, Pankaj; Du, Shiyu; Andersson, David; Stanek, Christopher R.; Gaston, Derek; Andrs, David; Williamson, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact the fuel performance, causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity and fission gas release. However, typical empirical models of fuel properties treat each of these effects separately and uncoupled. Here, we couple a fission gas release model to a model of the impact of fission gas on the fuel thermal conductivity. To quantify the specific impact of grain boundary (GB) bubbles on the thermal conductivity, we use atomistic and mesoscale simulations. Atomistic molecular dynamic simulations were employed to determine the GB thermal resistance. These values were then used in mesoscale heat conduction simulations to develop a mechanistic expression for the effective GB thermal resistance of a GB containing gas bubbles, as a function of the percentage of the GB covered by fission gas. The coupled fission gas release and thermal conductivity model was implemented in Idaho National Laboratory's BISON fuel performance code to model the behavior of a 10-pellet LWR fuel rodlet, showing how the fission gas impacts the UO2 thermal conductivity. Furthermore, additional BISON simulations were conducted to demonstrate the impact of average grain size on both the fuel thermal conductivity and the fission gas release.

  5. Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ″well-to-wire″ (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8–2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

  6. Development of a Random Field Model for Gas Plume Detection in Multiple LWIR Images.

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.

    2008-09-30

    This report develops a random field model that describes gas plumes in LWIR remote sensing images. The random field model serves as a prior distribution that can be combined with LWIR data to produce a posterior that determines the probability that a gas plume exists in the scene and also maps the most probable location of any plume. The random field model is intended to work with a single pixel regression estimator--a regression model that estimates gas concentration on an individual pixel basis.

  7. INTEGRATED PROCESS GAS MODELING FOR TRITIUM SYSTEMS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T; Anita Poore, A

    2007-08-30

    Significant savings are being realized from the consolidated tritium gas-processing operations at the Savannah River Site. However, the trade-off is some reduction of operational flexibility due to decreased storage capacity for process and waste gases. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers are developing an integrated process gas model for tritium processing using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark} (ACM) software. The modeling involves fully characterizing process flow streams (gas composition, quantity), frequency of batch transfers, and availability of equipment in the flow stream. The model provides a valuable engineering tool to identify flow bottlenecks, thereby enabling adjustments to be made to improve process operations.

  8. EIA model documentation: Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projects are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region.

  9. Gas cushion model and hydrodynamic boundary conditions for superhydrophobic textures.

    PubMed

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Asmolov, Evgeny S; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-10-01

    Superhydrophobic Cassie textures with trapped gas bubbles reduce drag, by generating large effective slip, which is important for a variety of applications that involve a manipulation of liquids at the small scale. Here we discuss how the dissipation in the gas phase of textures modifies their friction properties. We propose an operator method, which allows us to map the flow in the gas subphase to a local slip boundary condition at the liquid-gas interface. The determined uniquely local slip length depends on the viscosity contrast and underlying topography, and can be immediately used to evaluate an effective slip of the texture. Besides superlubricating Cassie surfaces, our approach is valid for rough surfaces impregnated by a low-viscosity "lubricant," and even for Wenzel textures, where a liquid follows the surface relief. These results provide a framework for the rational design of textured surfaces for numerous applications.

  10. Modelling and simulation of heavy gas dispersion on the basis of modifications in plume path theory.

    PubMed

    Khan, F I; Abbasi, S A

    2000-12-30

    An analytical model for heavy gas dispersion based on the modifications in plume path theory has been developed. The model takes into account the variations in temperature, density, and specific heat during the movement of heavy gas plume. The model has been tested for three hazardous gases - chlorine, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The results have been compared with the recently generated experimental data as also with the outputs of other models. A good agreement is observed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. A study has also been carried out to simulate the effect of the wind speed, density of the gas, and venting speed on dispersion. Based on the simulation study a set of empirical equations has been developed. The equations are validated by theoretical as well as experimental studies. PMID:11080566

  11. Critique of the mid-range energy forecasting, system oil and gas supply models

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.

    1980-10-01

    The Mid-Range Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) is a model used by the Department of Energy to forecast domestic production, consumption and price for conventional energy sources on a regional basis over a period of 5 to 15 years. Among the energy sources included in the model are oil, gas and other petroleum fuels, coal, uranium, and electricity. Final consumption of alternative energy sources is broken into end-use categories, such as residential, commercial and industrial uses. Regional prices for all energy sources are calculated by iteratively equating domestic supply and demand. The purpose of this paper is to assess the ability of the Oil and Gas Supply Submodels of MEFS to reliably and accurately project oil and gas supply curves, which are used in the integrating model, along with fuel demand curves to estimate market price. The reliability and accuracy of the oil and gas model cannot be judged by comparing its predictions against actual observations because those observations have not yet occurred. The reliability and reasonableness of the oil and gas supply model can be judged, however, by analyzing how well its assumptions and predictions correspond to accepted economic principles. This is the approach taken in this critique. The remainder of this paper describes the general structure of the oil and gas supply model and how it functions to project the quantity of oil and gas forthcoming at given prices in a particular year, then discusses the economic soundness of the model, and finally suggests model changes to improve its performance.

  12. A new model for the V-Cone meter in low pressure wet gas metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Denghui; Bai, Bofeng; Xu, Yong; Li, Xing

    2012-12-01

    Wet gas metering with differential pressure (DP) devices (e.g. the orifice plate, the Venturi and the V-Cone) has gained increasing interest in the oil and gas industry. Many investigations have been performed and several models have been proposed. Among the DP devices, the V-Cone flow meter has received increasing attention owing to its remarkable performance characteristics, including high accuracy, excellent repeatability, wide turndowns, shorter straight length and stable signals. In this work, we developed a new method for predicting the gas flow rate in low pressure wet gas flow using a V-Cone flow meter with the diameter ratio of 0.55. The experimental fluid was air and tap water. The test pressure ranged from 0.10 to 0.48 MPa, and the gas and liquid mass flow rates ranged from 100 to 500 N m3 h-1 and from 0.030 to 0.358 m3 h-1, respectively. Thus, the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter, XLM, was up to 0.158 and the gas volume fraction ranged from 98.94% to 100%. A dimensionless parameter, K, was proposed in this work and defined as the two-phase flow coefficient of the flow meter. The results indicated that the K linearly increased with the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. In addition, the K increased with the gas densiometric Froude number and decreased with the operating pressure when other parameters were kept constant. On the basis of the two-phase flow coefficient, a new wet gas model was developed and compared with seven popular wet gas models. It was found that with the V-Cone flow meter and under the present experimental conditions the new model produced a more accurate prediction of the wet gas than other models. The research approach to obtaining the model can also be used in the studies on other DP devices and thus will benefit the design of wet gas meters.

  13. A 3D Model for Gas Transfer, Storage and Resulting Displacement in a Permeable Volcanic Edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen

    2014-05-01

    The total volume of gas in a magma, dissolved and subsequently exsolved, greatly influences the degree of explosiveness of a volcanic system. There is a marked contrast between the behaviour of a volcano in an open system compared to one which is closed. Whilst gas release is evident from surface gas emission measurements, gas storage is also thought to play an important role, as evidenced by large gas emissions after some large dome collapse events, suggesting gas may be stored in large volumes at shallow depths within the dome and edifice. Consequently, it is essential to understand degassing, to appreciate how much gas may be stored and where, and under what conditions it may be transferred or emitted to the atmosphere. We use previous experimental data on permeabilities to create 3D numerical models to investigate gas transport and storage in a permeable volcanic edifice. We combine the continuity equation, Darcy's law and the ideal gas law to derive a partial differential equation which is solved using a finite element method to obtain the gas pressure. The associated pressure gradient is then used within Darcy's law to calculate the gas velocity. In addition, we use the momentum equation to investigate how the presence of gas and variations in permeability influence the rate and degree of deformation in the volcanic edifice. Hence this provides two important surface constraints: gas emissions and surface displacement. Geometries are created to simulate the topography of actual volcanoes and the pressure and permeabilities incorporated into the model as boundary and domain conditions, respectively. This method is applied to investigate a variety of volcanological phenomena affecting gas, for example regions of high permeability due to fractures, or low permeability due to sealing.

  14. Model of Gas Flow Through Porous Refractory Applied to an Upper Tundish Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Thomas, Brian G.

    2015-02-01

    Argon gas commonly is injected into the liquid metal stream through the porous refractory walls in many metallurgical processes. In this work, a new model has been developed to investigate gas diffusion through heated porous refractory, including the effects of refractory geometry, the thermal expansion of the gas, temperature-dependent gas viscosity, and possible leakage into unsealed joints. A novel one-way-flow pressure boundary condition has been formulated and implemented to prevent unrealistic flow into the refractory. The complete model is validated with both analytical solutions of 1D test problems and observations of a water bubbling experiment. Then, to demonstrate practical application of this general model, argon gas flow is simulated through a double-slitted upper tundish nozzle during continuous steel casting with a slide-gate system. Realistic liquid steel pressure distributions with the bubbling threshold condition are applied on the inner surface. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of joint gas leakage, refractory conductivity, permeability, and injection pressure on the resulting gas distributions, gas mass flow rates, and leakage fraction. This new model of porous flow can serve as the first step of a comprehensive multiphase model system.

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Natural Gas Consumption and Prices

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas consumption and price modules of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model are designed to provide consumption and end-use retail price forecasts for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in the nine Census districts and natural gas working inventories in three regions. Natural gas consumption shares and prices in each Census district are used to calculate an average U.S. retail price for each end-use sector.

  16. Gas-dynamic modeling of gas flow in semi-closed space including channel surface fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. N.; Salnikov, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    In this article frequency interaction conditions, that affect on acoustic stability of solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE) action, and its influence on level change of pressure fluctuations with longitudinal gas oscillations in the combustion chamber (CC) are considered. Studies of CC in the assessment of the operating rocket engine stability are reported.

  17. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Woods, H Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N

    2010-05-01

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface temperature of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). Model predictions were largely confirmed by data on 202 species in five taxa--insects, birds, bird eggs, mammals, and plants--spanning nine orders of magnitude in rate of gas exchange. Discrepancies between model predictions and data seemed to arise from biologically interesting violations of model assumptions, which emphasizes how poorly we understand gas exchange in some taxa. The universal model provides a unified conceptual framework for analyzing exchange-associated water losses across taxa with radically different metabolic and exchange systems.

  18. Models, Simulators, and Data-driven Resources for Oil and Natural Gas Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    NETL provides a number of analytical tools to assist in conducting oil and natural gas research. Software, developed under various DOE/NETL projects, includes numerical simulators, analytical models, databases, and documentation.[copied from http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/Software_main.html] Links lead users to methane hydrates models, preedictive models, simulators, databases, and other software tools or resources.

  19. Modelling of evaporation of a dispersed liquid component in a chemically active gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, V. G.; Naumov, V. I.; Kotov, V. Yu.

    1994-01-01

    A model has been developed to investigate evaporation of dispersed liquids in chemically active gas flow. Major efforts have been directed at the development of algorithms for implementing this model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that, in the boundary layer, significant changes in the composition and temperature of combustion products take place. This gives the opportunity to more correctly model energy release processes in combustion chambers of liquid-propellant rocket engines, gas-turbine engines, and other power devices.

  20. Amplitude versus offset modeling of the bottom simulating reflection associated with submarine gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreassen, K.; Hart, P.E.; MacKay, M.

    1997-01-01

    A bottom simulating seismic reflection (BSR) that parallels the sea floor occurs worldwide on seismic profiles from outer continental margins. The BSR coincides with the base of the gas hydrate stability field and is commonly used as indicator of natural submarine gas hydrates. Despite the widespread assumption that the BSR marks the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, the occurrence and importance of low-velocity free gas in the sediments beneath the BSR has long been a subject of debate. This paper investigates the relative abundance of hydrate and free gas associated with the BSR by modeling the reflection coefficient or amplitude variation with offset (AVO) of the BSR at two separate sites, offshore Oregon and the Beaufort Sea. The models are based on multichannel seismic profiles, seismic velocity data from both sites and downhole log data from Oregon ODP Site 892. AVO studies of the BSR can determine whether free gas exists beneath the BSR if the saturation of gas hydrate above the BSR is less than approximately 30% of the pore volume. Gas hydrate saturation above the BSR can be roughly estimated from AVO studies, but the saturation of free gas beneath the BSR cannot be constrained from the seismic data alone. The AVO analyses at the two study locations indicate that the high amplitude BSR results primarily from free gas beneath the BSR. Hydrate concentrations above the BSR are calculated to be less than 10% of the pore volume for both locations studied.

  1. a Fully Quantum Method of Determination of Penetrability and Reflection Coefficients in Quantum FRW Model with Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    In the paper the closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with quantization in the presence of the positive cosmological constant and radiation is studied. For analysis of tunneling probability for birth of an asymptotically de Sitter, inflationary universe as a function of the radiation energy, a new definition of a "free" wave propagating inside strong fields is proposed. On such a basis, tunneling boundary condition is corrected, penetrability and reflection relative to the barrier are calculated in fully quantum stationary approach. For the first time nonzero interference between the incident and reflected waves has been taken into account which turns out to play important role inside cosmological potentials and could be explained by non-locality of barriers in quantum mechanics. Inside the whole region of radiation energy the tunneling probability for the birth of the inflationary universe is found to be close to its value obtained in the semiclassical approach. The reflection from the barrier is determined for the first time (which differs essentially on 1 at the energy of radiation close to the barrier height). The proposed method could be easily generalized on the cosmological models with barriers of arbitrary shape, as demonstrated for the FRW model with included Chaplygin gas. The result is stable for variations of the studied barriers, accuracy is found to be 11-18 digits for all coefficients and energies below the barrier height.

  2. Modelling the behaviour of mechanical biological treatment outputs in landfills using the GasSim model.

    PubMed

    Donovan, S M; Bateson, T; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2010-03-15

    The pretreatment of the biodegradable components of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been suggested as a method of reducing landfill gas emissions. Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is the technology being developed to provide this reduction in biodegradability, either as an alternative to source segregated collection or for dealing with residual MSW which still contains high levels of biodegradable waste. The compost like outputs (CLOs) from MBT plants can be applied to land as a soil conditioner; treated to produce a solid recovered fuel (SRF) or landfilled. In this study the impact that landfilling of these CLOs will have on gaseous emissions is investigated. It is important that the gas production behaviour of landfilled waste is well understood, especially in European member states where the mitigation of gaseous emissions is a legal requirement. Results of an experiment carried out to characterise the biodegradable components of pretreated biowastes have been used with the GasSim model to predict the long term emissions behaviour of landfills accepting these wastes, in varying quantities. The landfill directive also enforces the mitigation of potential methane emissions from landfills, and the ability of landfill operators to capture gaseous emissions from low emitting landfills of the future is discussed, as well as new techniques that could be used for the mitigation of methane generation. PMID:20092874

  3. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    DOE PAGES

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Brent Manley; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Reneker, Joseph; Rochau, Gregory A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; et al

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiativemore » output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.« less

  4. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lamppa, D. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jobe, M.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Rochau, G. A.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2015-05-15

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (∼20 MA, ∼100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ∼13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  5. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Brent Manley; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Reneker, Joseph; Rochau, Gregory A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Strizic, T.

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  6. A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact.

    SciTech Connect

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.

    2014-04-01

    This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.

  7. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  8. A Coupled Plasma Dynamics and Gas Flow Model for Semiconductor Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A continuum modeling approach by self-consistently coupling plasma dynamics and gas flow will be presented for the analysis of high density plasma reactors. Experimental data shows that gas flow distribution affects the etch rate uniformity even at low pressures (6-20 mTorr) and flow rates (20-70 sccm). This study will investigate the effects of gas flow and gas energy on bulk plasma densities and temperatures using a continuum model. The model solves multidimensional equations of mass balance for neutrals and ions, gas momentum, separate energy equations for electrons and neutrals and Maxwell's equations for power coupling. A test case of N2 plasma in a 300mm TCP etch reactor, for which hybrid model and Langmuir probe data are available, is chosen for this analysis. Our preliminary results show that modeling gas flow and energy improves the predictions of electron density and its spatial variation in the reactor when compared with the experimental data. The aim of this study is to identify the operating conditions for the TCP reactor when a self-consistent modeling of gas flow is important.

  9. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertaintymore » in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.« less

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  11. Models for Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Inferred from Hydraulic Permeability and Elastic Velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2008-01-01

    Elastic velocities and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments strongly depend on how gas hydrate accumulates in pore spaces and various gas hydrate accumulation models are proposed to predict physical property changes due to gas hydrate concentrations. Elastic velocities and permeability predicted from a cementation model differ noticeably from those from a pore-filling model. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log provides in-situ water-filled porosity and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. To test the two competing models, the NMR log along with conventional logs such as velocity and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 5L-38 well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, were analyzed. When the clay content is less than about 12 percent, the NMR porosity is 'accurate' and the gas hydrate concentrations from the NMR log are comparable to those estimated from an electrical resistivity log. The variation of elastic velocities and relative permeability with respect to the gas hydrate concentration indicates that the dominant effect of gas hydrate in the pore space is the pore-filling characteristic.

  12. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2002-02-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  13. LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (LANDGEM) VERSION 3.02 USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) is an automated estimation tool with a Microsoft Excel interface that can be used to estimate emission rates for total landfill gas, methane, carbon dioxide, nonmethane organic compounds, and individual air pollutants from municipal soli...

  14. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  15. Compilation of gas intrusion measurements, variations, and consequence modeling for SPR caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, Thomas E.

    2003-03-01

    The intrusion of gas into oils stored within the SPR has been examined. When oil is stored in domal salts, gases intrude into the stored oil from the surrounding salt. Aspects of the mechanism of gas intrusion have been examined. In all cases, this gas intrusion results in increases in the oil vapor pressure. Data that have been gathered from 1993 to August 2002 are presented to show the resultant increases in bubble-point pressure on a cavern-by-cavern as well as on a stream basis. The measurement techniques are presented with particular emphasis on the TVP 95. Data analysis methods are presented to show the methods required to obtain recombined cavern oil compositions. Gas-oil ratios are also computed from the data and are presented on a cavern-by-cavern and stream basis. The observed increases in bubble-point pressure and gas-oil ratio are further statistically analyzed to allow data interpretation. Emissions plume modeling is used to determine adherence to state air regulations. Gas intrusion is observed to be variable among the sites and within each dome. Gas intrusions at Bryan Mound and Big Hill have resulted in the largest increases in bubble-point pressure for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The streams at Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry show minimal bubble-point pressure increases. Emissions plume modeling, using the state mandated ISCST code, of oil storage tanks showed that virtually no gas may be released when H2S standards are considered. DOE plans to scavenge H2S to comply with the very tight standards on this gas. With the assumption of scavenging, benzene releases become the next most controlling factor. Model results show that a GOR of 0.6 SCF/BBL may be emissions that are within standards. Employing the benzene gas release standard will significantly improve oil deliverability. New plume modeling using the computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, is addressing limitations of the state mandated ISCST model.

  16. A new pressure formulation for gas-compressibility dampening in bubble dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Gadi Man, Yezaz Ahmed; Trujillo, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    We formulated a pressure equation for bubbles performing nonlinear radial oscillations under ultrasonic high pressure amplitudes. The proposed equation corrects the gas pressure at the gas-liquid interface on inertial bubbles. This pressure formulation, expressed in terms of gas-Mach number, accounts for dampening due to gas compressibility during the violent collapse of cavitation bubbles and during subsequent rebounds. We refer to this as inhomogeneous pressure, where the gas pressure at the gas-liquid interface can differ to the pressure at the centre of the bubble, in contrast to homogenous pressure formulations that consider that pressure inside the bubble is spatially uniform from the wall to the centre. The pressure correction was applied to two bubble dynamic models: the incompressible Rayleigh-Plesset equation and the compressible Keller and Miksis equation. This improved the predictions of the nonlinear radial motion of the bubble vs time obtained with both models. Those simulations were also compared with other bubble dynamics models that account for liquid and gas compressibility effects. It was found that our corrected models are in closer agreement with experimental data than alternative models. It was concluded that the Rayleigh-Plesset family of equations improve accuracy by using our proposed pressure correction. PMID:27150768

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, J. D.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Spencer, B. W.; Luzzi, L.; Van Uffelen, P.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code with a recently implemented physics-based model for fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information in the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior predictions with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, significantly higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  18. Modeling the final phase of landfill gas generation from long-term observations.

    PubMed

    Tintner, Johannes; Kühleitner, Manfred; Binner, Erwin; Brunner, Norbert; Smidt, Ena

    2012-06-01

    For waste management, methane emissions from landfills and their effect on climate change are of serious concern. Current models for biogas generation that focus on the economic use of the landfill gas are usually based on first order chemical reactions (exponential decay), underestimating the long-term emissions of landfills. The presented study concentrated on the curve fitting and the quantification of the gas generation during the final degradation phase under optimal anaerobic conditions. For this purpose the long-term gas generation (240-1,830 days) of different mechanically biologically treated (MBT) waste materials was measured. In this study the late gas generation was modeled by a log-normal distribution curve to gather the maximum gas generation potential. According to the log-normal model the observed gas sum curve leads to higher values than commonly used exponential decay models. The prediction of the final phase of landfill gas generation by a fitting model provides a basis for CO(2) balances in waste management and some information to which extent landfills serve as carbon sink.

  19. Observations from using models to fit the gas production of varying volume test cells and landfills.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, Julia

    2012-12-01

    Landfill operators are looking for more accurate models to predict waste degradation and landfill gas production. The simple microbial growth and decay models, whilst being easy to use, have been shown to be inaccurate. Many of the newer and more complex (component) models are highly parameter hungry and many of the required parameters have not been collected or measured at full-scale landfills. This paper compares the results of using different models (LANDGEM, HBM, and two Monod models developed by the author) to fit the gas production of laboratory scale, field test cell and full-scale landfills and discusses some observations that can be made regarding the scalability of gas generation rates. The comparison of these results show that the fast degradation rate that occurs at laboratory scale is not replicated at field-test cell and full-scale landfills. At small scale, all the models predict a slower rate of gas generation than actually occurs. At field test cell and full-scale a number of models predict a faster gas generation than actually occurs. Areas for future work have been identified, which include investigations into the capture efficiency of gas extraction systems and into the parameter sensitivity and identification of the critical parameters for field-test cell and full-scale landfill predication.

  20. Observational model of the ionized gas in Seyfert and radio-galaxy nuclei*

    PubMed Central

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1978-01-01

    Equivalent widths of the total emission-line Hβ in Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies, expressed in terms of the featureless continuum, all have approximately the same frequency distribution. This suggests that the energy-input mechanism to both the narrow-line, low-density gas and the broad-line, high-density gas is photoionization by the featureless continuum. The reason for the weakness of the narrow emission lines in extreme Seyfert 1 galaxies is then the absorption of most of the ionizing photons in the dense gas near the central source. The statistics of line widths can be fitted by a model in which the dense gas has typical rotational velocity 5000 km/sec and typical turbulent velocity 2000 km/sec. A model is proposed in which the dense gas forms a rotating, turbulent disk with dimension ≈0.1 pc and height/diameter ≈2/5. Seyfert 2 galaxies are objects with little dense gas, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies are objects in which the dense gas is optically thin to ionizing radiation at least along the poles. Most radio galaxies have strong narrow emission lines, suggesting that escape of radio plasma can only occur where some ionizing photons can also escape from the dense gas. Other predictions, implications, and tests of this model are discussed. Images PMID:16592488

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  2. Boltzmann Equation Analysis Of Electron Swarms For Non Thermal Flue Gas Discharge Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousfi, M.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this presentation is to give an overview on the electron swarm development in the flue gas mixture discharges involving N2, O2, H2O and CO2. The corresponding electron basic data needed for the non thermal plasma device for pollution control are given in typical flue gases from Boltzmann equation solution including the dominant collision processes (elastic, inelastic and super-elastic). These data are first the electron-molecule collision cross sections for each gas of the mixture and then the transport and reaction coefficients of electron swarms in the gas mixture. The strong coupling between this electron swarm model with the different models used for the non thermal plasma device of our interest are emphasized. This concerns the electron Boltzamnn equation coupled with the charged particle (or electrical) model, the gas dynamics and also the chemical kinetics models. Some illustrative results of this coupling are then given.

  3. Pizza or Pancake? Formation Models of Gas Escape Biosignatures in Terrestrial and Martian Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, L.; McKay, C. P.; Willson, D.

    2016-05-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary hollowed structures were imaged in Gale Crater, but no biomarkers identified to support biology. Our observation-based (gas escape) terrestrial model could inform on possible martian paleoenvironments at time of formation.

  4. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have conducted numerical simulation studies to assess the potential for injection-induced fault reactivation and notable seismic events associated with shale-gas hydraulic fracturing operations. The modeling is generally tuned toward conditions usually encountered in the Marce...

  5. Modeling of Aerobrake Ballute Stagnation Point Temperature and Heat Transfer to Inflation Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    2012-01-01

    A trailing Ballute drag device concept for spacecraft aerocapture is considered. A thermal model for calculation of the Ballute membrane temperature and the inflation gas temperature is developed. An algorithm capturing the most salient features of the concept is implemented. In conjunction with the thermal model, trajectory calculations for two candidate missions, Titan Explorer and Neptune Orbiter missions, are used to estimate the stagnation point temperature and the inflation gas temperature. Radiation from both sides of the membrane at the stagnation point and conduction to the inflating gas is included. The results showed that the radiation from the membrane and to a much lesser extent conduction to the inflating gas, are likely to be the controlling heat transfer mechanisms and that the increase in gas temperature due to aerodynamic heating is of secondary importance.

  6. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  7. Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

  8. Galactic evolution. I - Single-zone models. [encompassing stellar evolution and gas-star dynamic theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, T. X.; Hart, M. H.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The two basic approaches of physical theory required to calculate the evolution of a galactic system are considered, taking into account stellar evolution theory and the dynamics of a gas-star system. Attention is given to intrinsic (stellar) physics, extrinsic (dynamical) physics, and computations concerning the fractionation of an initial mass of gas into stars. The characteristics of a 'standard' model and its variants are discussed along with the results obtained with the aid of these models.

  9. Partially invariant solutions of models obtained from the Nambu-Goto action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundland, A. M.; Hariton, A. J.

    2004-08-01

    The concept of partially invariant solutions is discussed in the framework of the group analysis of models derived from the Nambu-Goto action. In particular, we consider the nonrelativistic Chaplygin gas and the relativistic Born-Infeld theory for a scalar field. Using a general systematic approach based on subgroup classification methods, nontrivial partially invariant solutions with defect structure δ=1 are constructed. For this purpose, a classification of the subgroups of the Lie point symmetry group, which have generic orbits of dimension 2, has been performed. These subgroups allow us to introduce the corresponding symmetry variables and next to reduce the initial equations to different nonequivalent classes of partial differential equations and ordinary differential equations. The latter can be transformed to standard form and, in some cases, solved in terms of elementary and Jacobi elliptic functions. This results in a large number of new partially invariant solutions, which are determined to be either reducible or irreducible with respect to the symmetry group. Some physical interpretation of the results in the area of fluid dynamics and field theory are discussed. The solutions represent traveling and centered waves, algebraic solitons, kinks, bumps, cnoidal and snoidal waves.

  10. A New Model for Gas Transfer and Storage in a Permeable Volcanic Edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, A. D.; Neuberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    There is a marked contrast between the behaviour of a volcano in an open system compared to one which is closed. It is therefore essential to understand degassing, to appreciate how much gas is lost and where. Previous studies by a variety of scientists have led to the accumulation of data via field evidence from both active and fossil volcanoes (Stasiuk et al., 1996), laboratory experiments (Moore et al., 1994) and conceptual modelling, in which Darcy's law has become increasingly applicable (Eichelberger et al., 1986; Edmonds et al., 2003). Of particular interest for this study, is the effect different permeabilities have on the degree and pattern of the gas flux. A new method has been devised to investigate gas transport and storage in a permeable volcanic edifice. The continuity equation and Darcy's law are amalgamated to derive a partial differential equation which is solved using a finite element method to obtain the gas pressure. The associated pressure gradient is then used within Darcy's law to calculate the gas flux. The properties of the gas are described by the ideal gas law. The strength of this method is that it allows the modelling of two and three dimensional structures both in stationary equilibrium and as a time dependent progression. A geometry is created and the pressure and permeabilites incorporated into the model as boundary and domain conditions respectively. The aim of the model is to investigate how variable permeability and pressure gradients influence the gas flux, for example highly permeable cracks in the dome, or impermeable layers within the volcanic structure. We also use this gas model to complement the model of Neuberg et al. (2006) in which brittle failure of the conduit-wall boundary is used as a trigger mechanism of low-frequency earthquakes. The associated behaviour of the gas in response to the brittle failure is simulated in our model by increasing the permeability through a narrow zone at the boundary between the conduit

  11. Analytical model of the temperature dependent properties of microresonators immersed in a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ilin, E. A.; Kehrbusch, J.; Radzio, B.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model of microresonators immersed in a viscous gas of varying temperature is presented and verified by experiments. Analytical expressions for both the temperature dependent resonant frequency and quality factor of the first flexural eigenmode were derived extending Sader's theory of viscous damping to small temperature variations. The model provides useful implications for the thermal stabilization of microresonators immersed in a gas as well as for the reduction in the influence of the temperature dependent gas properties on the resonant frequency. Finally, an analytical expression is deduced for the mass detection capability of a microresonator that undergoes temperature variations.

  12. Computer Modeling of Flow, Thermal Condition and Ash Deposition in a Hot-Gas Filtration Device

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, G.; Mazaheri, A.; Liu, C.; Gamwo, I.K.

    2002-09-19

    The objective of the present study is to develop a computational model for simulating the gas flow, thermal condition and ash transport and deposition pattern in the hot-gas filtration systems. The computational model is to provide a virtual tool for design and operation modifications. Particular attention is given to the Particle Control Device (PCD) at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama. For evaluation of gas velocity and temperature field in the vessel, the FLUENT commercial CFD computer code is used. Ash particle transport and deposition pattern was analyzed with the Lagrangian particle tracking approach.

  13. Gas transfer model to design a ventilator for neonatal total liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Mirko; Cammi, Antonio; Bagnoli, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The study was aimed to optimize the gas transfer in an innovative ventilator for neonatal Total Liquid Ventilation (TLV) that integrates the pumping and oxygenation functions in a non-volumetric pulsatile device made of parallel flat silicone membranes. A computational approach was adopted to evaluate oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between the liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) and the oxygenating gas, as a function of the geometrical parameter of the device. A 2D semi-empirical model was implemented to this purpose using Comsol Multiphysics to study both the fluid dynamics and the gas exchange in the ventilator. Experimental gas exchanges measured with a preliminary prototype were compared to the simulation outcomes to prove the model reliability. Different device configurations were modeled to identify the optimal design able to guarantee the desired gas transfer. Good agreement between experimental and simulation outcomes was obtained, validating the model. The optimal configuration, able to achieve the desired gas exchange (ΔpCO2 = 16.5 mmHg and ΔpO2 = 69 mmHg), is a device comprising 40 modules, 300 mm in length (total exchange area = 2.28 m(2)). With this configuration gas transfer performance is satisfactory for all the simulated settings, proving good adaptability of the device.

  14. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  15. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  16. Gas transfer model to design a ventilator for neonatal total liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Mirko; Cammi, Antonio; Bagnoli, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The study was aimed to optimize the gas transfer in an innovative ventilator for neonatal Total Liquid Ventilation (TLV) that integrates the pumping and oxygenation functions in a non-volumetric pulsatile device made of parallel flat silicone membranes. A computational approach was adopted to evaluate oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between the liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) and the oxygenating gas, as a function of the geometrical parameter of the device. A 2D semi-empirical model was implemented to this purpose using Comsol Multiphysics to study both the fluid dynamics and the gas exchange in the ventilator. Experimental gas exchanges measured with a preliminary prototype were compared to the simulation outcomes to prove the model reliability. Different device configurations were modeled to identify the optimal design able to guarantee the desired gas transfer. Good agreement between experimental and simulation outcomes was obtained, validating the model. The optimal configuration, able to achieve the desired gas exchange (ΔpCO2 = 16.5 mmHg and ΔpO2 = 69 mmHg), is a device comprising 40 modules, 300 mm in length (total exchange area = 2.28 m(2)). With this configuration gas transfer performance is satisfactory for all the simulated settings, proving good adaptability of the device. PMID:26475493

  17. Hybrid continuum–molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-12-15

    We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic–continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging–diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case.

  18. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  19. Gas Chromatographic Verification of a Mathematical Model: Product Distribution Following Methanolysis Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, R. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated application of binomial statistics to equilibrium distribution of ester systems by employing gas chromatography to verify the mathematical model used. Discusses model development and experimental techniques, indicating the model enables a straightforward extension to symmetrical polyfunctional esters and presents a mathematical basis…

  20. On the spatial range of validity of the gas dynamic model in the magnetosheath of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, T. L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, the global solar wind interaction with Venus has been treated with gas dynamic models which, while successful in modeling some of the global characteristics of the interaction, do not include the magnetic barrier in a self-consistent manner. This magnetic barrier is formed in the inner magnetosheath where it transfers solar wind momentum flux to the obstacle via magnetic pressure. In this study, we examine the extent to which the gas dynamic fluid approximation describes the magnetic field in the dayside Venus magnetosheath by comparing with two gas dynamic models, one which matches the observed ionopause location and one which matches the bow shock location. We find that each model predicts the field profile reasonably well in the vicinity of the matched bow shock or ionopause, but neither model provides an adequate model over the entire range from the ionopause to the bow shock.

  1. Development of an Integrated Performance Model for TRISO-Coated Gas Reactor Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, David Andrew; Miller, Gregory Kent; Martin, David George; Maki, John Thomas

    2005-05-01

    The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The understanding and evaluation of this fuel requires development of an integrated mechanistic fuel performance model that fully describes the mechanical and physico-chemical behavior of the fuel particle under irradiation. Such a model, called PARFUME (PARticle Fuel ModEl), is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. PARFUME is based on multi-dimensional finite element modeling of TRISO-coated gas reactor fuel. The goal is to represent all potential failure mechanisms and to incorporate the statistical nature of the fuel. The model is currently focused on carbide, oxide nd oxycarbide uranium fuel kernels, while the coating layers are the classical IPyC/SiC/OPyC. This paper reviews the current status of the mechanical aspects of the model and presents results of calculations for irradiations from the New Production Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor program.

  2. The 3-D CFD modeling of gas turbine combustor-integral bleed flow interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Reynolds, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the flow interaction between a gas turbine combustor and an integral bleed plenum. In this model, the elliptic governing equations of continuity, momentum and the k-e turbulence model were solved on a boundary-fitted, curvilinear, orthogonal grid system. The model was first validated against test data from public literature and then applied to a gas turbine combustor with integral bleed. The model predictions agreed well with data from combustor rig testing. The model predictions also indicated strong flow interaction between the combustor and the integral bleed. Integral bleed flow distribution was found to have a great effect on the pressure distribution around the gas turbine combustor.

  3. Experimental studies and model analysis of noble gas fractionation in porous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Xin; Kennedy, B. Mack.; Evans, William C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The noble gases, which are chemically inert under normal terrestrial conditions but vary systematically across a wide range of atomic mass and diffusivity, offer a multicomponent approach to investigating gas dynamics in unsaturated soil horizons, including transfer of gas between saturated zones, unsaturated zones, and the atmosphere. To evaluate the degree to which fractionation of noble gases in the presence of an advective–diffusive flux agrees with existing theory, a simple laboratory sand column experiment was conducted. Pure CO2 was injected at the base of the column, providing a series of constant CO2 fluxes through the column. At five fixed sampling depths within the system, samples were collected for CO2 and noble gas analyses, and ambient pressures were measured. Both the advection–diffusion and dusty gas models were used to simulate the behavior of CO2 and noble gases under the experimental conditions, and the simulations were compared with the measured depth-dependent concentration profiles of the gases. Given the relatively high permeability of the sand column (5 ´ 10−11 m2), Knudsen diffusion terms were small, and both the dusty gas model and the advection–diffusion model accurately predicted the concentration profiles of the CO2 and atmospheric noble gases across a range of CO2 flux from ?700 to 10,000 g m−2 d−1. The agreement between predicted and measured gas concentrations demonstrated that, when applied to natural systems, the multi-component capability provided by the noble gases can be exploited to constrain component and total gas fluxes of non-conserved (CO2) and conserved (noble gas) species or attributes of the soil column relevant to gas transport, such as porosity, tortuosity, and gas saturation.

  4. Modeling the flow regime near the source in underwater gas releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premathilake, Lakshitha T.; Yapa, Poojitha D.; Nissanka, Indrajith D.; Kumarage, Pubudu

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress in calculating gas bubble sizes in a plume, based on phenomenological approaches using the release conditions is a significant improvement to make the gas plume models self-reliant. Such calculations require details of conditions Near the Source of Plume (NSP); (i.e. the plume/jet velocity and radius near the source), which inspired the present work. Determining NSP conditions for gas plumes are far more complex than that for oil plumes due to the substantial density difference between gas and water. To calculate NSP conditions, modeling the early stage of the plume is important. A novel method of modeling the early stage of an underwater gas release is presented here. Major impact of the present work is to define the correct NSP conditions for underwater gas releases, which is not possible with available methods as those techniques are not based on the physics of flow region near the source of the plume/jet. We introduce super Gaussian profiles to model the density and velocity variations of the early stages of plume, coupled with the laws of fluid mechanics to define profile parameters. This new approach, models the velocity profile variation from near uniform, across the section at the release point to Gaussian some distance away. The comparisons show that experimental data agrees well with the computations.

  5. Sensitivity of rarefied gas simulations of ground tests to gas surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Jason A.; Deschenes, Timothy R.; Quenneville, Jason; Taylor, Ramona S.

    2014-09-01

    The space environment produces a number of performance challenges to satellite and spacecraft manufacturers that require measurements, including effects from hyperthermal atomic oxygen, charged particles, magnetic fields, spacecraft charging, ultraviolet radiation, micrometeoroids, and cryogenic temperatures. Ground tests involving a simulated space environment help explore these challenges, but also benefit from simulations that predict the anticipated physical phenomena, or help reconcile the measured observations to physical parameters. We present an update and application of a flexible multi-physics software simulation framework intended for predicting space environment performance and ground-test simulations of spacecraft. In this specific application we show how the energy dependent erosion yield may be applied with a rarefied gas dynamics simulation to aid comparison of terrestrial erosion rate measurements and on-orbit materials degradation. For the considered fluoropolymer material, we found that explicit consideration of the atomic oxygen energy distribution could potentially modify the expected correspondence between ground tests and space by 67%.

  6. A modified ICRP 66 iodine gas uptake model and its parametric uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R P; Hamby, D M; Palmer, T S

    2004-11-01

    Intakes via inhalation may occur from radionuclides released in the form of a gas. The chemical characteristics pertaining to the release influence the intake and subsequent dose to an exposed individual. Gases are taken up or absorbed in the entire respiratory tract and the associated uptake mechanisms are quite different from deposition of particulates. Gaseous iodine can exist in various chemical forms, e.g., elemental iodine, inorganic, and organic iodine compounds. These different chemical species play an integral role in the gaseous uptake o f iodine in t he respiratory tract. Gas uptake in the various regions of the respiratory tract results in the intake of iodinated material into the body. The radioactive iodine taken up in the gas-exchange tissues is absorbed into the bloodstream of an individual and subsequently transferred to other organs. Iodine in the circulatory system can then be taken up by the thyroid gland, with resulting dose to the thyroid. The magnitude and uncertainty in regional gas uptake is important in the assessment of individuals exposed to airborne releases of radioiodine. The current ICRP 66 model is rudimentary and estimates regional gas uptake based on solubility and reactivity of the different radionuclides entering the respiratory tract. The modified model proposed here employs methodology and a mathematical structure to determine estimates of fractional gas uptake rather than defaulting to literature values, as in the current ICRP model. Model parameters have been assigned input distributions and estimates of uncertainty have been determined. A sensitivity analysis of these parameters has been performed to demonstrate the importance of each of these parameters. The sensitivity analysis ranks the model-input parameters by their importance to estimates of regional gas uptake. The model developed herein may be used for improved estimation of gas uptake in the respiratory tract and subsequent dose estimates from the different

  7. Steady deflagration of HMX with simple kinetics: A gas phase chain reaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.J.; Brewster, M.Q.; Son, S.F.

    1998-08-01

    A new approach is presented for modeling steady combustion of energetic solids, in particular HMX. A simplified, global, gas phase chain reaction kinetic mechanism is employed. Specifically, a zero-order, high activation energy thermal decomposition initiation reaction in the condensed phase followed by a second-order, low activation energy chain reaction in the gas phase is assumed. A closed-form solution is obtained, which is based on the activation energy asymptotics analysis of Lengelle in the condensed phase and the assumption of zero activation energy in the gas phase. Comparisons between the model and a variety of experimental observations over a wide range of pressures and initial temperatures are presented and demonstrate the validity of the approach. The model provides excellent agreement with burning rate data (including sensitivity to pressure and initial temperature) and temperature profile data (in particular the gas phase). This suggests that in the realm of simplified, approximate kinetics modeling of energetic solids, the low gas phase activation energy limit is a more appropriate model than the classical high activation energy limit or heuristic flame sheet models. The model also indicates that the condensed phase reaction zone plays an important role in determining the deflagration rate of HMX, underscoring the need for better understanding of the chemistry in this zone.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIFIELD MODEL OF CHURN-TURBULENT GAS/LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Elena A. Tselishcheva; Steven P. Antal; Michael Z. Podowski; Donna Post Guillen

    2009-07-01

    The accuracy of numerical predictions for gas/liquid two-phase flows using Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) methods strongly depends on the formulation of models governing the interaction between the continuous liquid field and bubbles of different sizes. The purpose of this paper is to develop, test and validate a multifield model of adiabatic gas/liquid flows at intermediate gas concentrations (e.g., churn-turbulent flow regime), in which multiple-size bubbles are divided into a specified number of groups, each representing a prescribed range of sizes. The proposed modeling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for each bubble field. The overall model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code. The results of NPHASE-CMFD simulations have been validated against the experimental data from the TOPFLOW test facility. Also, a parametric analysis on the effect of various modeling assumptions has been performed.

  9. A Comparative Data-Based Modeling Study on Respiratory CO2 Gas Exchange during Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ansermino, J. Mark; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to derive a minimally complex but credible model of respiratory CO2 gas exchange that may be used in systematic design and pilot testing of closed-loop end-tidal CO2 controllers in mechanical ventilation. We first derived a candidate model that captures the essential mechanisms involved in the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process. Then, we simplified the candidate model to derive two lower-order candidate models. We compared these candidate models for predictive capability and reliability using experimental data collected from 25 pediatric subjects undergoing dynamically varying mechanical ventilation during surgical procedures. A two-compartment model equipped with transport delay to account for CO2 delivery between the lungs and the tissues showed modest but statistically significant improvement in predictive capability over the same model without transport delay. Aggregating the lungs and the tissues into a single compartment further degraded the predictive fidelity of the model. In addition, the model equipped with transport delay demonstrated superior reliability to the one without transport delay. Further, the respiratory parameters derived from the model equipped with transport delay, but not the one without transport delay, were physiologically plausible. The results suggest that gas transport between the lungs and the tissues must be taken into account to accurately reproduce the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process under conditions of wide-ranging and dynamically varying mechanical ventilation conditions. PMID:26870728

  10. Insights into the gas dynamics in galaxies via a particle model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, F. H.; Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of rarefied gas dynamics are applied to the astrophysical problem of gas flow in disk galaxies. Historically, studies of the interstellar gas dynamics in spiral galaxies have assumed the medium could be regarded as both isothermal and continuous. However, it now appears that the gaseous interstellar medium may be better idealized as a rarefied gas or discrete system of interacting particles. Principal evidence for this is that the galaxies themselves exhibit a degree of disorder and raggedness that is characteristic of a rarefied gaseous system with a Knudsen number of approximately 0.02-0.2. In this paper a particle model for gas flow in a spiral galaxy is developed and some implications of the results are discussed. The results are compared to an analytical inviscid calculation to gain further physical insight.

  11. The nonlinear model for emergence of stable conditions in gas mixture in force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalutskov, Oleg; Uvarova, Liudmila

    2016-06-01

    The case of M-component liquid evaporation from the straight cylindrical capillary into N - component gas mixture in presence of external forces was reviewed. It is assumed that the gas mixture is not ideal. The stable states in gas phase can be formed during the evaporation process for the certain model parameter valuesbecause of the mass transfer initial equationsnonlinearity. The critical concentrations of the resulting gas mixture components (the critical component concentrations at which the stable states occur in mixture) were determined mathematically for the case of single-component fluid evaporation into two-component atmosphere. It was concluded that this equilibrium concentration ratio of the mixture components can be achieved by external force influence on the mass transfer processes. It is one of the ways to create sustainable gas clusters that can be used effectively in modern nanotechnology.

  12. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Modeling of gas discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Boris M.

    2009-06-01

    The condition for the self-maintenance of a gas discharge plasma (GDP) is derived from its ionization balance expressed in the Townsend form and may be used as a definition of a gas discharge plasma in its simplest form. The simple example of a gas discharge plasma in the positive column of a cylindrical discharge tube allows demonstrating a wide variety of possible GDP regimes, revealing a contradiction between simple models used to explain gas discharge regimes and the large number of real processes responsible for the self-maintenance of GDP. The variety of GDP processes also results in a stepwise change of plasma parameters and developing some instabilities as the voltage or discharge current is varied. As a consequence, new forms and new applications of gas discharge arise as technology progresses.

  13. Modeling Studies to Constrain Fluid and Gas Migration Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, H.; Birdsell, D.; Lackey, G.; Karra, S.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Dempsey, D.

    2015-12-01

    The dramatic increase in the extraction of unconventional oil and gas resources using horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technologies has raised concerns about potential environmental impacts. Large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids are injected during fracking. Incidents of stray gas occurrence in shallow aquifers overlying shale gas reservoirs have been reported; whether these are in any way related to fracking continues to be debated. Computational models serve as useful tools for evaluating potential environmental impacts. We present modeling studies of hydraulic fracturing fluid and gas migration during the various stages of well operation, production, and subsequent plugging. The fluid migration models account for overpressure in the gas reservoir, density contrast between injected fluids and brine, imbibition into partially saturated shale, and well operations. Our results highlight the importance of representing the different stages of well operation consistently. Most importantly, well suction and imbibition both play a significant role in limiting upward migration of injected fluids, even in the presence of permeable connecting pathways. In an overall assessment, our fluid migration simulations suggest very low risk to groundwater aquifers when the vertical separation from a shale gas reservoir is of the order of 1000' or more. Multi-phase models of gas migration were developed to couple flow and transport in compromised wellbores and subsurface formations. These models are useful for evaluating both short-term and long-term scenarios of stray methane release. We present simulation results to evaluate mechanisms controlling stray gas migration, and explore relationships between bradenhead pressures and the likelihood of methane release and transport.

  14. Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results.

  15. Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results. PMID:27587293

  16. 2-D modeling of gas and overpressure generation in the Venture field (Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, P.L.; Ungerer, P. ); Mudford, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Venture field is located in an overpressured zone of gas accumulations in a region that had low sedimentation rates over the last 80 m.y. This could support the hydrocarbon generation, rather than compaction disequilibrium, as the main cause for overpressuring. Study of these accumulations can be done using the IFP (Institut Francais du Petrole) THEMIS model, which integrates compactions, hydraulic fracturation, fluid flows, heat transfer, and formation and migration of hydrocarbons. A single phase basin scale model is constructed first to assess the input parameters related to the fluid-flow reconstruction. The permeability of faults is calibrated to fit the actual pressure distribution through the field. Permeability is found to be very low and allows a fit to the regional distribution of overpressuring. In a second step, a two-phase model, restricted to the field itself, is used to test parameters related to hydrocarbon and source rocks. Gas accumulations are effectively obtained in the reservoir units. Finally, the two-phase model is extended to the regional scale to check the parameters previously assessed. At this scale, the gas and overpressure distributions are found to fit those actually observed. Gas accumulations contribute slightly to overpressuring, which is better accounted for by compaction disequilibrium despite the low sedimentation rates. Generation in or close to the reservoir unit does not contribute significantly to the gas accumulations. However, gas sources are found in the underlying formations.

  17. Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results. PMID:27587293

  18. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at

  19. Solution of an associating lattice-gas model with density anomaly on a Husimi lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago J.; Stilck, Jürgen F.; Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A.

    2010-11-01

    We study a model of a lattice gas with orientational degrees of freedom which resemble the formation of hydrogen bonds between the molecules. In this model, which is the simplified version of the Henriques-Barbosa model, no distinction is made between donors and acceptors in the bonding arms. We solve the model in the grand-canonical ensemble on a Husimi lattice built with hexagonal plaquettes with a central site. The ground state of the model, which was originally defined on the triangular lattice, is exactly reproduced by the solution on this Husimi lattice. In the phase diagram, one gas and two liquid [high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL)] phases are present. All phase transitions (GAS-LDL, GAS-HDL, and LDL-HDL) are discontinuous, and the three phases coexist at a triple point. A line of temperatures of maximum density in the isobars is found in the metastable GAS phase, as well as another line of temperatures of minimum density appears in the LDL phase, part of it in the stable region and another in the metastable region of this phase. These findings are at variance with simulational results for the same model on the triangular lattice, which suggested a phase diagram with two critical points. However, our results show very good quantitative agreement with the simulations, both for the coexistence loci and the densities of particles and of hydrogen bonds. We discuss the comparison of the simulations with our results.

  20. Solution of an associating lattice-gas model with density anomaly on a Husimi lattice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago J; Stilck, Jürgen F; Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A

    2010-11-01

    We study a model of a lattice gas with orientational degrees of freedom which resemble the formation of hydrogen bonds between the molecules. In this model, which is the simplified version of the Henriques-Barbosa model, no distinction is made between donors and acceptors in the bonding arms. We solve the model in the grand-canonical ensemble on a Husimi lattice built with hexagonal plaquettes with a central site. The ground state of the model, which was originally defined on the triangular lattice, is exactly reproduced by the solution on this Husimi lattice. In the phase diagram, one gas and two liquid [high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL)] phases are present. All phase transitions (GAS-LDL, GAS-HDL, and LDL-HDL) are discontinuous, and the three phases coexist at a triple point. A line of temperatures of maximum density in the isobars is found in the metastable GAS phase, as well as another line of temperatures of minimum density appears in the LDL phase, part of it in the stable region and another in the metastable region of this phase. These findings are at variance with simulational results for the same model on the triangular lattice, which suggested a phase diagram with two critical points. However, our results show very good quantitative agreement with the simulations, both for the coexistence loci and the densities of particles and of hydrogen bonds. We discuss the comparison of the simulations with our results.

  1. General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.

  2. Plantecophys--An R Package for Analysing and Modelling Leaf Gas Exchange Data.

    PubMed

    Duursma, Remko A

    2015-01-01

    Here I present the R package 'plantecophys', a toolkit to analyse and model leaf gas exchange data. Measurements of leaf photosynthesis and transpiration are routinely collected with portable gas exchange instruments, and analysed with a few key models. These models include the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of leaf photosynthesis, the Ball-Berry models of stomatal conductance, and the coupled leaf gas exchange model which combines the supply and demand functions for CO2 in the leaf. The 'plantecophys' R package includes functions for fitting these models to measurements, as well as simulating from the fitted models to aid in interpreting experimental data. Here I describe the functionality and implementation of the new package, and give some examples of its use. I briefly describe functions for fitting the FvCB model of photosynthesis to measurements of photosynthesis-CO2 response curves ('A-Ci curves'), fitting Ball-Berry type models, modelling C3 photosynthesis with the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model, modelling C4 photosynthesis, numerical solution of optimal stomatal behaviour, and energy balance calculations using the Penman-Monteith equation. This open-source package makes technically challenging calculations easily accessible for many users and is freely available on CRAN. PMID:26581080

  3. Modeling of transport phenomena during gas hydrate decomposition by depressurization and/or thermal stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abendroth*, Sven; Klump, Jens; Thaler, Jan; Schicks, Judith M.

    2013-04-01

    In the context of the German joint project SUGAR (Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: exploration, extraction and transport) we conducted a series of experiments in the LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS) at the German Research Centre of Geosciences Potsdam (Beeskow-Strauch et al., this volume). These experiments allow us to investigate the formation and dissociation of hydrates at large scale laboratory conditions. Processes inside LARS are modeled to study the effects of sediment properties as well as physical and chemical processes on parameters such as hydrate dissociation rate and methane production rate. The experimental results from LARS are used to provide details about processes inside the pressure vessel, validate the models through history matching, and feed back into the design of future experiments. In experiments in LARS the amount of methane produced from gas hydrates was much lower than expected. Previously published models predict a methane production rate higher than the observed in experiments and field studies (Uddin and Wright 2005; Uddin et al. 2010; Wright et al. 2011). The authors of the aforementioned studies point out that the current modeling approach overestimates the gas production rate when modeling gas production by depressurization. Uddin and Wright (2005) suggested that trapping of gas bubbles inside the porous medium is responsible for the reduced gas production rate. They point out that this behavior of multi-phase flow is not well explained by a "residual oil" model, but rather resembles a "foamy oil" model. Our study applies Uddin's (2010) "foamy oil" model and combines it with history matches of our experiments in LARS. First results indicate a better agreement between experimental and model results when using the "foamy oil" model instead of conventional models featuring gas flow in water. Further experiments with LARS, including hydrate dissociation by depressurization and thermal stimulation by in-situ combustion will be used to

  4. Chemical models of interstellar gas-grain processes. II - The effect of grain-catalysed methane on gas phase evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Paul D.; Charnley, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    The effects on gas phase chemistry which result from the continuous desorption of methane molecules from grain surfaces are studied. Significant and sustained enhancements in the abundances of several complex hydrocarbon molecules are found, in good agreement with their observed values in TMC-1. The overall agreement is, however, just as good for the case of zero CH4 desorption efficiency. It is thus impossible to determine from the models whether or not the grain-surface production of methane is responsible for the observed abundances of some hydrocarbon molecules.

  5. Educating students and stakeholders about shale gas production using a physical model of hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.; Garten, L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural gas from shale gas deposits in the United States can potentially help reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve economic development in currently depressed regions of the country. However, the hydraulic fracturing process (';fracking') employed to release natural gas from formation such as the Marcellus Shale in New York State and Pennsylvania carries significant environmental risks, in particular for local and regional water resources. The current polarized discussion of the topic needs to be informed by sound data and a better understanding of the technical, scientific, social, and economic aspects of hydrofracking. We developed, built and tested an interactive portable physical model of the gas production by hydrofracking that can be used in class rooms and at public events to visualize the procedures and associated risks including the dynamics of water, gas and fracking fluids. Dyes are used to identify shale, fracking fluids and backflow and can be traced in the adjacent groundwater system. Gas production is visualized by a CO2 producing acid/bicarbonate solution reaction. The tank was shown to considerably improve knowledge of environmental issues related to unconventional gas production by hydrofracking in an advanced undergraduate course.

  6. Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius

    2016-09-01

    We study a free boundary problem modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas. The gas-piston system fills a cylinder with fixed extremities, which possibly allow gas from the exterior to penetrate inside the cylinder. The gas is modeled by the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes system and the piston motion is described by the second Newton's law. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global in time strong solutions. The main novelty brought in by our results is that they include the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions which, as far as we know, have not been studied in this context. Moreover, even for homogeneous boundary conditions, our results require less regularity of the initial data than those obtained in previous works.

  7. Exhaust Gas Modeling Effects on Hypersonic Powered Simulation at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to investigate the accuracy and validity of cold-gas simulation of actual hot scramjet exhaust within a Mach 10 free stream over a representative single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing configuration. In particular, exhausts of various noncombusting chemistry models were studied to characterize their effects on the vehicle aftbody performance and the plume flow field definition. Two approximations of the hot scramjet combustion products were utilized to determine the requirement for expensive, multi-species numerical modeling, and to establish a baseline for the validation of cold-gas simulation. Cold-gas simulation at Mach 10 is shown to be a viable technique using an appropriate thermally perfect gas mixture for reproducing hot scramjet exhaust effects.

  8. Numerical simulation of high pressure release and dispersion of hydrogen into air with real gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksarfard, R.; Kameshki, M. R.; Paraschivoiu, M.

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen is a renewable and clean source of energy, and it is a good replacement for the current fossil fuels. Nevertheless, hydrogen should be stored in high-pressure reservoirs to have sufficient energy. An in-house code is developed to numerically simulate the release of hydrogen from a high-pressure tank into ambient air with more accuracy. Real gas models are used to simulate the flow since high-pressure hydrogen deviates from ideal gas law. Beattie-Bridgeman and Abel Noble equations are applied as real gas equation of state. A transport equation is added to the code to calculate the concentration of the hydrogen-air mixture after release. The uniqueness of the code is to simulate hydrogen in air release with the real gas model. Initial tank pressures of up to 70 MPa are simulated.

  9. Microscopic reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility: A lattice gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Cárdenas, Fernando C.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.

    2016-09-01

    We present coarse-grained descriptions and computations of the time evolution of a lattice gas system of indistinguishable particles, whose microscopic laws of motion are exactly reversible, in order to investigate how or what kind of macroscopically irreversible behavior may eventually arise. With increasing coarse-graining and number of particles, relative fluctuations of entropy rapidly decrease and apparently irreversible behavior unfolds. Although that behavior becomes typical in those limits and within a certain range, it is never absolutely irreversible for any individual system with specific initial conditions. Irreversible behavior may arise in various ways. We illustrate one possibility by replacing detailed integer occupation numbers at lattice sites with particle probability densities that evolve diffusively.

  10. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  11. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors: Modeling and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2013-01-01

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  12. Euler-Lagrange CFD modelling of unconfined gas mixing in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Dapelo, Davide; Alberini, Federico; Bridgeman, John

    2015-11-15

    A novel Euler-Lagrangian (EL) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) finite volume-based model to simulate the gas mixing of sludge for anaerobic digestion is developed and described. Fluid motion is driven by momentum transfer from bubbles to liquid. Model validation is undertaken by assessing the flow field in a labscale model with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Conclusions are drawn about the upscaling and applicability of the model to full-scale problems, and recommendations are given for optimum application. PMID:26379205

  13. Euler-Lagrange CFD modelling of unconfined gas mixing in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Dapelo, Davide; Alberini, Federico; Bridgeman, John

    2015-11-15

    A novel Euler-Lagrangian (EL) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) finite volume-based model to simulate the gas mixing of sludge for anaerobic digestion is developed and described. Fluid motion is driven by momentum transfer from bubbles to liquid. Model validation is undertaken by assessing the flow field in a labscale model with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Conclusions are drawn about the upscaling and applicability of the model to full-scale problems, and recommendations are given for optimum application.

  14. The gas-phase thermal chemistry of tetralin and related model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malandra, J.

    1993-05-01

    The thesis is divided into 5 papers: gas-phase thermal decomposition of tetralin; flash vacuum pyrolysis of 3-benzocycloheptenone and 1,3, 4,5-tetrahydro-2-benzothiepin-2,2-dioxide (model systems for gas-phase pyrolysis of tetralin); high-temperature gas-phase reactions of o-allylbenzyl radicals generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of is(o-allylbenzyl) oxalate; flash vacuum pyrolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane; and flash vacuum pyrolysis of o-allyltoluene, o-(3-butenyl)toluene and o-(pentenyl)toluene were also used.

  15. Simplified gas sensor model based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Subhashis Majumdar, S.; Kumar, R.; Bag, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Biswas, D.

    2015-08-28

    Physics based modeling of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure Schottky diode gas sensor has been investigated for high sensitivity and linearity of the device. Here the surface and heterointerface properties are greatly exploited. The dependence of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) upon the surface charges is mainly utilized. The simulation of Schottky diode has been done in Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool and I-V curves are generated, from the I-V curves 76% response has been recorded in presence of 500 ppm gas at a biasing voltage of 0.95 Volt.

  16. Non-Volcanic release of CO2 in Italy: quantification, conceptual models and gas hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Avino, R.

    2011-12-01

    Central and South Italy are characterized by the presence of many reservoirs naturally recharged by CO2 of deep provenance. In the western sector, the reservoirs feed hundreds of gas emissions at the surface. Many studies in the last years were devoted to (i) elaborating a map of CO2 Earth degassing of the region; (ii) to asses the gas hazard; (iii) to develop methods suitable for the measurement of the gas fluxes from different types of emissions; (iv) to elaborate the conceptual model of Earth degassing and its relation with the seismic activity of the region and (v) to develop physical numerical models of CO2 air dispersion. The main results obtained are: 1) A general, regional map of CO2 Earth degassing in Central Italy has been elaborated. The total flux of CO2 in the area has been estimated in ~ 10 Mt/a which are released to the atmosphere trough numerous dangerous gas emissions or by degassing spring waters (~ 10 % of the CO2 globally estimated to be released by the Earth trough volcanic activity). 2) An on line, open access, georeferenced database of the main CO2 emissions (~ 250) was settled up (http://googas.ov.ingv.it). CO2 flux > 100 t/d characterise 14% of the degassing sites while CO2 fluxes from 100 t/d to 10 t/d have been estimated for about 35% of the gas emissions. 3) The sites of the gas emissions are not suitable for life: the gas causes many accidents to animals and people. In order to mitigate the gas hazard a specific model of CO2 air dispersion has been developed and applied to the main degassing sites. A relevant application regarded Mefite d'Ansanto, southern Apennines, which is the largest natural emission of low temperature CO2 rich gases, from non-volcanic environment, ever measured in the Earth (˜2000 t/d). Under low wind conditions, the gas flows along a narrow natural channel producing a persistent gas river which has killed over a period of time many people and animals. The application of the physical numerical model allowed us to

  17. Modeling of dilute two-phase multispecies solid/gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Raptis, A.C.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a detailed description of the analytical modeling that underlies the numerical code for predicting the flow of dilute solid/gas flows in pipes. The model is two-phase multispecies. Particles of one size are treated as one species and the equations of particle dynamics include terms to account for momentum transfer between species and the wall friction on each species of particles. New expressions for particle/particle interaction and wall friction for multispecies flow are derived. Results of parametric studies based on the new expressions are described. The predictions of this model for gas/powder flow through a venturi are compared with experimental measurements. The model's capability for predicting the flow in Argonne's Solid/Gas Flow Test Facility will be the subject of a companion report. 26 refs., 16 figs.

  18. A simple, closed-form, mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Potkay, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Microfabrication techniques are attractive for constructing artificial lungs due to the ability to create features similar in size to those in the natural lung. However, a simple and intuitive mathematical model capable of accurately predicting the gas exchange performance of microchannel artificial lungs does not currently exist. Such a model is critical to understanding and optimizing these devices. Here, we describe a simple, closed-form mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs and qualify it through application to experimental data from several research groups. We utilize lumped parameters and several assumptions to obtain a closed-form set of equations that describe gas exchange. This work is intended to augment computational models by providing a more intuitive, albeit potentially less accurate, understanding of the operation and trade-offs inherent in microchannel artificial lung devices.

  19. Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.

    1999-01-01

    We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  1. MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-08-10

    In this study, we present a model for the kinetics of multiple overlapping reactions. Mathematical representation of the kinetics of gas-evolving reactions is crucial for the modeling of the feed-to-glass conversion in a waste-glass melter. The model simulates multiple gas-evolving reactions that occur during heating of a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To obtain satisfactory kinetic parameters, we employed Kissinger's method combined with least-squares analysis. The power-law kinetics with variable reaction order sufficed for obtaining excellent agreement with measured thermogravimetric analysis data.

  2. MELTING OF GLASS BATCH - MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; PIERCE DA; POKORNY R; HRMA PR

    2012-02-07

    In this study, we present a model for the kinetics of multiple overlapping reactions. Mathematical representation of the kinetics of gas-evolving reactions is crucial for the modeling of the feed-to-glass conversion in a waste-glass melter. The model simulates multiple gas-evolving reactions that occur during heating of a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To obtain satisfactory kinetic parameters, we employed Kissinger's method combined with least-squares analysis. The power-law kinetics with variable reaction order sufficed for obtaining excellent agreement with measured thermogravimetric analysis data.

  3. Modeling and optimizing a gas-water reservoir: Enhanced recovery with waterflooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.E.; Monash, E.A.; Waterman, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Accepted practice dictates that waterflooding of gas reservoirs should commence, if ever, only when the reservoir pressure has declined to the minimum production pressure. Analytical proof of this hypothesis has yet to appear in the literature however. This paper considers a model for a gas-water reservoir with a variable production rate and enhanced recovery with waterflooding and, using an initial dynamic programming approach, confirms the above hypothesis. ?? 1979 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  4. A Multidimensional Eulerian Model for Simulating Gas-Solids Flow

    1993-12-13

    FORCE2 is a fundamentally based three-dimensional numerical model for simulating fluid-bed hydrodynamics for a wide range of fluid beds, from laboratory to plant scale. It is based upon the ''two-fluid'' modeling approach and includes surface permeabilities, volume porosities, and distributed resistances.

  5. Modelling of Radiation Heat Transfer in Reacting Hot Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thellmann, A.; Mundt, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the interaction between a turbulent flow including chemical reactions and radiation transport is investigated. As a first step, the state-of-the art radiation models P1 based on the moment method and Discrete Transfer Model (DTM) based on the discrete ordinate method are used in conjunction with the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The absorbing and emitting medium (water vapor) is modeled by Weighted Sum of Gray Gases. For the chemical reactions the standard Eddy dissipation model combined with the two equation turbulence model k-epsilon is employed. A demonstration experiment is identified which delivers temperature distribution, species concentration and radiative intensity distribution in the investigated combustion enclosure. The simulation results are compared with the experiment and reveals that the P1 model predicts the location of the maximal radiation intensity unphysically. On the other hand the DTM model does better but over predicts the maximum value of the radiation intensity. This radiation sensitivity study is a first step on the way to identify a suitable radiation transport and spectral model in order to implement both in an existing 3D Navier-Stokes Code. Including radiation heat transfer we intend to investigate the influence on the overall energy balance in a hydrogen/oxygen rocket combustion chamber.

  6. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of regional meteorological conditions was validated by comparing concentration estimates generated by two source-location weather data sets. The HPAC model estimated a chlorine plume with 20 ppm outdoor concentrations up to 7 km downwind and 0.25 km upwind/downgrade. A comparative analysis of our two models showed that HPAC was the best candidate for use as a model system on which epidemiologic studies could be based after further model validation. Further validation studies are needed before individual exposure estimates can be reliable and the chlorine plume more definitively modeled. PMID:25772143

  7. Kinetic Models for Adiabatic Reversible Expansion of a Monatomic Ideal Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, On-Kok

    1983-01-01

    A fixed amount of an ideal gas is confined in an adiabatic cylinder and piston device. The relation between temperature and volume in initial/final phases can be derived from the first law of thermodynamics. However, the relation can also be derived based on kinetic models. Several of these models are discussed. (JN)

  8. Dopant gas effect on silicon chemical vapor depositions: A surface potential model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    A surface potential model is proposed to consistently explain the known dopant gas effects on silicon chemical vapor deposition. This model predicts that the effects of the same dopant gases on the diamond deposition rate using methane and carbon tetrachloride should be opposite and similar to those of silane, respectively. Available data are in agreement with this prediction.

  9. Are gas-phase models of interstellar chemistry tenable? The case of methanol.

    PubMed

    Garrod, Robin; Park, In Hee; Caselli, Paola; Herbst, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We consider the case of methanol production in cold dark clouds, also known as quiescent cores, for which recent work shows that a purely gas-phase synthesis is unlikely to produce a sufficient amount to explain the observational fractional abundance of approximately 10(-9). Moreover, recent experiments appear to confirm a previous hypothesis that methanol can be formed on cold grain surfaces by the hydrogenation of CO via successive reactions with hydrogen atoms. In this paper we consider two ways of including the surface formation of methanol into chemical models of cold dark clouds. First, we use a gas-phase model and artificially include the surface formation of methanol in the same manner that the formation of molecular hydrogen is included. Secondly, we utilize a gas-grain code with a new mechanism for desorption following exothermic chemical reactions on grain surfaces. The latter method can reproduce the observed fractional abundance of gas-phase methanol and many other gas-phase species in the well-studied cold dark cloud TMC1-CP but the best fit to the observational data occurs at times significantly later than at ages estimated from gas-phase models.

  10. TOWARD A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF PLANETARY FORMATION. VII. ECCENTRICITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAS GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ida, S.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2013-09-20

    The ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems reveal that planet formation encompasses many complex and competing processes. In this series of papers, we develop and upgrade a population synthesis model as a tool to identify the dominant physical effects and to calibrate the range of physical conditions. Recent planet searches have led to the discovery of many multiple-planet systems. Any theoretical models of their origins must take into account dynamical interactions between emerging protoplanets. Here, we introduce a prescription to approximate the close encounters between multiple planets. We apply this method to simulate the growth, migration, and dynamical interaction of planetary systems. Our models show that in relatively massive disks, several gas giants and rocky/icy planets emerge, migrate, and undergo dynamical instability. Secular perturbation between planets leads to orbital crossings, eccentricity excitation, and planetary ejection. In disks with modest masses, two or less gas giants form with multiple super-Earths. Orbital stability in these systems is generally maintained and they retain the kinematic structure after gas in their natal disks is depleted. These results reproduce the observed planetary mass-eccentricity and semimajor axis-eccentricity correlations. They also suggest that emerging gas giants can scatter residual cores to the outer disk regions. Subsequent in situ gas accretion onto these cores can lead to the formation of distant (∼> 30 AU) gas giants with nearly circular orbits.

  11. Chemical kinetics with electrical and gas dynamics modelization for NOx removal in an air corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichwald, O.; Guntoro, N. A.; Yousfi, M.; Benhenni, M.

    2002-03-01

    A non-stationary reactive gas dynamics model in a mono-dimensional geometry, including radial mass diffusion, gas temperature variation and chemical kinetics, is developed in this paper. The aim is to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution of the main neutral species involved in a corona discharge used for NO pollution control in polluted air at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The present reactive gas dynamics model takes into account 16 neutral chemical species (including certain metastable species) reacting following 110 selected chemical reactions. The initial concentration of each neutral species is obtained from a 1.5D electrical discharge model. The gas temperature variations are due to direct Joule heating during the discharge phase, and also result from the delayed heating due to the relaxation of the vibrational energy into a random thermal energy during the post-discharge phase. The simulation conditions are those of an existing experimental setup (anode voltage of 10 kV in the case of a point to plane geometry with an interelectrode distance of 10 mm). The obtained results show that the diffusion phenomena and the gas temperature rise affect quite well the gas reactivity and the neutral species evolution. This allows us to better understand the different reaction processes and transport phenomena affecting the NO concentration magnitude inside the discharge channel.

  12. Possibilities of using cmm program complex for modeling gas dynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Michael N.

    2003-10-01

    In this report we describe the similarity criterions real objects and models, the possibilities of numerical modeling of gas dynamic processes in the CMM complex of programs developed by us. To describe the volume combustion chamber we use the analytical model of the second range surfaces with the limitations. The algorithm of the modeling program is based on the numerical solution of the full system of nonlinear unsteady equations of dynamics viscid, burning, heat-conducting gas, on the conditions of having diffusion and chemical reactions in two- or three-diemnsional target setting. We look over the building and modification of 2D- and 3D-models of different ranges of complication taking in consideration chemical reactions or not. We compare the results of modeling with the theoretical calculation results and with the experimental data. We also look over the variants to use the results of modeling and the directions of further CMM developemnt.

  13. Modeling gas exchange in a closed plant growth chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, J. D.; Hendrix, J. E.; Wheeler, R. M.; Ross, C. W.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid transport models for fluxes of water vapor and CO2 have been developed for one crop of wheat and three crops of soybean grown in a closed plant growth chamber. Correspondence among these fluxes is discussed. Maximum fluxes of gases are provided for engineering design requirements of fluid recycling equipment in growth chambers. Furthermore, to investigate the feasibility of generalized crop models, dimensionless representations of water vapor fluxes are presented. The feasibility of such generalized models and the need for additional data are discussed.

  14. Modeling Gas Exchange in a Closed Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, J. D.; Hendrix, J. E.; Wheeler, R. M.; Ross, C. W.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid transport models for fluxes of water vapor and CO2 have been developed for one crop of wheat and three crops of soybean grown in a closed plant a growth chamber. Correspondence among these fluxes is discussed. Maximum fluxes of gases are provided for engineering design requirements of fluid recycling equipment in growth chambers. Furthermore, to investigate the feasibility of generalized crop models, dimensionless representations of water vapor fluxes are presented. The feasibility of such generalized models and the need for additional data are discussed.

  15. Gas migration in fractured rock: results and modelling of a helium gas injection experiment at the Reskajeage farm test site, SW England, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineham, T. R.; Nash, P. J.; Rodwell, W. R.; Bolt, J.; Watkins, V. M. B.; Grainger, P.; Heath, M. J.; Merefield, J. R.

    1996-02-01

    It is anticipated that the U.K. radioactive waste repository will be sited in a saturated low-permeability fractured geology. The repository will contain material that will give rise to the generation of significant quantities of gas over an extended period of time. It is important to understand the mechanisms whereby these gases are released from the repository and migrate away. If the gases were to be localised at surface they could potentially pose radiological, toxicological or flammability risks to man. This paper discusses experimental and modelling studies of gas migration in water-saturated fractured rock. A field-scale helium gas injection experiment has been undertaken at a test site in a disused quarry. The aims of the experiment were to establish whether gas injected at depth was localised on release at the land surface, and to contribute to building confidence in the models being developed to describe gas migration processes. Gas was injected for nine days and throughout this period and the subsequent twelve months soil-gas surveying was used to establish release locations. Data from the experiment have been modelled using a number of approaches ranging from analytical scoping calculations to numerical simulations of two-phase flow in a porous medium. These approaches have proved useful in modelling gas injection experiments.

  16. Deterministic Stress Modeling of Hot Gas Segregation in a Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busby, Judy; Sondak, Doug; Staubach, Brent; Davis, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of unsteady viscous turbomachinery flowfields is presently impractical as a design tool due to the long run times required. Designers rely predominantly on steady-state simulations, but these simulations do not account for some of the important unsteady flow physics. Unsteady flow effects can be modeled as source terms in the steady flow equations. These source terms, referred to as Lumped Deterministic Stresses (LDS), can be used to drive steady flow solution procedures to reproduce the time-average of an unsteady flow solution. The goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using inviscid lumped deterministic stresses to model unsteady combustion hot streak migration effects on the turbine blade tip and outer air seal heat loads using a steady computational approach. The LDS model is obtained from an unsteady inviscid calculation. The LDS model is then used with a steady viscous computation to simulate the time-averaged viscous solution. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional applications are examined. The inviscid LDS model produces good results for the two-dimensional case and requires less than 10% of the CPU time of the unsteady viscous run. For the three-dimensional case, the LDS model does a good job of reproducing the time-averaged viscous temperature migration and separation as well as heat load on the outer air seal at a CPU cost that is 25% of that of an unsteady viscous computation.

  17. A dynamical model of supernova feedback: gas outflows from the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a dynamical model of supernova feedback which follows the evolution of pressurized bubbles driven by supernovae in a multiphase interstellar medium (ISM). The bubbles are followed until the point of break-out into the halo, starting from an initial adiabatic phase to a radiative phase. We show that a key property which sets the fate of bubbles in the ISM is the gas surface density, through the work done by the expansion of bubbles and its role in setting the gas scaleheight. The multiphase description of the ISM is essential, and neglecting it leads to order-of-magnitude differences in the predicted outflow rates. We compare our predicted mass loading and outflow velocities to observations of local and high-redshift galaxies and find good agreement over a wide range of stellar masses and velocities. With the aim of analysing the dependence of the mass loading of the outflow, β (i.e. the ratio between the outflow and star formation rates), on galaxy properties, we embed our model in the galaxy formation simulation, GALFORM, set in the Λ cold dark matter framework. We find that a dependence of β solely on the circular velocity, as is widely assumed in the literature, is actually a poor description of the outflow rate, as large variations with redshift and galaxy properties are obtained. Moreover, we find that below a circular velocity of ≈80 km s-1, the mass loading saturates. A more fundamental relation is that between β and the gas scaleheight of the disc, hg, and the gas fraction, fgas, as β ∝ h^{1.1}_g f^{0.4}_gas, or the gas surface density, Σg, and the gas fraction, as β ∝ Σ ^{-0.6}_g f^{0.8}_gas. We find that using the new mass loading model leads to a shallower faint-end slope in the predicted optical and near-IR galaxy luminosity functions.

  18. MSW to synthetic natural gas: System modeling and thermodynamics assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Le; Fan, Junming; Jiang, Peng; Li, Luling

    2016-02-01

    To achieve environmental-friendly and energy-efficiency synthetic natural gas (SNG) production routing from municipal solid waste (MSW), a MSW-to-SNG process is unprecedentedly presented in this work, of which the designed configuration is developed and simulated with the aid of Aspen Plus. In addition, sensitivity analyses on major operation parameters, such as equivalence volume ratio (ER), steam-to-MSW mass ratio (S/M) and methanation pressure, are performed with the discussion of process efficiencies and SNG quality. In parallel, the comparison analysis is considered by adopting various MSW material. In this work, the composition of SNG mainly consists of 87.7% CH4, 2.9% CO2, 2.3% H2 and 7.1% N2. And lower heating value (LHV) together with Wobbe index of SNG are separately 31.66MJ/Nm(3) and 45.90MJ/Nm(3). Moreover, the wood-to-SNG, MSW-to-SNG and coal-to-SNG processes are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the MSW-to-SNG process. The results reveal that the MSW-to-SNG process is a promising option to dispose MSW environmentally, meanwhile converting MSW to the valuable SNG.

  19. MSW to synthetic natural gas: System modeling and thermodynamics assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Le; Fan, Junming; Jiang, Peng; Li, Luling

    2016-02-01

    To achieve environmental-friendly and energy-efficiency synthetic natural gas (SNG) production routing from municipal solid waste (MSW), a MSW-to-SNG process is unprecedentedly presented in this work, of which the designed configuration is developed and simulated with the aid of Aspen Plus. In addition, sensitivity analyses on major operation parameters, such as equivalence volume ratio (ER), steam-to-MSW mass ratio (S/M) and methanation pressure, are performed with the discussion of process efficiencies and SNG quality. In parallel, the comparison analysis is considered by adopting various MSW material. In this work, the composition of SNG mainly consists of 87.7% CH4, 2.9% CO2, 2.3% H2 and 7.1% N2. And lower heating value (LHV) together with Wobbe index of SNG are separately 31.66MJ/Nm(3) and 45.90MJ/Nm(3). Moreover, the wood-to-SNG, MSW-to-SNG and coal-to-SNG processes are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the MSW-to-SNG process. The results reveal that the MSW-to-SNG process is a promising option to dispose MSW environmentally, meanwhile converting MSW to the valuable SNG. PMID:26525970

  20. A Cloud Microphysics Model for the Gas Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, Csaba J.; Le Beau, Raymond P.; Shankar, Ramanakumar; Flom, Abigail; Lashley, Jacob; McCabe, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have significantly increased the quality and the number of observed meteorological features on the jovian planets, revealing banded cloud structures and discrete features. Our current understanding of the formation and decay of those clouds also defines the conceptual modes about the underlying atmospheric dynamics. The full interpretation of the new observational data set and the related theories requires modeling these features in a general circulation model (GCM). Here, we present details of our bulk cloud microphysics model that was designed to simulate clouds in the Explicit Planetary Hybrid-Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) GCM for the jovian planets. The cloud module includes hydrological cycles for each condensable species that consist of interactive vapor, cloud and precipitation phases and it also accounts for latent heating and cooling throughout the transfer processes (Palotai and Dowling, 2008. Icarus, 194, 303–326). Previously, the self-organizing clouds in our simulations successfully reproduced the vertical and horizontal ammonia cloud structure in the vicinity of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Oval BA (Palotai et al. 2014, Icarus, 232, 141–156). In our recent work, we extended this model to include water clouds on Jupiter and Saturn, ammonia clouds on Saturn, and methane clouds on Uranus and Neptune. Details of our cloud parameterization scheme, our initial results and their comparison with observations will be shown. The latest version of EPIC model is available as open source software from NASA's PDS Atmospheres Node.

  1. Noble gas encapsulation into carbon nanotubes: Predictions from analytical model and DFT studies

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramani, Sree Ganesh; Singh, Devendra; Swathi, R. S.

    2014-11-14

    The energetics for the interaction of the noble gas atoms with the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated using an analytical model and density functional theory calculations. Encapsulation of the noble gas atoms, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe into CNTs of various chiralities is studied in detail using an analytical model, developed earlier by Hill and co-workers. The constrained motion of the noble gas atoms along the axes of the CNTs as well as the off-axis motion are discussed. Analyses of the forces, interaction energies, acceptance and suction energies for the encapsulation enable us to predict the optimal CNTs that can encapsulate each of the noble gas atoms. We find that CNTs of radii 2.98 − 4.20 Å (chiral indices, (5,4), (6,4), (9,1), (6,6), and (9,3)) can efficiently encapsulate the He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms, respectively. Endohedral adsorption of all the noble gas atoms is preferred over exohedral adsorption on various CNTs. The results obtained using the analytical model are subsequently compared with the calculations performed with the dispersion-including density functional theory at the M06 − 2X level using a triple-zeta basis set and good qualitative agreement is found. The analytical model is however found to be computationally cheap as the equations can be numerically programmed and the results obtained in comparatively very less time.

  2. Modeling the effects of gas phase CO2 intrusion on the biogeochemistry of variably saturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altevogt, Andrew S.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    2005-09-01

    The transport of gas phase carbon dioxide through unsaturated soils has the potential to significantly alter the soil biogeochemistry. Leakage of CO2 from deep reservoirs, either naturally occurring or anthropogenically emplaced, may displace oxygen in the soil gas and hence radically alter the redox conditions of a soil. Furthermore, the formation of carbonic acid in the aqueous phase will alter the pH of the soil system. A two-dimensional numerical model has been developed to explore the effects of gaseous CO2 leakage on the biogeochemistry of a variably saturated porous media. The model describes the sequential degradation of organic carbon by microorganisms using a series of terminal electron acceptors. Gas phase CO2 intrusion results in changes in redox conditions and pH of the soil water, both of which lead to alteration of the biogeochemistry of the soil. Alteration of the biogeochemical profile of a representative field site is explored with the numerical model.

  3. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, P.; Butcher, B.; Helton, J.; Swift, P.

    1993-10-01

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

  4. Physical Modeling of Slag `Eye' in an Inert Gas-Shrouded Tundish Using Dimensional Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Saikat; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor

    2016-02-01

    The formation of an exposed eye in the gas-stirred metallurgical vessels such as ladle or tundish is a common observation. Although gas stirring results in proper homogenization of melt composition and temperature, the resulting exposed eye leads to higher heat losses, re-oxidation of liquid steel, and formation of inclusions. Most of the previous research related to slag eye were carried out explicitly for ladles. In the present work, a large number of experiments were performed to measure the slag eye area in full scale and one-third scale water models of an inert gas-shrouded tundish under various operating conditions. Based on the polynomial regression of experimental data, and the method of dimensional analysis, correlations for diameter of gas bubbles and plume velocity were developed. Subsequently, these results were used to obtain correlations for the slag eye area, and critical gas flow rate in an inert gas-shrouded tundish in terms of the operational parameters viz., gas flow rate, thickness of the slag and melt baths, along with the physical properties of the liquids viz., kinematic viscosity and density. It was observed that the dimensionless slag eye area can be expressed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the density ratio, Froude number, and Reynolds number.

  5. A Unified Theory of Non-Ideal Gas Lattice Boltzmann Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Li-Shi

    1998-01-01

    A non-ideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an a priori fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here.

  6. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Lacking a detailed characterization of the resource base and a comprehensive borehole-to-burnertip evaluation model of the North American natural gas system, past R&D, tax and regulatory policies have been formulated without a full understanding of their likely direct and indirect impacts on future gas supply and demand. The recent disappearance of the deliverability surplus, pipeline deregulation, and current policy debates about regulatory initiatives in taxation, environmental compliance and leasing make the need for a comprehensive gas evaluation system critical. Traditional econometric or highly aggregated energy models are increasingly regarded as unable to incorporate available geologic detail and explicit technology performance and costing algorithms necessary to evaluate resource-technology-economic interactions in a market context. The objective of this research is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the natural gas system, including resource base, exploration and development, extraction technology performance and costs, transportation and storage and end use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level and the impact of alternative extraction technologies on well productivity and economics. GSAM evaluates the complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives in the context of the evolving gas markets. Scheduled for completion in 1995, a prototype is planned for early 1994. ICF Resources reviewed relevant natural gas upstream, downstream and market models to identify appropriate analytic capabilities to incorporate into GSAM. We have reviewed extraction technologies to better characterize performance and costs in terms of GSAM parameters.

  7. Development of a mercury transformation model in coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ye; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Zygarlicke, Christopher J; Pavlish, John H

    2004-11-01

    A bench-scale entrained-flow reactor was used to extract flue gas produced by burning a subbituminous Belle Ayr coal in a 580-MJ/h combustion system. The reactor was operated at 400 degrees, 275 degrees, and 150 degrees C with a flow rate corresponding to residence times of 0-7 s. Transformations of elemental mercury (Hg0) and total gas mercury (Hg(gas)) in the reactor were evaluated as functions of temperature and residence time. The most significant mercury transformations (Hg0 to Hg(p) and Hg0 to Hg2+) occurred at 150 degrees C, while virtually no obvious mercury transformations were observed at 275 degrees and 400 degrees C. Approximately 30% of total mercury has been oxidized at temperatures higher than 400 degrees C. A mass transfer-capacity limit model was developed to quantify in-flight mercury sorption on fly ash in flue gas at different temperatures. A more sophisticated model was developed to demonstrate not only the temperature and residence time effects but also to consider the effective surface area of fly ash and dependence of mercury vapor concentration on mercury transformations in flue gas. The reaction orders were 0.02 and 0.55 for Hg0 and Hg(gas), respectively. Only a few percent of the total surface area of the fly ash, in the range of 1%-3%, can effectively adsorb mercury vapor.

  8. Distribution of Organophosphate Esters between the Gas and Particle Phase-Model Predictions vs Measured Data.

    PubMed

    Sühring, Roxana; Wolschke, Hendrik; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M; Scheringer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Gas-particle partitioning is one of the key factors that affect the environmental fate of semivolatile organic chemicals. Many organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been reported to primarily partition to particles in the atmosphere. However, because of the wide range of their physicochemical properties, it is unlikely that OPEs are mainly in the particle phase "as a class". We compared gas-particle partitioning predictions for 32 OPEs made by the commonly used OECD POV and LRTP Screening Tool ("the Tool") with the partitioning models of Junge-Pankow (J-P) and Harner-Bidleman (H-B), as well as recently measured data on OPE gas-particle partitioning. The results indicate that half of the tested OPEs partition into the gas phase. Partitioning into the gas phase seems to be determined by an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) < 10 and a subcooled liquid vapor pressure (log PL) > -5 (PL in Pa), as well as the total suspended particle concentration (TSP) in the sampling area. The uncertainty of the physicochemical property data of the OPEs did not change this estimate. Furthermore, the predictions by the Tool, J-P- and H-B-models agreed with recently measured OPE gas-particle partitioning. PMID:27144674

  9. Hot gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells. A zinc oxide reactor model, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1980-09-16

    Utilization of coal gasifiers to power MCFC requires a cleanup system to remove sulfur and particulates. Of the two near term options available for desulfurization of gasifier effluent, namely low temperature cleanup utilizing absorber/stripper technology, and hot gas cleanup utilizing metal oxides, there is a clear advantage to using hot gas cleanup. Since the MCFC will operate at 1200/sup 0/F, and the gasifier effluent could be between 1200 to 1900/sup 0/F, a hot gas cleanup system will require little or no change in process gas temperature, thereby contributing to a high overall system efficiency. A hot gas cleanup system will consist of FeO for bulk H/sub 2/S removal and ZnO for reduction of H/sub 2/S to sub ppM levels. Hot gas cleanup systems at present are not available commercially, and therefore it is the objective of this project to model the components of the system in order to help bring this technology closer to commercialization, by providing simulated operating characteristics to aid in system design, and system simulations of gasifier/MCFC systems. The modeling of the ZnO reactor is presented.

  10. 2D models of gas flow and ice grain acceleration in Enceladus' vents using DSMC methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal J.; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy M.

    2015-09-01

    The gas distribution of the Enceladus water vapor plume and the terminal speeds of ejected ice grains are physically linked to its subsurface fissures and vents. It is estimated that the gas exits the fissures with speeds of ∼300-1000 m/s, while the micron-sized grains are ejected with speeds comparable to the escape speed (Schmidt, J. et al. [2008]. Nature 451, 685-688). We investigated the effects of isolated axisymmetric vent geometries on subsurface gas distributions, and in turn, the effects of gas drag on grain acceleration. Subsurface gas flows were modeled using a collision-limiter Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique in order to consider a broad range of flow regimes (Bird, G. [1994]. Molecular Gas Dynamics and the Direct Simulation of Gas Flows. Oxford University Press, Oxford; Titov, E.V. et al. [2008]. J. Propul. Power 24(2), 311-321). The resulting DSMC gas distributions were used to determine the drag force for the integration of ice grain trajectories in a test particle model. Simulations were performed for diffuse flows in wide channels (Reynolds number ∼10-250) and dense flows in narrow tubular channels (Reynolds number ∼106). We compared gas properties like bulk speed and temperature, and the terminal grain speeds obtained at the vent exit with inferred values for the plume from Cassini data. In the simulations of wide fissures with dimensions similar to that of the Tiger Stripes the resulting subsurface gas densities of ∼1014-1020 m-3 were not sufficient to accelerate even micron-sized ice grains to the Enceladus escape speed. In the simulations of narrow tubular vents with radii of ∼10 m, the much denser flows with number densities of 1021-1023 m-3 accelerated micron-sized grains to bulk gas speed of ∼600 m/s. Further investigations are required to understand the complex relationship between the vent geometry, gas source rate and the sizes and speeds of ejected grains.

  11. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (GEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance wi...

  12. Lattice-fluid model for gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Wells, P S; Yi, X; Yun, K S; Parcher, J F

    1999-11-01

    Lattice-fluid models describe molecular ensembles in terms of the number of lattice sites occupied by molecular species (r-mers) and the interactions between neighboring molecules. The lattice-fluid model proposed by Sanchez and Lacombe (Macromolecules, 1978;11:1145-1156) was used to model specific retention volume data for a series of n-alkane solutes with n-alkane, polystyrene, and poly(dimethylsiloxane) stationary liquid phases. Theoretical equations were derived for the specific retention volume and also for the temperature dependence and limiting (high temperature) values for the specific retention volume. The model was used to predict retention volumes within 10% for the n-alkanes phases; 22% for polystyrene; and from 20 to 70% for PDMS using no adjustable parameters. The temperature derivative (enthalpy) could be calculated within 5% for all of the solutes in nine stationary liquid phases. The limiting value for the specific retention volume at high temperature (entropy controlled state) could be calculated within 10% for all of the systems. The limiting data also provided a new chromatographic method to measure the size parameter, r, for any chromatographic solute using characteristic and size parameters for the stationary phase only. The calculated size parameters of the solutes were consistent, i.e. independent of the stationary phase and agreed within experimental error with the size parameters previously reported from saturated vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization or density data.

  13. Lattice Gas Modeling of Scour Formation under Submarine Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Alexandre; Chopard, Bastien

    2002-05-01

    The so-called lattice Boltzmann method is used to implement a numerical model for erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment due to the action of a streaming fluid. This approach is applied to describe the formation of a scour under a submarine pipe. Both static and dynamic properties of the process are well reproduced by our computer simulations.

  14. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  15. Chemical reaction model for oil and gas generation from type 1 and type 2 kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Burnham, A.K.

    1993-06-01

    A global model for the generation of oil and gas from petroleum source rocks is presented. The model consists of 13 chemical species and 10 reactions, including an alternate-pathway mechanism for kerogen pyrolysis. Reaction rate parameters and stoichiometry coefficients determined from a variety of pyrolysis data are given for both type I and type II kerogen. Use of the chemical reaction model is illustrated for typical geologic conditions.

  16. Particle-in-cell modeling of gas-confined barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-04-01

    Gas-confined barrier discharge is studied using the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions model for the conditions reported by Guerra-Garcia and Martinez-Sanchez [Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 041601 (2015)]. Depending on the applied voltage, two modes of discharge are observed. In the first mode, the discharge develops in the entire interelectrode gap. In the second mode, the discharge is ignited and develops only in the gas layer having smaller breakdown voltage. The one-dimensional model shows that for the conditions considered, there is no streamer stage of breakdown as is typical for a traditional dielectric barrier discharge.

  17. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.; Goodman, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control. This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines. Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  18. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C.O.; Olea, R.A.; Goodman, G.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control.This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines.Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  19. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  20. Accuracy analysis of high-order lattice Boltzmann models for rarefied gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianping; Zhang, Yonghao

    2011-02-01

    In this work, we have theoretically analyzed and numerically evaluated the accuracy of high-order lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for capturing non-equilibrium effects in rarefied gas flows. In the incompressible limit, the LB equation is shown to be able to reduce to the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. Therefore, when the same Gauss-Hermite quadrature is used, LB method closely resembles the discrete velocity method (DVM). In addition, the order of Hermite expansion for the equilibrium distribution function is found not to be directly correlated with the approximation order in terms of the Knudsen number to the BGK equation for incompressible flows. Meanwhile, we have numerically evaluated the LB models for a standing-shear-wave problem, which is designed specifically for assessing model accuracy by excluding the influence of gas molecule/surface interactions at wall boundaries. The numerical simulation results confirm that the high-order terms in the discrete equilibrium distribution function play a negligible role in capturing non-equilibrium effect for low-speed flows. By contrast, appropriate Gauss-Hermite quadrature has the most significant effect on whether LB models can describe the essential flow physics of rarefied gas accurately. Our simulation results, where the effect of wall/gas interactions is excluded, can lead to conclusion on the LB modeling capability that the models with higher-order quadratures provide more accurate results. For the same order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, the exact abscissae will also modestly influence numerical accuracy. Using the same Gauss-Hermite quadrature, the numerical results of both LB and DVM methods are in excellent agreement for flows across a broad range of the Knudsen numbers, which confirms that the LB simulation is similar to the DVM process. Therefore, LB method can offer flexible models suitable for simulating continuum flows at the Navier-Stokes level and rarefied gas flows at the linearized

  1. PARTICLE TRANSPORTATION AND DEPOSITION IN HOT GAS FILTER VESSELS - A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2002-07-01

    In this project, a computational modeling approach for analyzing flow and ash transport and deposition in filter vessels was developed. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for studying hot-gas filtration process was established. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas flows in the filter vessel, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the particle transport and deposition. Particular attention was given to the Siemens-Westinghouse filter vessel at Power System Development Facility in Wilsonville in Alabama. Details of hot-gas flow in this tangential flow filter vessel are evaluated. The simulation results show that the rapidly rotation flow in the spacing between the shroud and the vessel refractory acts as cyclone that leads to the removal of a large fraction of the larger particles from the gas stream. Several alternate designs for the filter vessel are considered. These include a vessel with a short shroud, a filter vessel with no shroud and a vessel with a deflector plate. The hot-gas flow and particle transport and deposition in various vessels are evaluated. The deposition patterns in various vessels are compared. It is shown that certain filter vessel designs allow for the large particles to remain suspended in the gas stream and to deposit on the filters. The presence of the larger particles in the filter cake leads to lower mechanical strength thus allowing for the back-pulse process to more easily remove the filter cake. A laboratory-scale filter vessel for testing the cold flow condition was designed and fabricated. A laser-based flow visualization technique is used and the gas flow condition in the laboratory-scale vessel was experimental studied. A computer model for the experimental vessel was also developed and the gas flow and particle transport patterns are evaluated.

  2. Probing the Physical Conditions of Dense Molecular Gas in ULIRGs with LVG modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidaki, Ioanna; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Greve, Thomas; Xilouris, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    The gas-rich content of Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) constitutes a great laboratory in characterising the physical processes occuring in molecular gas and hence probing star formation properties. In particular, molecules with large dipole moments such as CS, HCN, HCO+, which are the fuel of star formation, can reveal the physical/excitation conditions of molecular gas phases in galaxies. For that reason, we compiled the aforementioned dense gas tracers in a sample of local (U)LIRGs in order to investigate the physical properties of the gas while at the same time put constrains on their excitation conditions. The sample in use consists of 26 galaxies all observed within the framework of the Herschel Comprehensive (U)LIRG Emission Survey (HerCULES). For all galaxies, we compiled our ground-based spectral line observations as well as all available data from the literature. Using Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) radiative transfer models in these spectral lines and in a wide parameter space [n(H2), Tkin, Nmol], and combining multiple molecules and multiple excitation components, it is possible to break the degeneracy between different parameters and to probe molecular gas physical conditions ranging from the cold and low-density average states in giant molecular clouds all the way up to the state of the gas found only near their star-forming regions. We then analyse the best LVG solution ranges to match the observed SLEDs (using more than one excitation components where necessary) in order to disentangle different molecular gas phases and possibly different molecular gas heating mechanisms.

  3. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Energy Technology Responses to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, John F.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.

    2004-07-01

    Models of the global energy system can help shed light on the competition and complementarities among technologies and energy systems both in the presence and absence of actions to affect the concentration of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the role of modeling in the analysis of technology deployment in addressing climate change. It examines the competition among technologies in a variety of markets, and explores conditions under which new markets, such as for hydrogen and carbon disposal, or modern commercial biomass, could emerge. Carbon capture and disposal technologies are shown have the potential to play a central role in controlling the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases, the goal of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  4. Model problems in plasma physics and gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The solution for the distribution function of heavy ions in a background of electrons is studied. It is found that quite broad physical conditions on the distribution function are sufficient to eliminate any ambiguity in the steady state solutions and to determine a discrete spectrum of the Fokker Planck operator for the time dependent case. The more physical case of a Maxwell Boltzman electron distribution function is treated, and under the small mass ratio expansion it is shown to lead to one of the model solutions in zero order. First order mass ratio corrections are calculated. They do not change the discrete nature of the spectrum. A plasma heating application is suggested. A hydrodynamic model is formulated to account for the collision of two compressible flows. This model is applied to the problem of the interaction of the solar wind and the interstellar medium, and for a compressible flow past a sphere as a limit case. Both flows are considered to be steady, polytropic, and potential. The compressible problem is solved by means of two different perturbation schemes (The Janzen-Rayleigh method and the coordinate expansion). For the free-stream Mach number expansion the solution up to the third order is found.

  5. Storm fronts over galaxy discs: models of how waves generate extraplanar gas and its anomalous kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, Curtis; Smith, Daniel C.

    2009-09-01

    The existence of partially ionized, diffuse gas and dust clouds at kiloparsec scale distances above the central planes of edge-on, galaxy discs was an unexpected discovery about 20 years ago. Subsequent observations showed that this extended or extraplanar diffuse interstellar gas (EDIG) has rotation velocities approximately 10-20 per cent lower than those in the central plane, and has been hard to account for. Here, we present results of hydrodynamic models, with radiative cooling and heating from star formation. We find that in models with star formation generated stochastically across the disc, an extraplanar gas layer is generated as long as the star formation is sufficiently strong. However, this gas rotates at nearly the same speed as the midplane gas. We then studied a range of models with imposed spiral or bar waves in the disc. EDIG layers were also generated in these models, but primarily over the wave regions, not over the entire disc. Because of this partial coverage, the EDIG clouds move radially, as well as vertically, with the result that observed kinematic anomalies are reproduced. The implication is that the kinematic anomalies are the result of three-dimensional motions when the cylindrical symmetry of the disc is broken. Thus, the kinematic anomalies are the result of bars or strong waves, and more face-on galaxies with such waves should have an asymmetric EDIG component. The models also indicate that the EDIG can contain a significant fraction of cool gas, and that some star formation can be triggered at considerable heights above the disc mid-plane. We expect all of these effects to be more prominent in young, forming discs, to play a role in rapidly smoothing disc asymmetries and in working to self-regulate disc structure.

  6. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  7. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  8. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Dryer/Humidifier Analytical Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2004-01-01

    A lightweight Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System (URFCS) is unique in that it uses Regenerative Gas Dryers/Humidifiers (RGD/H) that are mounted on the surface of the gas storage tanks that act as the radiators for thermal control of the Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System (URFCS). As the gas storage tanks cool down during URFCS charging the RGD/H dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis. As the gas storage tanks heat up during URFCS discharging, the RGD/H humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by the fuel cell. An analytical model was developed to simulate the URFCS RGD/H. The model is in the form of a Microsoft (registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation) Excel worksheet that allows the investigation of the RGD/H performance. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling of the RGD/H and the gas storage tank wall was also done to analyze spatial temperature distribution within the RGD/H and the localized tank wall. Test results obtained from the testing of the RGD/H in a thermal vacuum environment were used to corroborate the analyses.

  9. A model for the interaction between stars and gas in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Wei-Hwan; Bregman, Joel N.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the ISM is considered in which stars lose mass and heat the gas while the gas can form into stars. Three scale-free models are calculated, and in each case the star formation instability leads to a network of dense filaments that surround hotter, more rarefied gas, all of which are close to pressure equilibrium. Depending upon the star formation and cooling laws adopted, the stars are located either in the middle of a bubble or along the inside edge of a dense filament. When a model for the ISM with a cooling curve appropriate for gas of cosmic abundance and a star formation rate proportional to the local gas density is used, the star formation instability is found to grow at temperatures below about 10,000 K. A network structure develops in which most of the mass is in neutral filaments. Newly formed stars lie adjacent to the filaments and create pressure forces that lead to filament motion.

  10. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K.

    1991-06-01

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  11. Modeling of gas dynamics for a laser-generated plasma: propagation into low-pressure gases

    PubMed

    Le; Zeitoun; Parisse; Sentis; Marine

    2000-09-01

    The physical phenomena involved during three-dimensional axisymmetric laser-induced plasma expansion into background gas are numerically studied. For this purpose, a multispecies hydrodynamic model is developed which considers the effects of mass and ambipolar diffusions, thermal conduction, viscosity, and nonequilibrium conditions for ionization. This model is applied to describe quantitatively the Si plasma plume expansion into Ar or He gases. It is shown that the mechanism of plasma expansion depends critically on both the pressure and mass of the background gas. The shock front expansion is found to be strongly correlated with ion dynamics. A pronounced difference between heavy-particle and electron temperatures indicates a persistent lack of equilibrium between the heavy particle and the electron in the plasma plume expansion. The Si atoms of the rarefied plume are essentially driven by the backward-moving background gas as a result of a mass diffusion process. It is also noted that the diffusion processes are only important in the last expansion stage, and are less significant in the first stage. Therefore, it is shown that a computation which does not include diffusion effects (Euler equations) can adequately describe only the earliest stage of plasma expansion into background gas. The ability of the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic multispecies model to predict the key role of the background gas type (Ar, He) and pressure is demonstrated.

  12. Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

    2008-05-01

    Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

  13. Simulation of a turbulent spray flame using coupled PDF gas phase and spray flamelet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Hai-Wen; Gutheil, Eva

    2008-04-15

    A joint mixture fraction-enthalpy probability density function (PDF) is proposed for the simulation of turbulent spray flames. The PDF transport equation is deduced and modeled. The interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (IEM) model that has been developed for gas-phase flows is extended to describe molecular mixing in nonreactive and reactive spray flows. The joint PDF transport equation is solved by a hybrid finite-volume and Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. Standard spray and turbulence models are used to describe the gas phase and the liquid phase. A turbulent methanol/air spray flame is simulated using the present method. Detailed chemistry is implemented through the spray flamelet model. The precalculated spray flamelet library for methanol/air combustion comprises 23 species and 168 elementary reactions. Thus, the model is capable of predicting the formation of radicals and of pollutants. Different values for the model constant C{sub {phi}} in the IEM model are tested. The numerical results for the gas velocity, the gas temperature, and the mass fraction of methanol vapor are compared with experimental data in the literature. Good agreement with experiment is obtained when C{sub {phi}}=2.0. Marginal PDFs of mixture fraction, enthalpy, and gas temperature are presented. The computed PDFs of mixture fraction are compared with the presumed standard {beta} function and modified {beta} function. The results show that the standard {beta} function fails to reproduce bimodal shapes observed in transported PDF computation, while the modified {beta} function, fits the computed PDFs very well. Moreover, joint PDFs of mixture fraction and enthalpy are presented and analyzed. The enthalpy and mixture fraction are strongly correlated. The samples that deviate from the linear correlation are due to the energy consumption of local spray evaporation. (author)

  14. Modeling the influence of bubble pressure on grain boundary separation and fission gas release

    SciTech Connect

    Pritam Chakraborty; Michael R. Tonks; Giovanni Pastore

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary (GB) separation as a mechanism for fission gas release (FGR), complementary to gas bubble interlinkage, has been experimentally observed in irradiated light water reactor fuel. However there has been limited effort to develop physics-based models incorporating this mechanism for the analysis of FGR. In this work, a computational study is carried out to investigate GB separation in UO2 fuel under the effect of gas bubble pressure and hydrostatic stress. A non-dimensional stress intensity factor formula is obtained through 2D axisymmetric analyses considering lenticular bubbles and Mode-I crack growth. The obtained functional form can be used in higher length-scale models to estimate the contribution of GB separation to FGR.

  15. Modeling of ultrasound transmission through a solid-liquid interface comprising a network of gas pockets

    SciTech Connect

    Paumel, K.; Baque, F.; Moysan, J.; Corneloup, G.; Chatain, D.

    2011-08-15

    Ultrasonic inspection of sodium-cooled fast reactor requires a good acoustic coupling between the transducer and the liquid sodium. Ultrasonic transmission through a solid surface in contact with liquid sodium can be complex due to the presence of microscopic gas pockets entrapped by the surface roughness. Experiments are run using substrates with controlled roughness consisting of a network of holes and a modeling approach is then developed. In this model, a gas pocket stiffness at a partially solid-liquid interface is defined. This stiffness is then used to calculate the transmission coefficient of ultrasound at the entire interface. The gas pocket stiffness has a static, as well as an inertial component, which depends on the ultrasonic frequency and the radiative mass.

  16. Explosion characteristics of methane for CFD modeling and simulation of turbulent gas flow behavior during explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Peer, Václav; Friedel, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The effect of initial concentration on the explosion behavior of a stoichiometric CH4/O2/N2 mixture under air-combustion conditions was studied. Two mathematical models were used with the aim at simulating the gas explosion in the middle scale explosion vessel, and the associated effects of the temperature for different gas/air concentrations. Peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and laminar burning velocity were measured from pressure time records of explosions occurring in a 1 m3 closed cylindrical vessel. The results of the models were validated considering a set of data (pressure time histories and root mean square velocity). The obtained results are relevant to the practice of gas explosion testing and the interpretation of test results and, they should be taken as the input data for CFD simulation to improve the conditions for standard tests.

  17. Modeling of ultrasound transmission through a solid-liquid interface comprising a network of gas pockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paumel, K.; Moysan, J.; Chatain, D.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F.

    2011-08-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of sodium-cooled fast reactor requires a good acoustic coupling between the transducer and the liquid sodium. Ultrasonic transmission through a solid surface in contact with liquid sodium can be complex due to the presence of microscopic gas pockets entrapped by the surface roughness. Experiments are run using substrates with controlled roughness consisting of a network of holes and a modeling approach is then developed. In this model, a gas pocket stiffness at a partially solid-liquid interface is defined. This stiffness is then used to calculate the transmission coefficient of ultrasound at the entire interface. The gas pocket stiffness has a static, as well as an inertial component, which depends on the ultrasonic frequency and the radiative mass.

  18. Three-Dimensional Model for Electrospinning Processes in Controlled Gas Counterflow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a controlled gas flow on the dynamics of electrified jets in the electrospinning process. The main idea is to model the air drag effects of the gas flow by using a nonlinear Langevin-like approach. The model is employed to investigate the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that a controlled gas counterflow can lead to a decrease of the average diameter of electrospun fibers, and potentially to an improvement of the quality of electrospun products. We probe the influence of air drag effects on the bending instabilities of the jet and on its angular fluctuations during the process. The insights provided by this study might prove useful for the design of future electrospinning experiments and polymer nanofiber materials. PMID:26859532

  19. A general computer model for predicting the performance of gas sorption refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdson, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Projected performance requirements for cryogenic spacecraft sensor cooling systems which demand higher reliability and longer lifetimes are outlined. The gas/solid sorption refrigerator is viewed as a potential solution to cryogenic cooling needs. A software model of an entire gas sorption refrigerator system was developed. The numerical model, evaluates almost any combination and order of refrigerator components and any sorbent-sorbate pair or which the sorption isotherm data are available. Parametric curves for predicting system performance were generated for two types of refrigerators, a LaNi5-H2 absorption cooler and a Charcoal-N2 adsorption cooler. It is found that precooling temperature and heat exchanger effectiveness affect the refrigerator performance. It is indicated that gas sorption refrigerators are feasible for a number of space applications.

  20. Tri-Gas Pressurization System Testing and Modeling for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.; Polsgrove, R.; Stephens, J.; Hedayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Tri-gas in rocket propulsion systems is somewhat of a new technology. This paper defines Tri-gas as a mixture of gases composed largely of helium with a small percentage of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. When exposed to a catalyst the hydrogen and oxygen in the mixture combusts, significantly raising the temperature of the mixture. The increase in enthalpy resulting from the combustion process significantly decreases the required quantity of gas needed to pressurize the ullage of the vehicle propellant tanks. The objective of this effort was to better understand the operating characteristics of Tri-gas in a pressurization system with low temperature applications. In conjunction with ongoing programs at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, an effort has been undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics of Tri-gas through modeling and bench testing. Through improved understanding of the operating characteristics, the risk of using this new technology in a launch vehicle propulsion system was reduced. Bench testing of Tri-gas was a multistep process that targeted gas characteristics and performance aspects that pose a risk to application in a pressurization system. Pressurization systems are vital to propulsion system performance. Keeping a target ullage pressure in propulsions tanks is necessary to supply propellant at the conditions and flow rates required to maintain desired engine functionality. The first component of testing consisted of sampling Tri-gas sources that had been stagnant for various lengths of time in order to determine the rate at which stratification takes place. Second, a bench test was set up in which Tri-gas was sent through a catalyst bed. This test was designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Tri-gas, under low temperature inlet temperatures, in a flight-like catalyst bed reactor. The third, most complex, test examined the performance characteristics of Tri-gas at low temperature temperatures

  1. Validation of hydrogen gas stratification and mixing models

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Hsingtzu; Zhao, Haihua

    2015-05-26

    Two validation benchmarks confirm that the BMIX++ code is capable of simulating unintended hydrogen release scenarios efficiently. The BMIX++ (UC Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code has been developed to accurately and efficiently predict the fluid mixture distribution and heat transfer in large stratified enclosures for accident analyses and design optimizations. The BMIX++ code uses a scaling based one-dimensional method to achieve large reduction in computational effort compared to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two BMIX++ benchmark models have been developed. One is for a single buoyant jet in an open space and another is for amore » large sealed enclosure with both a jet source and a vent near the floor. Both of them have been validated by comparisons with experimental data. Excellent agreements are observed. The entrainment coefficients of 0.09 and 0.08 are found to fit the experimental data for hydrogen leaks with the Froude number of 99 and 268 best, respectively. In addition, the BIX++ simulation results of the average helium concentration for an enclosure with a vent and a single jet agree with the experimental data within a margin of about 10% for jet flow rates ranging from 1.21 × 10⁻⁴ to 3.29 × 10⁻⁴ m³/s. In conclusion, computing time for each BMIX++ model with a normal desktop computer is less than 5 min.« less

  2. Validation of hydrogen gas stratification and mixing models

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsingtzu; Zhao, Haihua

    2015-05-26

    Two validation benchmarks confirm that the BMIX++ code is capable of simulating unintended hydrogen release scenarios efficiently. The BMIX++ (UC Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code has been developed to accurately and efficiently predict the fluid mixture distribution and heat transfer in large stratified enclosures for accident analyses and design optimizations. The BMIX++ code uses a scaling based one-dimensional method to achieve large reduction in computational effort compared to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two BMIX++ benchmark models have been developed. One is for a single buoyant jet in an open space and another is for a large sealed enclosure with both a jet source and a vent near the floor. Both of them have been validated by comparisons with experimental data. Excellent agreements are observed. The entrainment coefficients of 0.09 and 0.08 are found to fit the experimental data for hydrogen leaks with the Froude number of 99 and 268 best, respectively. In addition, the BIX++ simulation results of the average helium concentration for an enclosure with a vent and a single jet agree with the experimental data within a margin of about 10% for jet flow rates ranging from 1.21 × 10⁻⁴ to 3.29 × 10⁻⁴ m³/s. In conclusion, computing time for each BMIX++ model with a normal desktop computer is less than 5 min.

  3. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  4. Reactive Transport Modeling of Vadose Zone Contamination: Feedback between Reactions and Gas-Phase Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.

    2007-05-01

    The unsaturated zone acts as a buffer zone for contaminants on their way to the water table but can also attenuate the emission of contaminants leaving the subsurface environment through the gas phase. A reactive transport model that includes multicomponent gas transport has been developed to investigate the processes that contribute to the generation and attenuation of contaminants in the unsaturated zone. In particular, the model is suitable to study the feedback processes between advective-diffusive gas transport and geochemical reactions. The model is also able to estimate diffusive and advective contributions to gas transport in multicomponent systems. Two model applications are presented that investigate gas transport and reactions in mine tailings and at a site with organic contamination. In mine tailings, atmospheric oxygen transported into the sediment column is consumed in the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Gas volume loss caused by the consumption of atmospheric oxygen drives advective fluxes. In the absence of carbonate minerals, the advective component accounts for 16 % of the net oxygen flux into the column, while, in a carbonate-rich system, advection accounts for 10 % of the net oxygen flux. Dissolution of carbonate minerals has a moderating effect on advective gas transport since carbon dioxide can partially compensate for the depletion of oxygen. At an oil spill site, volatilization and degradation of organic contaminants cause advective and diffusive fluxes of organic vapors away from the source zone. At early stages, volatilization dominates and oxidation of these organic vapors attenuates the emission of contaminants to the atmosphere. The contribution of advection to organic vapor fluxes is significant initially but decreases with time. At later stages, the oil source becomes depleted of its most volatile fraction, and anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds and heavier n-alkanes results in the production of methane. Up to 15 % of methane

  5. Numerical modelling of production-induced seismicity in natural gas exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbinden, Dominik; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Urpi, Luca; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Observations at several sites show that the exploitation of natural gas can induce seismicity. Studies have indicated that the pressure drop in the gas reservoir caused by production may lead to compaction, affecting the stress field in the surrounding rock formations. This in turn can reactivate pre-existing faults, hence inducing earthquakes. Despite the moderate magnitude of these seismic events, they can often be felt at the surface due to their shallow hypocenters, posing the population at risk. A well-known example is Groningen in the Netherlands, where production-induced seismicity has caused damage to houses located near the gas field. Given the public significance, it is highly relevant to understand the geomechanical processes involved during natural gas production. This work investigates the geomechanical behaviour of pre-existing faults during gas production. We use a simple model with a permeable reservoir cut by a fault zone and surrounded by impermeable rock formations, preventing the gas from escaping toward shallow depths. The permeabilities are chosen to be stress-dependent allowing for hydro-mechanical coupling. Our aim is to study different parameters, such as production rate, fault permeability and other rock properties, and analyze their influence on the strength of the seismic event as well as the reactivation time of the fault measured from the onset of production.

  6. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien; Li, Tao; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  7. Identifying key sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, through the use of local and global sensitivity analysis tools, and contributes to an in-depth understanding of wastewater treatment modelling by revealing critical parameters and parameter interactions. One-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis is used to screen model parameters and identify those with significant individual effects on three performance indicators: total greenhouse gas emissions, effluent quality and operational cost. Sobol's method enables identification of parameters with significant higher order effects and of particular parameter pairs to which model outputs are sensitive. Use of a variance-based global sensitivity analysis tool to investigate parameter interactions enables identification of important parameters not revealed in one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. These interaction effects have not been considered in previous studies and thus provide a better understanding wastewater treatment plant model characterisation. It was found that uncertainty in modelled nitrous oxide emissions is the primary contributor to uncertainty in total greenhouse gas emissions, due largely to the interaction effects of three nitrogen conversion modelling parameters. The higher order effects of these parameters are also shown to be a key source of uncertainty in effluent quality. PMID:23770480

  8. Identifying key sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, through the use of local and global sensitivity analysis tools, and contributes to an in-depth understanding of wastewater treatment modelling by revealing critical parameters and parameter interactions. One-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis is used to screen model parameters and identify those with significant individual effects on three performance indicators: total greenhouse gas emissions, effluent quality and operational cost. Sobol's method enables identification of parameters with significant higher order effects and of particular parameter pairs to which model outputs are sensitive. Use of a variance-based global sensitivity analysis tool to investigate parameter interactions enables identification of important parameters not revealed in one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. These interaction effects have not been considered in previous studies and thus provide a better understanding wastewater treatment plant model characterisation. It was found that uncertainty in modelled nitrous oxide emissions is the primary contributor to uncertainty in total greenhouse gas emissions, due largely to the interaction effects of three nitrogen conversion modelling parameters. The higher order effects of these parameters are also shown to be a key source of uncertainty in effluent quality.

  9. A Petroleum Vapor Intrusion Model Involving Upward Advective Soil Gas Flow Due to Methane Generation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Yue; Verginelli, Iason; Zeng, Tian; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Wen, Yuezhong; Ma, Jie

    2015-10-01

    At petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) sites at which there is significant methane generation, upward advective soil gas transport may be observed. To evaluate the health and explosion risks that may exist under such scenarios, a one-dimensional analytical model describing these processes is introduced in this study. This new model accounts for both advective and diffusive transport in soil gas and couples this with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, limited by oxygen availability. The predicted results from the new model are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results obtained from a three-dimensional numerical model. These results suggest that this analytical model is suitable for describing cases involving open ground surface beyond the foundation edge, serving as the primary oxygen source. This new analytical model indicates that the major contribution of upward advection to indoor air concentration could be limited to the increase of soil gas entry rate, since the oxygen in soil might already be depleted owing to the associated high methane source vapor concentration.

  10. Modeling the adsorption of mixed gases based on pure gas adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, N.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers usually operate with pure gases. A sorption-based compressor has many benefits; however, it is limited by the pressure ratios it can provide. Using a mixed-refrigerant (MR) instead of a pure refrigerant in JT cryocoolers allows working at much lower pressure ratios. Therefore, it is attractive using MRs in sorption- based cryocoolers in order to reduce one of its main limitations. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady-state conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the process in a sorption compressor goes through various temperatures, pressures and adsorption concentrations; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In order to simulate the sorption process in a compressor a numerical analysis for mixed gases is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics. The pure gas adsorption properties have been measured for four gases (nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane) with Norit-RB2 activated carbon. A single adsorption model is desired to describe the adsorption of all four gases. This model is further developed to a mixed-gas adsorption model. In future work more adsorbents will be tested using these four gases and the adsorption model will be verified against experimental results of mixed-gas adsorption measurements.

  11. Estimating Risk of Natural Gas Portfolios by Using GARCH-EVT-Copula Model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiechen; Zhou, Chao; Yuan, Xinyu; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2015-01-01

    This paper concentrates on estimating the risk of Title Transfer Facility (TTF) Hub natural gas portfolios by using the GARCH-EVT-copula model. We first use the univariate ARMA-GARCH model to model each natural gas return series. Second, the extreme value distribution (EVT) is fitted to the tails of the residuals to model marginal residual distributions. Third, multivariate Gaussian copula and Student t-copula are employed to describe the natural gas portfolio risk dependence structure. Finally, we simulate N portfolios and estimate value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR). Our empirical results show that, for an equally weighted portfolio of five natural gases, the VaR and CVaR values obtained from the Student t-copula are larger than those obtained from the Gaussian copula. Moreover, when minimizing the portfolio risk, the optimal natural gas portfolio weights are found to be similar across the multivariate Gaussian copula and Student t-copula and different confidence levels. PMID:26351652

  12. Phase diagrams of adsorption systems and calibration functions in the lattice-gas model.

    PubMed

    Tovbin, Yuriy K; Rabinovich, Alexander B

    2004-07-01

    Using the calibration function is suggested to increase the accuracy of approximate equations in the lattice-gas model at calculating various concentration dependences of equilibrium characteristics for nonideal adsorption systems in the vicinity of the critical point. This function should provide a shift of the approximate result to the exact one, when the lattice-gas model equations are used in the quality of the interpolation tool between the exact solutions. A comparison of approximate equations with Onsager's exact solution preferrably allows a use of the quasi-chemical approximation as the interpolation procedure and the exact information on the critical point. The modified lattice-gas model takes into account next the molecular properties of the Lennard-Jones fluid: the long-range potential of adsorbate-adsorbate, an excluded volume of the adsorption site, and a contribution of the triple interactions, as well as a softness of the lattice structure. The modified lattice-gas model with the calibration function is used for the phase diagram descriptions for argon adsorption on the homogeneous (111) CdCl2 face (two-dimensional systems) and for methane adsorption in carbon slitlike pores (three-dimensional system) as well as the other equilibrium characteristics of mentioned systems.

  13. A Constructivist-Based Model for the Teaching of Dissolution of Gas in a Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present details of a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which helps students understand the dissolution of a gas in a liquid. The model derived from Ayas (1995) involves elicitation of pre-existing ideas, focusing on the target concept, challenging students' ideas, and applying newly constructed ideas to similar…

  14. Estimating Risk of Natural Gas Portfolios by Using GARCH-EVT-Copula Model

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiechen; Zhou, Chao; Yuan, Xinyu; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2015-01-01

    This paper concentrates on estimating the risk of Title Transfer Facility (TTF) Hub natural gas portfolios by using the GARCH-EVT-copula model. We first use the univariate ARMA-GARCH model to model each natural gas return series. Second, the extreme value distribution (EVT) is fitted to the tails of the residuals to model marginal residual distributions. Third, multivariate Gaussian copula and Student t-copula are employed to describe the natural gas portfolio risk dependence structure. Finally, we simulate N portfolios and estimate value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR). Our empirical results show that, for an equally weighted portfolio of five natural gases, the VaR and CVaR values obtained from the Student t-copula are larger than those obtained from the Gaussian copula. Moreover, when minimizing the portfolio risk, the optimal natural gas portfolio weights are found to be similar across the multivariate Gaussian copula and Student t-copula and different confidence levels. PMID:26351652

  15. Estimating Risk of Natural Gas Portfolios by Using GARCH-EVT-Copula Model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiechen; Zhou, Chao; Yuan, Xinyu; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2015-01-01

    This paper concentrates on estimating the risk of Title Transfer Facility (TTF) Hub natural gas portfolios by using the GARCH-EVT-copula model. We first use the univariate ARMA-GARCH model to model each natural gas return series. Second, the extreme value distribution (EVT) is fitted to the tails of the residuals to model marginal residual distributions. Third, multivariate Gaussian copula and Student t-copula are employed to describe the natural gas portfolio risk dependence structure. Finally, we simulate N portfolios and estimate value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR). Our empirical results show that, for an equally weighted portfolio of five natural gases, the VaR and CVaR values obtained from the Student t-copula are larger than those obtained from the Gaussian copula. Moreover, when minimizing the portfolio risk, the optimal natural gas portfolio weights are found to be similar across the multivariate Gaussian copula and Student t-copula and different confidence levels.

  16. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfil...

  17. From chiral quark dynamics with Polyakov loop to the hadron resonance gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Arriola, E. R.; Salcedo, L. L.; Megias, E.

    2013-03-25

    Chiral quark models with Polyakov loop at finite temperature have been often used to describe the phase transition. We show how the transition to a hadron resonance gas is realized based on the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop.

  18. Chemistry in disks. IV. Benchmarking gas-grain chemical models with surface reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, D.; Hersant, F.; Wakelam, V.; Dutrey, A.; Chapillon, E.; Guilloteau, St.; Henning, Th.; Launhardt, R.; Piétu, V.; Schreyer, K.

    2010-11-01

    Context. We describe and benchmark two sophisticated chemical models developed by the Heidelberg and Bordeaux astrochemistry groups. Aims: The main goal of this study is to elaborate on a few well-described tests for state-of-the-art astrochemical codes covering a range of physical conditions and chemical processes, in particular those aimed at constraining current and future interferometric observations of protoplanetary disks. Methods: We considered three physical models: a cold molecular cloud core, a hot core, and an outer region of a T Tauri disk. Our chemical network (for both models) is based on the original gas-phase osu_03_2008 ratefile and includes gas-grain interactions and a set of surface reactions for the H-, O-, C-, S-, and N-bearing molecules. The benchmarking was performed with the increasing complexity of the considered processes: (1) the pure gas-phase chemistry, (2) the gas-phase chemistry with accretion and desorption, and (3) the full gas-grain model with surface reactions. The chemical evolution is modeled within 109 years using atomic initial abundances with heavily depleted metals and hydrogen in its molecular form. Results: The time-dependent abundances calculated with the two chemical models are essentially the same for all considered physical cases and for all species, including the most complex polyatomic ions and organic molecules. This result, however, required a lot of effort to make all necessary details consistent through the model runs, e.g., definition of the gas particle density, density of grain surface sites, or the strength and shape of the UV radiation field. Conclusions: The reference models and the benchmark setup, along with the two chemical codes and resulting time-dependent abundances are made publicly available on the internet. This will facilitate and ease the development of other astrochemical models and provide nonspecialists with a detailed description of the model ingredients and requirements to analyze the cosmic

  19. Theoretical models of gas dynamics and star formation in interacting ring galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1990-01-01

    A series of one and two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a ring wave in interstellar gas disks was completed. These calculations included nonlinear source terms to model the effects of interstellar interactions and star formation, as well as the spatial-temporal gas flow. Toomre's kinematical model was merged with the Arnold, Shandarin, and Zeldovich 'pancake' theory of caustics in galaxy formation. The resulting theory can describe almost all the structure in restricted three-body simulations of single-pass collisions, even with multi-component potentials. Off-center galactic collisions were studied to understand the dynamics involved. Multi-color optical and near-infrared observations of faint tidal features were performed in about two dozen interacting galaxies selected from the Arp atlas. This sample provided evidence for ongoing star formation in tidal structures, and even enhancements of star formation in some cases. The task of assembling the data for gas-rich, late-type galaxies, was undertaken to see if a more coherent picture of the gas distribution would emerge from the more complete data. Analytic solutions of the equations with subsonic flows to balance gas consumption for expulsion form a galactic fountain were also derived.

  20. The Monte Carlo Simulation of a Model Microactuator Driven by Rarefied Gas Thermal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying; Stefanov, S. K.; Ota, Masahiro

    2008-12-01

    A computational model of a rotating microactuator with a four blade rotor system immersed in a low density gas is analyzed by using DSMC method. The rotor system is rotated by a driving force of rarefied dynamic effects arising around each blade due to the temperature difference between front and rear blade sides created and held by a given source of local gas heating. Three models of microactuators with different design are considered: a rotor system with inclined under certain angle blades with different temperatures of the front and rear surface of each blade; a rotor system with inclined blades immersed in low density gas under temperature gradient held between two hot and cold plates, and finally, a rotor system with blades having a fancy surface with anisotropic reflection of the gas molecules. The DSMC analysis is performed at Knudsen numbers (based on the blade size) in the range Kn = 0.1-0.2 close to the experimentally established values, for which the rotation rate reached its maximum. The results obtained from the simulations convincingly demonstrate that the DSMC approach can be used for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of gas microrotor systems with different design.

  1. A Mathematical Model for the Exhaust Gas Temperature Profile of a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a heat transfer model for the exhaust gas of a diesel power generator to determine the gas temperature profile in the exhaust pipe. The numerical methodology to solve the mathematical model was developed using a finite difference method approach for energy equation resolution and determination of temperature profiles considering turbulent fluid flow and variable fluid properties. The simulation was carried out for engine operation under loads from 0 kW to 40 kW. The model was compared with results obtained using the multidimensional Ansys CFX software, which was applied to solve the governor equations of turbulent fluid flow. The results for the temperature profiles in the exhaust pipe show a good proximity between the mathematical model developed and the multidimensional software.

  2. Experimental investigation and modeling of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kiil, S.; Michelsen, M.L.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-07-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate-determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallization of gypsum were included. Population balance equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas-phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid-phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modeling tools developed may be applicable to other wet FGD plants.

  3. Development and evaluation of the aerosol dynamics and gas phase chemistry model ADCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Swietlicki, E.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model suited for detailed studies of aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry within urban plumes, from local scale (1 × 1 km2) to regional scale. This article describes and evaluates the trajectory model for Aerosol Dynamics, gas and particle phase CHEMistry and radiative transfer (ADCHEM). The model treats both vertical and horizontal dispersion perpendicular to an air mass trajectory (2-space dimensions). The Lagrangian approach enables a more detailed representation of the aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry and a finer spatial and temporal resolution compared to that of available regional 3D-CTMs. These features make it among others well suited for urban plume studies. The aerosol dynamics model includes Brownian coagulation, dry deposition, wet deposition, in-cloud processing, condensation, evaporation, primary particle emissions and homogeneous nucleation. The organic mass partitioning was either modeled with a 2-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) or with the traditional two-product model approach. In ADCHEM these models consider the diffusion limited and particle size dependent condensation and evaporation of 110 and 40 different organic compounds respectively. The gas phase chemistry model calculates the gas phase concentrations of 61 different species, using 130 different chemical reactions. Daily isoprene and monoterpene emissions from European forests were simulated separately with the vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, and included as input to ADCHEM. ADCHEM was used to simulate the ageing of the urban plumes from the city of Malmö in southern Sweden (280 000 inhabitants). Several sensitivity tests were performed concerning the number of size bins, size structure method, aerosol dynamic processes, vertical and horizontal mixing, coupled or uncoupled condensation and the secondary organic aerosol formation. The simulations show that the full-stationary size structure gives accurate results

  4. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  5. Paradox of soft singularity crossing and its resolution by distributional cosmological quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Á.; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.

    2012-09-01

    A cosmological model of a flat Friedmann universe filled with a mixture of anti-Chaplygin gas and dustlike matter exhibits a future soft singularity, where the pressure of the anti-Chaplygin gas diverges (while its energy density is finite). Despite infinite tidal forces the geodesics pass through the singularity. Because of the dust component, the Hubble parameter has a nonzero value at the encounter with the singularity, therefore the dust implies further expansion. With continued expansion however, the energy density and the pressure of the anti-Chaplygin gas would become ill-defined hence from the point of view of the anti-Chaplygin gas only a contraction is allowed. Paradoxically, the universe in this cosmological model would have to expand and contract simultaneously. This obviously could not happen. We solve the paradox by redefining the anti-Chaplygin gas in a distributional sense. Then a contraction could follow the expansion phase at the singularity at the price of a jump in the Hubble parameter. Although such an abrupt change is not common in any cosmological evolution, we explicitly show that the set of Friedmann, Raychaudhuri and continuity equations are all obeyed both at the singularity and in its vicinity. We also prove that the Israel junction conditions are obeyed through the singular spatial hypersurface. In particular we enounce and prove a more general form of the Lanczos equation.

  6. Effect of grain morphology on gas bubble swelling in UMo fuels - A 3D microstructure dependent Booth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet

    2016-11-01

    A three dimensional microstructure dependent swelling model is developed for studying the fission gas swelling kinetics in irradiated nuclear fuels. The model is extended from the Booth model [1] in order to investigate the effect of heterogeneous microstructures on gas bubble swelling kinetics. As an application of the model, the effect of grain morphology, fission gas diffusivity, and spatially dependent fission rate on swelling kinetics are simulated in UMo fuels. It is found that the decrease of grain size, the increase of grain aspect ratio for the grain having the same volume, and the increase of fission gas diffusivity (fission rate) cause the increase of swelling kinetics. Other heterogeneities such as second phases and spatially dependent thermodynamic properties including diffusivity of fission gas, sink and source strength of defects could be naturally integrated into the model to enhance the model capability.

  7. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity-velocity dispersion distribution of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ˜500 to ˜1000 km s-1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ˜1500-2000 km s-1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  8. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers. PMID

  9. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  10. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity–velocity dispersion distribution of ∼39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ∼500 to ∼1000 km s‑1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ∼1500–2000 km s‑1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  11. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  12. a Diffusivity Model for Gas Diffusion in Dry Porous Media Composed of Converging-Diverging Capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shifang; Wu, Tao; Deng, Yongju; Zheng, Qiusha; Zheng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion in dry porous media has been a hot topic in several areas of technology for many years. In this paper, a diffusivity model for gas diffusion in dry porous media is developed based on fractal theory and Fick’s law, which incorporates the effects of converging-diverging pores and tortuous characteristics of capillaries as well as Knudsen diffusion. The effective gas diffusivity model is expressed as a function of the fluctuation amplitude of the capillary cross-section size variations, the porosity, the pore area fractal dimension and the tortuosity fractal dimension. The results show that the relative diffusivity decreases with the increase of the fluctuation amplitude and increases with the increase of pore area fractal dimension. To verify the validity of the present model, the relative diffusivity from the proposed fractal model is compared with the existing experimental data as well as two available models of Bruggeman and Shou. Our proposed diffusivity model with pore converging-diverging effect included is in good agreement with reported experimental data.

  13. a Diffusivity Model for Gas Diffusion in Dry Porous Media Composed of Converging-Diverging Capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shifang; Wu, Tao; Deng, Yongju; Zheng, Qiusha; Zheng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion in dry porous media has been a hot topic in several areas of technology for many years. In this paper, a diffusivity model for gas diffusion in dry porous media is developed based on fractal theory and Fick’s law, which incorporates the effects of converging-diverging pores and tortuous characteristics of capillaries as well as Knudsen diffusion. The effective gas diffusivity model is expressed as a function of the fluctuation amplitude of the capillary cross-section size variations, the porosity, the pore area fractal dimension and the tortuosity fractal dimension. The results show that the relative diffusivity decreases with the increase of the fluctuation amplitude and increases with the increase of pore area fractal dimension. To verify the validity of the present model, the relative diffusivity from the proposed fractal model is compared with the existing experimental data as well as two available models of Bruggeman and Shou. Our proposed diffusivity model with pore converging-diverging effect included is in good agreement with reported experimental data.

  14. Livermore energy policy model and projections of energy futures for the Gas Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castleton, R.

    1981-06-01

    The Energy and Resource Planning Group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was asked by the Gas Research Institute to evaluate ten of their research projects relative to proposed funding levels for 1982. These energy technology projects included gas from unconventional and synthetic sources as well as utilization technologies. The primary tool used in the evaluation was the LLNL Policy Model (EPM). The report gives background information about the study, the basic assumptions used in the study, and some conclusions, and presents selected supporting results from the EPM runs.

  15. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  16. The rate of gas-bubble growth in tissue under decompression. Mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Kislyakov YuYa; Kopyltsov, A V

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model simulating the formation of gas bubbles in biological tissues under decompression is presented. It is written as a system of partial differential equations solved on a computer. For the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture, used for respiration in deep-water immersions, the effects of the physico-chemical properties of the gases, the magnitude of pressure differentials and the density of bubble-formation centres on the bubble size and rate of growth were studied. It is shown that in the case of drastic pressure differentials the formation of bubbles capable of producing microcirculatory disturbances is accomplished within a few seconds.

  17. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  18. Towards a new modelling of gas flows in a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, M.; Lagache, G.; Bethermin, M.; Guiderdoni, B.

    2015-03-01

    We present an extended version of the semi-analytical model, GalICS. Like its predecessor, eGalICS applies a post-treatment of the baryonic physics on pre-computed dark-matter merger trees extracted from an N-body simulation. We review all the mechanisms that affect, at any given time, the formation and evolution of a galaxy in its host dark-matter halo. We mainly focus on the gas cycle from the smooth cosmological accretion to feedback processes. To follow this cycle with a high accuracy, we introduce some novel prescriptions: i) a smooth baryonic accretion with two phases: a cold mode and a hot mode built on the continuous dark-matter accretion. In parallel to this smooth accretion, we implement the standard photoionisation modelling to reduce the input gas flow on the smallest structures. ii) a complete monitoring of the hot gas phase. We compute the evolution of the core density, the mean temperature and the instantaneous escape fraction of the hot atmosphere by considering that the hot gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium in the dark-matter potential well, and by applying a principle of conservation of energy on the treatment of gas accretion, supernovae and super massive black hole feedback iii) a new treatment for disc instabilities based on the formation, the migration and the disruption of giant clumps. The migration of such clumps in gas-rich galaxies allows to form pseudo-bulges. The different processes in the gas cycle act on different time scales, and we thus build an adaptive time-step scheme to solve the evolution equations. The model presented here is compared in detail to the observations of stellar-mass functions, star formation rates, and luminosity functions, in a companion paper. Model outputs are available at the CDS. Model outputs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A33

  19. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 1. Development of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical gas extraction systems for degassing landfills. To this end, approaches to modeling the main processes occurring in the landfill's porous medium are considered. The considered approaches served as a basis for elaborating a thermophysical gas and heat transport model that takes into account variation in the hydrodynamic properties of wastes resulting from their secondary settlement. The adequacy of the results obtained using the developed model is confirmed by the data of classic works. The effect the secondary settlement of wastes has on the distribution of pressure and temperature in the landfill body is determined. It is shown that compaction of wastes due to their secondary settlement results in a growth of pressure by 40% on the average.

  20. Coupling of chemical kinetics, gas dynamics, and charged particle kinetics models for the analysis of NO reduction from flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Eichwald, O.; Yousfi, M.; Hennad, A.; Benabdessadok, M.D.

    1997-11-01

    A chemical kinetics model is developed to analyze the time evolution of the different main species involved in a flue gas initially stressed by a pulsed corona discharge at the atmospheric pressure and including N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} with a few ppm of NO. The present chemical kinetics model is coupled to a gas dynamics model used to analyze the radial expansion of the gas in the ionized channel created during the discharge phase. It is also meant to analyze the gas heating due to the Joule effect. This chemical kinetics model is also coupled to charged particle kinetics models based on a Boltzmann equation model to calculate the electron-molecule reaction coefficients in the flue gas and on a Monte Carlo code to estimate the energy and momentum transfer terms relative to ion-molecule collisions which are the input data for the gas dynamics model. It is shown, in particular, that the evolution of the radicals and the oxides is substantially affected by the gas temperature rise (from the initial value of 300 K up to 750 K near the anode) thus emphasizing the present coupling between gas dynamics, charged particle, and chemical kinetics models. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Coupling of chemical kinetics, gas dynamics, and charged particle kinetics models for the analysis of NO reduction from flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichwald, O.; Yousfi, M.; Hennad, A.; Benabdessadok, M. D.

    1997-11-01

    A chemical kinetics model is developed to analyze the time evolution of the different main species involved in a flue gas initially stressed by a pulsed corona discharge at the atmospheric pressure and including N2, O2, H2O, and CO2 with a few ppm of NO. The present chemical kinetics model is coupled to a gas dynamics model used to analyze the radial expansion of the gas in the ionized channel created during the discharge phase. It is also meant to analyze the gas heating due to the Joule effect. This chemical kinetics model is also coupled to charged particle kinetics models based on a Boltzmann equation model to calculate the electron-molecule reaction coefficients in the flue gas and on a Monte Carlo code to estimate the energy and momentum transfer terms relative to ion-molecule collisions which are the input data for the gas dynamics model. It is shown, in particular, that the evolution of the radicals and the oxides is substantially affected by the gas temperature rise (from the initial value of 300 K up to 750 K near the anode) thus emphasizing the present coupling between gas dynamics, charged particle, and chemical kinetics models.

  2. Some astrophysical implication of gas profiles in a new galaxy clusters model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedipalumbo, Ester; Cardone, V. F.; Tortora, C.

    2004-12-01

    The structure of the dark matter and the thermodynamical status of the hot gas in galaxy clusters is an interesting and widely discussed topic in modern astrophysics. Recently, Rasia et al. (2004) have proposed a new dynamical model of clusters of galaxies, which describes both the dark matter halo and the hot intracluster gas. We analyze the influence of the gas density and temperature profiles on the properties of the X-emission and the comptonization parameter that determines the CMBR temperature decrement due to the Sunyaev - Zel’dovich effect† .A complete traetment of this topic is found in Cardone V.F., Piedipalumbo E., Tortora C., 2005, A&A, 429, 49

  3. Physical model of the vapor-liquid (insulator-metal) transition in an exciton gas

    SciTech Connect

    Khomkin, A. L. Shumikhin, A. S.

    2015-04-15

    We propose a simple physical model describing the transition of an exciton gas to a conducting exciton liquid. The transition occurs due to cohesive coupling of excitons in the vicinity of the critical point, which is associated with transformation of the exciton ground state to the conduction band and the emergence of conduction electrons. We calculate the cohesion binding energy for the exciton gas and, using it, derive the equations of state, critical parameters, and binodal. The computational method is analogous to that used by us earlier [5] for predicting the vapor-liquid (insulator-metal) phase transition in atomic (hypothetical, free of molecules) hydrogen and alkali metal vapors. The similarity of the methods used for hydrogen and excitons makes it possible to clarify the physical nature of the transition in the exciton gas and to predict more confidently the existence of a new phase transition in atomic hydrogen.

  4. Comparative Model Evaluation Studies of Biogenic Trace Gas Fluxes in Tropical Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Simulation modeling can play a number of important roles in large-scale ecosystem studies, including synthesis of patterns and changes in carbon and nutrient cycling dynamics, scaling up to regional estimates, and formulation of testable hypotheses for process studies. Recent comparative studies have shown that ecosystem models of soil trace gas exchange with the atmosphere are evolving into several distinct simulation approaches. Different levels of detail exist among process models in the treatment of physical controls on ecosystem nutrient fluxes and organic substrate transformations leading to gas emissions. These differences are is in part from distinct objectives of scaling and extrapolation. Parameter requirements for initialization scalings, boundary conditions, and time-series driven therefore vary among ecosystem simulation models, such that the design of field experiments for integration with modeling should consider a consolidated series of measurements that will satisfy most of the various model requirements. For example, variables that provide information on soil moisture holding capacity, moisture retention characteristics, potential evapotranspiration and drainage rates, and rooting depth appear to be of the first order in model evaluation trials for tropical moist forest ecosystems. The amount and nutrient content of labile organic matter in the soil, based on accurate plant production estimates, are also key parameters that determine emission model response. Based on comparative model results, it is possible to construct a preliminary evaluation matrix along categories of key diagnostic parameters and temporal domains. Nevertheless, as large-scale studied are planned, it is notable that few existing models age designed to simulate transient states of ecosystem change, a feature which will be essential for assessment of anthropogenic disturbance on regional gas budgets, and effects of long-term climate variability on biosphere-atmosphere exchange.

  5. Development and evaluation of the aerosol dynamic and gas phase chemistry model ADCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Swietlicki, E.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model ideally suited for detailed studies on aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry within urban plumes, from local scale (1×1 km2) to regional or global scale. This article describes and evaluates the trajectory model for Aerosol Dynamics, gas and particle phase CHEMistry and radiative transfer (ADCHEM), which has been developed and used at Lund University since 2007. The model treats both vertical and horizontal dispersion perpendicular to an air mass trajectory (2-space dimensions), which is not treated in Lagrangian box-models (0-space dimensions). The Lagrangian approach enables a more detailed representation of the aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry and a finer spatial and temporal resolution compared to that of available regional 3D-CTMs. These features make it among others ideally suited for urban plume studies. The aerosol dynamics model includes Brownian coagulation, dry deposition, wet deposition, in-cloud processing, condensation, evaporation, primary particle emissions and homogeneous nucleation. The gas phase chemistry model calculates the gas phase concentrations of 63 different species, using 119 different chemical reactions. Daily isoprene and monoterpene emissions from European forests were simulated separately with the vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, and included as input to ADCHEM. ADCHEM was used to simulate the ageing of the urban plumes from the city of Malmö in Southern Sweden (280 000 inhabitants). Several sensitivity tests were performed concerning the number of size bins, size structure method, coupled or uncoupled condensation, the volatility basis set (VBS) or traditional 2-product model for secondary organic aerosol formation, different aerosol dynamic processes and vertical and horizontal mixing. The simulations show that the full-stationary size structure gives accurate results with little numerical diffusion when more than 50 size bins are used between 1.5 and 2500 nm

  6. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models insimulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-11-29

    In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. The use of the equilibriumreaction model often appears to be justified and preferred for simulatingthe behavior of gas hydrates, given that the computational demands forthe kinetic reaction model far exceed those for the equilibrium reactionmodel.

  7. Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen cooled, turbine powered space weapon systems require a relatively simple, but reasonably accurate hydrogen gas expansion turbine model. Such a simplified turbine model would require little computational time and allow incorporation into system level computer programs while providing reasonably accurate volume/mass estimates. This model would then allow optimization studies to be performed on multiparameter space power systems and provide improved turbine mass and size estimates for the various operating conditions (when compared to empirical and power law approaches). An axial flow gas expansion turbine model was developed for these reasons and is in use as a comparative bench mark in space power system studies at Sandia. The turbine model is based on fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and material strength considerations, but is considered simplified because it does not account for design details such as boundary layer effects, shock waves, turbulence, stress concentrations, and seal leakage. Although the basic principles presented here apply to any gas or vapor axial flow turbine, hydrogen turbines are discussed because of their immense importance on space burst power platforms.

  8. Modeling of gas generation from the Cameo coal zone in the Piceance Basin Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, E.; Hill, R.J.; Katz, B.J.; Tang, Y.C.

    2008-08-15

    The gas generative potential of the Cretaceous Cameo coal in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, was evaluated quantitatively by sealed gold tube pyrolysis. The H/C and O/C elemental ratios show that pyrolyzed Cameo coal samples follow the Van Krevelen humic coal evolution pathway, reasonably simulating natural coal maturation. Kinetic parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) for gas generation and vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) changes were calculated from pyrolysis data. Experimental R{sub o} results from this study are not adequately predicted by published R{sub o} kinetics and indicate the necessity of deriving basin-specific kinetic parameters when building predictive basin models. Using derived kinetics for R{sub o}, evolution and gas generation, basin modeling was completed for 57 wells across the Piceance Basin, which enabled the mapping of coal-rank and coalbed gas potential. Quantities of methane generated at approximately 1.2% R{sub o} are about 300 standard cubic feet per ton (scf/ton) and more than 2500 scf/ton (in-situ dry-ash-free coal) at R{sub o}, values reaching 1.9%. Gases generated in both low- and high-maturity coals are less wet, whereas the wetter gas is expected where R{sub o} is approximately 1.4-1.5%. As controlled by regional coal rank and net coal thickness, the largest in-place coalbed gas resources are located in the central part of the basin, where predicted volumes exceed 150 bcf/mi, excluding gases in tight sands.

  9. Ion swarm data for electrical discharge modeling in air and flue gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.; Benhenni, M.; Eichwald, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2003-07-01

    The first step of this work is the determination of the elastic and inelastic ion-molecule collision cross sections for the main ions (N2+, O2+, CO2+, H2O+ and O-) usually present either in the air or flue gas discharges. The obtained cross section sets, given for ion kinetic energies not exceeding 100 eV, correspond to the interactions of each ion with its parent molecule (symmetric case) or nonparent molecule (asymmetric case). Then by using these different cross section sets, it is possible to obtain the ion swarm data for the different gas mixtures involving N2, CO2, H2O and O2 molecules whatever their relative proportions. These ion swarm data are obtained from an optimized Monte Carlo method well adapted for the ion transport in gas mixtures. This also allows us to clearly show that the classical linear approximations usually applied for the ion swarm data in mixtures such as Blanc's law are far to be valid. Then, the ion swarm data are given in three cases of gas mixtures: a dry air (80% N2, 20% O2), a ternary gas mixture (82% N2, 12% CO2, 6% O2) and a typical flue gas (76% N2, 12% CO2, 6% O2, 6% H2O). From these reliable ion swarm data, electrical discharge modeling for a wire to plane electrode configuration has been carried out in these three mixtures at the atmospheric pressure for different applied voltages. Under the same discharge conditions, large discrepancies in the streamer formation and propagation have been observed in these three mixture cases. They are due to the deviations existing not only between the different effective electron-molecule ionization rates but also between the ion transport properties mainly because of the presence of a highly polar molecule such as H2O. This emphasizes the necessity to properly consider the ion transport in the discharge modeling.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  11. Modeled Oil and Gas Atmospheric Impacts in National Parks and Wilderness Areas in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Barna, M. G.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Moore, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (class 1&2 areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with two year-long modeling episodes representing 2008 and 2011, meteorology and emissions. The model inputs for the 2008 and 2011 episodes were generated as part of the West-wide Jump-start Air Quality Modeling Study (WestJumpAQMS) and Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS) respectively. Both studies included a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States for the respective years. Each year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the class 1&2 areas in the Western US. We also present temporal trends of O&G impacts, differentiating between trends in urban and rural areas.

  12. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2storage in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-03-02

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improveunderstanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health,safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost ofCO2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasisto date on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedprocess models to representations of engineering components andassociated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop asystem-level model for geological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture andseparation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, andCO2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection into a gas reservoir and relatedenhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associatedenvironmental impacts are also considered. The platform for thesystem-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim TechnologyGroup; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system modelfocuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration withenhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. Thereservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2.Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhancedgas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits ofCO2 injection.

  13. Atomistic modeling of structure II gas hydrate mechanics: Compressibility and equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasic, Thomas M.; Servio, Phillip; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2016-08-01

    This work uses density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the poorly characterized structure II gas hydrates, for various guests (empty, propane, butane, ethane-methane, propane-methane), at the atomistic scale to determine key structure and mechanical properties such as equilibrium lattice volume and bulk modulus. Several equations of state (EOS) for solids (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Liu) were fitted to energy-volume curves resulting from structure optimization simulations. These EOS, which can be used to characterize the compressional behaviour of gas hydrates, were evaluated in terms of their robustness. The three-parameter Vinet EOS was found to perform just as well if not better than the four-parameter Liu EOS, over the pressure range in this study. As expected, the Murnaghan EOS proved to be the least robust. Furthermore, the equilibrium lattice volumes were found to increase with guest size, with double-guest hydrates showing a larger increase than single-guest hydrates, which has significant implications for the widely used van der Waals and Platteeuw thermodynamic model for gas hydrates. Also, hydrogen bonds prove to be the most likely factor contributing to the resistance of gas hydrates to compression; bulk modulus was found to increase linearly with hydrogen bond density, resulting in a relationship that could be used predictively to determine the bulk modulus of various structure II gas hydrates. Taken together, these results fill a long existing gap in the material chemical physics of these important clathrates.

  14. Evolution of natural gas composition: Predictive multi-phase reaction-transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ortoleva, P.J.; Chang, K.A.; Maxwell, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A computational modeling approach is used to investigate reaction and transport processes affecting natural gas composition over geological time. Three basic stages are integrated -- gas generation from organic solids or liquids, interactions during source rock expulsion to the reservoir and reactions within the reservoir. Multi-phase dynamics is handled by solving the fully coupled problem of phase-to-phase transfer, intra-phase organic and inorganic reactions and redox and other reactions between fluid phase molecules and minerals. Effects of capillarity and relative permeability are accounted for. Correlations will be determined between gas composition, temperature history, the mineralogy of rocks with which the gas was in contact and the composition of source organic phases. Questions of H{sub 2}S scavenging by oxidizing minerals and the production or removal of CO{sub 2} are focused upon. Our three spatial dimensional, reaction-transport simulation approach has great promise for testing general concepts and as a practical tool for the exploration and production of natural gas.

  15. Gas-phase diffusion in porous media: Evaluation of an advective- dispersive formulation and the dusty-gas model including comparison to data for binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.

    1996-05-01

    Two models for gas-phase diffusion and advection in porous media, the Advective-Dispersive Model (ADM) and the Dusty-Gas Model (DGM), are reviewed. The ADM, which is more widely used, is based on a linear addition of advection calculated by Darcy`s Law and ordinary diffusion using Fick`s Law. Knudsen diffusion is often included through the use of a Klinkenberg factor for advection, while the effect of a porous medium on the diffusion process is through a porosity-tortuosity-gas saturation multiplier. Another, more comprehensive approach for gas-phase transport in porous media has been formulated by Evans and Mason, and is referred to as the Dusty- Gas Model (DGM). This model applies the kinetic theory of gases to the gaseous components and the porous media (or ``dust``) to develop an approach for combined transport due to ordinary and Knudsen diffusion and advection including porous medium effects. While these two models both consider advection and diffusion, the formulations are considerably different, especially for ordinary diffusion. The various components of flow (advection and diffusion) are compared for both models. Results from these two models are compared to isothermal experimental data for He-Ar gas diffusion in a low-permeability graphite. Air-water vapor comparisons have also been performed, although data are not available, for the low-permeability graphite system used for the helium-argon data. Radial and linear air-water heat pipes involving heat, advection, capillary transport, and diffusion under nonisothermal conditions have also been considered.

  16. Study and modeling of the evolution of gas-liquid partitioning of hydrogen sulfide in model solutions simulating winemaking fermentations.

    PubMed

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Farines, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of gas-liquid partitioning of aroma compounds during winemaking fermentation could allow optimization of fermentation management, maximizing concentrations of positive markers of aroma and minimizing formation of molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), responsible for defects. In this study, the effect of the main fermentation parameters on the gas-liquid partition coefficients (Ki) of H2S was assessed. The Ki for this highly volatile sulfur compound was measured in water by an original semistatic method developed in this work for the determination of gas-liquid partitioning. This novel method was validated and then used to determine the Ki of H2S in synthetic media simulating must, fermenting musts at various steps of the fermentation process, and wine. Ki values were found to be mainly dependent on the temperature but also varied with the composition of the medium, especially with the glucose concentration. Finally, a model was developed to quantify the gas-liquid partitioning of H2S in synthetic media simulating must to wine. This model allowed a very accurate prediction of the partition coefficient of H2S: the difference between observed and predicted values never exceeded 4%.

  17. A mixing length model for the aqueous boundary layer including the effect of wave breaking on enhancing gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donelan, M. A.; Soloviev, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mixing length model for air-water gas transfer is developed to include the effects of wave breaking. The model requires both the shear velocity induced by the wind and the integrated wave dissipation. Both of these can be calculated for tanks and oceans by a full spectrum wave model. The gas transfer model is calibrated, with laboratory tank measurements of carbon dioxide flux, and transported to oceanic conditions to yield air-sea transfer velocity versus wind speed.

  18. A stochastic equilibrium model for the North American natural gas market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jifang

    This dissertation is an endeavor in the field of energy modeling for the North American natural gas market using a mixed complementarity formulation combined with the stochastic programming. The genesis of the stochastic equilibrium model presented in this dissertation is the deterministic market equilibrium model developed in [Gabriel, Kiet and Zhuang, 2005]. Based on some improvements that we made to this model, including proving new existence and uniqueness results, we present a multistage stochastic equilibrium model with uncertain demand for the deregulated North American natural gas market using the recourse method of the stochastic programming. The market participants considered by the model are pipeline operators, producers, storage operators, peak gas operators, marketers and consumers. Pipeline operators are described with regulated tariffs but also involve "congestion pricing" as a mechanism to allocate scarce pipeline capacity. Marketers are modeled as Nash-Cournot players in sales to the residential and commercial sectors but price-takers in all other aspects. Consumers are represented by demand functions in the marketers' problem. Producers, storage operators and peak gas operators are price-takers consistent with perfect competition. Also, two types of the natural gas markets are included: the long-term and spot markets. Market participants make both high-level planning decisions (first-stage decisions) in the long-term market and daily operational decisions (recourse decisions) in the spot market subject to their engineering, resource and political constraints, resource constraints as well as market constraints on both the demand and the supply side, so as to simultaneously maximize their expected profits given others' decisions. The model is shown to be an instance of a mixed complementarity problem (MiCP) under minor conditions. The MiCP formulation is derived from applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions of the optimization problems

  19. Transient Electromagnetic Modelling and Imaging of Thin Resistive Structures: Applications for Gas Hydrate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    Gas hydrates are a solid, ice-like mixture of water and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. They are found under the permafrost and to a far greater extent under the ocean, usually at water depths greater than 300m. Hydrates are a potential energy resource, a possible factor in climate change, and a geohazard. For these reasons, it is critical that gas hydrate deposits are quantitatively assessed so that their concentrations, locations and distributions may be established. Due to their ice-like nature, hydrates are electrically insulating. Consequently, a method which remotely detects changes in seafloor electrical conductivity, such as marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM), is a useful geophysical tool for marine gas hydrate exploration. Hydrates are geometrically complex structures. Advanced electromagnetic modelling and imaging techniques are crucial for proper survey design and data interpretation. I develop a method to model thin resistive structures in conductive host media which may be useful in building approximate geological models of gas hydrate deposits using arrangements of multiple, bent sheets. I also investigate the possibility of interpreting diffusive electromagnetic data using seismic imaging techniques. To be processed in this way, such data must first be transformed into its non-diffusive, seismic-like counterpart. I examine such a transform from both an analytical and a numerical point of view, focusing on methods to overcome inherent numerical instabilities. This is the first step to applying seismic processing techniques to CSEM data to rapidly and efficiently image resistive gas hydrate structures. The University of Toronto marine electromagnetics group has deployed a permanent marine CSEM array offshore Vancouver Island, in the framework of the NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory, for the purposes of monitoring gas hydrate deposits. In this thesis I also propose and examine a new CSEM survey technique for gas hydrate which would

  20. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In particular, we propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs in radiative equilibrium which is sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple yet physically justified treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts continuum and line observations that resemble typical multi-wavelength continuum and line observations of Class II T Tauri stars. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all mainstream continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63 μm, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties, i.e. large grains, often needed to fit the SED, have important consequences for disk chemistry and heating/cooling balance, leading to stronger near- to far-IR emission lines in general. Strong dust settling and missing disk flaring have similar effects on continuum observations, but opposite effects on far-IR gas emission lines. PAH molecules can efficiently shield the gas from stellar UV radiation because of their strong absorption and negligible scattering opacities in comparison to evolved dust. The observable millimetre-slope of the SED can become significantly more gentle in the case of cold disk midplanes, which we find regularly in our T Tauri models

  1. Development of a multiscale thermal conductivity model for fission gas in UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, Michael R.; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Andersson, David; Perez, Danielle; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Pastore, Giovanni; Stanek, Christopher R.; Williamson, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Accurately predicting changes in the thermal conductivity of light water reactor UO2 fuel throughout its lifetime in reactor is an essential part of fuel performance modeling. However, typical thermal conductivity models from the literature are empirical. In this work, we begin to develop a mechanistic thermal conductivity model by focusing on the impact of gaseous fission products, which is coupled to swelling and fission gas release. The impact of additional defects and fission products will be added in future work. The model is developed using a combination of atomistic and mesoscale simulation, as well as analytical models. The impact of dispersed fission gas atoms is quantified using molecular dynamics simulations corrected to account for phonon-spin scattering. The impact of intragranular bubbles is accounted for using an analytical model that considers phonon scattering. The impact of grain boundary bubbles is determined using a simple model with five thermal resistors that are parameterized by comparing to 3D mesoscale heat conduction results. When used in the BISON fuel performance code to model four reactor experiments, it produces reasonable predictions without having been fit to fuel thermocouple data.

  2. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  3. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  4. A lattice gas model for erosion and particles transport in a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopard, Bastien; Masselot, Alexandre; Dupuis, Alexandre

    2000-07-01

    We consider a simple lattice gas model to simulate erosion, deposition and particle transport in a streaming fluid. In our approach, the fluid is described by a standard lattice Boltzmann model and the granular suspension by a multiparticle cellular automata. A good agreement is obtained between the predictions of the model and field measurements, as observed by analyzing the deposition patterns resulting from various snow and sand transport phenomena. In particular we study the case of ripples formation and simulate the scour appearing around a submarine pipe.

  5. Structured grid generation using a CAD solid model for an aero-gas turbine combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, N.C.; Manners, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    An aero-gas turbine combustion system was used to demonstrate the problems of creating a single block structured grid suitable for CFD predictions from a designer`s parametric solid model. The solid model had to be filtered of sub-grid detail and computational fluid volumes generated from the solid model of the metal. Alternative methods of transferring the geometry from the CAD package to the grid generator were considered. The type and method of grid generation was found to influence all stages in manipulating the geometry.

  6. Modeling of Methane Migration in Shallow Aquifers from Shale Gas Well Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwei; Soeder, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The vertical portion of a shale gas well, known as the "tophole" is often drilled using an air-hammer bit that may introduce pressures as high as 2400 kPa (350 psi) into groundwater while penetrating shallow aquifers. A 3-D TOUGH2 model was used to simulate the flow of groundwater under the high hydraulic heads that may be imposed by such trapped compressed air, based on an observed case in West Virginia (USA) in 2012. The model realizations show that high-pressure air trapped in aquifers may cause groundwater to surge away from the drill site at observable velocities. If dissolved methane is present within the aquifer, the methane can be entrained and transported to a maximum distance of 10.6 m per day. Results from this study suggest that one cause of the reported increase in methane concentrations in groundwater near shale gas production wells may be the transport of pre-existing methane via groundwater surges induced by air drilling, not necessarily direct natural gas leakage from the unconventional gas reservoir. The primary transport mechanisms are advective transport of dissolved methane with water flow, and diffusive transport of dissolved methane.

  7. Sub-grid drag models for horizontal cylinder arrays immersed in gas-particle multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2013-09-08

    Immersed cylindrical tube arrays often are used as heat exchangers in gas-particle fluidized beds. In multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of large fluidized beds, explicit resolution of small cylinders is computationally infeasible. Instead, the cylinder array may be viewed as an effective porous medium in coarse-grid simulations. The cylinders' influence on the suspension as a whole, manifested as an effective drag force, and on the relative motion between gas and particles, manifested as a correction to the gas-particle drag, must be modeled via suitable sub-grid constitutive relationships. In this work, highly resolved unit-cell simulations of flow around an array of horizontal cylinders, arranged in a staggered configuration, are filtered to construct sub-grid, or `filtered', drag models, which can be implemented in coarse-grid simulations. The force on the suspension exerted by the cylinders is comprised of, as expected, a buoyancy contribution, and a kinetic component analogous to fluid drag on a single cylinder. Furthermore, the introduction of tubes also is found to enhance segregation at the scale of the cylinder size, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the filtered gas-particle drag.

  8. Modeling of liquid-gas meniscus for textured surfaces: effects of curvature and local slip length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Anvesh; Garg, Mayank; Agrawal, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface texturing at the micro/nanolevel allows air to be trapped in sufficiently small cavities, thereby reducing the flow resistance over the surface in the laminar regime. The nature of the liquid-gas meniscus plays an important role in defining the boundary condition and it depends on the flow conditions and geometrical properties of textures. In the present work, we employ the unsteady volume of fluid model to investigate the behavior of the liquid-gas meniscus for ridges arranged normal to the flow direction to substantiate the frictional resistance of flow in a microchannel. It is found that the assumption of ‘zero shear stress’ at the liquid-gas interface grossly overpredicts the effective slip length with meniscus curvature and local partial slip length playing the dominant role. Numerical simulations performed in the laminar regime (20  <  Re  <  120) over single layered ridges normal to the flow direction revealed the effect of texture geometry on the reduction in pressure drop. In single layered structures, lotus-like geometries exhibited a greater reduction in drag (more than 30%) when compared to all other texture geometries. It is recognized that the flow experiences expansion and contraction cycles as it flows over the transverse ridges increasing the frictional resistance. Our findings will help to modify the boundary condition at the liquid-gas meniscus for accurate modeling in the laminar regime and to optimize the texture geometry to improve drag reduction.

  9. Modeling of Methane Migration in Shallow Aquifers from Shale Gas Well Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwei; Soeder, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The vertical portion of a shale gas well, known as the "tophole" is often drilled using an air-hammer bit that may introduce pressures as high as 2400 kPa (350 psi) into groundwater while penetrating shallow aquifers. A 3-D TOUGH2 model was used to simulate the flow of groundwater under the high hydraulic heads that may be imposed by such trapped compressed air, based on an observed case in West Virginia (USA) in 2012. The model realizations show that high-pressure air trapped in aquifers may cause groundwater to surge away from the drill site at observable velocities. If dissolved methane is present within the aquifer, the methane can be entrained and transported to a maximum distance of 10.6 m per day. Results from this study suggest that one cause of the reported increase in methane concentrations in groundwater near shale gas production wells may be the transport of pre-existing methane via groundwater surges induced by air drilling, not necessarily direct natural gas leakage from the unconventional gas reservoir. The primary transport mechanisms are advective transport of dissolved methane with water flow, and diffusive transport of dissolved methane. PMID:26280927

  10. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture -- part II: development of gas transfer models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The basic mass transfer equation for gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can be derived from integration of the driving force equation. Because of the physical characteristics of the gas transfer processes, slightly different models are used for aerators tested under the non steady-state procedures, than for packed columns, or weirs. It is suggested that the standard condition for carbon dioxide should be 20 °C, 1 atm, CCO2=20 mg/kg, and XCO2=0.000285. The selection of the standard condition for carbon dioxide based on a fixed mole fraction ensures that standardized carbon dioxide transfer rates will be comparable even though the value of C*CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing with time. The computation of mass transfer for carbon dioxide is complicated by the impact of water depth and gas phase enrichment on the saturation concentration within the unit, although the importance of either factor depends strongly on the specific type of aerator. For some types of aerators, the most accurate gas phase model remains to be determined for carbon dioxide. The assumption that carbon dioxide can be treated as a non-reactive gas in packed columns may apply for cold acidic waters but not for warm alkaline waters.

  11. Investigation of density-dependent gas advection of trichloroethylene: Experiment and a model validation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhard, R. J.; Oostrom, M.; Simmons, C. S.; White, M. D.

    1995-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether vapor-density effects are significant in transporting volatile organic compounds (VOC's) with high vapor pressure and molecular mass through the subsurface. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was chosen for the investigation because it is a common VOC contaminant with high vapor pressure and molecular mass. For the investigation, a 2-m-long by 1-m-high by 7.5-cm-thick flow cell was constructed with a network of sampling ports. The flow cell was packed with sand, and a water table was established near the lower boundary. Liquid TCE was placed near the upper boundary of the flow cell in a chamber from which vapors could enter and migrate through the sand. TCE concentrations in the gas phase were measured by extracting 25-μl gas samples with an air-tight syringe and analyzing them with a gas chromatograph. The evolution of the TCE gas plume in the sand was investigated by examining plots of TCE concentrations over the domain for specific times and for particular locations as a function of time. To help in this analysis, a numerical model was developed that can predict the simultaneous movements of a gas, a nonaqueous liquid and water in porous media. The model also considers interphase mass transfer by employing the phase equilibrium assumption. The model was tested with one- and two-dimensional analytical solutions of fluid flow before it was used to simulate the experiment. Comparisons between experimental data and simulation results when vapor-density effects are considered were very good. When vapor-density effects were ignored, agreement was poor. These analyses suggest that vapor-density effects should be considered and that density-driven vapor advection may be an important mechanism for moving VOC's with high vapor pressures and molecular mass through the subsurface.

  12. System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mahderekal, Isaac; Vineyard, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To improve the system performance of a gas engine driven heat pump (GHP) system, an analytical modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated with a detailed vapor compression heat pump system design model. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using the desiccant system the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% at rated operating conditions. In addtion,using EnergyPlus, building energy simulations have been conducted to assess annual energy consumptions of GHP in sixteen US cities, and the performances are compared to a baseline unit, which has a electrically-driven air conditioner with the seasonal COP of 4.1 for space cooling and a gas funace with 90% fuel efficiency for space heating.

  13. Experimental verification of a precooled mixed gas Joule-Thomson cryoprobe model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Kendra Lynn; Skye, Harrison; Nellis, Gregory; Klein, Sanford

    2012-06-01

    Cryosurgery is a medical technique that uses a cryoprobe to apply extreme cold to undesirable tissue such as cancers. Precooled Mixed Gas Joule-Thomson (pMGJT) cycles with Hampson-style recuperators are integrated with the latest generation of cryoprobes to create more powerful and compact instruments. Selection of gas mixtures for these cycles is not a trivial process; the focus of this research is the development of a detailed model that can be integrated with an optimization algorithm to select optimal gas mixtures. A test facility has been constructed to experimentally tune and verify this model. The facility uses a commercially available cryoprobe system that was modified to integrate measurement instrumentation sufficient to determine the performance of the system and its component parts. Spatially resolved temperature measurements allow detailed measurements of the heat transfer within the recuperator and therefore computation of the spatially resolved conductance. These data can be used to study the multiphase, multicomponent heat transfer process in the complicated recuperator geometry. The optimization model has been expanded to model the pressure drop associated with the flow to more accurately predict the performance of the system. The test facility has been used to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of this improvement.

  14. New higher-order Godunov code for modelling performance of two-stage light gas guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Miller, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new quasi-one-dimensional Godunov code for modeling two-stage light gas guns is described. The code is third-order accurate in space and second-order accurate in time. A very accurate Riemann solver is used. Friction and heat transfer to the tube wall for gases and dense media are modeled and a simple nonequilibrium turbulence model is used for gas flows. The code also models gunpowder burn in the first-stage breech. Realistic equations of state (EOS) are used for all media. The code was validated against exact solutions of Riemann's shock-tube problem, impact of dense media slabs at velocities up to 20 km/sec, flow through a supersonic convergent-divergent nozzle and burning of gunpowder in a closed bomb. Excellent validation results were obtained. The code was then used to predict the performance of two light gas guns (1.5 in. and 0.28 in.) in service at the Ames Research Center. The code predictions were compared with measured pressure histories in the powder chamber and pump tube and with measured piston and projectile velocities. Very good agreement between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions and measurements was obtained. Actual powder-burn rates in the gun were found to be considerably higher (60-90 percent) than predicted by the manufacturer and the behavior of the piston upon yielding appears to differ greatly from that suggested by low-strain rate tests.

  15. Thermo-mechanical modelling of cyclic gas storage applications in salt caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Watanabe, Norihiro; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Kolditz, Olaf; Nagel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the growing importance of renewable energy sources it becomes more and more necessary to investigate energy storage potentials. One major way to store energy is the power-to-gas concept. Excessive electrical energy can be used either to produce hydrogen or methane by electrolysis or methanation or to compress air, respectively. Those produced gases can then be stored in artificial salt caverns, which are constructed in large salt formations by solution mining. In combination with renewable energy sources, the power-to-gas concept is subjected to fluctuations. Compression and expansion of the storage gases lead to temperature differences within the salt rock. The variations can advance several metres into the host rock, influencing its material behaviour, inducing thermal stresses and altering the creep response. To investigate the temperature influence on the cavern capacity, we have developed a numerical model to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. The model considers the thermodynamic behaviour of the stored gases as well as the heat transport and the temperature dependent material properties of the host rock. Therefore, we utilized well-known constitutive thermo-visco-plastic material models, implemented into the open source-scientific software OpenGeoSys. Both thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, connected via a staggered coupling scheme. The model allows the assessment of the structural safety as well as the convergence of the salt caverns.

  16. A shallow water model for dense gas simulation in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael; Williams, Mike D; Gowardhan, Akshay; Brambilla, Sara; Manca, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Large quantities of toxic chemicals are stored at industrial facilities and transported around the country via train and truck. In the event of an accidental release, many of these chemicals are released as heavier-than-air gases that stay low to the ground as they are transported by the wind . Breathing height concentrations can remain high due to reduced vertical mixing and hazard zone coverage area can be larger due to near-source gravitational slumping . A number of fast-response dense gas dispersion models have been developed and are routinely used to deal with heavier-than-air releases over unobstructed terrain. If a release were to occur in a built-up environment, however, the effects of buildings and other obstacles will significantly alter the initial spreading, the transport direction, and the amount of mixing of the dense gas cloud . We have developed a new fast-running dense gas dispersion model that is intended for handling releases in cities and at large industrial facilities. In this paper we describe the scheme employed and how the model has been integrated into the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) dispersion modeling system.

  17. Artificial neural network modeling for fission gas release in LWR UO 2 fuel under RIA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Yang-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Yong; Lee, Byung-Ho; Tahk, Young-Wook; Song, Kun-Woo

    2010-10-01

    A fission gas release (FGR) model was developed by using an artificial neural network method to predict fission gas release in UO 2 fuel under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. Based on the test data obtained in the CABRI test reactor and nuclear safety research reactor, the model takes into account the effect of the five parameters: pellet average burnup, peak fuel enthalpy, the ratio of peak fuel enthalpy to pulse width, fission gas release during base-irradiation, and grain size of a fuel pellet. The parametric study of the model, producing a physically reasonable trend of FGR for each parameter, shows that the pellet average burnup and the ratio of peak fuel enthalpy to pulse width are two of the most important parameters. Depending on the combination of input values for the five parameters, the application of the model to a fuel rod under typical RIA conditions of light water reactor produces 1.7-14.0% of FGR for the pellet average burnup ranging from 20 to 70 MW d/kg U.

  18. Viability of modelling gas transport in shallow injection-monitoring experiment field at Maguelone, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basirat, Farzad; Perroud, Hervé; Lofi, Johanna; Denchik, Nataliya; Lods, Gérard; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Sharma, Prabhakar; Pezard, Philippe; Niemi, Auli

    2015-04-01

    In this study, TOUGH2/EOS7CA model is used to simulate the shallow injection-monitoring experiment carried out at Maguelone, France, during 2012 and 2013. The possibility of CO2 leakage from storage reservoir to upper layers is one of the issues that need to be addressed in CCS projects. Developing reliable monitoring techniques to detect and characterize CO2 leakage is necessary for the safety of CO2 storage in reservoir formations. To test and cross-validate different monitoring techniques, a series of shallow gas injection-monitoring experiments (SIMEx) has been carried out at the Maguelone. The experimental site is documented in Lofi et al [2013]. At the site, a series of nitrogen and one CO2 injection experiment have been carried out during 2012-2013 and different monitoring techniques have been applied. The purpose of modelling is to acquire understanding of the system performance as well as to further develop and validate modelling approaches for gas transport in the shallow subsurface, against the well-controlled data sets. The preliminary simulation of the experiment including the simulation for the Nitrogen injection test in 2012 was presented in Basirat et al [2013]. In this work, the simulations represent the gaseous CO2 distribution and dissolved CO2 within range obtained by monitoring approaches. The Multiphase modelling in combination with geophysical monitoring can be used for process understanding of gas phase migration- and mass transfer processes resulting from gaseous CO2 injection. Basirat, F., A. Niemi, H. Perroud, J. Lofi, N. Denchik, G. Lods, P. Pezard, P. Sharma, and F. Fagerlund (2013), Modeling Gas Transport in the Shallow Subsurface in Maguelone Field Experiment, Energy Procedia, 40, 337-345. Lofi, J., P. Pezard, F. Bouchette, O. Raynal, P. Sabatier, N. Denchik, A. Levannier, L. Dezileau, and R. Certain (2013), Integrated Onshore-Offshore Investigation of a Mediterranean Layered Coastal Aquifer, Groundwater, 51(4), 550-561.

  19. Revisiting low-fidelity two-fluid models for gas-solids transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeleke, Najeem; Adewumi, Michael; Ityokumbul, Thaddeus

    2016-08-01

    Two-phase gas-solids transport models are widely utilized for process design and automation in a broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications include proppant transport in gaseous fracking fluids, air/gas drilling hydraulics, coal-gasification reactors and food processing units. Systems automation and real time process optimization stand to benefit a great deal from availability of efficient and accurate theoretical models for operations data processing. However, modeling two-phase pneumatic transport systems accurately requires a comprehensive understanding of gas-solids flow behavior. In this study we discuss the prevailing flow conditions and present a low-fidelity two-fluid model equation for particulate transport. The model equations are formulated in a manner that ensures the physical flux term remains conservative despite the inclusion of solids normal stress through the empirical formula for modulus of elasticity. A new set of Roe-Pike averages are presented for the resulting strictly hyperbolic flux term in the system of equations, which was used to develop a Roe-type approximate Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is stable regardless of the choice of flux-limiter. The model is evaluated by the prediction of experimental results from both pneumatic riser and air-drilling hydraulics systems. We demonstrate the effect and impact of numerical formulation and choice of numerical scheme on model predictions. We illustrate the capability of a low-fidelity one-dimensional two-fluid model in predicting relevant flow parameters in two-phase particulate systems accurately even under flow regimes involving counter-current flow.

  20. Development and validation of a new soot formation model for gas turbine combustor simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Domenico, Massimiliano; Gerlinger, Peter; Aigner, Manfred

    2010-02-15

    In this paper a new soot formation model for gas turbine combustor simulations is presented. A sectional approach for the description of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a two-equation model for soot particle dynamics are introduced. By including the PAH chemistry the formulation becomes more general in that the soot formation is neither directly linked to the fuel nor to C{sub 2}-like species, as it is the case in simpler soot models currently available for CFD applications. At the same time, the sectional approach for the PAHs keeps the required computational resources low if compared to models based on a detailed description of the PAH kinetics. These features of the new model allow an accurate yet affordable calculation of soot in complex gas turbine combustion chambers. A careful model validation will be presented for diffusion and partially premixed flames. Fuels ranging from methane to kerosene are investigated. Thus, flames with different sooting characteristics are covered. An excellent agreement with experimental data is achieved for all configurations investigated. A fundamental feature of the new model is that with a single set of constants it is able to accurately describe the soot dynamics of different fuels at different operating conditions. (author)

  1. Constraining Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Northeastern Pennsylvania Using Aircraft Observations and Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Z.; Davis, K.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Martins, D. K.; Deng, A.; Cao, Y.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.; Schwietzke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Leaks in natural gas infrastructure release methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated fugitive emission rate associated with the production phase varies greatly between studies, hindering our understanding of the natural gas energy efficiency. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional fugitive emission rates from natural gas production. Methane observations across the Marcellus region in northeastern Pennsylvania were obtained during a three week flight campaign in May 2015 performed by a team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division and the University of Michigan. In addition to these data, CH4 observations were obtained from automobile campaigns during various periods from 2013-2015. An inventory of CH4 emissions was then created for various sources in Pennsylvania, including coalmines, enteric fermentation, industry, waste management, and unconventional and conventional wells. As a first-guess emission rate for natural gas activity, a leakage rate equal to 2% of the natural gas production was emitted at the locations of unconventional wells across PA. These emission rates were coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the chemistry module (WRF-Chem) and atmospheric CH4 concentration fields at 1km resolution were generated. Projected atmospheric enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations, and the emission rate from unconventional wells was adjusted to minimize errors between observations and simulation. We show that the modeled CH4 plume structures match observed plumes downwind of unconventional wells, providing confidence in the methodology. In all cases, the fugitive emission rate was found to be lower than our first guess. In this initial emission configuration, each well has been assigned the same fugitive emission rate, which can potentially impair our ability to match the observed spatial variability

  2. Evaluating effects of wind-induced pressure fluctuations on soil-atmosphere gas exchange at a landfill using stochastic modelling.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møldrup, Per

    2006-10-01

    The impact of wind turbulence-induced pressure fluctuations at the soil surface on landfill gas transport and emissions to the atmosphere at an old Danish landfill site was investigated using stochastic modelling combined with soil property and gas transport data measured at the site. The impacts of soil physical properties (including air permeability and volumetric water content) and wind-induced pressure fluctuation properties (amplitude and temporal correlation) on landfill gas emissions to the atmosphere were evaluated. Soil-air permeability and pressure fluctuation amplitude were found to be the most important parameters. Wind-induced gas emissions were further compared with gas emissions caused by diffusion and by long-term pressure variations (due to passing weather systems). Here diffusion and wind-induced gas transport were found to be equally important with wind-induced gas transport becoming the most important at lower soil-air contents.

  3. An improved Reynolds-equation model for gas damping of microbeam motion.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2003-09-01

    An improved gas-damping model for the out-of-plane motion of a near-substrate microbeam is developed based on the Reynolds equation (RE). A boundary condition for the RE is developed that relates the pressure at the beam edge to the beam motion. The coefficients in this boundary condition are determined from Navier-Stokes slip-jump (NSSJ) simulations for small slip lengths (relative to the gap height) and from direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) molecular gas dynamics simulations for larger slip lengths. This boundary condition significantly improves the accuracy of the RE when the microbeam width is only slightly greater than the gap height between the microbeam and the substrate. The improved RE model is applied to microbeams fabricated using the SUMMiT V process.

  4. Poly-Gaussian model of randomly rough surface in rarefied gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.

    2014-12-09

    Surface roughness is simulated by the model of non-Gaussian random process. Our results for the scattering of rarefied gas atoms from a rough surface using modified approach to the DSMC calculation of rarefied gas flow near a rough surface are developed and generalized applying the poly-Gaussian model representing probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities. The transformation of the scattering function due to the roughness is characterized by the roughness operator. Simulating rough surface of the walls by the poly-Gaussian random field expressed as integrated Wiener process, we derive a representation of the roughness operator that can be applied in numerical DSMC methods as well as in analytical investigations.

  5. A Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to modeling homogeneous condensation in high density gas expansions.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Ryan; Gimelshein, Natalia; Gimelshein, Sergey; Wysong, Ingrid

    2011-03-14

    A computational approach to homogeneous nucleation is proposed based on Eulerian description of the gas phase expansion coupled with a Lagrangian approach to the cluster formation. A continuum, Euler/Navier-Stokes solver versatile advection code is used to model the gas transport, and a kinetic particle solver is developed in this work to simulate cluster nucleation and growth. Parameters in the new model were adjusted so as to match the known theoretical dimer formation equilibrium constants for the two gases under consideration, argon and water. Reasonable agreement between computed and available experimental data was found in terminal cluster size distributions for nozzle water expansions in a wide range of stagnation pressures. The proposed approach was found to be orders of magnitude faster than a comparable approach based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  6. Adsorption of solutes at liquid-vapor interfaces: insights from lattice gas models.

    PubMed

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Shaffer, Patrick R; Geissler, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of ions at liquid-vapor interfaces exhibits several unexpected yet generic features. In particular, energy and entropy are both minimum when the solute resides near the surface, for a variety of ions in a range of polar solvents, contrary to predictions of classical theories. Motivated by this generality, and by the simple physical ingredients implicated by computational studies, we have examined interfacial solvation in highly schematic models, which resolve only coarse fluctuations in solvent density and cohesive energy. Here we show that even such lattice gas models recapitulate surprising thermodynamic trends observed in detailed simulations and experiments. Attention is focused on the case of two dimensions, for which approximate energy and entropy profiles can be calculated analytically. Simulations and theoretical analysis of the lattice gas highlight the role of capillary wave-like fluctuations in mediating adsorption. They further point to ranges of temperature and solute-solvent interaction strength where surface propensity is expected to be strongest.

  7. Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.

  8. Decay of the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-06-01

    We establish the optimal {Lp-L2(1 ≤ p < 6/5)} time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model and analyze the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. Compared with the viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model (Zhang and Zhu in J Differ Equ 258:2315-2338, 2015), our results imply that the friction effect of the damping is stronger than the dissipation effect of the viscosities and enhances the decay rate of the velocity. Our proof is based on Hodge decomposition technique, the {Lp-L2} estimates for the linearized equations and an elaborate energy method.

  9. Recent developments on PLASMAKIN - a software package to model the kinetics in gas discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinhão, N. R.

    2009-04-01

    PLASMAKIN is a user-friendly software package to handle physical and chemical data used in plasma physics modeling and to compute the production and destruction terms in fluid models equations. These terms account for the particle or energy production and loss rates due to gas-phase and gas-surface reactions. The package has been restructured and expanded to (a) allow the simulation of atomic emission spectra taking into account line broadening processes and radiation trapping; (b) include a library to compute the electron kinetics; (c) include a database of species properties and reactions and, (d) include a Python interface to allow access from scripts and integration with other scientific software tools.

  10. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  11. DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in

  12. Axisymmetric whole pin life modelling of advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    Thermo-mechanical contributions to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) in advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) are modelled in the ABAQUS finite element (FE) code. User supplied sub-routines permit the modelling of the non-linear behaviour of AGR fuel through life. Through utilisation of ABAQUS's well-developed pre- and post-processing ability, the behaviour of the axially constrained steel clad fuel was modelled. The 2D axisymmetric model includes thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel with time and condition dependent material properties. Pellet cladding gap dynamics and thermal behaviour are also modelled. The model treats heat up as a fully coupled temperature-displacement study. Dwell time and direct power cycling was applied to model the impact of online refuelling, a key feature of the AGR. The model includes the visco-plastic behaviour of the fuel under the stress and irradiation conditions within an AGR core and a non-linear heat transfer model. A multiscale fission gas release model is applied to compute pin pressure; this model is coupled to the PCI gap model through an explicit fission gas inventory code. Whole pin, whole life, models are able to show the impact of the fuel on all segments of cladding including weld end caps and cladding pellet locking mechanisms (unique to AGR fuel). The development of this model in a commercial FE package shows that the development of a potentially verified and future-proof fuel performance code can be created and used. The usability of a FE based fuel performance code would be an enhancement over past codes. Pre- and post-processors have lowered the entry barrier for the development of a fuel performance model to permit the ability to model complicated systems. Typical runtimes for a 5 year axisymmetric model takes less than one hour on a single core workstation. The current model has implemented: Non-linear fuel thermal behaviour, including a complex description of heat flow in the fuel. Coupled with a variety of

  13. Numerical modeling of non-isothermal gas flow and NAPL vapor transport in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pártl, Ondřej; Beneš, Michal; Frolkovič, Peter; Illangasekare, Tissa; Smits, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a mathematical model for the description of non-isothermal compressible flow of gas mixtures in heterogeneous porous media and we derive an efficient semi-implicit time-stepping numerical scheme for the solution of the governing equations. We experimentally estimate the order of convergence of the scheme in spatial variables and we present several computational studies that demonstrate the ability of the numerical scheme.

  14. Numerical Prediction of Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow in a Model Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, reacting and non-reacting flow characteristics of a model gas turbine combustor operating on air/methane are simulated via an unstructured and massively parallel Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. This serves to demonstrate the capabilities of the code for design and analysis of real combustor engines. The effects of some design features of combustors are examined. In addition, the computed results are validated against experimental data.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  16. A parameter model of gas exchange for the seasonal sea ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; McGillis, W. R.; Perovich, D.; Zappa, C. J.; Schlosser, P.

    2013-07-01

    Carbon budgets for the polar oceans require better constraint on air-sea gas exchange in the sea ice zone (SIZ). Here, we utilize recent advances in the theory of turbulence, mixing and air-sea flux in the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) to formulate a simple model for gas exchange when the surface ocean is partially covered by sea ice. The gas transfer velocity (k) is related to shear-driven and convection-driven turbulence in the aqueous mass boundary layer, and to the mean-squared wave slope at the air-sea interface. We use the model to estimate k along the drift track of Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITPs) in the Arctic. Individual estimates of daily-averaged k from ITP drifts ranged between 1.1 and 22 m d-1, and the fraction of open water (f) ranged from 0 to 0.83. Converted to area-weighted effective transfer velocities (keff), the minimum value of keff was 10-5 m d-1 near f = 0 with values exceeding keff = 5 m d-1 at f = 0.4. The largest values of k occurred during the periods when ice cover around the ITP was changing rapidly; either in advance or retreat. The model indicates that effects from shear and convection in the sea ice zone contribute an additional 40% to the magnitude of keff, beyond what would be predicted from an estimate of keff based solely upon a windspeed parameterization. Although the ultimate scaling relationship for gas exchange in the sea ice zone will require validation in laboratory and field studies, the basic parameter model described here demonstrates that it is feasible to formulate estimates of k based upon properties of the IOBL using data sources that presently exist.

  17. A parameter model of gas exchange for the seasonal sea ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; McGillis, W. R.; Perovich, D.; Zappa, C. J.; Schlosser, P.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon budgets for the polar oceans require better constraint on air-sea gas exchange in the sea ice zone (SIZ). Here, we utilize advances in the theory of turbulence, mixing and air-sea flux in the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) to formulate a simple model for gas exchange when the surface ocean is partially covered by sea ice. The gas transfer velocity (k) is related to shear-driven and convection-driven turbulence in the aqueous mass boundary layer, and to the mean-squared wave slope at the air-sea interface. We use the model to estimate k along the drift track of ice-tethered profilers (ITPs) in the Arctic. Individual estimates of daily-averaged k from ITP drifts ranged between 1.1 and 22 m d-1, and the fraction of open water (f) ranged from 0 to 0.83. Converted to area-weighted effective transfer velocities (keff), the minimum value of keff was 10-55 m d-1 near f = 0 with values exceeding keff = 5 m d-1 at f = 0.4. The model indicates that effects from shear and convection in the sea ice zone contribute an additional 40% to the magnitude of keff, beyond what would be predicted from an estimate of keff based solely upon a wind speed parameterization. Although the ultimate scaling relationship for gas exchange in the sea ice zone will require validation in laboratory and field studies, the basic parameter model described here demonstrates that it is feasible to formulate estimates of k based upon properties of the IOBL using data sources that presently exist.

  18. Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, James E; Robinson, Robert L; Gasem, Khaled A M

    2006-11-01

    The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO2 sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties. PMID:17073487

  19. Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; Moldrup, Per

    2014-08-01

    Growing plants to facilitate life in outer space, for example on the International Space Station (ISS) or at planned deep-space human outposts on the Moon or Mars, has received much attention with regard to NASA’s advanced life support system research. With the objective of in situ resource utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions. Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions for ground-based measurements (1 - g) were scaled to two reduced gravity conditions, Martian gravity (0.38 - g) and lunar gravity (0.16 - g), following the observations in previous reduced gravity studies. We described the observed gas diffusivity with a recently developed model combined with a new approach that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using a substrate-structure parameter related to the gaseous phase, we adequately described the air permeability under reduced gravity conditions.

  20. Modeling and experiments on differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, H. J. N. van; Koppers, W. R.; Rooij, G. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes; Kleyn, A. W.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.

    2009-03-15

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial magnetic field. In this way, the neutrals are prevented to reach the target region. The neutral flux to the target must be lower than the plasma flux to enable ITER relevant plasma-surface interaction (PSI) studies. It is therefore essential to control the neutral gas dynamics. The DSMC method was used to model the expansion of a hot gas in a low pressure vessel where a small discrepancy in shock position was found between the simulations and a well-established empirical formula. Two stage differential pumping was modeled and applied in the linear plasma devices Pilot-PSI and PLEXIS. In Pilot-PSI a factor of 4.5 pressure reduction for H{sub 2} has been demonstrated. Both simulations and experiments showed that the optimum skimmer position depends on the position of the shock and therefore shifts for different gas parameters. The shape of the skimmer has to be designed such that it has a minimum impact on the shock structure. A too large angle between the skimmer and the forward direction of the gas flow leads to an influence on the expansion structure. A pressure increase in front of the skimmer is formed and the flow of the plasma beam becomes obstructed. It has been shown that a skimmer with an angle around 53 deg. gives the best performance. The use of skimmers is implemented in the design of the large linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI. Here, a three stage differentially pumped vacuum system is used to reach low enough neutral pressures near the target, opening a door to PSI research in the ITER relevant regime.