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Sample records for characterization antioxidant properties

  1. Characterization and Antioxidant Property of Probiotic and Synbiotic Yogurts.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Arenahalli Ningegowda; Amrutha, Nanjaiah; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

    2012-06-01

    The effect of a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides) or a synbiotic components (prebiotic and probiotic) on the viability, proteolysis and antioxidant properties of probiotic and synbiotic yogurt during 28 days of storage at 4 °C has been investigated. Yogurt starters in conjunction with either probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194, Lactobacillus fermentum CFR 2192 and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were used for yogurt preparation. Titratable acidity and pH of all yogurt samples followed a similar pattern of increase or decrease during storage. Proteolysis in synbiotic yogurts was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in comparison with that of control. The addition of prebiotics had no effect (P = 0.17888) on the viability of yogurt starters during cold storage. No observable changes in the viability of probiotic cultures in probiotic groups. However, supplementation of FOS affected the growth significantly (P < 0.05) in promoting the growth of L. plantarum and L. fermentum. Antioxidant activities, the index of nutritional value of yogurt, were monitored. Results showed that the DPPH-radical-scavenging activity (85 %) in synbiotic yogurt containing L. plantarum and FOS was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in comparison with that of control yogurt (72 %). Total phenolics and the ferric reducing power were highest in synbiotic yogurts in comparison with that of other test samples during the entire period of storage. Addition of selected probiotics with FOS thus resulted in an improved functionality of yogurt.

  2. Characterization and antioxidative properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from prunes, dried fruit of Prunus domestica L.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Ito, Hideyuki; Kawaji, Miyuki; Ikami, Takao; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    A prune extract was separated by an antioxidant-guided assay to obtain an oligomeric proanthocyanidin fraction. The antioxidative oligomer was characterized as a procyanidin oligomer with an average polymerization degree of five and composed of epicatechin and catechin units. The antioxidative activity of the oligomer showed greater potency than chlorogenic acid which is known as an antioxidative component in prunes.

  3. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  4. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaf.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Raddatz, H; Henle, T

    2009-01-01

    Corchorus olitorius (jute) is a native plant of tropical Africa and Asia, and has since spread to Australia, South America and some parts of Europe. Its leafy vegetable is popularly used in soup preparation and folk medicine for the treatment of fever, chronic cystitis, cold and tumours. A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extract (HE) and lipophilic extract (LE) constituents of the leafy vegetable has been assessed. HE and LE of the leaf were prepared using water and hexane, respectively and their antioxidant properties were determined. HE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability (aqueous, 9.6-84.4%; hexane, 2.0-20.4%), reducing power (aqueous, 0.67 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g; hexane, 0.49 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (aqueous, 2.3 mmol/g; hexane, 1.1 mmol/g) than LE; conversely, LE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) OH. scavenging activity (44.5-46.2%) than HE (11.6-32.3%), while there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in their Fe(II) chelating ability (HE, 57.7-66.7%; LE, 56.4-61.1%). The higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability, reducing power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract may be due to its significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol (630.8 mg/100 g), total flavonoid (227.8 mg/100 g) and non-flavonoid polyphenols (403.0 mg/100 g), and its high ascorbic acid content (32.6 mg/100 g). While the higher OH. scavenging ability of LE may be due to its high total carotenoid content (42.5 mg/100 g). Therefore, the additive/synergistic antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents may contribute to the medicinal properties of C. olitorius leaf.

  5. Characterization of selenium-enriched mycelia of Catathelasma ventricosum and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Li, Caiming; Luo, Xiaohu; Han, Guoquan; Xu, Shude; Niu, Fuge; Hu, Xinjie; Wu, Hejun; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-01-21

    This is the first report concerning the selenium enrichment of Catathelasma ventricosum mycelia. The selenium-containing proteins present in selenium-enriched mycelia (Se-MC) were identified using size-exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). The selenium-containing amino acids liberated by hydrolysis of these proteins were identified using anion exchange-ICP-MS. Se-MC was found to contain selenoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 1.7 to 60.5 kDa. The main selenium-containing amino acids within them were selenomethionine and selenocysteine. Furthermore, Se-MC possessed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties. Se-MC normalized biochemical parameters like insulin level, blood glucose level, body weight, and antioxidant enzyme activity in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. It also inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities present in in vitro gastric and intestinal models. In conclusion, Se-MC has the potential to serve as a dietary supplement of selenium, an antioxidant, or an ingredient for the formulation of nutraceuticals.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and antioxidant properties of novel inulin derivatives with amino-pyridine group.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunxia; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Gang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2014-09-01

    A series of novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via reaction of chloracetyl inulin (CAIL) with amino-pyridines, including 2-(2-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2APAIL), 2-(3-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (3APAIL), 2-(4-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (4APAIL), 2-(2,3-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2,3DAPAIL), and 2-(3,4-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin (3,4DAPAIL). The antioxidant property of the products and 2-pyridylacetyl inulin chloride (PAIL) against hydroxyl radicals (·OH), superoxide radicals (O2·), and DPPH radicals (DPPH·) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. Results showed that 4APAIL and 3,4DAPAIL exhibited remarkable improvement on scavenging ·OH and DPPH·, which can scavenge the radical of OH completely at 0.4 mg/mL. Besides, the scavenging activity of 2,3DAPAIL to O2· was excellent among all of the tested samples, reaching 85% at 1.6 mg/mL. These data indicate that all of the inulin derivatives have better antioxidant activities than inulin, and the scavenging effect indices are affected by the number and position of the amino group on pyridine grafted to the inulin derivatives.

  7. Molecular Characterization, Antioxidant and Protein Solubility-Related Properties of Polyphenolic Compounds from Walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Labuckas, Diana; Maestri, Damián; Lamarque, Alicia

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous ethanol extraction of partially defatted walnut flours provides a simple and reliable method to obtain extracts with high content of polyphenolic compounds. These were characterized by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical techniques and molecular parameters. Considering the whole set of polyphenolic compounds identified, a high average number of phenolic-OH groups was found. Although these represent potential hydrogen-atom transfer sites, which are associated with high free-radical scavenging capacity, results show that such a property could be strongly limited by the low lipophilicity of polyphenols affecting the accessibility of these molecules to lipid substrates. Variations in pH values were found to change the ionization behavior of phenolic compounds. These changes, however, had minor effects on walnut protein solubility-related properties. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of molecular characterization of walnut phenolic compounds in order to assess better their bioactive properties.

  8. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Abad, Lucille

    2015-07-01

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265-280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000-600 cm-1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan.

  9. Efficient MW-Assisted Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, X-ray and Antioxidant Properties of Indazole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Polo, Efrain; Trilleras, Jorge; Ramos, Juan; Galdámez, Antonio; Quiroga, Jairo; Gutierrez, Margarita

    2016-07-09

    A small series of tetrahydroindazoles was prepared, starting from 2-acetylcyclohexanone and different hydrazines using reflux and a focused microwave reactor. Microwave irradiation (MW) favored the formation of the desired products with improved yields and shortened reaction times. This is a simple and green method for the synthesis of substituted tetrahydroindazole derivatives. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS methods. In these assays, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3f) showed moderate DPPH decoloring activity, while 3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indazole (3a), 3-methyl-2-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3b) and 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3f) were the most active in the ABTS assay. All compounds were well characterized by IR, ¹H-, (13)C-NMR and GC-MS spectroscopy and physical data, while the structure of 4-(3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-2-yl)benzoic acid (3e) was also determined by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  10. Antioxidant properties and TLC characterization of four Chilean Haplopappus-species known as bailahuén.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Hermine; González, Mauricio; Faini, Francesca; Razmilic, Iván; Rodríguez, Jaime; Martín, José San; Urbina, Francisco

    2005-02-10

    "Bailahuén" is the common name of a medicinal shrub native to Chile where this resinous herb is widely used for its liver stimulating properties. Although the official species is Haplopappus baylahuen Remy (Asteraceae), other species of the same genus are also used in different regions as "bailahuén". A thin layer chromatography (TLC) method for rapid identification of different species and detection of adulterations is described for four of the species: Haplopappus baylahuen, Haplopappus taeda Reiche, Haplopappus multifolius Phil., and Haplopappus remyanus Wedd. To confirm efficiency in all species antioxidant properties were screened in resins, infusions, and methanolic extracts by tests of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes and free radical scavenging activity by DPPH. In both studies Haplopappus baylahuen showed the lowest antioxidant capacity. In DPPH analyses, infusion and resins of Haplopappus baylahuen also showed the lowest and Haplopappus remyanus the major inhibiting activity of free radicals, while Haplopappus multifolius proved to have the highest result when the methanolic extracts were used. The chemical characterization of the studied species showed important levels of flavonoids and coumarins, with flavonoids predominating in Haplopappus taeda, coumarins in Haplopappus multifolius and both of them in Haplopappus baylahuen and Haplopappus remyanus.

  11. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  12. Characterization of the organoleptic properties, vitamin C levels and anti-oxidant contents of Californian grown persimmons (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California is the largest U.S. producer of persimmons (Diospyros kaki). Consumer demand for persimmons is driven by their organoleptic and nutritional properties (vitamin C and anti-oxidant contents). Most commercial production is divided between a small number of astringent “Hachiya” and non-astri...

  13. Production and Characterization of Antioxidant Properties of Exopolysaccharide(s) from Peanibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Tseng, Shih-Chun; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides have received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Although most microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) use sugars as the major carbon source, such as glucose or sucrose, in this study, EPSs were induced from a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Paenibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum EPS yield (14.8 g/L) was obtained. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of an EPS fraction purified by gel filtration revealed two mass peaks with molecular weights of ∼1.05 × 104 and ∼1.35 × 104 Da, respectively. The analysis of the hydrolysates of TKU032 EPS with cellulase, pectinase or α-amylase indicated that the glycosidic bond of TKU032 EPS is most likely an α-1,4 glycosidic bond and the hydrolysates are similar to those of starch. In addition, the purified EPS demonstrated strong antioxidant abilities. PMID:26907304

  14. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant, Anti-hyperlipidemic Properties and Chemical Characterization of Centella asiatica (L.) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sima; Deori, Meetali; Elancheran, R.; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds present in Centella asiatica (L.) (C. asiatica) extract and evaluate the respective antioxidant potential as well as its cholesterol-lowering effects in the experimental animal model. Herein, the antioxidant potential of extracts was assessed by its free radical scavenging activity such as 2, 2-diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazyl as well as reducing capability. The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of C. asiatica extract (CAE) were evaluated in high cholesterol-fed (HCF) rats for 4 weeks, where different concentrations of extracts (0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg/day) were orally administrated daily. Lipid and antioxidant profiles, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), together with the indices of hepatic functions were also examined. C. asiatica revealed excellent free radical scavenging activity as revealed by 2-2- diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, with the IC50 values (9.62 ± 0.88 μg/mL). Furthermore, C. asiatica extracts and fenofibrate remarkably lowered the level of TC, TG, LDL-C, and showed elevated levels of HDL-C, SOD. The histopathological observations further demonstrated clear differentiation and structural changes in liver of HCF and CAE treated group. Furthermore, gulonic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, and asiatic acid were identified to be the major components which might be responsible for the antioxidant activity of the C. asiatica extract as evidenced from an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometer. Taken together, these results signifies the excellent antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic properties of C. asiatica leaf extracts, which might be useful for the treatment of oxidative-stress related diseases such as hyperlipidemia. PMID:27840607

  15. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  16. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  17. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-10

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  20. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-06-02

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin-hexoside (Dp-Hex), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (C-3-Gal), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-Glu), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3-Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3-Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside-gallate (M-DH-G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-Gal), quercetin-3- O-glucoside (Q-3-Glu), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Q-3-Rha), kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (K-3-Gal) and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (K-3-Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources.

  1. Purification, characterization and antioxidant properties of low molecular weight collagenous polypeptide (37 kDa) prepared from whale shark cartilage (Rhincodon typus).

    PubMed

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Zhang, Jingyi; Hong, Shaotong; Wu, Wenhui

    2015-10-01

    A low molecular weight type-II collagenous polypeptide (CIIp) from whale shark (WS) cartilage was prepared by thermolysin digestion; and examined for their physico-functional and antioxidant properties. The purified collagen was composed of an identical (α1)3 chains and was characterized as type-II. After hydrolysis with thermolysin, the α-chain of the WS collagen was degraded into smaller peptides with molecular weight ranging from 70 to 20KDa. CIIp was successfully separated from the hydrolysates with molecular weight of approximately 37 kDa. Amino acid analysis of CII, and CIIp indicated imino acid contents of 155 and 121 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CII and CIIp were observed, which suggested that the hydrolysis process by thermolysin affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of CII (34 °C) was higher than that of CIIp. Low content of glycoprotein was observed in CII than CIIp due to removal of some polypeptides by thermolysin digestion. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIp was greater than that of CII. The results proposed that the purified CIIp from WS cartilage with excellent antioxidant activities could be the suitable biomaterial for therapeutic applications.

  2. Antitrypanosomal and antioxidant properties of 4-hydroxycoumarins derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cruz, Fernanda; Serra, Silvia; Delogu, Giovanna; Lapier, Michel; Maya, Juan Diego; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    In the present communication we prepared a series of six 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives, isosters of quercetin, recognized as an antioxidant natural compound, with the aim of evaluating the antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, and the antioxidant properties. We have used the 4-hydroxycoumarin moiety (compound 1) as the molecular template for the synthesis of compounds 2-7. These derivates have shown moderate trypanocidal activity. However they have been proved to be good antioxidants. In particular compound 7 is the most active antioxidant and it is, therefore, a potential candidate for a successful employment in conditions characterized by free radicals overproduction.

  3. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  5. Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract(decoction)of Antigonon leptopus Hook. &Arn.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Pazhanimuthu, Annamalai; Natarajan, Thillainathan; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-04-01

    Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring boiling water over alleviated leaves of the tea plant. Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus has been traditionally used as remedy for cold, diabetes and pain in many countries. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) synthesized from powdered leaf extract (decoction) of A. leptopus were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses to define the formation of Au NPs. Further, the synthesized Au NPs were well characterized based on their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR), crystalline nature, functional groups, size and dispersed shapes, purity and Bragg's reflections of face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic gold. The Au NPs showed higher free radical scavenging property when compared to the effect of leaf extract. Cytotoxicity study of synthesized Au NPs exhibited the growth inhibitory property at the concentration (GI50) of 257.8 μg/mL in human adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF-7) cells after 48 h. Thus, the Au NPs synthesized from the Mexican creeper, A. leptopus revealed the important biological properties: as a free radical as well as anticancer agent. We conclude that the A. leptopus derived biological materials have promising potential as a source for the development of anticancer drug in future.

  6. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of SiO2/PEG hybrid materials containing quercetin as implants with antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Gloria, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, Silica/Polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid nanocomposites containing an antioxidant agent, the quercetin, were synthesized via sol-gel to be used as implants with antioxidant properties. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis proved that a modification of both polymer and quercetin occurs due to synthesis process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the proposed materials were hybrid nanocomposites. The bioactivity was ascertained by soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF).

  7. Pectic polysaccharide from the green fruits of Momordica charantia (Karela): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Panda, Bibhash C; Mondal, Soumitra; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Khatua, Somanjana; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2015-01-12

    A water soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the aqueous extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia contains D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:4. It showed splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations. Moreover, it exhibited potent antioxidant activities. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and 1D and 2D NMR studies, the structure of the repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [Formula: see text].

  8. Antioxidant contents and antioxidative properties of traditional rye breads.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna; Ceglinska, Alicja; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Piskula, Mariusz Konrad; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Zielinski, Henryk

    2007-02-07

    The purpose of this research was to find out the effect of flour extraction rate on the antioxidative properties of traditional rye bread and then to compare the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant properties of rye breads with commercial wheat roll. Four types of rye flour with different extraction rates of 100 (whole meal dark flour), 95 (brown flour), 90 (brown flour), and 70% (light flour) originated from Warko rye cultivar were used for traditional bread baking with sourdough fermentation. Four types of the respective rye breads were analyzed for their potentially beneficial components, including tocopherols and tocotrienols, total phenolics and flavonoids, reduced glutathione, and inositol hexaphosphates. Moreover, the phenolic acids profile was provided. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the breads was evaluated using free radical scavenging activities of 80% methanol extracts against ABTS*+ radical cation (ABTS radical cation decolorization method) whereas radical scavenging activity (RSA) was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*). The superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity) was evaluated as free radical scavenging activities of PBS extracts against superoxide anion radicals (O2*-). The results were compared to whole meal rye bread as well as to wheat roll taken as representative example of wheat based bakery product. The studies showed that flour extraction rates strongly affected the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidative properties of traditionally baked rye breads. The incorporation of the rye flours with extraction rates from 100 down to 70% in the formulation caused decrease in tocopherol (T), tocotrienol (T3), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), and phenolic compound (TPC) contents in rye breads. No changes in reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were noted between each type of rye bread. A significant decrease in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and radical DDPH scavenging

  9. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  10. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  11. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-09-03

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  12. Antioxidative properties of phenolic antioxidants isolated from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Niwa, T; Doi, U; Kato, Y; Osawa, T

    2001-01-01

    With the immersion of corn into dilute sulfur oxide during starch-manufacturing processes, corn steep liquor (CSL) remains as leftover material. CSL is often used for fermentation, but its components are not fully understood. To determine the properties of CSL, 12 p-coumaric acid-related compounds were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of CSL with the guidance of antioxidative activity on the rabbit erythrocyte membrane ghost system. The activity of these compounds was compared against oxidative damages, and it was elucidated that the activity of p-coumaric acid derivatives was mainly affected by their functional groups at the 3-position and less by the conjugated side chain. Moreover, p-coumaric acid derivatives exhibited inhibitory activity stronger than that of tocopherols and ascorbic acid on peroxynitrite-mediated lipoprotein nitration. These findings that p-coumaric acid derivatives, which might play a beneficial role against oxidative damage, exist in CSL suggest this byproduct might be a useful resource of phenolic antioxidants.

  13. Antiglycation and Antioxidant Properties of Momordica charantia

    PubMed Central

    Aljohi, Ali; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Ahmed, Nessar

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In many developing countries, diabetes treatment is unaffordable, and plants such as bitter gourd (or bitter melon; Momordica charantia) are used as traditional remedies because they exhibit hypoglycaemic properties. This study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. Lysozyme was mixed with methylglyoxal and 0–15 mg/ml of M. charantia extracts in a pH 7.4 buffer and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. Crosslinked AGEs were assessed using gel electrophoresis, and the carboxymethyllysine (CML) content was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using assays to assess DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity and reducing power of the extracts. The phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid content of the extracts were also determined. All extracts inhibited the formation of crosslinked AGEs and CML in a dose-dependent manner, with MCF being the most potent. The antioxidant activity of MCF was higher than that of MCP, but MCP showed the highest metal-chelating activity. MCF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, whereas MCP had the highest flavonol content. M. charantia has hypoglycaemic effects, but this study shows that M. charantia extracts are also capable of preventing AGE formation in vitro. This activity may be due to the antioxidant properties, particularly the total phenolic content of the extracts. Thus, the use of M. charantia deserves more attention, as it may not only reduce hyperglycaemia but also protect against the build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative stress in patients with diabetes. PMID:27513747

  14. Antiglycation and Antioxidant Properties of Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Aljohi, Ali; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Ahmed, Nessar

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In many developing countries, diabetes treatment is unaffordable, and plants such as bitter gourd (or bitter melon; Momordica charantia) are used as traditional remedies because they exhibit hypoglycaemic properties. This study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. Lysozyme was mixed with methylglyoxal and 0-15 mg/ml of M. charantia extracts in a pH 7.4 buffer and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. Crosslinked AGEs were assessed using gel electrophoresis, and the carboxymethyllysine (CML) content was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using assays to assess DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity and reducing power of the extracts. The phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid content of the extracts were also determined. All extracts inhibited the formation of crosslinked AGEs and CML in a dose-dependent manner, with MCF being the most potent. The antioxidant activity of MCF was higher than that of MCP, but MCP showed the highest metal-chelating activity. MCF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, whereas MCP had the highest flavonol content. M. charantia has hypoglycaemic effects, but this study shows that M. charantia extracts are also capable of preventing AGE formation in vitro. This activity may be due to the antioxidant properties, particularly the total phenolic content of the extracts. Thus, the use of M. charantia deserves more attention, as it may not only reduce hyperglycaemia but also protect against the build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative stress in patients with diabetes.

  15. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Ak, Tuba; Gülçin, Ilhami

    2008-07-10

    Curcumin (diferuoyl methane) is a phenolic compound and a major component of Curcuma longa L. In the present paper, we determined the antioxidant activity of curcumin by employing various in vitro antioxidant assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH*) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, total reducing ability determination by the Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation method, superoxide anion radical scavenging by the riboflavin/methionine/illuminate system, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Curcumin inhibited 97.3% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 15 microg/mL concentration (20 mM). On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, 123 mM), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 102 mM), alpha-tocopherol (51 mM) and trolox (90 mM) as standard antioxidants indicated inhibition of 95.4, 99.7, 84.6 and 95.6% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 45 microg/mL concentration, respectively. In addition, curcumin had an effective DPPH* scavenging, ABTS*(+) scavenging, DMPD*(+) scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Also, BHA, BHT, alpha-tocopherol and trolox, were used as the reference antioxidant and radical scavenger compounds. According to the present study, curcumin can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  16. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O(2) (•-)) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O(2) (•-) was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O(2) (•-). They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H(2)O(2) induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge (•)OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O(2) (•-) and (•)OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant.The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance.

  17. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Betalains.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Slimen, Imen; Najar, Taha; Abderrabba, Manef

    2017-02-01

    Betalains are vacuolar pigments composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA/its glucosyl derivates) or amino acids/derivates to form violet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. These pigments have gained the curiosity of scientific researchers in recent decades. Their importance was increased not only by market orientation toward natural colorants and antioxidants but also by their safety and health promoting properties. To date, about 78 betalains have been identified from plants of about 17 families. In this review, all of the identified pigments are presented, followed by a comprehensive discussion of their structure-activity relationship.

  18. Study Approach of Antioxidant Properties in Foods: Update and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well as the biological role and different modes of action makes it difficult to assess a single and reliable procedure for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. Today, much attention is given to the distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants as a key tool in the description of the nutritional and healthy properties of food matrices. The starting point for the investigation of antioxidant effects of food extracts is the analysis of antioxidant properties of pure compounds and their interactions. Another complementary approach could be represented by the study of how different biologically active compound-rich extracts contribute to the total antioxidant capacity. PMID:28264480

  19. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of poplar bud (Populus nigra) extract: individual antioxidant contribution of phenolics and transcriptional effect on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Poupard, Pascal; Coutière, Philippe; Woillez, Marion; Richard, Tristan; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Vitrac, Xavier

    2011-05-11

    The Populus species possess great potential for therapeutical applications, especially for their known anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant properties of propolis, a hive product collected by honey bees mainly from poplar bud exudates, suggest that poplar buds also possess antioxidant properties. Here is reported the characterization of the antioxidant properties of an aqueous poplar bud (Populus nigra) extract. It presented a high total phenolic content, and moderate antioxidant properties as determined by ORAC assay. The main phenolic compounds identified were phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycons. These phenolic compounds were analyzed by ORAC assay for their individual antioxidant activity, in order to determine the major contributors to the total antioxidant activity of the extract. Thanks to their high antioxidant activity, caffeic and p-coumaric acids were identified as the major antioxidant components. Representing only 3.5% of its dry weight, these compounds represented together about 50% of the total antioxidant activity of the extract. The antioxidant properties of poplar bud extract and the phenolic compounds identified were also analyzed by cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), which was weakly correlated with ORAC assay. The transcriptional effect of poplar bud extract on skin aging was evaluated in vitro on a replicative senescence model of normal human dermal fibroblasts, using a customized DNA macroarray specifically designed to investigate skin aging markers. Among the detected genes, poplar bud extract significantly regulated genes involved in antioxidant defenses, inflammatory response and cell renewal. The collective antioxidant properties and transcriptional effect of this extract suggest potential antiaging properties which could be utilized in cosmetic and nutraceutical formulations.

  20. Preparation of whey protein hydrolysates using a single- and two-stage enzymatic membrane reactor and their immunological and antioxidant properties: characterization by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Wang, Zhang; Xu, Shi-Ying

    2007-05-16

    An initial 5% (w/v), followed thereafter with replacement aliquots of 3% (w/v), whey protein isolate (WPI) (ca. 86.98% Kjeldahl N x 6.38), was hydrolyzed using Protease N Amano G (IUB 3.4.24.28, Bacillus subtilis) in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) fitted with either a 10 or 3 kDa nominal molecular weight cutoff (NMWCO) tangential flow filter (TFF) membrane. The hydrolysates were desalted by adsorption onto a styrene-based macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and washed with deionized water to remove the alkali, and the peptides were desorbed with 25, 50, and 95% (v/v) ethyl alcohol. The desalted hydrolysates were analyzed for antibody binding, free radical scavenging, and molecular mass analysis as well as total and free amino acids (FAA). For the first time a quantity called IC50, the concentration of peptides causing 50% inhibition of the available antibody, is introduced to quantify inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. The hydrolysate molecular mass provided the most prominent influence (PC1 = 57.35%), followed by inhibition ELISA (PC2 = 18.90%) and the antioxidant properties (PC3 = 10.43%). Ash was significantly reduced in the desalted fractions; the protein adsorption recoveries were high, whereas desorption with alcohol was prominently influenced by the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic amino acid balance. After hydrolysis, some hydrolysates showed increased ELISA reactivity compared with the native WPI.

  1. Innovative phytosynthesized silver nanoarchitectures with enhanced antifungal and antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortan, Alina; Fierascu, Irina; Ungureanu, Camelia; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Dumitrescu, Ovidiu; Dinu-Pirvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-12-01

    While in the early era of nanotechnology, nanoparticles of noble metals were obtained through expensive methods, using toxic chemical reagents, in the last decade attempts are made to obtain the desired chemical composition, size, morphology, and other properties by eco and green synthesis, using plants. The aim of this paper is to compare two extraction methods (hydroalcoholic extraction and microwave extraction) used to phytosynthesize silver nanoparticles, in terms of nanoparticle (NP) morphology, antioxidant, and antifungal action, using an European native plant, Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. The extracts and the obtained NPs were characterized by modern analytical techniques (GC-MS, UV-Vis, SEM, TEM) and by phytochemical assays (total flavonoids, total terpenoids and total phenolic content). The antifungal activity (evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer method, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum) and the antioxidant activity (determined by the DPPH assay and a chemiluminescence assay) revealed notable differences between the samples, differences due to the extraction procedure followed. Also, preliminary studies regarding the stability and the toxicity of the nanoparticles are presented. By using the microwave-assisted extraction, not only smaller particles (less than 10 nm) were obtained, but also with better antifungal and antioxidant properties than the ones obtained by classical extraction.

  2. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of partridgeberry polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-02-01

    Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a polyphenol-rich berry of the Ericaceous family, grown in Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada. The aims of this study were to identify extraction solvents for the maximum recovery of polyphenols, to establish fractionation technique for isolation of major sub-classes of polyphenols, and to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of the partridgeberry polyphenol preparations. The acidified 70% acetone was identified as the ideal solvent for the maximum recovery of polyphenols from partridgeberry. Further, aqueous two-phase extraction, column chromatography and UPLC-MS/MS were employed to produce three partridgeberry polyphenol fractions, rich in either, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols or flavonols. All the three PPF were potent antioxidants and displayed cytoprotective activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of cellular death. The current study suggests that partridgeberry has numerous potential health implications in both prevention and amelioration of various diseases involving oxidative stress.

  3. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  4. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•−) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•− was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•−. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•− and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  5. Characterization of antioxidants and change of antioxidant levels during storage of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Shih Peng; Leong, Lai Peng

    2004-12-29

    Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables play an important role via their protective effects against the onset of aging-related chronic diseases. Our previous research has indicated that unripe ciku fruits (Manilkara zapota L.) are an excellent source of antioxidants, with over 3000 mg of L-ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) per 100 g of fresh sample. In this study, 24 antioxidants in an extract of ciku king were characterized through a free radical spiking test. Their chemical structures were proposed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and tandem MS (HPLC/MSn). The antioxidant capacity of ciku king fruits was mainly attributed to polyphenolics with basic blocks of gallocatechin or catechin or both. The changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolics content (TPC) of ciku king fruits with storage time were also investigated. It was found that the TAC and TPC decreased significantly as the fruits gradually changed from the unripe to the overripe stage. The best time for one to consume ciku king fruits at a flavorful stage with high amounts of antioxidants with AEAC values ranging from 600 to 1200 mg per 100 g fresh sample is suggested. The change of the content of major antioxidant peaks was also consistent with changes of antioxidant levels during storage.

  6. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Peter; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán

    2006-01-05

    The increasing recognition of the participation of free radical-mediated oxidative events in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular, tumoural, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, has given rise to the search for new antioxidant molecules. An important source of such molecules has been plants for which there is an ethno-cultural base for health promotion. An important example of this is boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a chilean tree whose leaves have been traditionally employed in folk medicine and is now widely recognized as a herbal remedy by a number of pharmacopoeias. Boldo leaves are rich in several aporphine-like alkaloids, of which boldine is the most abundant one. Research conducted during the early 1990s led to the discovery that boldine is one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Prompted by the latter, a large and increasing number of studies emerged, which have focused on characterizing some of the pharmacological properties that may arise from the free radical-scavenging properties of boldine. The present review attempts to exhaustively cover and discuss such studies, placing particular attention on research conducted during the last decade. Mechanistic aspects and structure-activity data are discussed. The review encompasses pharmacological actions, which arise from its antioxidant properties (e.g., cyto-protective, anti-tumour promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic actions), as well as those that do not seem to be associated with such activity (e.g., vasorelaxing, anti-trypanocidal, immuno- and neuro-modulator, cholagogic and/or choleretic actions). Based on the pharmacological and toxicological data now available, further research needs and recommendations are suggested to define the actual potential of boldine for its use in humans.

  7. Antioxidant properties of isolated isorhamnetin from the sea buckthorn marc.

    PubMed

    Pengfei, Liu; Tiansheng, Deng; Xianglin, Hou; Jianguo, Wang

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, the process of separation and purification of isohamnetin from marc of sea buckthorn was obtained. The antioxidant properties of the pure isolated isorhamnetin were evaluated by the scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), iron (III) to iron (II)-reducing, and iron-chelating assays. High purity isorhamnetin (92.1%) was obtained and the results of antioxidant assays showed that isorhamnetin performed significantly compared with ascorbic acid and BHT, and the linear correlations were good in these assays. In conclusion, isorhamnetin may have potential as a natural antioxidant to alternate synthetic substances as food additive with its antioxidant activity.

  8. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.

  9. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of β-carotene, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, β-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  10. Correlation among Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Hemolytic, and Antiproliferative Properties of Leiothrix spiralis Leaves Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Hilário, Felipe; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena; Bauab, Tais Maria

    2012-01-01

    The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.743 μg/mL ± 0.063) was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated. PMID:22942765

  11. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Yen, Wen-Jye; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chang, Lee-Wen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2005-04-06

    The antioxidant activity of roasted coffee residues was evaluated. Extraction with four solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) showed that water extracts of roasted coffee residues (WERCR) produced higher yields and gave better protection for lipid peroxidation. WERCR showed a remarkable protective effect on oxidative damage of protein. In addition, WERCR showed scavenging of free radicals as well as the reducing ability and to bind ferrous ions, indicating that WERCR acts as both primary and secondary antioxidants. The HPLC analyses showed that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and nonphenolic compounds [caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuraldehyde] remained in roasted coffee residues. These compounds showed a protective effect on a liposome model system. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in roasted coffee residues were 8,400 and 20,400 ppm, respectively. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) remaining in roasted coffee residues were believed to show antioxidant activity. These data indicate that roasted coffee residues have excellent potential for use as a natural antioxidant source because the antioxidant compounds remained in roasted coffee residues.

  12. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant properties of Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Fung, Adah; Hamid, Nazimah; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-15

    This study investigated the fucoxanthin content of New Zealand (NZ) Undaria pinnatifida harvested from two locations in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand across its growing season. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant properties of processed New Zealand U. pinnatifida and commercial wakame from Japan and Korea were further compared. Results showed that U. pinnatifida harvested from Port Underwood had higher fucoxanthin content in the blade compared to Pelorus Sound. The sporophyll also contained a significant amount of fucoxanthin throughout the harvest season, although lower than in the blade. Two antioxidant measurement methods, DPPH and CUPRAC, were utilised to measure antioxidant activities. Processed NZ U. pinnatifida had a lower fucoxanthin content and antioxidant activity than freeze-dried Undaria. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant activities of NZ processed U. pinnatifida were not significantly different from other commercial samples from Japan and Korea. In conclusion, U. pinnatifida in New Zealand has a great potential to be a food and nutraceutical resource.

  13. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  14. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  15. Lipophilicity, antifungal and antioxidant properties of persilben.

    PubMed

    Smolarz, Helena D; Kosikowska, Urszula; Baraniak, Barbara; Malm, Anna; Persona, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The lipophilicity of persilben, an important parameter influencing the penetration of the compound through biological membranes, was determined experimentally by dynamic method and was theoretically calculated according to the fragmentation methods introduced by Crippen, Broto and Viswanadhan. The higher value of partition coefficient (log P = 3.89) obtained for persilben than that for resveratrol points to potentially higher ease of penetration of persilben into cells of living organism. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of persilben were tested. The obtained data suggest that this compound possesses some antioxidant activity. Persilben appears to have also some inhibitory effect against some species of dermatophytes from Tnichophyton genus but only at high concentrations.

  16. Physicochemical and antioxidant characterization of Justicia spicigera.

    PubMed

    Baqueiro-Peña, Itzamná; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2017-03-01

    Extracts with water:ethanol (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, 0:100) solutions from fresh (F), just dried (JD), dried and stored for one year (DS) Justicia spicigera leaves were obtained using the stirring and ultrasound techniques. Extracts were analyzed in physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics. Identification of chemical compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was also performed. 2.14±0.91, 5.67±1.70, and 8.52±4.97g Gallic acid equivalents/100g dry weight (d.w.) of phenolic compounds were found, in average, for F, JD, and DS J. spicigera, respectively. 2.22±1.31, 2.58±2.11, and 8.48±3.78g Trolox equivalents/100g d.w. were detected with the ABTS method and 0.49±0.33, 1.23±0.87, and 0.88±0.94g with the DPPH method for F, JD and DS J. spicigera, respectively. Eucalyptol, phytol, and azulene were identified as the main compounds. J. spicigera showed colors (green-iridescent, green-yellow, or pink of different intensities) and antioxidant characteristics depending on the solvent concentration. Extracts could be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, quantum chemical calculations and evaluation of antioxidant properties of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives including 2- and 3-methoxy cinnamic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Mahmut; Muğlu, Halit; Çavuş, M. Serdar; Güder, Aytaç; Sayıner, Hakan S.; Kandemirli, Fatma

    2017-04-01

    A series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives including 2- and 3-methoxy cinnamic acids were synthesized, and their structures were elucidated by the UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The UV and IR calculations of the molecules were performed by using B3LYP, HF and MP2 methods with selected 6-311++G(2d,2p), 6-311++G(3df,3pd) and cc-pvtz basis sets. Dipole moment, polarizability, chemical hardness/softness and electronegativity were also calculated and analyzed. Experimental FT-IR spectra and UV-Vis spectrum of the compounds were compared with theoretical data. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of the compounds were practised via different test methods such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPHrad), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPDrad +), and 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTSrad +) scavenging activity assays. When compared with standards (BHA-Butylated hydroxyanisole, RUT-Rutin, and TRO-Trolox), it was observed that especially XIII and XIV which include methoxy groups at the o- and m-positions, respectively, had effective activities.

  18. Antioxidant properties of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2009-12-01

    Currants and sultanas (Vitis vinifera L., Family Vitaceae) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used widely in the Mediterranean diet. We investigated the polar methanol extracts from the raisins for the antiradical activity, polyphenol content, cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, total glutathione (GSH) levels, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Extracts exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and inhibited tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cytotoxicity, GSH decrease, and LDL oxidation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the characteristic apoptotic patterns with tBHP and inhibition with the extracts. Elevated levels of total GSH and unaltered levels of GSSG with extract treatment demonstrated the induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The antioxidant activity was correlated to the polyphenolic content. Greek currants and sultanas are suggested as antioxidant components of the Mediterranean basin.

  19. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health. PMID:26784174

  20. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Aminoethylcysteine Ketimine Decarboxylated Dimer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Macone, Alberto; Fontana, Mario; Barba, Marco; Botta, Bruno; Nardini, Mirella; Ghirga, Francesca; Calcaterra, Andrea; Pecci, Laura; Matarese, Rosa Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is a natural sulfur-containing compound detected in human plasma and urine, in mammalian brain and in many common edible vegetables. Over the past decade many studies have been undertaken to identify its metabolic role. Attention has been focused on its antioxidant properties and on its reactivity against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species. These properties have been studied in different model systems starting from plasma lipoproteins to specific cellular lines. All these studies report that aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is able to interact both with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite and its derivatives). Its antioxidant activity is similar to that of Vitamin E while higher than other hydrophilic antioxidants, such as trolox and N-acetylcysteine. PMID:21686170

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of monoaromatic derivatives of pulvinic acids.

    PubMed

    Habrant, Damien; Poigny, Stéphane; Ségur-Derai, Muriel; Brunel, Yves; Heurtaux, Benoît; Le Gall, Thierry; Strehle, Axelle; Saladin, Régis; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles; Wagner, Alain

    2009-04-23

    The natural mushroom pigment Norbadione A and three other pulvinic acids were shown by our group to display very efficient antioxidant properties by comparison with a collection of potent molecules including catechols, flavonoids, stilbenes, or coumarins. Despite numerous publications on robust and straightforward synthetic access to pulvinic acids by us and others, no report has been made to unravel the structure-activity relationships that govern the striking antioxidant activity. Herein is presented the synthesis of 18 diverse pulvinic acid derivatives and the study of their radical scavenging capacities by four different assays. The influence of each of the two phenyl rings, of their substituents and of the lateral chain on the antioxidant properties, was explored to reveal a simplified structure of excellent activity. These results, along with the absence of cytotoxicity, make the synthesized compounds interesting to evaluate for several biological activities and especially for anti-inflammatory effects and skin protection against UV induced oxidative stress.

  3. Investigation of antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol.

  4. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications.

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  7. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  8. Angiomodulatory properties of Rhodiola spp. and other natural antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara J.; Białoszewska, Agata; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Borecka, Anna; Hevelke, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of angiogenesis and oxidative stress can lead to many serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. Substances neutralizing oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. They can affect angiogenesis process also, and thus, they modulate therapy results. Antioxidants become more and more frequently used in order to maintain homeostasis of the organism and diminish the risk of disease. Herein, we introduce some antioxidant preparations of natural plant origin (Rhodiola, Aloe vera, Resveratrol, Echinacea, Plumbagin) and antioxidant supplements (Padma 28, Reumaherb, Resvega). Analyses of their angiogenic properties, their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis as well as medical application are within the scope of this review. Most of presented preparations down regulate neovascularization. They can be safely administered to patients with abnormally high angiogenesis. Rhodiola modulates, and Echinacea, Aloe vera and Plumbagin inhibit tumour-related angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (animal models). Resveratrol and Resvega reduce neovascularization in the eye and may be applicable in eye disorders. Padma 28 preparation exhibits angioregulatory activity, decreasing high angiogenesis of cancer cells and increasing physiological angiogenesis, therefore can be used in therapy of patients with various disturbances of angiogenesis. Antioxidant application in the case of angiogenesis-related diseases should take into consideration angiogenic status of the patient. PMID:26557041

  9. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  10. Explorative study of apple juice fluorescence in relation to antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Włodarska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Lemańska, Katarzyna; Khmelinskii, Igor; Sikorska, Ewa

    2016-11-01

    Total fluorescence spectra (excitation-emission matrices, EEM) were recorded for a series of commercial apple juices, including clear and cloudy juices produced from concentrate, cloudy juices that were not from concentrate, and freshly squeezed juices. An exploratory study of the spectra with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed three groups of fluorophores with different emission properties, and these properties were characterized by excitation/emission maxima at 270/315nm, (310, 370)/455nm, and 430/(550, 680)nm, respectively. A regression analysis of the total fluorescence spectra arranged into three-way arrays using N-way partial least squares regression methods (NPLS1 and NPLS2) and an analysis of the unfolded spectra by partial least squares methods (PLS1 and PLS2) revealed quantitative relations between the fluorescence and antioxidant properties of juices. The best models for the total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacities were obtained by applying the NPLS1 method to the EEM. The model parameters were as follows: R(2)CV=0.802, RPD=2.3 for the total phenolic content and R(2)CV=0.808 and RPD=2.3 for the total antioxidant capacity. These results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening apple juices for their antioxidant properties.

  11. Antioxidant Properties and Cardioprotective Mechanism of Malaysian Propolis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Romana; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2017-01-01

    Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:28261310

  12. Molecular Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Three Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita Roy; Borthakur, Madhusmita; Saha, Ajay Krishna; Joshi, Santa Ram; Das, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L. squarrosulus has the highest reducing power. The highest total phenol content and the most ascorbic acid were found in the M. gigantean extracts. Among the 3 mushroom extracts, M. gigantean displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. Molecular characterization using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region as a universal DNA marker was an effective tool in the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the studied mushrooms. The study also indicated that these wild macrofungi are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

  13. Antioxidant properties of scopoletin isolated from Sinomonium acutum.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Chin-Ying; Chen, Chen-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2003-08-01

    Scopoletin was isolated from Sinomonium acutum and studied using four experimental models designed to assess antioxidant properties. The results indicated that scopoletin scavenged superoxide anion in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction system in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not inhibit xanthine oxidase. Scopoletin may therefore be responsible for the superoxide anion scavenging activity seen in Sinomonium acutum extracts and may be of use in preventing superoxide anion-induced damage in vivo.

  14. Structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-03-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of somatic hybrid PCH9FB, obtained through intergeneric protoplast fusion between the strains Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, the polysaccharide was found to contain galactose, fucose, and glucose in a molar ratio of nearly 2:1:2. Methylation analysis and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) showed that the structure of the repeating unit present in the polysaccharide was This molecule showed macrophage, splenocyte, thymocyte activation as well as antioxidant property.

  15. From genotype to apricot fruit quality: the antioxidant properties contribution.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Annamaria; Bartolini, Susanna; Viti, Raffaella

    2012-12-01

    Apricot fruit (Prunus armeniaca L.) quality strictly relates to the eating quality of fresh produce. Since consumers are more and more interested in healthy food, and apricot germplasm shows a wide choice of new selections and cultivars, apricot nutraceutical properties are under evaluation in order to select outstanding genotypes, which may link breeding and marketing. In the present study, 18 apricot genotypes of the Italian and international germplasm were evaluated over three years according to pomological, total antioxidant and total phenols attributes using principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. The antioxidant capacity ranged from 1.24 to 11.47 μmolTE gFW⁻¹ and total phenols from 0.22 to 1.58 mgGAE gFW⁻¹. Four outstanding genotypes stood out as healthy food for fresh consumption which may also be introduced in breeding programs to produce new cultivars with improved nutraceutical values in addition to fruit qualitative attributes.

  16. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    PubMed

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  17. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.

    PubMed

    Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

    2014-11-01

    The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87 mg gallic acid equiv./100 g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72 mg rutin equiv./100 g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14 mg/100 g honey in LH and 42.65 mg/100 g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06 mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23 mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60 mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots.

  18. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals.

  19. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  20. Effect of the incorporation of antimicrobial/antioxidant proteins on the properties of potato starch films.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Olga; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2015-11-20

    Glycerol plasticized potato starch films containing bioactive proteins (lactoferrin (LF) and/or lysozyme (LZ), at 0.1 and 0.2 ratio with respect to starch) were obtained by casting method and characterized as to their microstructural, thermal and physical (water content, mechanical, water and oxygen barrier, optical) properties. The bioactive properties, named antioxidant and antimicrobial, of the proteins and the films were also characterized. The incorporation of proteins affected the structural and physical properties of potato starch films, while modifying their thermal behavior and increasing the glass transition temperature. Both proteins showed a certain degree of compatibility with starch chains through the bond formations (increase in Tg), while a part is separated and migrates to the film surface. Their incorporation, especially that of lactoferrin, greatly increased the film's brittleness, regardless of the films water content, although they enhance the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties, whatever the age of the film. Protein also reduced the film's transparency and gloss, while lactoferrin induced color changes. The thermal degradation of blend films and isolated proteins occurred at temperatures of over 250°C, which means that blend starch films can be thermoprocessed, according to their thermoplastic properties and following the usual practices of the plastics industries. A synergistic antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli and coliforms was observed when both LZ and LF were simultaneously applied. Both of these exhibited antioxidant capacity.

  1. Pharmacognostic and Antioxidant Properties of Dracaena sanderiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei Gee; Mat Yusuf, Siti Nur Aishah; Lim, Vuanghao

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants are used to neutralise free radicals and protect the body from free radicals by maintaining the redox balance. The antioxidant properties of Dracaena sanderiana leaves were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. The classes of secondary metabolites were evaluated through pharmacognostic studies, and active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). All ethanol-water extracts and D. sanderiana leaf powder were positive for tannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, and quinones. Flavonoids were present in 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% ethanol extracts (E100, E80, E60, and E40). E100 showed the highest total flavonoid content, whereas E60 extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. GC-MS revealed the presence of glycerol, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one, n-dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoid acid, (n-) hexadecanoid acid, and n-octadecanoic acid in the E60 extract. PMID:27556495

  2. "Synthesis, characterization and studies on antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles using Elephantopus scaber leaf extract".

    PubMed

    Kharat, Sopan N; Mendhulkar, Vijay D

    2016-05-01

    The simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticle in the leaf extract of medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber L. is illustrated in the present work. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized with UV-Vis-spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The UV-spectra show maximum absorbance at 435 nm, NTA analysis shows 78 nm average sizes of nanoparticles, TEM analysis indicates spherical shape of the nanoparticles with the average diameter of 50 nm. The XRD peaks at 2θ range of 30-80° correspond to (111), (200), (220), (311) reflection planes that indicate the structure of metallic silver. FTIR analysis reveals surface capping of phenolic groups. Existence of peaks in the range of 1611 to 1400 cm(-1) indicates the presence of aromatic rings in the leaf extract. The peak at 1109 cm(-1) is due to the presence of OH groups. The antioxidant activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated performing DPPH assay and it is observed that the photosynthesized nanoparticle also possesses antioxidant potentials. Thus, it can be used as potential free radical scavenger. Silver particles have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this context, the surface coating of plant metabolite constituents has great potentials. Therefore, the present work has been undertaken to synthesize the AgNPs using leaf extract of medicinal plant, E. scaber, to characterize and access their antioxidant properties.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; de Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antônia

    2014-01-01

    Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was tested using two methods (DPPH inhibition and sequestration of nitric oxide). The antiangiogenic properties were evaluated using the inflammatory angiogenesis model in the corneas of rats. The extract of C. echinata demonstrated a high capacity to inhibit free radicals, with IC50 equal to 42.404 µg/mL for the DPPH test and 234.2 µg/mL for nitric oxide. Moreover, it showed itself capable of inhibiting the inflammatory angiogenic response by 77.49%. These data suggest that biochemical components belonging to the extract of C. echinata interfere in mechanisms that control the angiogenic process, mediated by substrates belonging to the arachidonic acid cascade, although the data described above also suggest that the NO buffer may contribute to some extent to the reduction in the angiogenic response. PMID:24563668

  4. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  5. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants.

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Kynurenines: Density Functional Theory Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenines, the main products of tryptophan catabolism, possess both prooxidant and anioxidant effects. Having multiple neuroactive properties, kynurenines are implicated in the development of neurological and cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Autoxidation of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HOK) and its derivatives, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) and xanthommatin (XAN), leads to the hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damage cell structures. At the same time, 3HOK and 3HAA have been shown to be powerful ROS scavengers. Their ability to quench free radicals is believed to result from the presence of the aromatic hydroxyl group which is able to easily abstract an electron and H-atom. In this study, the redox properties for kynurenines and several natural and synthetic antioxidants have been calculated at different levels of density functional theory in the gas phase and water solution. Hydroxyl bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) for 3HOK and 3HAA appear to be lower than for xanthurenic acid (XAA), several phenolic antioxidants, and ascorbic acid. BDE and IP for the compounds with aromatic hydroxyl group are lower than for their precursors without hydroxyl group. The reaction rate for H donation to *O-atom of phenoxyl radical (Ph-O*) and methyl peroxy radical (Met-OO*) decreases in the following rankings: 3HOK ~ 3HAA > XAAOXO > XAAENOL. The enthalpy absolute value for Met-OO* addition to the aromatic ring of the antioxidant radical increases in the following rankings: 3HAA* < 3HOK* < XAAOXO* < XAAENOL*. Thus, the high free radical scavenging activity of 3HAA and 3HOK can be explained by the easiness of H-atom abstraction and transfer to O-atom of the free radical, rather than by Met-OO* addition to the kynurenine radical. PMID:27861556

  7. Octyl gallate: An antioxidant demonstrating selective and sensitive fluorescent property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongkui; Li, Hui

    2017-03-15

    Octyl gallate (OG) is an internationally recognized antioxidant that demonstrates selective and sensitive fluorescent property. The fluorescence of OG can be selectively enhanced in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The specific structures of HSA and BSA provided the basic conditions for fluorescence enhancement. OG yielded approximately 49- and 11-fold increments in emission intensity in the presence of HSA and BSA at a molar ratio of 1:1, respectively. The lifetimes of HSA and BSA correspondingly decreased. A Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon occurred during interaction between OG and HSA or BSA. Our in-depth investigation of OG-HSA interaction showed that formation of a stable complex was an important prerequisite to efficiently enhance the fluorescence of OG. The selective and sensitive fluorescent property of OG can possibly be used to determine OG concentration via the standard addition method, which must be performed under certain conditions.

  8. Optimized Extraction, Preliminary Characterization, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wan-Chen; Gu, Xin-Li

    2017-04-13

    BACKGROUND This study performed optimized extraction, preliminary characterization, and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three parameters (extraction temperature, ratio of water to raw material, and extraction time) were optimized for yields of G. uralensis polysaccharides (GUP) using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The GUP was purified using DEAE cellulose 32-column chromatography. The main fraction obtained from G. uralensis Fisch was GUP-II, which was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose monosaccharide, was screened for antioxidant properties using DP Hand hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. In addition, immunological activity of GUP-II was determined by nitric oxide and lymphocyte proliferation assays. RESULTS Optimization revealed maximum GUP yields with an extraction temperature of 99°C, water: raw material ratio of 15: 1, and extraction duration of 2 h. GUP-II purified from G. uralensis Fisch had good in vitro DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities. Immunologically, GUP-II significantly stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and significantly enhanced LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS Extraction of GUP from G. uralensis Fisch can be optimized with respect to temperature, extraction period, and ratio of water to material, using response surface methodology. The purified product (GUP-II) possesses excellent antioxidant and immunological activities.

  9. The Anti-Oxidant and Antitumor Properties of Plant Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Rui; Liu, Yingxia; Gao, Hao; Xiao, Jia; So, Kwok Fai

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been increasingly recognized as a major contributing factor in a variety of human diseases, from inflammation to cancer. Although certain parts of signaling pathways are still under investigation, detailed molecular mechanisms for the induction of diseases have been elucidated, especially the link between excessive oxygen reactive species (ROS) damage and tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence suggests anti-oxidant therapy can play a key role in treating those diseases. Among potential drug resources, plant polysaccharides are natural anti-oxidant constituents important for human health because of their long history in ethnopharmacology, wide availability and few side effects upon consumption. Plant polysaccharides have been shown to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, cell viability promotion, immune-regulation and antitumor functions in a number of disease models, both in laboratory studies and in the clinic. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of signaling pathways involved in the initiation and progression of oxidative stress- and cancer-related diseases in humans. The natural sources, structural properties and biological actions of several common plant polysaccharides, including Lycium barbarum, Ginseng, Zizyphus Jujuba, Astragalus lentiginosus, and Ginkgo biloba are discussed in detail, with emphasis on their signaling pathways. All of the mentioned common plant polysaccharides have great potential to treat oxidative stress and cancinogenic disorders in cell models, animal disease models and clinical cases. ROS-centered pathways (e.g. mitochondrial autophagy, MAPK and JNK) and transcription factor-related pathways (e.g. NF-[Formula: see text]B and HIF) are frequently utilized by these polysaccharides with or without the further involvement of inflammatory and death receptor pathways. Some of the polysaccharides may also influence tumorigenic pathways, such as Wnt and p53 to play their anti-tumor roles. In addition, current

  10. Antioxidant characterization of oak extracts combining spectrophotometric assays and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Zdero, Ružica; Orlović, Saša; Galić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia) were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water) extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP) determinations against DPPH(•), (•)NO, and O2 (•-) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC) was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP), pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy.

  11. Characterization of antioxidant-antimicrobial κ-carrageenan films containing Satureja hortensis essential oil.

    PubMed

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Ojagh, Seyed Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing biodegradable composite kappa-carrageenan films incorporated with Satureja hortensis (SEO) in terms of their physical, optical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties. Also, in a comparative study, we sought to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of these films against five pathogens. The films' water vapor barrier properties were found to improve considerably upon the addition of SEO. Carrageenan composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss than the control film. These results can be explained by the film's microstructure, which was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The films incorporating SEO showed good antioxidant properties; this effect was greatly improved when the proportion of added SEO was 3%. Films with SEO effectively inhibited the five microorganisms tested. The results of the present study suggest that SEO as a natural antibacterial agent can potentially be used in packaging a wide range of food products, particularly those that are highly oxidative and microbial sensitive.

  12. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1′-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20μg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

  13. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements.

  14. Synthesis, structural characterization, electrical properties and antioxidant activity of [p-(NH3)C6H4NH3]3P6O18·6H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fezai, Ramzi; Mezni, Ali; Kahlaoui, Messaoud; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Single crystals of a novel organic cyclohexaphosphate, [p-(NH3)C6H4NH3]3P6O18.6H2O, have been prepared in aqueous solution. Its crystal structure can be described by a three-dimensional framework where the P6O186- rings are interconnected by hydrogen bonds to form anionic layers between which organic cations are located. Hydrogen bonding network connecting the different components is given. The thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of this material are given too. Its DC and AC electrical conductivities, modulus analysis and dielectric constants have been investigated. The AC conductivity is found to obey the universal power law. The DC electrical conductivity indicates a semiconductor behavior. The kind of the observed conduction is protonic by translocation. X-rays structural and electrical results are correlated. This compound has also been screened for its antioxidant activity, determined in vitro, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, reducing power, hydroxyl scavenging ability and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) methods and with ascorbic acid as reference.

  15. Purification and Characterization of an Antioxidant Protein from Fertilized Eggs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals may attack cells or tissue, leading to chronic diseases, and antioxidant consumption is potentially useful for removing free radicals. Egg proteins may be used as potential sources of antioxidant considering their ability of scavenging free radicals to apply for food or cosmetics industry. In this study, we obtained a natural antioxidant protein from fertilized eggs, which was a dietary supplement in some Asian countries. Meanwhile, antioxidant activities of these proteins were evaluated using different oxidation systems. With increasing incubation time, the antioxidant activity of these proteins increased during 15 d of incubation. The samples on day 15 were performed for isolation of antioxidant protein. The protein, named P4-1 (MW, 45 kDa), was isolated and purified by consecutive chromatographic methods. P4-1 contained 17 amino acids, which was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Amino Acid Analyzer. Moreover, the amino acid sequence was highly similar to that of ovalbumin. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the denaturation temperature of P4-1 was 57.16℃. Furthermore, P4-1 suggested high oxygen radical-absorbance activity in ·OH assays, and its antioxidant activity was stable at 30-50℃ in acidic and neutral pH. Thus, these results revealed that P4-1 may be a potential resource as a natural antioxidant. PMID:28115891

  16. Structural, physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sodium alginate isolated from a Tunisian brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Younes, Islem; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Maalej, Hana; Montero, Veronique; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Dahia, Mostefa; Mechichi, Tahar; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    An original sodium alginate from Tunisian seaweed (Cystoseira barbata) was purified and characterized by circular dichroism (CD) and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies. ATR-FTIR spectrum of C. barbata sodium alginate (CBSA) showed the characteristic bands of mannuronic (M) and guluronic acids (G). The M/G ratio was estimated by CD (M/G = 0.59) indicating that CBSA was composed of 37% mannuronic acid and 63% guluronic acid. The analysis of viscosity of CBSA showed evidence of pseudoplastic fluid behaviour. The emulsifying capacity of CBSA was evaluated at different concentrations (0.25-3%), temperatures (25-100 °C) and pH (3.0-11.0). Compared to most commercial emulsifiers, the emulsion formulated by CBSA was found to be less sensitive to temperature changes and more stable at acidic pH. CBSA was examined for antioxidant properties using various antioxidant assays. CBSA exhibited important DPPH radical-scavenging activity (74% inhibition at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml) and considerable ferric reducing potential. Effective hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity (82% at a concentration of 5 mg/ml) and potent protection activity against DNA breakage were also recorded for CBSA. However, in the linoleate-β-carotene system, CBSA exerted moderate antioxidant activity (60% at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml). Therefore, CBSA can be used as a natural ingredient in food industry or in the pharmaceutical field.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis and antioxidant properties of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coumarin derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological properties including promising antioxidant activity. Furthermore, microwave-assisted organic synthesis has delivered rapid routes to N- and O-containing heterocycles, including coumarins and thiazoles. Combining these features, the use of microwave-assisted processes will provide rapid access to a targeted coumarin library bearing a hydrazino pharmacophore for evaluation of antioxidant properties Results Microwave irradiation promoted 3 of the 4 steps in a rapid, convergent synthesis of a small library of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives, all of which exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of the natural antioxidant quercetin, as established by DPPH and ABTS radical assays Conclusions Microwave dielectric heating provides a rapid and expedient route to a series of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarins to investigate their radical scavenging properties. Given their favourable properties, in comparison with known antioxidants, these coumarin derivatives are promising leads for further development and optimization. PMID:22510146

  18. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared with common food additives.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez, A M; Ruggieri, S; Frega, N; Strabbioli, R; Murcia, M A

    2001-09-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food spices (annatto, cumin, oregano, sweet and hot paprika, rosemary, and saffron) at 5% concentration and of common food additives (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], and propyl gallate) at 100 microg/g are compared. The ability of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation was, in decreasing order, rosemary > oregano > propyl gallate > annatto > BHA > sweet paprika > cumin > hot paprika > saffron > BHT. Deoxyribose damage is partially inhibited in the presence of cumin extract that exhibits the strongest protective action. The rest of the spices also protect deoxyribose better than the BHA and BHT used in the assay. Finally, the results obtained in the assay point to the prooxidant effect of propyl gallate. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity is measured by using peroxidase-based assay systems. In aqueous medium, the spice extracts show lower antioxidant activity than propyl gallate, the decreasing order being cumin > oregano > annatto > rosemary > hot paprika > sweet paprika. BHA and BHT did not scavenge H2O2 Spices are able to scavenge HOCl and protect alpha1-antiproteinase. The results indicate that rosemary and oregano are more effective HOCl scavengers than the other substances analyzed, which, in decreasing order, were propyl gallate, annatto, sweet and hot paprika, saffron, and cumin. The effect of Mediterranean food spices on the oxidative stability of refined olive oil tested by the Rancimat method was compared with common food additives during storage (72 h, 2, 4, and 6 months) at room temperature. The results showed that the spice extracts analyzed have significant stabilizing effects (P < 0.05).

  19. Antioxidant properties of fungal metabolite nigerloxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suresha, B S; Srinivasan, K

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the beneficial influence of the fungal metabolite nigerloxin, a new aldose reductase inhibitor and a lipoxygenase inhibitor on oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In the present study we have investigated the antioxidant potential of nigerloxin in vitro as compared to one of the well known natural antioxidant, curcumin. The fungal metabolite nigerloxin was found to be an effective antioxidant in different in vitro assays including the phosphomolybdenum, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.),2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS.+) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The antioxidant potency of nigerloxin may be attributed to its electron donating nature. The ferric reducing potency of nigerloxin as demonstrated by FRAP assay method was even found to be superior to that of the natural antioxidant curcumin.

  20. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Chang, Yu-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC50 values (<10 mg/mL). Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22072892

  1. Antioxidant property enhancement of sweet potato flour under simulated gastrointestinal pH.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Umar, Imam Mustapha; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF (p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process.

  2. A study of the antioxidant properties of beers using electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Stanimirova, Ivana

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of various kinds of beers were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This was possible by measuring the changes in the intensity of the EPR spectrum that resulted from the interaction of the stable radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) with the antioxidants found in a beer sample. The antioxidant capacity was then presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g. μM trolox in a beer sample of 100ml. The influence of the type, colour, the content of the extract and alcohol on the antioxidant activities of commercial beer samples was investigated using two-way hierarchical clustering and analysis of variance. The results showed that all of the beers investigated exhibit antioxidant properties. By performing an analysis of variance, it was found that the value of the antioxidant capacity significantly (0.05 level of significance) depends on the content of the extract and the colour of the beer. It seems that additives also influence the antioxidant properties to some extent, but neither the alcohol content nor the kind of fermentation affects the antioxidant properties of beer.

  3. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2007-09-01

    For a number of years, coenzyme Q (CoQ10 in humans) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular fractions and in plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis on which research supporting the clinical use of CoQ10 is founded. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane level, coenzyme Q is recognized as an obligatory co-factor for the function of uncoupling proteins and a modulator of the transition pore. Furthermore, recent data reveal that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism, and transport and some of the effects of exogenously administered CoQ10 may be due to this property. Coenzyme Q is the only lipid soluble antioxidant synthesized endogenously. In its reduced form, CoQH2, ubiquinol, inhibits protein and DNA oxidation but it is the effect on lipid peroxidation that has been most deeply studied. Ubiquinol inhibits the peroxidation of cell membrane lipids and also that of lipoprotein lipids present in the circulation. Dietary supplementation with CoQ10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoproteins to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Moreover, CoQ10 has a direct anti-atherogenic effect, which has been demonstrated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed with a high-fat diet. In this model, supplementation with CoQ10 at pharmacological doses was capable of decreasing the absolute concentration of lipid hydroperoxides in atherosclerotic lesions and of minimizing the size of atherosclerotic lesions in the whole aorta. Whether these protective effects are only due to the antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q remains to be established; recent data point out that CoQ10 could have a direct effect on endothelial function. In patients with stable moderate CHF, oral CoQ10 supplementation was shown to ameliorate

  4. Plum pomaces as a potential source of dietary fibre: composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Sójka, Michał; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Zbrzeźniak, Monika; Markowski, Jarosław

    2013-10-01

    Plums because of their composition, especially of dietary fibre, sorbitol and polyphenols content, have positive influence on human health. Generally growing interest in cloudy juices production due to their prevalence compared to clear ones resulted in the appearance of plum cloudy juices on the market. Cloudy plum juice may be the attractive plum product, however during juice production some pomace appears, which is discarded or used for feeding animals most of all. This by product might be a source of valuable health-promoting compounds. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and properties of pomaces of three cultivars obtained in pilot plant scale. The influence of drying parameters and cultivar on bioactive components and antioxidant activity were measured. Plum pomaces were characterized by 38-49% of total dietary fibre in d. m., with the share of soluble fraction from 7 to 13%. Energy value was from 202 to 240 kcal 100 g(-1) d.m. Antioxidant activity was from 10 to 17.4 mikroM TEAC g(-1) d.m. Cultivar and technology of drying had significant influence on polyphenols content of investigated plum pomaces. Considering their health-beneficial components: dietary fiber and polyphenols, plum pomaces can be used for production of dietary fiber preparations.

  5. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  6. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Carolina V; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-08

    This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds.

  7. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  8. Anticancer and antioxidant properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Elanur; Türkez, Hasan; Taşdemir, Sener

    2013-09-01

    Terpinolene (TPO) is a natural monoterpene present in essential oils of many aromatic plant species. Although various biological activities of TPO have been demonstrated, its neurotoxicity has never been explored. In this in vitro study we investigated TPO's antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, genotoxic damage potential using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and oxidative effects through total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) in cultured primary rat neurons and N2a neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent effects of TPO (at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), 50 mg L(-1), 100 mg L(-1), 200 mg L(-1), and 400 mg L(-1)) were tested in both cell types. Significant (P<0.05) decrease in cell proliferation were observed in cultured primary rat neurons starting with the dose of 100 mg L(-1) and in N2a neuroblastoma cells starting with 50 mg L(-1). TPO was not genotoxic in either cell type. In addition, TPO treatment at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), and 50 mg L(-1) increased TAC in primary rat neurons, but not in N2a cells. However, at concentrations above 50 mg L(-1) it increased TOS in both cell types. Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.

  9. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes. PMID:27872791

  10. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  11. Redispersible liposomal-N-acetylcysteine powder for pulmonary administration: development, in vitro characterization and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Chaves, Paula Dos Santos; Souto, Gabriele Dadalt; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-12-18

    Liposomal dry powders of N-acetylcysteine (SD-NAC-Lip) were developed for pulmonary administration. Liposomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation and spray dried using lactose (10%, w/w) as drying adjuvant. The powders were characterized according to process yield, drug content, residual water content, particle size distribution, morphology and redispersion behavior. In vitro aerosol performance was evaluated using an eight-stage Andersen Cascade Impactor. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) present in the lungs of healthy Wistar rats after induction of oxidation by iron/EDTA. The spray-drying process had a high yield (71%±2), drug content (mg/g) according to the expected value, moisture content below 9%, geometric mean diameter under 3μm with span value lower than 1. Spherical particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Liposomal dry-powders were able to recover the nanometric size of the original dispersion after their redispersion in aqueous medium, as shown by laser diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the powders presented aerodynamic diameter of about 7μm and respirable fraction above 30%, indicating suitable properties for pulmonary use. The encapsulation of N-acetylcysteine in liposomes was essential to maintain its in vitro antioxidant activity after the drying process. In addition, the powder containing the encapsulated drug had better in vitro antioxidant activity than the liquid and solid formulations containing the non-encapsulated drug, which makes it a good candidate for the treatment of pulmonary diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  12. Production, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Fucoxanthin from the Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Song; Wang, Ke; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    The production, characterization, and antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid fucoxanthin from the marine diatom Odontella aurita were investigated. The results showed that low light and nitrogen-replete culture medium enhanced the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin. The maximum biomass concentration of 6.36 g L−1 and maximum fucoxanthin concentration of 18.47 mg g−1 were obtained in cultures grown in a bubble column photobioreactor (Ø 3.0 cm inner diameter), resulting in a fucoxanthin volumetric productivity of 7.96 mg L−1 day−1. A slight reduction in biomass production was observed in the scaling up of O. aurita culture in a flat plate photobioreactor, yet yielded a comparable fucoxanthin volumetric productivity. A rapid method was developed for extraction and purification of fucoxanthin. The purified fucoxanthin was identified as all-trans-fucoxanthin, which exhibited strong antioxidant properties, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC50) of 1,1-dihpenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical being 0.14 and 0.03 mg mL−1, respectively. Our results suggested that O. aurita can be a natural source of fucoxanthin for human health and nutrition. PMID:23880936

  13. Production, characterization and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides from submerged culture of Morchella crassipes.

    PubMed

    He, Peixin; Geng, Lujing; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the fermentation optimization, molecular characterization, and antioxidant activity in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Morchella crassipes in submerged culture. Firstly, an optimal medium for EPS production was obtained by single-factor experiment and central composite design as follows: maltose 44.79 g/L and tryptone 4.21 g/L. Then, one fraction of EPS was obtained from the culture filtrates by size exclusion chromatography and the molecular characteristics were examined by a multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar mass and the polydispersity ratio of the EPS fraction were revealed to be 1.961 × 10(4) g/mol and 1.838, respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the purified EPS fraction. Finally, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated and the relationship with molecular properties was discussed as well.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of selenium polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Fei; Gao, Hui; Sun, Huiqing; Meng, Meng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-12-01

    A purified selenium-containing derivatives of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide synthesized using H2SeO3/HNO3 and BaCl2 as a catalyst was investigated in this paper. The reaction condition was optimized by selecting different reaction temperature and period. Afterward, the one with the highest Se content was purified by ultra-filtration device with a molecular cut off size of 10KDa. Followed by its structural characterizations. Results of IFR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in selenized polysaccharide. The modified polysaccharide with molecular weight of 1998 KDa was mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in the mole ratios of with the mole ratios of 1:28.63:1.41. Thermogravimetric and morphological analyses of the samples were carried out by AFS, SEM and AFM. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant results suggested that selenium-containing polysaccharide should be applied as a novel selenium source in dietary supplements, with potent antioxidant properties.

  15. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%).

  16. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice)

    PubMed Central

    Simon Gonzalez Schumacher, Nayara; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Baú Betim Cazarin, Cinthia; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Molina Meletti, Laura Maria; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  18. Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME.

  19. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    substantiate the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. cerasus extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect bearing significant fluctuation with biochemical properties. Since many of those molecules are known to have immuno-biochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sour cherries may have putative antiinflammatory potential and applications in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating and attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro.

  20. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  1. Biophenols and antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal.

    PubMed

    Obied, Hassan K; Song, Yi; Foley, Sonia; Loughlin, Michael; Rehman, Ata-ur; Mailer, Rodney; Masud, Tariq; Agboola, Samson

    2013-09-25

    During the extraction of canola oil, large quantities of meal are produced. Extracting biophenols from Australian canola meal (ACM) adds value to an otherwise low-value agro-industrial byproduct. This study examined the biophenol content and the antioxidant activity of ACM, the impact of extraction conditions, and varietal differences. Sinapine was the principal biophenol in ACM. In crude and hydrolyzed extracts, 31 compounds were identified: 2 dihexosides, 2 organic acids, 4 glucosinolates, 17 sinapic acid derivatives, 2 cyclic spermidine alkaloids, caffeic acid and its dihexoside, kaempferol, and its C-glucoside. ACM showed significant free radical scavenging activity in DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) assays. Sinapine was the chief contributor to ACM antioxidant activity, whereas kaempferol sinapoyl triglucoside isomer was the most potent antioxidant. Biophenol content ranged between 12.8 and 15.4 mg GAE/g DW. Differences among studied cultivars were generally quantitative. The Tarcoola cultivar showed the highest biophenol content and antioxidant activity.

  2. An overview on natural polysaccharides with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Liu, Y M; Qi, Z M; Wang, S Y; Liu, S X; Li, X; Wang, H J; Xia, X C

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy using natural substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. With the rapid development of biotechnologies and analytical techniques, a great number of methods have been developed for the identification and quantification of the material, extracts, and products of natural ingredients. The advances available today. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. As an example, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. During the last several years, we have witnessed a steady expansion in the number of publications that focus in antioxidant polysaccharides. This review presents current findings on the latest advancements and trends in antioxidant polysaccharides isolated from the following: plants, fungi, bacteria, animal sources, and algae. Some interesting studies focus on investigation of the relationship between their structure and antioxidant activity, elucidation of their antioxidant mechanism at the molecular level, and improvement of their various biological activities by chemical modifications. Although the mechanism of their antioxidant action is still not completely clear, these polysaccharides are suggested to enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro and act as biological response modifiers.

  3. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  4. Antioxidant properties of prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Shin-ichi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Yamada, Naoko Fukutsuka; Aoki, Asuka; Kasamatsu, Kumi; Yamasaki, Yuka; Ikami, Takao; Suzuki, Tomoo; Mitani, Takahiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2004-01-01

    Prunes contain large amounts of phenolics and show high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to clarify the contents of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, and to estimate the contribution of these isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes. Furthermore, structural elucidation and evaluation of antioxidant activity of prune components were also performed. CQA isomers in prunes were quantified by HPLC analysis, and it has become apparent that prunes contain relatively high amount of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The contribution of CQA isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes was revealed to be 28.4% on the basis of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); hence, it was indicated that residual ORAC is dependent on unknown antioxidant components. Total 28 compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. Four abscisic acid related compounds, a chromanon, and a bipyrrole were novel. Each CQA isomer in prunes showed high antioxidant activities when measured by the oil stability index (OSI) method, O2- scavenging activity, and ORAC. Other isolated compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, coumarins, lignans, and flavonoid showed high ORAC values. Furthermore, a novel chromanon indicated a remarkable synergistic effect on ORAC of CQA isomers.

  5. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity evaluation of lignins from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Salanti, Anika; Zoia, Luca; Orlandi, Marco; Zanini, Fabiana; Elegir, Graziano

    2010-09-22

    In recent years, lignin and extractives from herbaceous plants and crops are receiving increasing attention for their renewability and large annual biomass stock. It is worth noting that only a few studies deal with the chemical characterization of rice husk, a side product of one of the most important crops with regard to human nutrition. Thus, in this study lignin from rice husk was isolated and characterized. Two different extraction procedures were optimized and tested: acidolysis and alkaline enzymatic (AE). The different lignins isolated were fully characterized by means of gravimetric, chromatographic (GPC), and spectroscopic (31P NMR, 2D-HSQC-NMR) analyses with the aim to compare yields, sample purity, and chemical properties, recognized as key parameters for future development. Notwithstanding the extraction procedure, the results highlighted that rice husk lignin is mainly formed by guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenyl units. The acidolytic approach showed an appreciable lignin recovery and high purity, whereas the AE lignin sample was found to be rich in residual polysaccharides and oxidized functionalities. Moreover, different rice husk extracts, along with acidolysis lignin and AE lignin specimens, were assayed for their antioxidant activity by means of a DPPH radical scavenging test.

  6. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO–Ppy/CS and ITO–Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  7. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO-Ppy/CS and ITO-Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs.

  8. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    bearing significant biochemical properties of a variety of extraction methods. Further studies are currently investigating the effect of specific antioxidants of P. avium on microbial growth in vitro per se. Since many of the aforementioned molecules hold immunobiochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sweet cherries may have putative anti-inflammatory potential in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating/attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro.

  9. Structural, physicochemical, antioxidant and antitumor property of an acidic polysaccharide from Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Xue, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the structural characterization, physicochemical property, antioxidant and antitumor activity of an acidic polysaccharide (APS) from Polygonum multiflorum were investigated. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed APS was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 1.23:1.32:1.48:1.00. The presence of uronic acid was also confirmed by the bands at 1740, 1645 and 1425cm(-1) on Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses showed APS was mainly composed by the residues of →5)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →3)-β-d-Galp-(1→, →3,6)-β-d-Galp-(1→, →4)-α-d-GalAp-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ in the backbone. The non-reducing terminal α-l-Araf-(1→ was probably attached to the O-6 position of →3,6)-β-d-Galp-(1→ residues. Besides, APS exhibited rod-like and flaky shapes with rough surface. The initial decomposition of APS occurred at 172°C, and the rapidest weight loss rate of APS appeared at 320°C. Antioxidant activity assay showed the DPPH radical scavenging activity of APS was 67.5% at 1mg/mL. At the concentration of 400μg/mL, the antiproliferation activities of APS against HepG-2 and BGC-823 cells were 65.28% and 51.57%, respectively. Our results suggested APS could be a potential antioxidant and antitumor agent.

  10. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  11. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.

  12. Structural analysis, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Chaker, Achraf; Jridi, Mourad; Maalej, Hana; Jellouli, Kemel; Boufi, Sami; Nasri, Moncef

    2016-08-01

    The development and characterization of biodegradable blend films based on chitosan and poly (vinyl alcohol) for possible use in a variety of biological activities are reported. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (Ch/PVA) films showed characteristics peaks shifting to a lower frequency range due to hydrogen bonding between -OH of PVA and -NH2 of chitosan. The chitosan and PVA polymers presented good compatibility. The morphology study of chitosan and composite films showed a compact and homogenous structure. The tensile strength and elongation at break increased with PVA content. In fact, the highest tensile strength and elongation at break (53.58 MPa and 454 %) occurs with pure PVA film. The results showed that PVA incorporation in the blends contributes to increase the intermolecular interactions, thus improving the mechanical properties. In addition, the prepared films demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching activity. Nevertheless, PVA addition reduced antioxidant and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested.

  13. Investigation of chemical compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of teucrium arduini L. (lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kremer, Dario; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Kosalec, Ivan; Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Potocnik, Tanja; Cerenak, Andreja; Bezic, Nada; Srecec, Sinisa; Dunkic, Valerija

    2013-08-01

    In this paper chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the content of phenolic compounds (analysed by HPLC), quantity of total phenols and total flavonoids (analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer), antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts were investigated in endemic Teucrium arduini L. in population of Mt Biokovo (Croatia). The oil was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.4%) of which β-caryophyllene (35.2%) and germacrene D (18.7%) being the major compounds. Three phenolic compounds (quercetin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) were identified and quantified in ethanolic extract of T. arduini using HPLC. The results also showed that T. arduini is a source of polyphenolic and other antioxidants with radical-scavenging and chelating properties. The ethanol extracts prepared from the leaf of T. arduini showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which are susceptible on concentration below or equal to 4.00 mg/mL, whilst Microsporum gypseum was resistant at investigated concentrations.

  14. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of propofol and its nitrosoderivative. comparison with homologue substituted phenols.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, Maria Pia; Stevanato, Roberto; Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Scutari, Guido; Boscolo, Rita; Folda, Alessandra; Bindoli, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), some substituted phenols (2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,6-ditertbutylphenol) and their 4-nitrosoderivatives have been compared for their scavenging ability towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and for their inhibitory action on lipid peroxidation. These products were also compared to the classical antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole. When measuring the reactivity of the various phenolic derivatives with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl the following order of effectiveness was observed: butylated hydroxyanisole > propofol > 2,6-dimethylphenol > 2,6-di-tertbutylphenol > butylated hydroxytoluene. In cumene hydroperoxide-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation, propofol acts as the most effective antioxidant, while butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-di-tertbutylphenol and butylated hydroxytoluene exhibit a rather similar effect, although lower than propofol. In the iron/ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation propofol, at concentrations higher than 10 microM, exhibits antioxidant properties comparable to those of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-Dimethylphenol is scarcely effective in both lipoperoxidative systems. The antioxidant properties of the various molecules depend on their hydrophobic characteristics and on the steric and electronic effects of their substituents. However, the introduction of the nitroso group in the 4-position almost completely removes the antioxidant properties of the examined compounds. The nitrosation of the aromatic ring of antioxidant molecules and the consequent loss of antioxidant capacity can be considered a condition potentially occurring in vivo since nitric oxide and its derivatives are continuously formed in biological systems.

  15. Cold-storage affects antioxidant properties of apples in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tarozzi, Andrea; Marchesi, Alessandra; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2004-05-01

    Data on the composition of phenolic antioxidant compounds present in food plants and assessment of their activity are essential for epidemiological explanation of the health benefits of fruit and vegetables. Various factors such as cultivation methods, industrial processing, and storage may affect the final concentrations of phytochemicals in food plants and their eventual bioactivity. This study investigated the influence of commercial cold-storage periods on the antioxidant properties of apples grown either by organic or integrated systems. In both cases, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity decreased only in the first 3 mo and only in apples with skin (P < 0.05), suggesting that cold storage rapidly impoverishes these properties in skin but not in pulp. Assessment of antioxidant bioactivity in vitro, measured in terms of intracellular antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiproliferative activity in human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells (differentiated to normal intestinal epithelia for intracellular antioxidant and cytoprotective effects), showed strong, time-related decreases over 6 mo of cold storage for all 3 parameters (P < 0.01), irrespective of the cultivation system. These findings with integrated and organic apples further support the concept that organic systems of cultivation do not generally provide real health benefits. Moreover, the data from the present study clearly show that factors such as cold storage may affect the antioxidant properties of apples. Epidemiological studies on the cancer-preventive benefits of fruits and vegetables should take into account the cold-storage bias for apples, and possibly for other products.

  16. Use of Gallic Acid to Enhance the Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Active Fish Gelatin Film.

    PubMed

    Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film.

  17. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  18. Production and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate from Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel).

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2014-09-01

    Fishery waste and by-products are valuable sources of raw material for recovery of antioxidant and bioactive peptides. Due to the increased demand for protein hydrolysates with antioxidative properties by various sectors of consumable food, health care and pharmaceutical industries, the present study focused in the production of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic digestion from the backbone of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluated its antioxidant potential. The observed results of the degree of hydrolysis suggest that the rapid phase of proteolytic cleavage was occurred in the first 60 minutes of incubation and during this period, the rate of hydrolysis was found to be increased with increasing ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration. The result of the antioxidant properties clearly indicates that the 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficacy of FPH was similar to that of synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The FPH also exhibited significant reducing power ability and great potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in equivalence with that of synthetic and natural antioxidants such as BHT and α-tocopherol respectively. The overall findings of the study reveal that, FPH produced by tryptic digestion has considerable amount of bioactive peptides with potent antioxidant properties. The synthesized FPH is a good candidate for further development into a commercial food additive.

  19. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  1. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  2. Screening of antioxidant properties of seven Umbelliferae fruits from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Bahman; Abolhasani, Farideh Al-Sadat

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activities (IC(50)) of ethanol extracts from seven Umbelliferae fruits (Bunium persicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum and Trachyspermum copticum) have been studied by the DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test. All the studied extracts showed antioxidant capability and P. anisum extract exhibited the strongest activity. The scavenging activity of the extracts in decreasing order was: P. anisum> T. copticum> C. cyminum> F. vulgare > or = B. persicum > or = C. sativum> H. persicum. The extracts were also investigated regarding their total flavonoid contents by the AlCl3 technique. The decreasing order of the flavonoid content of the extracts was: C. cyminum > T. copticum> P. anisum > or = H. persicum > or = B. persicum > or = F. vulgare > or = C. sativum. However, a favorable correlation was not found between the antioxidant activity and the total flavonoid content of the extracts. As well, the most active extract (i.e. P. anisum) was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to yield three organic fractions together with the remaining aqueous fraction. The antioxidative activities (IP%) and flavonoid contents of the fractions were also determined. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest activity and content. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant potency and flavonoid content of the fractions.

  3. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songhai; Li, Feng; Jia, Shaoyi; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Lv, Zesheng; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-15

    Three polysaccharides (ABMP-F, ABMP-V, ABMP-A) were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill via methods such as freeze drying, vacuum drying and air drying, respectively. Their chemical compositions were examined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of assay for hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and assay for Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Results showed that the three ABMPs have different physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Compared with air drying and vacuum drying methods, freeze drying method resulted to ABMP with higher neutral sugar, polysaccharide yield, uronic acid content, and stronger antioxidant abilities of hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating. As a result, Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides are natural antioxidant and freeze drying method serves as a good choice for the preparation of such polysaccharides and should be used to produce antioxidants for food industry.

  4. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    PubMed

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

  5. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  6. Antioxidant Properties of the Methanol Extract of the Wood and Pericarp of Caesalpinia decapetala

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, CR; Surana, SJ

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts from the wood and pericarp of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Caesalpiniaceae) were assessed in efforts to validate the herb. The antioxidant activity of the plant has been studied using its ability to scavenger DPPH, superoxide radicals, and nitric oxide radical along with its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant activity and phenolic content of the pericarp as determined by the DPPH, superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical, total phenols, the flavonoids, and total flavonols were higher than that of the wood. Analysis of plant extracts revealed a high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids suggesting a possible role of these phytoconstituents in the antioxidant property. Moreover, the results were observed in a concentration and dose dependent manner. Studies clearly indicate that the C. decapetala has significant antioxidant activity. PMID:21331190

  7. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of the Leaves and Stem Essential Oils of Jatropha gossypifolia L.

    PubMed Central

    Iweriebor, Benson C.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the leaves and stem essential oils (EOs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and their efficacies against infectious and oxidative stress diseases were studied in vitro. The EOs obtained using Clevenger modified apparatus were characterized by high resolution GC-MS, while their antioxidant and antibacterial properties were examined by spectrophotometric and agar diffusion techniques, respectively. The EOs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The stem essential oil (SEO) was more active than the leaf essential oil (LEO) against test bacteria with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.025 to 0.05 mg/mL and the LEO from 0.05 to 0.10 mg/mL. The SEO was bactericidal at 0.025 and 0.05 mg/mL against S. aureus and E. faecium, respectively, and the LEO was bacteriostatic against the three bacteria at 0.05 and 0.10 mg/mL. The SEO IC50 (0.07 mg/mL) showed that the antiradical strength was superior to LEO (0.32 mg/mL) and β-carotene (1.62 mg/mL) in scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•). The oils effectively reduced three other oxidants to neutral molecules in concentration dependent manner. Findings from this study suggest that, apart from the traditional uses of the plant extracts, the EOs have strong bioactive compounds with noteworthy antibacterial and antiradical properties and may be good candidates in the search for lead compounds for the synthesis of novel potent antibiotics. PMID:27843951

  8. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay.

  9. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion.

  10. [Antioxidant properties of 3-oxypyridine analogues: mexidol, emoxipin, proxipin].

    PubMed

    Klebanov, G I; Liubitskiĭ, O B; Vasil'eva, O V; Klimov, Iu V; Penzulaeva, O B; Tepliashin, A S; Tolstykh, M P; Promorenko, V K; Vladimirov, Iu A

    2001-01-01

    Using three chemiluminescent model systems of oxidation (suspension of phospholipid liposomes, a geous solution of haemoglobin-hydrogen peroxide-luminol and a geous solution 2,2'-azo-bis-(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride-luminol) the antioxidant activity and mechanism of antioxidant action of three 3-oxypyridine analogues: (mexidol, emoxipin and proxipin) were studied. These compounds were shown: a) to interact with catalitically active two valency iron ions (Fe2+), that causes elimination of ions from the model system; b) to scavenge reactive oxygen species and/or luminol radicals produced in the model systems. Their activity reduced in the following order: mexidol > emoxipin > proxipin. The antioxidant activity of 3-oxypyridines may underline known clinical effects of these compounds.

  11. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  12. Engineering biodegradable polyester elastomers with antioxidant properties to attenuate oxidative stress in tissues

    PubMed Central

    van Lith, R.; Gregory, E.K.; Yang, J.; Kibbe, M.R.; Ameer, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the limited biological compatibility of many biomaterials due to inflammation, as well as in various pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis as a result of vascular interventions. Engineering antioxidant properties into a material is therefore a potential avenue to improve the biocompatibility of materials, as well as to locally attenuate oxidative stress-related pathologies. Moreover, biodegradable polymers that have antioxidant properties built into their backbone structure have high relative antioxidant content and may provide prolonged, continuous attenuation of oxidative stress while the polymer or its degradation products are present. In this report, we describe the synthesis of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate-co-ascorbate) (POCA), a citric-acid based biodegradable elastomer with native, intrinsic antioxidant properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of POCA as well as its effects on vascular cells in vitro and in vivo were studied. Antioxidant properties investigated included scavenging of free radicals, iron chelation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. POCA reduced reactive oxygen species generation in cells after an oxidative challenge and protected cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Importantly, POCA antioxidant properties remained present upon degradation. Vascular cells cultured on POCA showed high viability, and POCA selectively inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation, while supporting endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, preliminary data on POCA-coated ePTFE grafts showed reduced intimal hyperplasia when compared to standard ePTFE grafts. This biodegradable, intrinsically antioxidant polymer may be useful for tissue engineering application where oxidative stress is a concern. PMID:24976244

  13. Engineering biodegradable polyester elastomers with antioxidant properties to attenuate oxidative stress in tissues.

    PubMed

    van Lith, Robert; Gregory, Elaine K; Yang, Jian; Kibbe, Melina R; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the limited biological compatibility of many biomaterials due to inflammation, as well as in various pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis as a result of vascular interventions. Engineering antioxidant properties into a material is therefore a potential avenue to improve the biocompatibility of materials, as well as to locally attenuate oxidative stress-related pathologies. Moreover, biodegradable polymers that have antioxidant properties built into their backbone structure have high relative antioxidant content and may provide prolonged, continuous attenuation of oxidative stress while the polymer or its degradation products are present. In this report, we describe the synthesis of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate-co-ascorbate) (POCA), a citric-acid based biodegradable elastomer with native, intrinsic antioxidant properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of POCA as well as its effects on vascular cells in vitro and in vivo were studied. Antioxidant properties investigated included scavenging of free radicals, iron chelation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. POCA reduced reactive oxygen species generation in cells after an oxidative challenge and protected cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Importantly, POCA antioxidant properties remained present upon degradation. Vascular cells cultured on POCA showed high viability, and POCA selectively inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation, while supporting endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, preliminary data on POCA-coated ePTFE grafts showed reduced intimal hyperplasia when compared to standard ePTFE grafts. This biodegradable, intrinsically antioxidant polymer may be useful for tissue engineering application where oxidative stress is a concern.

  14. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Malva sylvestris.

    PubMed

    DellaGreca, Marina; Cutillo, Francesca; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; Zarrelli, Armando

    2009-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extract of Malva sylvestris was measured by its ability to scavenge the DPPH and superoxide anion radicals and to induce the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex. Analysis of the extract, carried out by different chromatographic techniques, led to the isolation of eleven compounds: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, methyl 2-hydroxydihydrocinnamate, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, a sesquiterpene, (3R,7E)-3-hydroxy-5,7-megastigmadien-9-one, and (10E,15Z)-9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10,15-dienoic acid. The antioxidant activities of all these compounds are reported.

  15. Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah

    2012-08-14

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C₁₈ cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.

  16. Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin and Glycosides on the Antioxidant Properties in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wuyang; Zhu, Yunming; Li, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to survey the antioxidant functional role of the main anthocyanins of blueberries in endothelial cells. Changes on the reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase-1 (XO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells of malvidin and the two glycosides were investigated. The results showed that these anthocyanins decreased the levels of ROS and XO-1 but increased the levels of SOD and HO-1. Glycosides improved the antioxidant capacity of malvidin to a great extent. The changes in the antioxidant properties of malvidin-3-glucoside were more pronounced than malvidin-3-galactoside. Variation in levels of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside had a significant impact on antioxidant properties to different extents. It indicates that blueberries are a good resource of anthocyanins, which can protect cells from oxidative deterioration and use blueberry as a potential functional food to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:27034731

  17. Selection of grapevine leaf varieties for culinary process based on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriano; Bento, Albino; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Grapevine leaves are an abundant sub-product of vineyards which is devalued in many regions. The objective of this work is to study the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of ten grapevine leaf varieties (four red varieties: Tinta Amarela, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, and Touriga Nacional; and six white varieties: Côdega do Larinho, Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, and Viosinho) to select varieties to be used as food ingredients. White grapevine leaves revealed higher antioxidant potential. Malvasia Fina reported better antioxidant properties contrasting with Touriga Franca. Phenolic content varied between 112 and 150mgGAEg(-1) of extract (gallic acid equivalents), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols varied between 76 and 108mgCAEg(-1) of extract (caffeic acid equivalents) and 39 and 54mgQEg(-1) of extract (quercetin equivalents). Malvasia Fina is a good candidate for culinary treatment due to its antioxidant properties and composition in bioactive compounds.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Kelkel, Mareike; Schumacher, Marc; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The recent search for new anti-cancer drugs focuses more on natural compounds from the regular human diet because these compounds rarely exhibit severe side-effects yet efficiently act on a wide range of molecular targets involved in carcinogenesis. One promising compound, which is now being tested in clinical studies, is the tomato-derived carotenoid lycopene. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the cellular action of lycopene and presents the molecular targets responsible for its remarkable chemopreventive and anti-proliferative activity. Its antioxidant effects include a considerable reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, which allows lycopene to prevent lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Simultaneously, lycopene induces enzymes of the cellular antioxidant defense systems by activating the antioxidant response element transcription system. As another chemopreventive strategy, lycopene increases gap junctional communication, which is suppressed during carcinogenesis. This review focuses also on the synergistic effects of lycopene with other natural antioxidants that might be important for its future application in anti-cancer treatment. Lastly, this review provides evidence for the biological activity of some oxidized lycopene metabolites, which seem to be partially responsible for the strong and manifold anti-cancer potential of lycopene.

  19. Antioxidative properties and inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-09-01

    Melanin is a dark pigment produced by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis. However, accumulation of melanin leads to various skin hyperpigmentation disorders. To find a novel skin-whitening agent, the antioxidant capacity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis culture filtrate and inhibitory effect on melanogenesis were investigated. The antioxidant effects of B. adolescentis culture filtrate include 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power were measured spectrophotometrically. The reducing power is a useful index for the evaluation of potential antioxidants which carry out reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the bacterial culture filtrate on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also determined. The results revealed that B. adolescentis culture filtrate (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 %; v/v) effectively scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, and lower concentrations of the bacterial culture filtrates (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %; v/v) showed potent reducing power in a dose-dependent pattern. Additionally, the bacterial culture filtrate suppressed murine tyrosinase activity and decreased the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that B. adolescentis culture filtrate decreases the melanogenesis process of melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity, which we suggest may be mediated through its antioxidant activity.

  20. Antioxidant properties of European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule).

    PubMed

    Rop, Otakar; Reznicek, Vojtech; Valsikova, Magdalena; Jurikova, Tunde; Mlcek, Jiri; Kramarova, Daniela

    2010-06-23

    In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars Leningradskaya otbornaya , Souzga and Taezny rubiny of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM)] were observed. The 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r(2) = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r(2) = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition.

  1. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-wen; Zhang, Shi-qi; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→]n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2−∙ clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree. PMID:27446223

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Shi-Qi; Kan, Jian-Quan; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→] n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2 (-∙) clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree.

  4. Salvia leriifolia Benth (Lamiaceae) extract demonstrates in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, β-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 μg/mL on β-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo.

  5. Characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide purified from Rana chensinensis skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentration of 2500 mg/L and 85.1% against chelated ferrous ion at 4000 mg/L. Antioxidant activity assay in vivo further showed that RCSP II increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the levels of malondialodehyde, and enhanced total antioxidant capabilities in livers and sera of d-galactose induced mice. These results suggested that RCSP II could have potential antioxidant applications as medicine or functional food.

  6. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  7. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea polyphenols (TP) were incorporated into edible gelatin films either alone or incorporated into nanoparticles in order to determine the physico-chemical properties of the film and the antioxidant properties of TP in a solid gelatin matrix. The TP containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-li...

  8. Contribution of phenolics and essential oils to the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qisi; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Dongzhi; Chunjie, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the characterization of essential oil and phenolic compounds in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and twelve volatile bioactive compounds of D. pernyi were identified. Polyphenols were identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and quantified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). A total of 4 polyphenolic compounds found in extract were identified as rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid. All obtained extracts and the 4 polyphenolic compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the plant.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich

    2006-08-23

    The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT.

  10. Antioxidant properties of melatonin and its potential action in diseases.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Cigdem; Suzen, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, relationship between free radicals and oxidative stress with aging, cancer, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases became increasingly clear. Confirming the role of oxidants in numerous pathological conditions such as cancer, the antioxidants developed as therapeutics have been proven ineffective. It is well established that melatonin (MLT) and its metabolites are able to function as endogenous free-radical scavengers and broadspectrum antioxidants. Numerous studies also proved the role of MLT and its derivatives in many physiological processes and therapeutic functions, such as the regulation of circadian rhythm and immune functions. The aim of this review is to arouse attention to MLT as a potentially valuable agent in the prevention and/or treatment of some diseases.

  11. Physical properties of whey protein coating solutions and films containing antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Krochta, J M

    2007-06-01

    Antioxidants (ascorbyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol) were incorporated into 10% (w/w) whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution containing 6.67% (w/w) glycerol (WPI:glycerol = 6:4). Before incorporation, the antioxidants were mixed using either powder blending (Process 1) or ethanol solvent-mixing (Process 2). After the antioxidant mixtures were incorporated into heat-denatured WPI solution, viscosity and turbidity of the WPI solutions were determined. The WPI solutions were dried on a flat surface to produce WPI films. The WPI films were examined to determine transparency and oxygen-barrier properties (permeability, diffusivity, and solubility). WPI solution containing antioxidants produced by Process 1 and Process 2 did not show any difference in viscosity and turbidity, but viscosity was greater for the WPI solution with rather than without antioxidants. WPI films produced by Process 2 were more transparent than the films produced by Process 1. Oxygen permeability of Process 1 film was lower than Process 2 film. However, both the diffusivity and solubility of oxygen were statistically the same in Process 1 and Process 2 films. Both control WPI films and antioxidant-containing WPI films had very low oxygen solubility, comparable to polyethylene terephthalate films. Permeability of antioxidant-incorporated films was not enhanced compared to control WPI films.

  12. Antioxidative Properties of Stearoyl Ascorbate in a Food Matrix System.

    PubMed

    Wiboonsirikul, Jintana; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Ayako; Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Adachi, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    Stearoyl ascorbate or 6-O-stearoyl l-ascorbate is a lipophilic derivative of l-ascorbic acid and is commercially used in foods as a fat-soluble antioxidant and surfactant to overcome the disadvantages of using l-ascorbic acid. The objective of this research is to evaluate the antioxidative ability of stearoyl ascorbate, in the presence of wheat starch or gluten as a matrix, by measuring the unoxidized methyl linoleate available in the mixture of them after oxidation under accelerated conditions compared to that when using ascorbic acid. We observed that stearoyl ascorbate and ascorbic acid exhibited mutually adjacent antioxidative ability against oxidation of the methyl linoleate at a molar ratio of 0.0001 in presence of either wheat starch or gluten. In addition, the oxidation process in the mixture containing either stearoyl ascorbate or ascorbic acid was significantly slower than that in the mixture without stearoyl ascorbate or ascorbic acid. Moreover, by altering the initiation and propagation periods of the oxidation process, the mixture containing the stearoyl ascorbate and gluten as the matrix exhibited conspicuously slower oxidation than the mixture containing either the wheat starch or stearoyl ascorbate alone. However, increase in the ratio of stearoyl ascorbate to methyl linoleate to 0.001 or higher resulted in adverse effects due to acceleration of the oxidation process.

  13. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  14. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%), carvacrol (7.6–52.3%), and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%). Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1 ± 0.1 μg/mL and 96.1 ± 0.8% inhibition rate, resp.). PMID:21876714

  15. Antioxidant properties of melatonin--an emerging mystery.

    PubMed

    Beyer, C E; Steketee, J D; Saphier, D

    1998-11-15

    Over three centuries ago, the French philosopher René Descartes described the pineal gland as "the seat of the soul." However, it was not until the late 1950s that the chemical identity and biosynthesis of melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal body, were revealed. Melatonin, named from the Greek melanos, meaning black, and tonos, meaning color, is a biogenic amine with structural similarities to serotonin. The mechanisms mediating the synthesis of melatonin are transcriptionally regulated by the photoperiodic environment. Once synthesized, the neurohormone is a biologic modulator of mood, sleep, sexual behavior, reproductive alterations, immunologic function, and circadian rhythms. Moreover, melatonin exerts its regulatory roles through high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive, G-protein (or guanine nucleotide binding protein) coupled receptors that reside primarily in the eye, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and brain. Additional evidence also indicates a role for melatonin in aging and age-related diseases, probably related to its efficient free radical scavenger (or antioxidant) activity. The potential clinical benefit of melatonin as an antioxidant is remarkable, suggesting that it may be of use in the treatment of many pathophysiological disease states including various cancers, hypertension, pulmonary diseases, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of melatonin and its many endocrine and physiological functions, including its therapeutic potential in human disease states. Emphasis is placed on the recent speculations indicating that this pineal hormone serves as an endogenous antioxidant agent with proficient free radical scavenging activity.

  16. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves.

  17. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774

  18. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Guk; Shin, Young Jee; Lee, Seongeung; Lee, Junsoo; Yoo, Seon Mi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stir-frying, and roasting) and three cooking times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant properties of red pepper. Raw and cooked peppers were measured for proximate composition, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total carotenoid content (TCC), total polyphenol content (TP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Results showed that the proximate composition, AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activities were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the cooking procedure; the loss rate varied among individual compounds. Boiling and steaming significantly reduced AsA content (24.3~66.5%), TP (13.9~ 54.9%), and antioxidant activity (21.7~60.5%) in red pepper, while stir-frying and roasting slightly reduced AsA content (2.7~25.9%), TP (1.8~4.9%), and antioxidant activity (4.9~17.9%). The highest loss was observed after boiling, followed by steaming, roasting, and stir-frying. Stir-frying and roasting better preserved AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, dry-heat cooking methods such as stir-frying and roasting may be preferred to retain the nutrient compositions and antioxidant properties of red pepper.

  19. Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Abdul Karim, Fifilyana; Saib, Syazlina

    2014-01-01

    Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC) and carotenoid (TCC) contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed) and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. PMID:26785068

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  1. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-12-12

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested.

  2. Properties of bread dough with added fiber polysaccharides and phenolic antioxidants: a review.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-10-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking.

  3. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  4. Effects of γ-irradiation on phenolics content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of whole grainrice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yafang; Tang, Fufu; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yuefei; Bao, Jinsong

    2013-04-01

    Three rice genotypes with different color were gamma irradiated at a dose of 2, 4, 6, 8and 10 kGy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity, as well as physicochemical properties of whole grain rice. The bound phenolics content in all the genotypes were significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation. Gamma irradiation at high dose significantly increased the free, bound and total antioxidant activities of three rice genotypes except for the free antioxidant activities of red rice. Though the color parameters were slightly changed, these changes could not be visibly identified. Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) viscosities and gel hardness decreased continuously with the increase of the irradiation doses. It is suggested that gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant potential and eating quality of whole grainrice.

  5. Type II collagen and gelatin from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage: isolation, purification, physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-06-27

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications.

  6. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271

  7. Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe(2+). α -Pinene, β -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α -glucosidase than α -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  8. Novel EPR characterization of the antioxidant activity of tea leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, M. A.; Khaled, M. M.

    2002-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is utilized to investigate several categories of green and black tea: Twining green tea (TGT), Chinese green tea (CGT), Red-labels black tea (RBT). Basically, two EPR signals from all the studied samples are observed: One of them is a very weak sharp EPR signal with Δ Hpp≅10 G and g-factor=2.00023 superimposed on the other broad signal with Δ Hpp≅550 G and g-factor=2.02489. The broad signal is a characteristic one of manganese(II) complex, while the sharp signal is related to a stable radical of aromatic origin exist in a powder condition. The feature of the manganese EPR signal is attributed to manganese(II) complex and reflected the molecular behavior of Mn(II) in the protein system of the natural leaves. The sharp signal, which is most probably due to a semiquinones radicals, is observed at room temperature and its intensity is remarkably affected by photo degradation of the studied samples. The intensity of manganese(II) EPR signal is found to be related to ageing and disintegration of the tea leaves. Moreover, direct relation between the relative intensity of the semiquinones radical signal and antioxidant activity of the studied samples was also correlated.

  9. A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, René; Baratella, Davide; Lima, Giuseppina; Holà, Katerina; Divoky, Clemens; Stollberger, Rudolf; Malina, Ondrej; Aparicio, Claudia; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zbořil, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2014-09-08

    Curcumin possesses wide-ranging anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and its biological activity can be linked to its potent antioxidant capacity. Superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ), called surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) were surface-modified with curcumin molecules, due to the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) atoms on the nanoparticle surface. The so-obtained curcumin-modified SAMNs (SAMN@curcumin) had a mean size of 13±4 nm. SAMN@curcumin was characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, UV/Vis, FTIR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, bulk susceptibility (SQUID), and relaxometry measurements (MRI imaging). The high negative contrast proclivity of SAMN@curcumin to act as potential contrast agent in MRI screenings was also tested. Moreover, the redox properties of bound curcumin were probed by electrochemistry. SAMN@curcumin was studied in the presence of different electroactive molecules, namely hydroquinone, NADH and ferrocyanide, to assess its redox behavior. Finally, SAMN@curcumin was electrochemically probed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, demonstrating the stability and reactivity of bound curcumin.

  10. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, antioxidative and antitumor activities of solid quercetin rare earth(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Wang, L F; Wang, J Y; Tang, N

    2001-01-01

    Eight rare earth metal(II) complexes with quercetin ML3 x 6H2O [L=quercetin (3-OH group deprotonated); M = La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Tm and Y] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration, thermal analysis, conductivity, IR, UV, 1HNMR and fluorescence spectra techniques as well as cyclic voltammetry. The quercetin:metal stoichiometry and the equilibrium stability constant for metal binding to quercetin have been determined. The antioxidative and antitumor activities of quercetin x 2H2O and the complexes were tested by both the MTT and SRB methods. The results show that the suppression ratio of the complexes against the tested tumour cells are superior to quercetin x 2H2O. The property of LaL3 x 6H2O reacting with calf thymus DNA was studied by fluorescence methods. The La-complex binding to DNA has been determined by fluorescence titration in 0.05 M Tris-HCl, 0.5 M NaCl buffer (pH 7.0). The results indicate that the interaction of the complex with DNA is very evident.

  12. Isolation, characterization and antioxidative activity of C-phycocyanin from Limnothrix sp. strain 37-2-1.

    PubMed

    Gantar, Miroslav; Simović, Dragan; Djilas, Sonja; Gonzalez, Walter W; Miksovska, Jaroslava

    2012-05-31

    C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a blue colored accessory photosynthetic pigment found in cyanobacteria. Some of the medicinal properties of Spirulina have been attributed to this pigment, which includes anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. We have screened cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater habitats in Florida for their high content of C-PC. Of 125 strains tested, one filamentous strain identified as Limnothrix sp. was selected for further research. This strain produced 18% C-PC of total dry biomass. Here we describe a simple method for obtaining C-PC of high purity without the use of ion exchange chromatography. The procedure is based on pigment precipitation from the cell lysate with an appropriate concentration of ammonium sulfate, then purification with activated carbon and chitosan, followed by a sample concentration using tangential flow filtration. We have shown that when the lower concentration of ammonium sulfate was used, C-PC with higher purity index was recovered. Characterization of C-PC from Limnothrix showed that it had an absorbance maximum at 620nm and fluorescence at 639nm. The molecular mass of intact C-PC was estimated to be ~50kDa with α and β subunits forming dimmers. When C-PC content per unit biomass was compared to that of marketed Spirulina powder, we found that Limnothrix was superior. C-phycocyanin from Limnothrix had an antioxidative activity on DPPH free radicals similar to that found in a natural antioxidant - rutin.

  13. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  14. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  15. Simulated gastrointestinal pH condition improves antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Saliha

    2013-09-30

    The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature) were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I). The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III) and blackberry (I), respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts.

  17. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eric W.C.; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Results: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70–81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1–11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Conclusion: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas. PMID:22224051

  18. Subcritical water extraction of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity from oregano. Chemical and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Marin, F R; Herrero, M; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2006-08-28

    In the present work, oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) are explored as natural source of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE), a new environmentally friendly technique, is employed as extraction procedure and HPLC coupled to DAD is used for the chemical characterization of the extracts. Moreover, the radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the determination of the total phenolic content (measured with the Folin test) are applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The extraction of antioxidants from oregano leaves by SWE is studied considering different temperatures (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) to investigate the selectivity of the process. The highest antioxidant activity is observed for the extract obtained at the highest temperature, 200 degrees C (EC(50) equal to 10 microg/ml). Moreover, the extraction yield was also the highest (54% dry weight) at these extraction conditions. The total phenolic content showed no differences among the different extracts, concluding that the amount of phenolic compounds extracted was similar but the type and structure of the phenolics was different, providing in this way different antioxidant activity. Some compounds could be tentatively identified, proposing some probable chemical structures for some of them, such as flavanones, dihydroflavonols, favonols and flavones.

  19. Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Dina M; Ammar, Nagwa M; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; El-anssary, Amira A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to formulate Glycyrrhiza glabra root and rhizome aqueous ethanolic extract in microemulsion carrier systems intended for transdermal delivery of incorporated antioxidant actives, flavonoids and polyphenols. The results obtained reveal that the microemulsion system ME3 possesses optimum properties regarding drug content (flavonoids and polyphenols), viscosity, pH, particle size and polydispersity index, zeta potential, stability, permeation of actives and hence possesses high in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant efficacy. These results indicate also that this microemulsion shows approximately 13-fold higher ex vivo antioxidant capacity compared with the liquorice extract solution. In addition, the proposed microemulsion is simple to dispense, cost effective and provides high patient compliance and convenience because of simple topical application and avoidance of non-comfortable oral or parenteral administration.

  20. NO-donor phenols: a new class of products endowed with antioxidant and vasodilator properties.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Giorgis, Marta; Bertinaria, Massimo; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2006-05-18

    The synthesis and study of the antioxidant and vasodilator properties of a new class of phenols able to release nitric oxide are described. The products were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and selected nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donors as reference models. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid products were assessed by detecting the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced in the ferrous salt/ascorbate-induced autoxidation of lipids present in microsomial membranes of rat hepatocytes. The vasodilator activity was assessed on rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Some of the products (13, 35, 37, 60-62, 64) behave principally as vasodilators and others as antioxidants (24, 32, 72), and the two properties are relatively balanced in 19, 41, and 68. Further in vivo studies should clarify whether some of these products may become preclinical candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease underpinned by atheroma.

  1. Quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of Turkish monovarietal olive oils regarding stages of olive ripening.

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Oya; Sevim, Didar; Kadiroğlu, Pınar

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to discriminate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) based on quality characteristics, chemical composition and antioxidant activity according to ripening stages of olives. Two different olive varieties (Memecik and Gemlik) were obtained at different stages of ripening based on skin color (green, purple and black). Quality properties of olive oils; free fatty acidity, peroxide value, K232 and K270, purity properties; fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and antioxidant compounds like total phenol, carotenoid and chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity (oxidative stability, ABTS radical scavenging activity) analyses were performed. Higher amount of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were observed in olive oils. Oleic acid amount of olive oils decreased, linoleic acid increased with ripening. The most abundant TAG of olive oils were ECN 48, OOO, SLO+POO, ECN 46 and LOO/PLO. Olive oils were clearly classified by principal component analysis based on fatty acid and TAG composition.

  2. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  3. Antioxidant properties of Urtica pilulifera root, seed, flower, and leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik; Cöllü, Zeynep; Korkmaz, Halil

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative properties of hydroalcoholic (80%) extracts from different parts of Urtica pilulifera L. (Family Urticaceae), including leaf (UPL), flower (UPF), seed (UPS), and root (UPR). Antioxidative activity of the extracts was measured using the ferric thiocyanate method, thiobarbituric acid method, reductive potential, metal chelating, free radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In addition, the results were compared with antioxidants such as tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and α-tocopherol. Total antioxidant activities of UPS, UPF, UPL, UPR, BHA, BHT, and α-tocopherol were 88.79%, 85.13%, 86.72%, 78.46%, 81.31%, 76.12%, and 46.28%, respectively. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power and the superoxide anion radical and free radical scavenging activities of UPL, UPF, UPS, and UPR are concentration dependent. A correlation between higher antioxidant activity and the amount of total phenolics was found in the extracts.

  4. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Results The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol). Conclusions A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Kindl, Marija; Vladić, Jelena; Lower-Nedza, Agnieszka D; Brantner, Adelheid H

    2014-01-09

    The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman's colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC) and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's and other related diseases.

  7. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  8. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, S. A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25-10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5-10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property.

  9. Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...

  10. Evaluation on antioxidant properties of sixteen plant species from Jeju Island in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koa, Eun-Yi; Kim, Daekyung; Roh, Seong Woon; Yoonc, Weon-Jong; Jeon, You-Jin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Kil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of 80 % ethanol extracts of 16 species of plants from Jeju Island in Korea were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including the DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, superoxide scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Among the 16 plant extracts tested, CN-13 showed strong antioxidant properties in the DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging tests. The CN-13 ethanol extract was thus selected to be used for further experiments, and was separated into various fractions using four different organic solvents (n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and butanol). The ethyl acetate fraction of CN-13 extract evidenced strong DPPH radical scavenging properties as compared to the other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction also strongly inhibited DNA-damage induced by hydrogen peroxide-oxidative damage in a mouse lymphoma (L5178Y-R) cell line. Moreover, a correlation between the total phenolic content of the extract, and its antioxidant property was reported. PMID:26417356

  11. Synthesis, characterization, antioxidant activity and DNA-binding studies of three rare earth (III) complexes with 1-(4-aminoantipyrine)-3-tosylurea ligand.

    PubMed

    Xi, Pin-xian; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Xiao-hui; Chen, Feng-juan; Zeng, Zheng-zhi; Zhang, Xiao-wen; Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    1-(4-aminoantipyrine)-3-tosylurea (H2L) and its three lanthanide (III) complexes, M(H2L)3 3NO3 [where M=Nd(III), Sm(III) and Eu(III)], have been synthesized and characterized. In addition, the DNA-binding properties of the three complexes have been investigated by UV-vis (ultraviolet and visible) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that the three complexes bind to DNA via a groove binding mode. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (superoxide and hydroxyl radical) of the metal complexes was determined by using spectrophotometer methods in vitro. These complexes were found to possess potent antioxidant activity and be better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol.

  12. Antioxidant Properties and Flavonoid Profile in Leaves of Calabrian Lavandula multifida L., an Autochthon Plant of Mediterranean Southern Regions.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Fazio, Angela; Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Lavandula multifida is a rare short-lived plant characteristic of Mediterranean basin able to survive in hot and arid climatic conditions on poorly evolved limestone soils. In this work, we characterize the enzymatic antioxidant system and phenolic composition, as well as the antioxidant properties of L. multifida fresh leaves. Enzymatic patterns show high level of peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase activities, when compared with L. angustifolia. The same trend is evident in total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione, and in the total antioxidant capacity assay. Moreover, RP-DAD-HPLC analyses of EtOH extract, obtained from fresh leaves, reveal main components, carvacrol, vitexin, and 7- or 8-glucoside derivatives of hypolaetin, scutellarein, luteolin, isoscutellarein, apigenin, and chrysoeriol. The analysis of this autochthon plant depicted a series of strategies adopted by L. multifida to survive in its stressful natural habitat and richness in health-promoting compounds that can be a resource for the preservation of this variety in dangerous of extinction.

  13. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems.

  14. Antioxidant properties of xanthones extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen): A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Quang, Duong Tuan; Bui, Ngoc Hoa Thi; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study on antioxidant properties of fourteen xanthones extracted from the pericarp of G. Mangostana has been performed. Three main reaction mechanisms are investigated: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer-proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters were computed in gas phase and water. The results show that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining antioxidant activity of xanthones in gas phase, whereas the SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically favored in water.

  15. Structure, physical property and antioxidant activity of catechin grafted Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Meng, Chen-Guang; Yan, Ye-Hua; Shan, Ya-Na; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, structural characterization, physical property and antioxidant activity of catechin grafted Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (catechin-g-TPS) were investigated. Crude polysaccharides were isolated from the fruit bodies of T. fuciformis and further purified on DEAE-52 and Sepharose CL-4B chromatography to afford a main purified fraction (named TPS). The molecular weight of TPS was determined as 5.82 × 10(5)Da by HPLC. Then, the free radical mediated grafting of catechin onto TPS was achieved by using a redox system. As compared with the unmodified TPS, catechin-g-TPS showed new bands within the range of 1300-1600 cm(-1) in FT-IR spectrum, and exhibited new signals at around δ 6.00 and 6.80 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the thermal stability of catechin-g-TPS was higher than TPS. X-ray diffraction spectrum of catechin-g-TPS exhibited two sharp narrow diffraction peaks at 14.2 and 32.1°, corresponding to the crystalline peaks of catechin. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed the surface of TPS was smooth, whereas the surface of catechin-g-TPS was much rough. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of catechin onto TPS. Moreover, catechin-g-TPS had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power as compared to TPS.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of poly(antioxidant β-amino esters) for controlled release of polyphenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Wattamwar, Paritosh P; Biswal, Dipti; Cochran, David B; Lyvers, Adam C; Eitel, Richard E; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2012-07-01

    Attenuation of cellular oxidative stress, which plays a central role in biomaterial-induced inflammation, provides an exciting opportunity to control the host tissue response to biomaterials. In the case of biodegradable polymers, biomaterial-induced inflammation is often a result of local accumulation of polymer degradation products, hence there is a need for new biomaterials that can inhibit this response. Antioxidant polymers, which have antioxidants incorporated into the polymer backbone, are a class of biomaterials that, upon degradation, release active antioxidants, which can scavenge free radicals and attenuate oxidative stress, resulting in improved material biocompatibility. In this work, we have synthesized poly(antioxidant β-amino ester) (PAβAE) biodegradable hydrogels of two polyphenolic antioxidants, quercetin and curcumin. The degradation characteristics of PAβAE hydrogels and the antioxidant activity of PAβAE degradation products were studied. Treatment of endothelial cells with PAβAE degradation products protected cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Influence of extraction methods on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Thymua danesis subsp. Lancifolius.

    PubMed

    Tavakolpour, Yousef; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Haghighi-Manesh, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    The essential oil (EO) from dried ground powder leaves and stems of Thymua danesis was extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), ohmic extraction (OE), ultrasound-assisted HD and ultrasound-assisted OE methods. Then, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory properties of the EO were investigated both in vitro and in food systems. Thyme EO extracted by ultrasound-assisted HD method had promising antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and had the best antioxidant properties when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of the EO were needed to exert similar antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Furthermore, thyme EO added yogurt and drink yogurt revealed better sensory properties than the control and fresh samples. Essential oil from Thymua danesis has a good potential to be used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and flavoring agent in food systems and the extraction method effects on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the thyme extract.

  18. Rare earth complexes with 3-carbaldehyde chromone-(benzoyl) hydrazone: synthesis, characterization, DNA binding studies and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Yang, Zheng-Yin

    2010-01-01

    A new ligand, 3-carbaldehyde chromone-(benzoyl) hydrazone (L), was prepared by condensation of 3-carbaldehyde chromone with benzoyl hydrazine. Its four rare earth complexes have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductivities, mass spectra, (1)H NMR spectra, UV-vis spectra, fluorescence studies and IR spectra. The Sm(III) complex exhibits red fluorescence under UV light and the fluorescent properties of Sm(III) complex in solid state and different solutions were investigated. In addition, the DNA binding properties of the ligand and its complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, ethidium bromide displacement experiments, iodide quenching experiments, salt effect and viscosity measurements. Experimental results suggest that all the compounds can bind to DNA via an intercalation binding mode. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the ligand and its complexes were determined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods in vitro. The rare earth complexes were found to possess potent antioxidant activities that are better than those of the ligand alone.

  19. Multiresponse Optimization and Prediction of Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Ginger Extract

    PubMed Central

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade

    2016-01-01

    The influence of extraction temperature, powder concentration, and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of aqueous ginger extract was investigated. The possibility of estimating the antioxidant properties of the extract from its absorbance and colour properties was also investigated. Results indicated that powder concentration was the most significant factor to consider in optimizing antioxidant extraction. However, temperature and time still influenced the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity while extraction temperature influenced the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the extract. Using the total phenol content, total flavonoid content, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract, the multiresponse optimization condition for extraction of antioxidant based on the experimental range studied is 96°C, 2.10 g/100 mL, and 90 min. The absorbance of the ginger extract at 610 nm could be exploited for rapid estimation of its total flavonoid and polyphenol with a R2 of 0.713 and 0.753, respectively. PMID:28078258

  20. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  1. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  2. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2011-06-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells.

  3. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress.

  4. Study of antioxidant properties of a water-soluble Vitamin E derivative-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG) by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, E I; Avramchik, O A; Kagiya, T V; Karbainov, Y A; Tcherdyntseva, N V

    2004-06-17

    Study of antioxidant properties of tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water-soluble Vitamin E derivative, by differential pulse voltammetry has been carried out in this work. The pH influence on the antioxidant properties of TMG has been also investigated. It was observed that the antioxidant activity of TMG is greater at 6.90Antioxidant activity of some standard antioxidants including Vitamin E was given for comparison. The results indicate that the TMG is an effective antioxidant in neutral solutions. The oxidation potential for TMG at pH 7.31 has been found (E=0.55+/-0.03V versus Ag|AgCl|KCl(sat) electrode). Finally the use of TMG for protection against oxidative stress has been recommended.

  5. A comparative study of flavonoid compounds, vitamin C, and antioxidant properties of baby leaf Brassicaceae species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, María I; Ferreres, Federico

    2008-04-09

    A comparative study of antioxidant compounds, flavonoids and vitamin C, and also antioxidant activity was carried out in four species of Brassicaceae vegetables used for salads: watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), mizuna [ Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Haneltand], wild rocket [ Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.], and salad rocket [ Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.]. The characterization of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI in watercress and mizuna completes the polyphenol study previously reported for wild rocket and salad rocket. The qualitative study of flavonoids in watercress leaves showed a characteristic glycosylation pattern with rhamnose at the 7 position. Isorhamnetin 3,7-di- O-glucoside was identified in mizuna leaves and may be considered a chemotaxonomical marker in some B. rapa subspecies. Brassicaceae species showed differences in the quantitative study of flavonoids, and the highest content was detected in watercress leaves. Watercress and wild rocket leaves had the highest content of vitamin C. The antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays) showed a high correlation level with the content of polyphenols and vitamin C. In conclusion, the Brassicaceae leaves studied, watercress, mizuna, wild rocket, and salad rocket, presented a large variability in the composition and content of antioxidant compounds. These baby leaf species are good dietary sources of antioxidants with an important variability of bioactive compounds.

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds in Renewable Parts of Crataegus pinnatifida inferred from Seasonal Variations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meng; Yang, Xuan; Hu, Jiao-Yang; Jiao, Jiao; Mu, Fan-Song; Song, Zhuo-Yue; Gai, Qing-Yan; Qiao, Qi; Ruan, Xin; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of seasonal variations on Crataegus pinnatifida, changes in antioxidant activity and active components in C. pinnatifida leaves, roots, twigs, and fruits from May to October were investigated. Through correlation analysis of climatic factors and 7 phenolic compounds yield, the phenolic compounds content was positively correlated with temperatures and daytime. The correlation coefficient of temperatures and daytime were 0.912 and 0.829, respectively. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and reducing power tests were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the C. pinnatifida. C. pinnatifida leaves exhibited significant advantages in terms of higher phenolic contents and excellent antioxidant activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 2 main PC characterize the C. pinnatifida phenolic composition (82.1% of all variance). C. pinnatifida leaves in September possessed remarkable antioxidant activity. The results elucidate that C. pinnatifida leaves, as renewable parts, are suitable for application as antioxidant ingredients.

  7. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils.

  8. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  9. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  10. Influence of substituent heteroatoms on the cytoprotective properties of pyrimidinol antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Arnaud; Khdour, Omar M; Schmierer, Margaret; Bandyopadhyay, Indrajit; Hecht, Sidney M

    2017-03-01

    Recently, we described the optimization of novel pyrimidinol-based antioxidants as potential therapeutic molecules for targeting mitochondrial diseases. That study focused on improving the potency and metabolic stability of pyrimidinol antioxidants. This led us to consider the possibility of altering the positions of the exocyclic alkoxy and alkylamino substituents on the pyrimidinol scaffold. Twelve new analogues were prepared and their biological activities were investigated. The metabolic stability of the prepared regioisomers was also assessed in vitro using bovine liver microsomes. Unexpectedly, the 2-alkoxy-4-alkylamino substituted pyrimidinol antioxidants were found to have properties in protecting mitochondrial function superior to the isomeric 4-alkoxy-2-alkylamino substituted pyrimidinols evaluated in all earlier studies. This observation suggests a possible mode of action involving the intermediacy of an ortho-iminoquinone, a species not previously associated with mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  11. Characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Yu, Lin; Ding, Chun-bang; Yang, Rui-wu; Wang, Xiao-li; Zhou, Yong-hong

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge using response surface methodology (RSM) with ultrasonication. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the extraction parameters to maximize the polysaccharide extraction yield. The polysaccharide SMP-U1 was isolated and characterized; then the antioxidant and antiproliferation activities were evaluated in vitro. The modified optimal conditions were an ultrasonic power of 180 W, an extraction temperature of 54°C, and an extraction time of 32 min, achieving an extraction yield of 40.54±0.25%. The results indicate that SMP-U1 has significant antioxidant activity, scavenging the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. It has also exhibited effect on the proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells Bcap-37 and human esophageal carcinoma cells Eca-109, especially at a concentration of 0.30 mg/mL. In conclusion, SMP-U1 has remarkable in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferation activity, and has potential for application as a natural antioxidant or antitumor agent.

  12. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil.

  13. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  14. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  15. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:26787624

  16. Home-Processed Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Products: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Burcu; Toydemir, Gamze; Nur Memis, Kubra; Okur, Sena; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of home-processing on the antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of red beetroot bioactives were investigated. For this purpose, fresh red beetroot and six different home-processed red beetroot products-including boiled, oven-dried, pickled, pureed, juice-processed, and jam-processed-were analyzed and compared for their total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents, total antioxidant capacities (TAC), and individual anthocyanin contents. In addition, bioaccessibility of red beetroot antioxidants was determined using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method. Dried, pureed, and fresh red beetroot samples had the highest TP, TF, and TAC values, which were 347 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, 289 ± 53 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g, 3889 ± 982 mg trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g, respectively. The in vitro digestion method revealed the highest recovery for TP (16%) and TAC (1.3%) in jam. This study provides comparative data to evaluate the effects of various home-processing techniques on antioxidant potential of red beetroot products.

  17. Home-Processed Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Products: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Bioaccessibility

    PubMed Central

    Guldiken, Burcu; Toydemir, Gamze; Nur Memis, Kubra; Okur, Sena; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of home-processing on the antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of red beetroot bioactives were investigated. For this purpose, fresh red beetroot and six different home-processed red beetroot products—including boiled, oven-dried, pickled, pureed, juice-processed, and jam-processed—were analyzed and compared for their total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents, total antioxidant capacities (TAC), and individual anthocyanin contents. In addition, bioaccessibility of red beetroot antioxidants was determined using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method. Dried, pureed, and fresh red beetroot samples had the highest TP, TF, and TAC values, which were 347 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, 289 ± 53 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g, 3889 ± 982 mg trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g, respectively. The in vitro digestion method revealed the highest recovery for TP (16%) and TAC (1.3%) in jam. This study provides comparative data to evaluate the effects of various home-processing techniques on antioxidant potential of red beetroot products. PMID:27258265

  18. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition.

  19. Prooxidant and antioxidant properties of salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone iron chelators in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Andres A.; Commissariat, Ava; Dunn, Caroline; Kim, Hyunjoo; García, Salvador Lorente; Smith, Allen; Strang, Harrison; Stuppy, Jake; Desrochers, Linda P.; Goodwin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is an iron chelator of the aroylhydrazone class that displays antioxidant or prooxidant effects in different mammalian cell lines. Because the liver is the major site of iron storage, elucidating the effect of SIH on hepatic oxidative metabolism is critical for designing effective hepatic antioxidant therapies. Methods Hepatocyte-like HepG2 cells were exposed to SIH or to analogs showing greater stability, such as N′-[1-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)ethyliden]isonicotinoyl hydrazide (HAPI), or devoid of iron chelating properties, such as benzaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (BIH), and toxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidant (glutathione) metabolism were evaluated. Results Autoxidation of Fe2+ in vitro increased in the presence of SIH or HAPI (but not BIH), an effect partially blocked by Fe2+ chelation. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SIH or HAPI (but not BIH) was non-toxic and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, activated the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the catalytic subunit of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), and increased glutathione concentration. Fe2+ chelation decreased ROS and inhibited Nrf2 activation, and Nrf2 knock-down inhibited the induction of Gclc in the presence of HAPI. Inhibition of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase enzymatic activity inhibited the increase in glutathione caused by HAPI, and increased oxidative stress. Conclusions SIH iron chelators display both prooxidant (increasing the autoxidation rate of Fe2+) and antioxidant (activating Nrf2 signaling) effects. General significance Activation by SIH iron chelators of a hormetic antioxidant response contributes to its antioxidant properties and modulates the anti- and pro-oxidant balance. PMID:26275495

  20. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    PubMed Central

    Pestorić, Mladenka; Mišan, Aleksandra; Nedeljković, Nataša; Jambrec, Dubravka; Jovanov, Pavle; Banjac, Vojislav; Torbica, Aleksandra; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Mandić, Anamarija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice flour at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat flour contributed to the significantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05). Gluten-free cookies made with rice flour and buckwheat flour exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•), antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05). Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20% of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples. PMID:27904330

  2. Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uruş, Serhan; Demirtaş, İbrahim; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet

    2011-10-01

    In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL 1 and HL 2) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as Gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated.

  3. Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of the cladodes of Opuntia macrorhiza (Engelm.) and Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.).

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-09-01

    The genus Opuntia (Cactaceae) includes different plants well adapted to arid and semi-arid zones. These species are cultivated under restricted growth conditions, not suitable for the growth of other fruits/vegetables. The cactus pear is a well-known example inside Opuntia genus. Its young cladodes, also known as nopalitos, are frequently consumed and used in folk medicine due to their beneficial effects and phytochemical composition. Herein, hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts from cladodes of Opuntia microdasys and Opuntia macrorhiza were characterized. Furthermore, their antioxidant properties were compared to the corresponding phytochemical profile. Despite the phylogenetic proximity and similar geographical origin O. microdasys and O. macrorhiza showed significant differences in sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles. In particular, O. microdasys distinguished for having high contents in fructose, glucose, C6:0, C8:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C16:0, C18:3, C20:0, C22:0, C23:0, C24:0, SFA and tocopherols, and also for its higher DPPH EC50 values. O. microdasys by its side proved to have significantly higher amounts of trehalose, organic acids, C13:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:1, C20:2 and MUFA. The obtained phytochemical profiles might be considered as useful information to select the best Opuntia species regarding a determined application of its natural extracts/isolated compounds.

  4. Release property and antioxidant effectiveness of tocopherol-incorporated LDPE/PP blend films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Lee, D S; Yam, K L

    2012-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blend films in various blending ratios containing 3000 mg  kg⁻¹ of tocopherol were manufactured by an extrusion process. Tocopherol release properties were characterised and correlated with antioxidant effectiveness in retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid contacting the films at 40°C. The conditions without tocopherol (control) and with instant tocopherol addition corresponding to the amount included in the films were also prepared and compared with the film-contacting solutions. The effect of tocopherol inclusion and the blending ratio on their physical properties was also examined. A wide range of tocopherol diffusivity in 6.6 × 10⁻¹⁶-4.6 × 10⁻¹⁴m² s⁻¹ were obtained by blend films. As PP content increases, the diffusivity decreased sharply at the beginning and levelled off later. The slower release of tocopherol in LDPE/PP blend films corresponding to lower tocopherol diffusivity retained the higher tocopherol concentration in the linoleic acid system providing better antioxidant effectiveness of the extended induction period in oxidation. The tocopherol inclusion reduced tensile strength and transparency significantly in an affordable range with higher tensile strength given by a higher PP ratio. LDPE/PP blending can be a useful tool to modulate the release profile of tocopherol and thus the antioxidant effectiveness of the tocopherol-incorporated antioxidant packaging film.

  5. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  6. Changes in the structure and antioxidant properties of onions by high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Plaza, Lucía; Hernando, Isabel; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Quiles, Amparo; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2013-04-25

    Onions have antioxidant properties and they are an important source of bioactive compounds such as phenols. The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (100-600 MPa/1-3 min/25 °C) on the microstructure and antioxidant properties of onions (cv. Doux) and its relationship with changes in the extractability of potential health-related compounds. Cryo scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure. Vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (DPPH˙, ABTS˙(+), FRAP) were also analyzed. Tonoplast, plasmalemma and cell walls were affected by the HHP treatment and it favored the diffusion of the cellular content to the intercellular spaces. Vitamin C did not show significant changes, whereas the extracted phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased at pressures of 300 or 600 MPa. Therefore, it could be concluded that HHP produced changes in membrane permeability and disruption of cell walls favoring the release of phenolic compounds from tissue and, in consequence, improving their extractability.

  7. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-11-26

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50-1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79-1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  8. Divalent Amino-Acid-Based Amphiphilic Antioxidants: Synthesis, Self-Assembling Properties, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosselin, Marie; Meyer, Grégory; Guillet, Pierre; Cheviet, Thomas; Walther, Guillaume; Meister, Annette; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Durand, Grégory

    2016-03-16

    We report herein the synthesis of a divalent amphiphilic carrier onto which α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) antioxidants were grafted to give the divalent derivative called FATxPBN. The divalent carrier consists of two lysine amino acids as a scaffold upon which the antioxidant moieties are grafted, a perfluorinated chain that supplies hydrophobicity, and a sugar-based polar headgroup that ensures water solubility. For the sake of comparison, a divalent PBN derivative called FADiPBN was also synthesized. The self-aggregation properties of FATxPBN and FADiPBN were studied by means of surface tension, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and showed they form small micelles (i.e., 12 and 6 nm diameter, respectively) at submillimolar concentrations (i.e., 0.01 and 0.05 mM, respectively), in agreement with partition coefficient values. The superior antioxidant properties of FATxPBN over FADiPBN and the parent compounds PBN and Trolox were demonstrated using in vitro ABTS(•+) reduction (98%) and soybean lipoxygenase inhibition (94%) assays. Finally, FATxPBN was found to significantly inhibit hyperglycemia-induced toxicity on an ex-vivo rat model, demonstrating its potency as a bioactive antioxidant against oxidative stress-induced damage.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of vanadium encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R S; Reshmi, R; Jomon, S; Antu, K A; Riya, M P; Raghu, K G

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of guar gum macroparticles (GGMs), vanadium oxide sulphate (VS) encapsulated guar gum macroparticles (GVMs), guar gum nanoparticles (GGNs), VS encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles (GVNs) and VS. GGNs and GVNs prepared by nanoprecipitation were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and particle size analysis to confirm the nanostructure of the particles. Particle size analysis revealed that GVNs possess a size of 239 nm, about 148 nm larger than that of GGNs. TEM imaging and EDAX data also confirmed the formation of fine spherical nanoparticles with vanadium incorporation. In addition the larger size of GVNs also confirmed the vanadium incorporation. MTT assay showed that concentrations up to 100 nM of GVNs for 24 h exposure did not induce significant toxicity when VS was toxic (16%) at 100 nM. Various in vitro antioxidant assays (total reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) revealed significantly high antioxidant potential of GVNs compared to GGNs, VS, GGMs and GVMs. The IC50 of GVNs was 23.21 ± 2.1 μg mL(-1), 33.0 ± 2.93 μg mL(-1), 21 ± 1.98 μg mL(-1) and 22.79 ± 2.12 μg mL(-1) for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays respectively. The cell line based assay also proved that the GVN was more effective in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging than VS against tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cell lines. The overall results indicated that vanadium in combination with nano guar gum exhibits significantly high antioxidant potential.

  10. Structural characterization of lignin: a potential source of antioxidants guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol.

    PubMed

    Azadfar, Mohammadali; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh V; Chen, Shulin

    2015-04-01

    The structure of lignin obtained from the ozone and soaking aqueous ammonia pretreatment of wheat straw has been characterized utilizing chemical analytical methods in order to reveal its antioxidant characteristics, including attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), pyrolysis/tetramethylammonium hydroxide-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py/TMAH-GC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant evaluation assay. The results demonstrated that the isolated lignin is a ρ-hydroxyphenyl- guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with S/G ratio of 0.35 and significant amounts of phenol 2-methoxy (guaiacol) and phenol 2-methoxy-4-vinyl (4-vinylguaiacol). The Py-GC/MS and Py/TMAH-GC/MS pyrograms indicated that the major units in this lignin are derived from hydroxycinnamic acids. The GPC results revealed the molecular weight of the lignin was considerably low and also the FTIR analysis showed that the lignin possessed hydroxyl and methoxy functional groups; the factors led to the extracted lignin having a comparable antioxidant activity to that of currently used commercial antioxidants. The UV-vis and DPPH antioxidant assay results suggested a percentage of inhibition of the DPPH radicals in the following order: guaiacol (103.6 ± 1.36)>butylated hydroxytoluene (103.3 ± 1)>ferulic acid (102.6 ± 0.79)>pretreated lignin (86.9 ± 0.34).

  11. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061

  12. Impact of phytic acid on nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of dehusked rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Loh, S P; Bong, C F J; Sarbini, S R; Yiu, P H

    2015-12-01

    Whole grains consumption promotes health benefits, but demonstrates controversial impacts from phytic acid in meeting requirements of good health. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of rice cultivars named "Adan" or "Bario" and deduce the nutritional impact of phytic acid. Majority of the dehusked rice in the collection showed an acceptable level of in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility, but were poor in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn). The drawbacks identified in the rice cultivars were due to relatively high phytic acid content (2420.6 ± 94.6 mg/100 g) and low phenolic content (152.39 ± 18.84 μg GAE/g). The relationship between phytic acid content and mineral bioaccessibility was strongest in calcium (r = 0.60), followed by iron (r = 0.40) and zinc (r = 0.27). Phytic acid content did not significantly correlate with in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility but showed a weak relationship with antioxidant properties. These suggest that phytic acid could significantly impair the mineral bioaccessibility of dehusked rice, and also act as an important antioxidant in non-pigmented rice. Bario rice cultivars offered dehusked rice with wide range of in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein, and also pigmented rice as a good source of antioxidants. However, there is a need to reduce phytic acid content in dehusked rice for improved mineral bioaccessibility among Bario rice cultivars.

  13. Innovative Soaking and Grinding Methods and Cooking Affect the Retention of Isoflavones, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties in Soymilk Prepared from Black Soybean.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yingying; Chang, Sam K C; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    This study's objective was to characterize the effect of traditional and 3 newly devised (soaking+grinding) methods combined with cooking on the content and composition of phenolic substances, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of soymilk prepared from black soybean. Phenolic substances and antioxidant profile were characterized and antiproliferation of prostate cancer DU145 cells was conducted using a cell culture assay. Results indicated Grinding Method 4 produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), and total isoflavone content in both raw and cooked black soymilk as compared to Method 1. Cooking soymilk reduced 23% to 38% of total phenolic substances. Raw black soymilk produced by Method 4 displayed the highest antioxidant capability, which was determined using ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH assays, and a higher antiprostate cell proliferation ability. Cooking only slightly reduced the potency to inhibit DU145 prostate cancer cells as IC50 value was increased from the average of about 4.0 mg/mL of raw soymilk extracts to 5.5 mg/mL of cooked soymilk extracts of all grinding methods. Overall, total isoflavone content was the only component that was negatively correlated with IC50 value (r = -0.93, P < 0.05) which indicates the ability to inhibit prostate cancer cell is associated with the increase in total isoflavone content, not with any other phenolic substances or antioxidant properties.

  14. Systemic antioxidant properties of L-carnitine in two different models of arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mate, Alfonso; Miguel-Carrasco, José L; Monserrat, María T; Vázquez, Carmen M

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wide range of drugs being available in the market, treatment of arterial hypertension still remains a challenge, and new therapeutic strategies could be developed in order to improve the rate of success in controlling this disease. Since oxidative stress has gained importance in the last few years as one of the mechanisms involved in the origin and development of hypertension, and considering that L-carnitine (LC) is a useful compound in different pathologies characterized by increased oxidative status, the aim of the present study was to investigate the systemic antioxidant effect of LC and its correlation to blood pressure in two experimental models of hypertension: (1) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and (2) rats with hypertension induced by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Treatment with captopril was also performed in SHR in order to compare the antioxidant and antihypertensive effects of LC and captopril. The antioxidant defense capacity, in terms of antioxidant enzyme activity, glutathione system availability and plasma total antioxidant capacity, was measured in both animal models with or without an oral, chronic treatment with LC. All the antioxidant parameters studied were diminished in SHR and in L-NAME-treated animals, an alteration that was in general reversed after treatments with LC and captopril. In addition, LC produced a significant but not complete reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in these two models of hypertension, whereas captopril was able to normalize blood pressure. Both LC and captopril prevented the reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels observed in hypertensive animals. This suggests a decrease in the systemic oxidative stress and a higher availability of NO induced by LC in a similar way to captopril's effects, which could be relevant in the management of arterial hypertension eventually.

  15. Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2009-02-11

    This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust.

  16. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Elham; Andalib, Sasan; Abed, Alireza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Results: Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties. Conclusions: Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders. PMID:25767752

  17. Antioxidant properties of cerium oxide nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Soo; Song, Wensi; Cho, Minjung; Puppala, Hema L; Nguyen, Phuc; Zhu, Huiguang; Segatori, Laura; Colvin, Vicki L

    2013-11-26

    This work examines the effect of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating on the reactivity of cerium oxide nanocrystals with H2O2 both in chemical solutions and in cells. Monodisperse nanocrystals were formed in organic solvents from the decomposition of cerium precursors, and subsequently phase transferred into water using amphiphiles as nanoparticle coatings. Quantitative analysis of the antioxidant capacity of CeO2-x using gas chromatography and a luminol test revealed that 2 mol of H2O2 reacted with every mole of cerium(III), suggesting that the reaction proceeds via a Fenton-type mechanism. Smaller diameter nanocrystals containing more cerium(III) were found to be more reactive toward H2O2. Additionally, the presence of a surface coating did not preclude the reaction between the nanocrystal surface cerium(III) and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, the most reactive nanoparticles were the smallest (e.g., 3.8 nm diameter) with the thinnest surface coating (e.g., oleic acid). Moreover, a benchmark test of their antioxidant capacity revealed these materials were 9 times more reactive than commercial antioxidants such as Trolox. A unique feature of these antioxidant nanocrystals is that they can be applied multiple times: over weeks, cerium(IV) rich particles slowly return to their starting cerium(III) content. In nearly all cases, the particles remain colloidally stable (e.g., nonaggregated) and could be applied multiple times as antioxidants. These chemical properties were also observed in cell culture, where the materials were able to reduce oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2 with efficiency comparable to their solution phase reactivity. These data suggest that organic coatings on cerium oxide nanocrystals do not limit the antioxidant behavior of the nanocrystals, and that their redox cycling behavior can be preserved even when stabilized.

  18. In Vitro Antioxidant versus Metal Ion Chelating Properties of Flavonoids: A Structure-Activity Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Cherrak, Sabri Ahmed; Mokhtari-Soulimane, Nassima; Berroukeche, Farid; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherbonnel, Angéline; Merzouk, Hafida; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Natural flavonoids such as quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin as well as four methoxylated derivatives of quercetin used as models were investigated to elucidate their impact on the oxidant and antioxidant status of human red blood cells (RBCs). The impact of these compounds against metal toxicity was studied as well as their antiradical activities with DPPH assay. Antihemolytic experiments were conducted on quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin with excess of Fe, Cu and Zn (400 μM), and the oxidant (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins) and antioxidant (reduced glutathione, catalase activity) markers were evaluated. The results showed that Fe and Zn have the highest prooxidant effect (37 and 33% of hemolysis, respectively). Quercetin, rutin and (+)catechin exhibited strong antioxidant properties toward Fe, but this effect was decreased with respect to Zn ions. However, the Cu showed a weak antioxidant effect at the highest flavonoid concentration (200 μM), while a prooxidant effect was observed at the lowest flavonoid concentration (100 μM). These results are in agreement with the physico-chemical and antiradical data which demonstrated that binding of the metal ions (for FeNTA: (+)Catechin, KLFeNTA = 1.6(1) × 106 M-1 > Rutin, KLFeNTA = 2.0(9) × 105 M-1 > Quercetin, KLFeNTA = 1.0(7) × 105 M-1 > Q35OH, KLFeNTA = 6.3(8.7) × 104 M-1 > Quercetin3’4’OH and Quercetin 3OH, KLFeNTA ~ 2 × 104 M-1) reflects the (anti)oxidant status of the RBCs. This study reveals that flavonoids have both prooxidant and antioxidant activity depending on the nature and concentration of the flavonoids and metal ions. PMID:27788249

  19. In Vitro Antioxidant versus Metal Ion Chelating Properties of Flavonoids: A Structure-Activity Investigation.

    PubMed

    Cherrak, Sabri Ahmed; Mokhtari-Soulimane, Nassima; Berroukeche, Farid; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherbonnel, Angéline; Merzouk, Hafida; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Natural flavonoids such as quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin as well as four methoxylated derivatives of quercetin used as models were investigated to elucidate their impact on the oxidant and antioxidant status of human red blood cells (RBCs). The impact of these compounds against metal toxicity was studied as well as their antiradical activities with DPPH assay. Antihemolytic experiments were conducted on quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin with excess of Fe, Cu and Zn (400 μM), and the oxidant (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins) and antioxidant (reduced glutathione, catalase activity) markers were evaluated. The results showed that Fe and Zn have the highest prooxidant effect (37 and 33% of hemolysis, respectively). Quercetin, rutin and (+)catechin exhibited strong antioxidant properties toward Fe, but this effect was decreased with respect to Zn ions. However, the Cu showed a weak antioxidant effect at the highest flavonoid concentration (200 μM), while a prooxidant effect was observed at the lowest flavonoid concentration (100 μM). These results are in agreement with the physico-chemical and antiradical data which demonstrated that binding of the metal ions (for FeNTA: (+)Catechin, KLFeNTA = 1.6(1) × 106 M-1 > Rutin, KLFeNTA = 2.0(9) × 105 M-1 > Quercetin, KLFeNTA = 1.0(7) × 105 M-1 > Q35OH, KLFeNTA = 6.3(8.7) × 104 M-1 > Quercetin3'4'OH and Quercetin 3OH, KLFeNTA ~ 2 × 104 M-1) reflects the (anti)oxidant status of the RBCs. This study reveals that flavonoids have both prooxidant and antioxidant activity depending on the nature and concentration of the flavonoids and metal ions.

  20. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 μg GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 μg QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 μg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. β-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  1. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-07-15

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  2. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  3. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration.

  4. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.

  5. Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of a water-insoluble polysaccharides from Dictyophora indusiata.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Haitian; Chen, Jinghua; Xu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    The present study described the characterization and biological properties of water‑soluble sulfated polysaccharides prepared from water‑insoluble polysaccharide (DIP), which were extracted from Dictyophora indusiata. The sulfation of DIP was performed using the chlorosulfonic acid‑pyridine method. The water solubilities of the sulfated derivatives were measured at room temperature according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and 1,1‑diphenyl‑2‑picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as determined, together with the reduction ability of the sulfated polysaccharides. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of DIP and the sulfated derivatives on MCF‑7 and B16 cells were then determined using an MTT assay. The substitution degrees of the sulfated polysaccharides were 0.584 (S1‑DIP), 0.989 (S2‑DIP) and 1.549 (S3‑DIP) according to barium chloride‑gelatin nephelometry. Infrared spectroscopy and 13C‑nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the substitution of S‑DIP occurred mainly at the C‑6 position, followed by the C‑4 and C‑2 positions. A significant increase was noted in the antioxidant activity of the sulfated derivatives compared with that of DIP. In addition, the S‑DIPs exhibited a more marked reducing capacity and clearing activity of hydroxyl radicals and DPPH. This indicated that the antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharides was significantly higher following sulfation. Furthermore, in in vitro cell investigations, DIP exhibited no inhibitory effects on the growth of the B16 or MCF‑7 tumor cells. However, the sulfated derivatives exerted marked inhibitory effects on these cell lines. Sulfate modification may therefore contribute to an improvement in water solubility and in the antioxidant and antitumor activities of natural DIP.

  6. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.

    PubMed

    Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

    2010-03-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation on antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of oat β-glucan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F. A.; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine effect of γ-rays on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of β-glucan isolated from oats. Irradiation doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy were given to extracted β-glucan. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gel permeation chromatography and quantitative estimation by (1-3) (1-4) β-D-Glucan assay kit (Megazyme). The average molecular weight of non-irradiated β-glucan was 199 kDa that decreased to 70 kDa at 10 kGy. Both FT-IR spectrum and chemical analysis revealed that the extracted β-glucan was pure having minor impurities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating ability and oxidative DNA damage assays. Results revealed increased antioxidant activity of β-glucan with the increase in irradiation dose. Irradiated β-glucan also exhibited dose dependent cancer cell growth inhibition with irradiation doses. The study revealed that the low molecular weight β-glucan with increased antioxidant and antiproliferative activities can be produced by irradiation treatment.

  8. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  9. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    PubMed Central

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  10. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  11. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content. PMID:24106692

  13. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mui-Hung; Lim, Li-Fang; Ahmad, Fasihuddin bin; Assim, Zaini bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods In vitro method-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11% and 66.85% respectively. Conclusions Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica. PMID:25182724

  15. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq)

    PubMed Central

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra; Yilmaz, Ökkes; Turkoglu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers, and ripened fruits. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH•, ABTS•+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin—Cioacalteu’s reagent. Results: The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography in the hawthorn extract. Conclusion: It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed the highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In addition, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. PMID:26401347

  16. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2008-09-24

    Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p < 0.001) and Genovese ( p < 0.001) basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P.; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor”) juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders. PMID:28106740

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-17

    Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  19. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  20. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees) Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pui-Mun; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2013-01-01

    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders. PMID:24371454

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    The tree Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica, namely Bene, is widely distributed in Iranian mountains. Recent studies revealed that the oil of Bene was stable, even more stable than sesame oil, with antioxidant properties. This can give versatile applications for the oil. The volatile composition of this oil has not chemically been investigated so far. In this study, sixty three compounds were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Bene hull. The major components were determined to be α-pinene (20.8 %), camphene (8.4 %), β-myrcene (8.2 %) and limonene (8 %). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Bene hull were evaluated by using 2,2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching test, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and Rancimat assays. The Bene essential oil exhibited significant antioxidant activities in FRAP and TBARS assays as compared with positive controls. In addition, the oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. It showed significant antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 6 and 12.5 μg/mL, respectively.

  2. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  3. In vitro antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides extract from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ru, Qiao-Mei; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Jing-Lu; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2012-09-21

    In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves were evaluated in several in vitro systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed much better activity than polysaccharides in scavenging activities on free radicals. When compared to the positive control, ascorbic acid, both showed weaker antioxidant potential. However, flavonoids possessed comparable superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities to ascorbic acid at high concentration (600 μg/mL). Meanwhile, it was found that flavonoids had prominent effects on the reducing power, which was equivalent to ascorbic acid, and was significantly higher than polysaccharides. These results clearly indicate that flavonoids are effective in scavenging free radicals and have the potential to be powerful antioxidants. Thus, tobacco leaves could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics or nutraceutical industries.

  4. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees) Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui-Mun; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2013-01-01

    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.

  5. Antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of liquid and solid state fermented lentils.

    PubMed

    Torino, Maria Inés; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Mäkinen, Sari; Pihlanto, Anne; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción; Frias, Juana

    2013-01-15

    The effect of liquid (LSF) and solid state fermentation (SSF) of lentils for production of water-soluble fractions with antioxidant and antihypertensive properties was studied. LSF was performed either spontaneously (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) while SSF was performed by Bacillus subtilis (BS). Native lactic flora in NF adapted better than L. plantarum to fermentative broth and BS counts increased 4.0 logCFU/g up to 48 h of SSF. LSF water-soluble fractions had higher (P ≤ 0.05) free amino groups, GABA content, antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activities than SSF. In addition, GABA and ACEI activity of LSF increased in a time-dependent manner. Proteolysis by BS was limited, with slight changes in free amino groups, while GABA, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity increased throughout fermentation. Higher antihypertensive potential was observed in NF (96 h) characterised by the highest GABA content (10.42 mg/g extract), ACE-inhibitory potency (expressed as IC(50)) of 0.18 mg protein/ml and antioxidant capacity of 0.26 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract. Therefore, water-soluble fermented lentil extracts obtained by LSF are particularly promising as functional ingredients in preventing hypertension.

  6. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Mingxia; Xie, Minhao; Dai, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHMPs) were investigated. As results, the optimal parameters for extraction of PHMPs were obtained by a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extracting time 190 min and ratio of water to material 43 mL/g. The analysis of monosaccharide composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that PHMPs was composed of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in molar ratio of 46.07:0.59:2.25:1.29:1.42:18.82:26.17:1.13:2.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PHMPs had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mice, as evident by higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and level of total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower levels of malondialdehyde in serums and livers compared to the d-galactose-treated group. These results suggested that PHMPs could be explored as promising natural antioxidant.

  7. Phytochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antioxidant Potential of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) Extracts.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Geisiany M; Politi, Flávio A S; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M; Moreira, Raquel R D; Cardoso, Cássia R P; Santos, Lourdes C; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2015-07-01

    Equisetum hyemale species is considered a medicinal plant used in the form of infusions to combat infectious or inflammation diseases and also diuretic effects, presenting several compounds related to these actions. In previous studies different species of Equisetum showed several phenolic compounds. The objective of this study was, for the first time, based on phytochemistry analysis to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The 70% ethanolic and methanolic extracts of E. hyemale were characterized by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analyses, as well as its antioxidant potential based on the scavenger activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In addition was verified the antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution technique against bacteria and fungi. The extracts showed phytochemical similarity, which demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds, the scavenging activity for free radicals was about 30% and was observed better antifungal activity against dermatophyte fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.62 mg/mL to Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The extracts exhibits great potential to therapeutic applications or product development, since both possess antifungal activity and antioxidant action associated with little difference in their phytochemical composition.

  8. Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The root of Brassica rapa L. has been traditionally used as a Uyghur folk medicine to cure cough and asthma by Uyghur nationality in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In the present study, therefore, extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from the root of B. rapa L. (BRP) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.48 ± 0.41% for crude BRP were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 93°C, extraction time 4.3h and ratio of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 75 mL/g. The crude BRP was purified by chromatographic columns of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, affording three purified fractions of BRP-1-1, BRP-2-1 and BRP-2-2 with average molecular weight of 1510, 1110 and 838 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that BRP-1-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, BRP-2-1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, and BRP-2-2 was composed of rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 1.27: 54.92. Furthermore, the crude BRP exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in vitro than purified fractions; hence, it could be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines.

  9. Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2006-01-25

    This paper reports an attempt to functionally and chemically characterize commercial ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. grape skins, grape pomace, and leaves, which are used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. The antioxidant capacity of these ingredients was assessed for the first time by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methodology. Ingredients from grape skins and pomace (n = 17) showed ORAC values from 1.38 to 21.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg whereas ingredients from leaves (n = 4) showed ORAC values from 1.52 to 2.55 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization-mass sprectrometry analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols revealed the authenticity of the ingredients as derived from V. vinifera L. and confirmed large differences in their phenolic content and distribution. A progressive decline in both antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin content of a grape skin ingredient (43 and 40% decrease, respectively) was observed over a 60 day storage period (45 degrees C and 75% relative humidity), demonstrating its poor stability under these conditions.

  10. Copper complexes bearing 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives as potential antioxidant: Synthesis, characterization.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J; Janaki, G Boomadevi

    2016-09-01

    Novel copper complexes of Schiff base ligands of 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were synthesized by the condensation of Knoevenagel condensate of acetoacetanilide (obtained from substituted benzaldehydes and acetoacetanilide) and 2-aminobenzothiazole. They were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electrochemical studies. Based on the magnetic moment and electronic spectral data, square planar geometry has been suggested for all the complexes. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of the ligands and their complexes reveal that all the complexes show higher activities than the ligands. The binding behaviour of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation binding mode. Superoxide dismutase and antioxidant activities of the copper complexes have also been studied. The antioxidant activities of the complexes showed higher activities. Thermal denaturation studies suggested the nature binding affinity of copper complexes with CT-DNA. All complexes exhibit suitable Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox potential to act as antioxidant enzymes mimic. Further, the copper complexes also showed catalase activity. It is hope that copper complexes were capable of decrease ROS levels or reduce oxidative stress in Alzheimer's patients.

  11. Extraction, purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Cistanche tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wiejie; Huang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Feng, Weiwei; Zheng, Daheng; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2016-12-01

    An efficient ultrasonic-cellulase-assisted extraction (UCE) of Cistanche tubulosa polysaccharide (CTP) was established. The response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken Design was employed to further optimize extraction conditions. After quaternary ammonium salt precipitation, the polysaccharide of C. tubulosa was characterized by different techniques. The results showed that a maximum polysaccharide yield of 22.31±0.45% was achieved at a pH of 5.2 for 31.5min at 54.1°C. Compared to hot water extraction, the yield of CTP in UCE and polysaccharide content increased to 44.96% and 70.13±2.19%, respectively. There was no marked difference among polysaccharides extracted using different methods from the infrared spectrum. Ultrasonic-cellulase-assisted extraction polysaccharide showed a fibrous structure from scanning electron microscopy and was composed of rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 2.18:1:28.29:1.43 by gas chromatography. The circular dichroism results indicated that polysaccharides had a maximum positive peak around 210nm with different peak values. The thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to test the thermostability of CTP. Besides, CTP demonstrated appreciable antioxidant potential on antioxidant experiments in vitro. The results suggested that UCE is an effective method for CTP extraction and its polysaccharide showed appreciable antioxidant activity.

  12. Antioxidant properties of thio-caffeine derivatives: Identification of the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine as antioxidant and highly potent cytoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Wandyszewska, Natalia; Warżajtis, Beata; Rychlewska, Urszula; Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2016-08-15

    A series of nine thio-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterised by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of four of them were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The antioxidant properties of all compounds, at concentration ranges from 0.025 to 0.1mg/mL, were evaluated by various chemical- and cell-based antioxidant assays. Human erythrocytes were used to examine in vitro haemolytic activity of all compounds and their protective effect against oxidative haemolysis induced by AAPH, one of the commonly used free radical generator. All compounds studied showed no effect on the human erythrocytes membrane structure and permeability with the exception of 8-(phenylsulfanyl)caffeine. Among the nine caffeine thio-analogues tested, the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine possessed exceptionally high antioxidant properties. Moreover, it protects human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced oxidative damage as efficiently as the standard antioxidant Trolox. Therefore, 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine may have a significant cytoprotective potential caused by its antioxidant activity.

  13. Antidepressant, antioxidant and neurotrophic properties of the standardized extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber in mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eliane Brito Cortez; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; E Silva Pereira, Yuri Freitas; Ximenes, Naiara Coelho; Santos Júnior, Manuel Alves; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; Brito, Rayanne; Miron, Diogo; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2016-07-01

    The plant Cocos nucifera and its derivatives have shown antidepressant-like effects, although its hydroalcoholic extract has not been studied with this end in mind. Therefore, we decided to determine the antidepressant-like effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber (HECN) as well as oxidative alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST), and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the HC of mice. The extract was characterized based on the content of total polyphenols as well as two phenol compounds-catechin and chlorogenic acid-by HPLC-PDA. Male animals were treated per os (p.o.) for 7 days with distilled water or HECN (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg), or intraperitoneally with vitamin E (Vit E 400 mg/kg). One hour after the last drug administration, the animals were submitted to the open field test, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and, immediately after the behavioral tests, had their brain removed for neurochemical determinations. The results showed that HECN100 decreased the immobility time in the FST and TST presenting, thus demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. The administration of HECN decreased malondialdehyde levels in all doses and brain areas studied with the exception of HECN50 in the HC. The administration of HECN also decreased nitrite levels in all doses and brain regions studied. HECN100 also increased the levels of BDNF in HC of mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HECN has antidepressant-like properties, probably based on its antioxidant and neurotrophic effects, and is thus relevant for the treatment of depression.

  14. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant study of N,N’-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Firdausiah, Syadza; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2015-09-25

    N,N’-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine was synthesized from 2-chlorobenzoylisothiocyanate and hydrazine in acetone. The compound was characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography study showed the molecule adopt trans configuration at both N-N and C-N bonds. The compound showed high antioxidant activity, EC{sub 50} of 374.89 µM, compared to ascorbic acid (EC{sub 50} of 561.36 µM)

  16. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  17. DNA profiling, telomere analysis and antioxidant properties as tools for monitoring ex situ seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Donà, M.; Balestrazzi, A.; Mondoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Ventura, L.; Buttafava, A.; Macovei, A.; Sabatini, M. E.; Valassi, A.; Carbonera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Methods Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. Key Results The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Conclusions Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide

  18. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    PubMed

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  19. Potential food additives from Carex distachya roots: identification and in vitro antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Antonio; Ricci, Andreina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Golino, Annunziata; Letizia, Marianna; Piccolella, Simona; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-09-10

    In the present study, the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of root methanol extract of Carex distachya Desf. (Cyperaceae) were assessed to use this plant as sources of food additives and nutraceuticals. The IC50 of the extract (4.2 microg/mL), derived from the DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, was similar to those of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and BHT. These results revealed a strong antioxidant activity because of the presence of an extraordinary quantity of bioactive phytochemicals. The phytochemical study of the root extract led to the isolation and identification of new and known polyphenols, most of them common constituents of plant foods. A total of 16 polyphenols, identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as 7 lignans, 4 phenylethanoids, 3 resveratrol derivatives, a monolignol, and a secoiridoid glucoside, were isolated. The tentative structural elucidation of the new metabolites 5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-4,8',9-triol and 3,5-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3'-methoxy-trans-stilben-4'-ol have been performed by a combined approach using ESI/TQ/MS techniques and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. All of the compounds have been tested for their antioxidant activity using six different antioxidant and radical scavenging tests. Interestingly, the extract contained high quantities of polyphenols, most of them reported as constituents of edible plants, such as grape and olive, suggesting that the methanol root extract of this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants useful as potential food additives.

  20. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V.; Chalmers, Anita C.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  1. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Gi; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Cherkas, Andriy; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Ku, Yang-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant, binding, and anti-proliferative properties of red sweet paprika growing under artificial light. The amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in red paprika (RP), cultivated in Korea, before and after light treatments under high pressure sodium (HPS) and lighting emitting plasma (LEP) lamps (RPControl, RPHPS, RPLEP), were analyzed in water (W) and ethanolic extracts (Et). Spectroscopic, radical scavenging assays, fluorescence and cytotoxicity measurements were applied. The results of this study showed that total chlorophyll and carotenes were the highest in RPHPS (10.50 ± 1.02 and 33.90 ± 3.26 μg/g dry weight (DW)). The strongest antioxidant capacity (μM TE/g DW) in a 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+)) assay was in RPControlEt (24.34 ± 2.36), in a ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in RPHPSW (27.08 ± 2.4) and in a cupric reducing antioxidant (CUPRAC) in RPLEPW (70.99 ± 7.11). The paprika ethanolic extracts showed lower values in their bioactivity than the water ones. The binding and cytotoxicity abilities of extracted polyphenols correlated with their amounts. LEP treatment is better for plant growth characteristics than other conventional treatments. The investigated paprika samples can be used as a source of antioxidants.

  2. Saponin-Based Nanoemulsification Improves the Antioxidant Properties of Vitamin A and E in AML-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Qaisra Naheed; Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Tae Gyun; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Sung Jin; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Our work aimed to investigate the protective effects of saponin-based nanoemulsions of vitamin A and E against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage in AML-12 cells. Saponin nanoemulsions of vitamin A (SAN) and vitamin E (SEN) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. SEN and SAN protect AML-12 cells against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage more efficiently via scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reducing DNA damage, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. These results provide valuable information for the development of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that would improve the antioxidant properties of vitamin A and E. PMID:27571071

  3. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  4. Melatonin and male reproductive health: relevance of darkness and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C S; Rato, L; Martins, A D; Alves, M G; Oliveira, P F

    2015-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin controls several physiological functions that reach far beyond the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Moreover, it can be produced in extra-pineal organs such as reproductive organs. The role of melatonin in the mammalian seasonal and circadian rhythm is well known. Nevertheless, its overall effect in male reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. Melatonin is a very powerful endogenous antioxidant that can also be exogenously taken safely. Interestingly, its antioxidant properties have been consistently reported to improve the male reproductive dysfunctions associated with pathological conditions and also with the exposure to toxicants. Nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its action in the male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Herein, we propose to present an up-to-date overview of the melatonin effects in the male reproductive health and debate future directions to disclose possible sites of melatonin action in male reproductive system. We will discuss not only the role of melatonin during darkness and sleep but also the importance of the antioxidant properties of this hormone to male fertility. Since melatonin readily crosses the physiological barriers, such as the blood-testis barrier, and has a very low toxicity, it appears as an excellent candidate in the prevention and/or treatment of the multiple male reproductive dysfunctions associated with various pathologies.

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor.

  6. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  7. Antioxidant properties and preliminary evaluation of phytochemical composition of different anatomical parts of amaranth.

    PubMed

    Kraujalis, Paulius; Venskutonis, Petras R; Kraujalienė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant properties of amaranth extracts isolated sequentially by acetone and methanol/water from defatted plant leaves, flowers, stems and seeds were assessed by ABTS(+•), DPPH(•), ORAC and total phenols content (TPC) assays. In addition, antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct QUENCHER method using the same assays. Leaves and flowers of amaranth as well as their extracts possessed the highest antioxidant activities. Radical scavenging capacity in ABTS(+•) assay for leaves, flowers, stems and seeds evaluated by QUENCHER method were 144.24 ± 2.41, 112.33 ± 7.45, 19.05 ± 1.13 and 21.82 ± 1.06 μmol trolox equivalents in 1 g of dry weight, respectively. On-line HPLC-DPPH(•) assay was used to determine the activity of separated compounds and it was observed that rutin was the main radical scavenger in amaranth extracts. Preliminary screening of extract composition was performed by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS and rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were identified by measuring their accurate mass and retention time.

  8. Preliminary study of the antioxidant properties of flowers and roots of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and can eventually to arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenesis. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural antioxidants of plant origin. We assessed the in-vitro antioxidant activities and screened the phytochemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers. Methods We evaluated the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of P. venusta using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) studies were also undertaken to assess the phytochemical composition of the flower extracts. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. The reducing ability of both extracts was in the range (in μm Fe(II)/g) of 112.49-3046.98 compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 63.56 ± 2.62), catechin (972.02 ± 0.72 μm) and quercetin 3208.27 ± 31.29. A significant inhibitory effect of extracts of flowers (IC50 = 0.018 ± 0.69 mg/ml) and roots (IC50 = 0.026 ± 0.94 mg/ml) on ABTS free radicals was detected. The antioxidant activity of the extracts of flowers (95%) and roots (94%) on DPPH radicals was comparable with that of ascorbic acid (98.9%) and BHT (97.6%). GC-MS study revealed the presence of myoinositol, hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid in the flower extracts. Conclusion These data suggest that P. venusta is a natural source of antioxidants. The extracts of flowers and roots of P. venusta contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties and could serve as inhibitors or scavengers of free radicals. P. venusta could be exploited as a potential source for plant-based pharmaceutical products. These results could form a sound basis for further

  9. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Algerian Thymelaea microphylla Coss. and Dur. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Dehimi, Khadidja; Speciale, Antonio; Saija, Antonina; Dahamna, Saliha; Raciti, Roberto; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur. (Thymelaeaceae) (TM) is a rare medicinal plant endemic to Algeria. Leaves decoction is used in folk medicine for anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. Objective: Herein, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts from leaves and flowers of Algerian TM were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out by in vitro cell-free assays (antioxidant/radical properties), ex vivo experiments (inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release in human whole blood) and in vitro experiments on cell systems (cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and protective effects on human vein endothelial cells exposed to TNF-α). Results: The acetone TM extract showed significant antioxidant properties and excellent anti-inflammatory and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity, together with lack of toxicity on normal human blood cells; furthermore, it was able to protect endothelial cells against dysfunction induced by TNF-α, as shown by decrease in cell death, e-selectin expression and leukocyte adhesion. Conclusion: On these bases, TM leaves and flowers appear to be a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory capability, and potentially effective in prevention and treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress and inflammation, such as endothelial dysfunction. SUMMARY Thymelaea microphylla leaves and flowers are a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant/free radical scavenger and antiinflammatory activity.The acetone extract from leaves and flowers of Algerian Thymelaea microphylla possesses excellent cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity.This extract is able to protect against endothelial dysfunction, an early event in development of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. Abbreviations used: TM: Thymelaea microphylla; BCB: Beta-carotene bleaching; AcE: Acetone extract; PGE2

  10. Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts from the leaves of Paullinia pinnata.

    PubMed

    Jimoh, F O; Sofidiya, M O; Afolayan, A J

    2007-12-01

    Paullinia pinnata is an African woody vine widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. In order to throw more light into its mechanisms of pharmacological actions, the in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of its leaves were evaluated using different testing systems. Its scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals as well as its ferric ion reducing power were assessed. The results showed that P. pinnata possessed strong scavenging activity and moderate reducing power. The total phenol, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were very close to those reported for most medicinal plants and showed good correlation with its antioxidant activities. These properties are probably part of the reasons why P. pinnata is effective in folk medicine.

  11. Antioxidative properties of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and a phenylpropanoid glycoside. A pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weizhen; Navaratnam, Suppiah; Yao, Side; Lin, Nianyun

    1998-10-01

    Spectral and redox properties of the phenoxyl radicals from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and one selected component of phenylpropanoid glycosides, verbascoside, were studied using pulse radiolysis techniques. On the basis of the pH dependence of phenoxyl radical absorptions, the p Ka values for deprotonation of sinapic acid radical and ferulic acid radical are 4.9 and 5.2. The rate constants of one electron oxidation of those antioxidants by azide radical and bromide radical ion were determined at pH 7. The redox potentials of those antioxidants were determined as 0.59-0.71 V vs NHE at pH 7 with reference standard 4-methoxyphenol and resorcinol.

  12. Physical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films Containing Carvacrol and Pomegranate Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Lv, Hua; Yang, Bingjie; Chen, Xiaoe; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-06-15

    Chitosan-based active films were developed by incorporation of carvacrol (10 g/L), pomegranate peel extract (PPE, 10 g/L) and carvacrol + PPE (10 g/L of each) and their physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Incorporation of carvacrol and carvacrol + PPE into the films significantly decreased the water vapor permeability, tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break. Incorporation of carvacrol, PPE and carvacrol + PPE into the films decreased the transparency, but significantly increased the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. All the films, with the exception of PPE-incorporated film, exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the film incorporated with carvacrol + PPE was moderately higher than that incorporated with carvacrol or PPE alone, suggesting a synergistic action between carvacrol and PPE.

  13. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wine byproducts and their potential uses in the food industry.

    PubMed

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2014-12-31

    Wine pomace (WP) is one of the agricultural byproducts that has received most attention from food scientists due to the wide range of interesting compounds that remain after the winemaking process. Different powdered products rich in phenolic compounds, with interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were obtained from WP by applying processes that are both environmentally friendly and economically affordable for the food industry. The products obtained showed high global antioxidant activities (ABTS assay), successfully delayed the onset of lipid oxidation in the Rancimat test, and showed different antimicrobial properties. Products derived from seed-free WP showed bactericidal effects against total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and inhibited Enterobacteriaceae growth completely. The product derived from whole WP presented bacteriostatic activity against the three microorganism groups tested, whereas the product obtained from grape seed promoted TAMB and LAB growth but delayed Enterobacteriaceae proliferation.

  15. [The physiological characteristics of the antioxidant properties of Lipin in bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Tymchenko, O H; Seredenko, M M; Portnychenko, V I; Babko, S O; Velychko, M I; Tsvietkova, K V

    1996-01-01

    In children of 4-7 years old with bronchial asthma (BA) has been studied the values of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and some others in blood plasma and erythrocytes without and with the use of new drug Lipin. It was shown that in children with BA the malondialdehyde concentration increased, the superoxydedismutase activity decreased, the NAD concentration increased, and the ratio of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde greatly decreased in comparison with normal children. The use of Lipin led to diminuation of lipid peroxidation, to marked increase of superoxidedismutase activity, to decrease of NAD concentration, and to significant increase of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde ratio. These results were indicated on the expressed antioxidant properties of Lipin in children's with BA.

  16. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Fauconneau, B; Waffo-Teguo, P; Huguet, F; Barrier, L; Decendit, A; Merillon, J M

    1997-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions were used to isolate and characterize the flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes) found in red wine. Furthermore, we showed that astringin is produced although this stilbene has not previously been reported to be a constituent of V. vinifera or wine. The ability of these compounds to act as radical scavengers was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical. Antioxidant activities were assessed by their capacity to prevent Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and their action on Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins. The results showed that astringin has an important antioxidant effect similar to that of trans-resveratrol, and a higher radical scavenger activity than the latter. Astringinin appeared to be more active. These data indicate that phenolic compounds (stilbenes, catechins, anthocyanins) exhibit interesting properties which may account in part for the so-called "French paradox," i.e. that moderate drinking of red wine over a long period of time can protect against coronary heart disease.

  17. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants

  18. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of −13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning” flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  19. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis: contribution to bioactivities by the non-phycocyanin aqueous fraction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Attridge, Victoria L; Beaman, Joni L; Guthrie, Jesse; Ehmann, Axel; Benson, Kathleen F

    2015-05-01

    The goal for this work was to characterize basic biological properties of a novel Arthrospira platensis-based aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), enriched in the known anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor phycocyanin (PC), but also containing a high level of non-PC bioactive compounds. Antioxidant properties were tested in parallel in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (chemical antioxidant capacity) and in the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay, where both the PC and the non-PC fractions contributed to the antioxidant capacity and CAP of ACE. In contrast to the COX-2 inhibition seen in the presence of PC, the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the inflammatory mediator Lipoxygenase was associated specifically with the non-PC fraction of ACE. Inhibition of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using polymorphonuclear cells from healthy human donors. The inhibition of ROS formation was seen for both the PC and non-PC fractions, with ACE showing the most robust effect. The effects of PC, non-PC, and ACE on clotting and clot lysing was tested using a modified Euglobulin fibrinolytic assay in vitro. In the presence of PC, non-PC, and ACE, the time for clot formation and lysis was not affected; however, the clots were significantly more robust. This effect was statistically significant (p<.05) at doses between 125-500 μg/mL, and returned to baseline at lower doses. Both PC and the non-PC fraction contributed to the antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory effects, without a negative impact on blood clotting in vitro. This suggests a potential benefit for the consumable ACE extract in assisting the reduction of inflammatory conditions.

  20. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  1. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to characterize the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix (primary composites) hybridized with varying amounts of secondary composites made from S-glass or Kevlar 49 fibers. The tests were conducted using thin laminates having the same thickness. The specimens for these tests were instrumented with strain gages to determine stress-strain behavior. Significant results are included.

  2. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice.

  3. The Effect of the Molecular Architecture on the Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Gallate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunhua; Wang, Liping; Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yaqin; Chen, Shiguo; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the structure–antioxidant activity relationships of chitosan gallate (CG), a series of CG derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS’s) and molecular weights (MWs) were synthesized from chitosan (CS) and gallic acid (GA) via a free radical graft reaction. A higher MW led to a lower DS of CG. The structures of CG were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR, and results showed that GA was mainly conjugated to the C-2 and C-6 positions of the CS chain. The antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power) were enhanced with an increased DS and a decreased MW of CG. A correlation between antioxidant activities and the DS and MW of CG was also established. In addition, a suitable concentration (0~250 μg/mL) of CG with different MWs (32.78~489.32 kDa) and DS’s (0~92.89 mg·GAE/g CG) has no cytotoxicity. These results should provide a guideline to the application of CG derivatives in food or pharmacology industries. PMID:27187421

  4. Antioxidant properties of certain cereals as affected by food-grade bacteria fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Sz-Jie; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fermentation by 2 food-grade bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum) on antioxidant activities and the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in 4 cereals (specifically adlay, chestnut, lotus seed, and walnut) were determined and compared with those of their non-fermented counterparts. Results showed that antioxidant properties observed in the fermented and non-fermented cereals may vary with fermented starters. Fermentation was observed to increase the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts. The effects on Bacillus-fermented cereals were stronger than on Lactobacillus-fermented cereals. In IC50 values (mg/mL) of extracts, the extracts of fermented cereal showed a stronger DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activities. Fermentation did not significantly alter the Fe(2+)-chelating activity in the extracts of chestnuts and lotus seeds. All cereals were shown significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without creating obvious cytotoxic effects in the macrophage cells. These results suggest that the fermentation process enables cereal-based foods with enhanced antioxidant capacities to contribute to health and nutritional improvements in consumers.

  5. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  6. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of wild growing and cultivated Allium species.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Igić, R; Popović, B M; Malencić, Dj

    2008-01-01

    Allium species are cultivated for the edible bulb, which is used mainly as flavoring in foods. Besides that, they could prevent tumor promotion and some processes that are associated with free radicals, such as cardiovascular diseases and aging. Therefore, different Allium species, both cultivated (Allium nutans L., A. fistulosum L., A. vineale L., A. pskemense B. Fedtsch, A. schoenoprasum L., A. cepa L. and A. sativum L.) and wild (A. flavum L., A. sphaerocephalum L., A. atroviolaceum Boiss, A. vineale L., A. ursinum L., A. scorodoprasum L., A. roseum L. and A. subhirsutum L.), were investigated in order to evaluate the antioxidant properties of their bulbs. This study reports on the results obtained for the bulb antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), the quantities of non-enzymatic plant antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total flavonoids), the contents of soluble proteins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, as well as for the quantities of malonyldialdehyde and .OH and O2.- radicals.

  7. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of Indian Sunderban mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L. leave

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Tapas Kumar; Hazra, Avijit; Hazra, Alok Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L. (family Rhizophoraceae) is a true mangrove habitat in Indian Sunderban and traditionally uses for liver disorders. Objectives: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of leave extract of B. gymnorrhiza L. Materials and Methods: Hydro-methanolic extract of mangrove leaves (BR) was standardized using spectrophotometric and high-performance thin layer chromatography methods. Radical scavenging activities were assessed in different in vitro methods, like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid +, superoxides, nitric oxides and hydroxyl radicals. Hepatoprotective efficacy of BR (125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, p.o) was measured in D-galactosamine (GalN) induced (200 mg/kg, i.p) hepatitis in Wistar rats. Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o) was used as known hepatoprotective agent. Results: Polyphenols such as gallic acid, quercetin, and coumarin obtained from BR exhibited powerful antioxidant properties. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent protection against GalN induced hepatitis in rats. It significantly reduced GalN induced elevation of enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) in serum and resist oxidative stress marked by lipid peroxides, glutathione, and catalase in hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Polyphenols rich B. gymnorrhiza L. leaves ameliorate hepatic tissue injury through its antioxidant effects. PMID:27330259

  9. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ∼60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 μmol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 μmol Trolox/g).

  10. Preparation and antioxidative properties of a rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) protein hydrolysate and three peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaohui; Yu, Wancong; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Moucheng; Kou, Xiaohong; Wang, Jiehua

    2009-06-24

    This study investigated the possibility of converting the insoluble rapeseed meal protein into functionally active ingredients for food applications. The rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) meal protein isolates were first digested by Alcalase and Flavourzyme, and the resultant rapeseed crude hydrolysate (RSCH) exhibited a dose-dependent reducing antioxidant power and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. RSCH could also inhibit the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) generation by 50% in blood serum at 150 mg/mL. RSCH was further separated into three fractions (RSP1, RSP2, and RSP3) by Sephadex gel filtration according to their different molecular weights. The amino acid compositions and antioxidant potentials were assessed for RSP1-3 fractions. All three fractions showed inhibiting effects on superoxide anion generation to various extents. They could also inhibit the autohemolysis of rat red blood cells and MDA formation in rat liver tissue homogenate. The results suggested that rapeseed peptide hydrolysate may be useful as a human food addition as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant properties.

  11. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  12. Changes in antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of Kapi, a fermented shrimp paste, during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Faithong, Nandhsha; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-10-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of Kapi were monitored during fermentation for 12 months. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2 - azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) gradually increased as the fermentation time increased, particularly during the first 8 months (P < 0.05). Thereafter, the decreases in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were observed (P < 0.05), whereas FRAP remained constant (P > 0.05). The continuous increases in ammonia nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were noticeable within the first 8 months (P < 0.05), indicating the formation of peptides and free amino acids via the hydrolysis of protein by both microbial and indigenous proteases. Browning intensity most likely caused by the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were concomitantly observed throughout fermentation, as evidenced by the decreases in lightness (L*-value), but the increases in redness (a*-value) and yellowness (b*-value). Low level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in Kapi was found during 12 months. Antioxidant activities of Kapi were more likely governed by the low molecular weight peptides, amino acids as well as Maillard reaction products generated during fermentation.

  13. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of Isatis floribunda Boiss. ex Bornm. extracts

    PubMed Central

    Karakoca, Kubra; Ozusaglam, Meltem Asan; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Erkul, Seher Karaman

    2013-01-01

    The Isatis species has antibacterial, anticancer and antiviral properties and these important endemic plants grow widely in various parts of Anatolian-Turkey. In the present study, the antioxidant activities of Isatis floribunda Boiss. ex Bornm. flower and root extracts were determined with total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also examined for the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were investigated by using the disc diffusion and microdilution-broth methods against human and fish pathogen microorganisms. The phenolic composition of I. floribunda root methanolic extract was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major component in the extract was cholorogenic acid (1980.20 µg/g). The cytotoxic effect of the methanolic root extract was also tested on human breast cell (MCF12A). The results showed that I. floribunda could be used as a natural source in the food and feed industry and clinical and food chemistry, and that the antimicrobial agents could be used against human and fish pathogens. PMID:26417224

  14. Polyphenol oxidase activity and antioxidant properties of Yomra apple (Malus communis L.) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Dincer, Barbaros; Sahin, Huseyin; Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, firstly, antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) properties of Yomra apple were investigated. Seventeen phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities were performed to measure antioxidant capacity. Some kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), and inhibition behaviors against five different substrates were measured in the crude extract. Catechin and chlorogenic acid were found as the major components in the methanolic extract, while ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were small quantities. Km values ranged from 0.70 to 10.10 mM in the substrates, and also 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) and L-DOPA showed the highest affinity. The inhibition constant of Ki were ranged from 0.05 to 14.90 mM against sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid, sodium azide and benzoic acid, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite were the best inhibitors.

  15. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  16. Petit suisse from black soybean: bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties during development process.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Filho, Marsilvio Lima; Hirozawa, Sabrina Satie; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Ida, Elza Iouko; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties, bioactive compounds and other physico-chemical parameters from black soybean and its derivatives over 30 days under refrigeration at 4 °C and develop a probiotic petit suisse produced from black soybean. The soymilk showed the highest levels of isoflavones (109 mg/100 g), total phenolics (600 mg/100 g) and total anthocyanins (388 mg/100 g) with the highest response in the tests with DPPH• and ABTS+• on a dry basis. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in antioxidant activity during storage due to the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in soymilk sample, having a strong linear correlation between the concentration of isoflavone aglycones and the antioxidant activity for ABTS+• (R = 0.9437, 0.9624 and 0.9992) and DPPH• (R = 0.9865, 0.9978 and 0.9911), respectively, for soymilk, quark and petit suisse. The conversion of isoflavone was influenced directly by the characteristics of each sample, inhibiting or promoting the action of the enzyme. The petit suisse developed is an alternative for consumers, providing isoflavones and anthocyanins, possessing probiotic average counts (10⁸ CFU g⁻¹) during storage.

  17. Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kexue; Zhang, Yanjun; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Fei; He, Shuzhen; Gong, Deming; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2017-01-02

    A water-soluble polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) was purified and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of JFP-Ps was evaluated by measuring DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities, as well as reducing power. The results showed that JFP-Ps contained 79.12% of total sugar, 5.83% of protein, 15.65% of uronic acid, and 15 kinds of amino acids with high levels of Asp, Glu, Val, Leu and Lys. JFP-Ps was mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl and GalA, with an average molecular weight of 1668kDa. FT-IR results showed the bands at the range of 1200-850cm(-1) suggested the presence of carbohydrates in JFP-Ps. The results of antioxidant activities showed that JFP-Ps exhibited strong DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities, with a relatively lower reducing power, suggesting that JFP-Ps can be exploited as effective natural antioxidant applications in medical and food industries.

  18. Polyphenols from different agricultural residues: extraction, identification and their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), corn husk (CH), peanut husk (PNH), coffee cherry husk (CCH), rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) are low-value byproducts of agriculture. They have been shown to contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant properties. In this study, the effects of two types of solvent extraction methods: solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and hot water extraction on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues were investigated to optimize the extraction conditions based on total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). Methanol (50 %) was found to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics with higher DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity, followed by ethanol and water. The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts (50 %) were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography; in addition gallic acid became the major phenolic acid present in all the agricultural residues whereas ferulic acid, epicatechin, catechin, quercitin and kampferol present in lesser amounts. The present investigation suggested that agricultural residues are potent antioxidants. The overall results of this research demonstrated the potential of agricultural residues to be an abundant source of natural antioxidants suitable for further development into dietary supplements and various food additives.

  19. Structural identification and antioxidant properties of major anthocyanin extracted from Omija (Schizandra chinensis) fruit.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-H; Joo, M H; Yoo, S-H

    2009-03-01

    Omija (Schizandra chinensis) is used as an ingredient in traditional medicine in East Asia. It is consumed as tea and wine and display pinkish-red color and beneficial physiological activity. However, the origin of Omija's unique color and bioactivity has not been studied extensively and its application is very limited. Thus, it was required to determine the chemical structure of major phenolic compounds of Omija fruit and evaluate their antioxidant activity. The colorants extracted from a domestic Omija cultivar were concentrated by a Sep-pak(R) Plus C(18) cartridge. A major high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peak of anthocyan represented 94.1% of total absorbable compounds at 520 nm, which was further identified by LC-ESI-MS. The mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of the major anthocyan was determined to be 727. Highly pure anthocyan fraction with a semipreparative HPLC was acid-hydrolyzed, and the sugar moieties linked to anthocyan (cyanidin) were characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analyses. The linkage patterns of sugars and core cyanidin structure were determined by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses. Antioxidant activity of the extract and the purified anthocyanin was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods. As a result, the structure of the purified colorant was identified as Cya-3-O-xylrut. At the same molar level of the samples tested, the purified Cya-3-O-xylrut (31.2% and 39.2%) had substantially greater antioxidant activity than l-ascorbic acid (17.1% and 10.1%) from DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. In this study, Omija colorant mostly consisted of Cya-3-O-xylrut explained 86% (DPPH) and 98% (ABTS) of total antioxidant activity derived from water extract from Omija.

  20. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  1. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

  2. The effect of antioxidant concentration of N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline and mixing time of physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and microstructure on natural rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiarto

    2017-03-01

    Study the influence of high concentrations of antioxidants N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (TMQ) and the mixing time of the vulcanization physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and structure micro on natural rubber compound has been done. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of anti-oxidants types IPPD and TMQ and mixing time of vulcanization of the physical properties, mechanical properties, microstructure and elemental composition of the synthesis of natural rubber compound. Processes of vulcanization with variations in the concentration of antioxidant IPPD and TMQ: 2, 3, and 4 grams and mixing time: 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Analysis characterization of physical properties and mechanical properties of natural rubber compound showed that the maturity value 0,499Nm (TMQ) and 0.489 Nm (IPPD), Mooney viscosity value of 26.7 (TMQ) and 20.8 (IPPD), the value of the elongation at break 583.75 % (IPPD), and 552.63% (TMQ) as well as the value of tensile strength of 28.108 M.Pa (TMQ), and 27.986 M.Pa (IPPD). Analysis of thermal properties of natural rubber compound antioxidant IPPD with DTA shows there are three endothermic peak on the curve that is temperature 405°C, 550°C and 660°C and tested by TGA showed that the curve of the total reduction in the sample are 81.745% and compound rubber antioxidant TMQ with the analysis of DTA also contained 3 endothermic peak at a temperature 397,21°C, 514,02°C, and 610,27°C and TGA analysis shows the curve of the total sample of 82.356% reduction. Gsi fun group analysis rubber-antioxidant compound IPPD / TMQ with FTIR spectrophotometer shows some typical infrared absorption peak at the wave number (1 / λ) 833-895 cm-1 for cluster / CH bonds, 1,313 cm-1 for group / single bond Si-O, 1368 cm-1 to g ugus / single bond CC, 1507 cm-1, for cluster / bond C = C, 1665 cm-1For cluster / bond-C = O, 2128 cm-1 is the group / bond CN single, 3371

  3. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  4. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and cytotoxic properties of various Brazilian propolis extracts

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Amaral, Ricardo Guimarães; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; Barbosa, Josiane Dantas Viana

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is known for its biological properties and its preparations have been continuously investigated in an attempt to solve the problem of their standardization, an issue that limits the use of propolis in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and cytotoxic effects of extracts of red, green, and brown propolis from different regions of Brazil, obtained by ethanolic and supercritical extraction methods. We found that propolis extracts obtained by both these methods showed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The extracts obtained by ethanolic extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than that shown by the extracts obtained by supercritical extraction. Ethanolic extracts of red propolis exhibited up to 98% of the maximum antioxidant activity at the highest extract concentration. Red propolis extracts obtained by ethanolic and supercritical methods showed the highest levels of antimicrobial activity against several bacteria. Most extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. None of the extracts analyzed showed activity against Escherichia coli or Candida albicans. An inhibitory effect of all tested ethanolic extracts on the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain epimastigotes was observed in the first 24 h. However, after 96 h, a persistent inhibitory effect was detected only for red propolis samples. Only ethanolic extracts of red propolis samples R01Et.B2 and R02Et.B2 showed a cytotoxic effect against all four cancer cell lines tested (HL-60, HCT-116, OVCAR-8, and SF-295), indicating that red propolis extracts have great cytotoxic potential. The biological effects of ethanolic extracts of red propolis revealed in the present study suggest that red propolis can be a potential alternative therapeutic treatment against Chagas disease and some types of cancer, although high activity of red propolis in vitro needs to be confirmed by

  5. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels.

    PubMed

    Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Chaari, Fatma; Maktouf, Sameh; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouz

    2016-08-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from potato peel waste (PPW). The structure of the polysaccharides from PPW (PPPW) was examined by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the extracted polysaccharides form a semi-crystalline polymer constituted essentially of the functional groups CO, CH and OH. Acid hydrolysis of this polymer yielded glucose (76.25%) as the dominant sugar functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) of this polymer were studied. The PPPW showed interesting water-holding and fat-binding capacities which were 4.097 ± 0.537 g/g and 4.398 ± 0.04 g/g, respectively. In addition, it presented good foaming and emulsion properties. The antioxidant activity of this polymer was also studied and revealed that the polysaccharides showed interesting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 PPPW=11.578 mg/mL), reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activities, and also a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 PPPW=2mg/mL). Overall, the results suggest that the polysaccharide is a promising source of natural antioxidants and can be used as additive in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  6. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

  7. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties.

  8. Adipocyte reporter assays: Application for identification of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of mangostin xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiwen; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Thomas, Jaisa L.; Gushchina, Liubov V.; DiSilvestro, David; Failla, Mark L.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2013-01-01

    Scope Three fluorescence biosensors were developed based on a 3T3-L1 preadipocyte line that stably expressed Nfkb-RE/GFP, Fabp4-P/CFP, and Nrf2-P/YFP fluorescent reporters. We hypothesized that nutraceuticals’ inflammatory, adipogenic, and antioxidant status will be identified based on the change in fluorescence in reporter adipocytes. We validated these assays with activators of NFκB, FABP4-regulating PPARγ, NFR2 and, thereafter, tested known and unknown properties of mangosteens (MG), the xanthone metabolites in mangosteen fruit. Methods and results We validated inflammatory and adipogenic properties of α-MG using a Nfkb-RE/GFP biosensor assay. Next, we identified unique properties of γ-MG, a minor mangosteen xanthone. γ-MG suppressed adipogenesis and adiponectin, but inhibited the Nfkb-RE/GFP reporter and secretion of inflammatory MCP-1 as compared to the control adipocytes. We found that the inhibition of adipogenesis and Nfkb-mediated inflammation depends on a dose-dependent reduction of Nrf2 promoter activity by α-MG. The Nrf2 inhibition resulted in the reduced Pparg expression. α-MG did not directly influence Pparg activity in Fabp4-P/CFP adipocytes. Conclusion α-MG-mediated antioxidant response via Nrf2 is a mechanism preventing adipogenesis and inflammation in adipocytes. Combined application of high-throughput biosensors could provide an effective platform for the identification of nutraceuticals and the mechanism of their actions in adipocytes and, potentially, in obese patients. PMID:24039005

  9. Development of naturally activated edible films with antioxidant properties prepared from red seaweed Porphyra columbina biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Salgado, Pablo R; Drago, Silvina R; González, Rolando J; Mauri, Adriana N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of phycobiliproteins-phycocolloids-based films, obtained from mixtures of two aqueous fractions extracted from Porphyra columbina red seaweed, one enriched in phycocolloids (PcF) and the other in phycobiliproteins (PF). Films with different ratios of PF:PcF (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% [w/w]) and without plasticizer addition were prepared by casting. PcF films had excellent mechanical properties (tensile strength ∼50MPa, elongation at break ∼3% and an elastic modulus ∼17.5MPa). The addition of PF to formulations exerted a plasticizing effect on the PcF matrix, which was manifested in moisture content, water solubility and mechanical properties of the resulting films but not in its water vapour permeability. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the PcF films was significantly increased by the addition of PF and a direct relationship between TEAC and the total phenolic compounds (r(2)=0.9998) and R-phycoerythrin (r(2)=0.9942) was observed.

  10. Chemical composition, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the red edible seaweed Porphyra columbina.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Fajardo, María A; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier; González, Rolando J; Drago, Silvina R

    2014-05-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acid profiles and nutritional (chemical score, protein digestibility, PDCAAS and mineral dialyzability) and antioxidant properties (TEAC, DPPH and power reduction) from Porphyra columbina were evaluated. Total dietary fiber (48.02 ± 1.13 g/100 g dry weight) and protein (24.61 ± 0.21 g/100 g dry weight) were the two most abundant components in this seaweed. The main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 and C20:5 (n-3), respectively. The limiting amino acid was tryptophan with a chemical score of 57%. Protein digestibility was 74.33 ± 3.0%. Porphyra columbina has high mineral content with good Na/K relationship and medium value of potential mineral accessibility (P, Ca and Zn dializability: 18.75 ± 0.01, 17.62 ± 0.16 and 16.70 ± 0.44, respectively). The highest antioxidant properties were obtained with an acetone/water extraction system. This work provides important information about chemical composition and nutraceutical new properties of P. columbina.

  11. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Rahul; Nivedhini, V.; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2013-01-01

    The leaf of C. dipsaceus was evaluated for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. From the present investigation, significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals were quantified. Low levels of trypsin inhibitory units, phenolics, and tannins content were found as antinutritional content. Further, hot water extract of C. dipsaceus showed good activity especially in ABTS+, metal chelating, nitric oxide, and DPPH assays. Hence, the results conclude that C. dipsaceus could be a valuable nutraceutical supplement to the human diet. PMID:24288509

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Teucrium arduini L. (Lamiaceae) flower and leaf infusions (Teucrium arduini L. antioxidant capacity).

    PubMed

    Samec, D; Gruz, J; Strnad, M; Kremer, D; Kosalec, I; Grubesić, R Jurisić; Karlović, K; Lucic, A; Piljac-Zegarac, J

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as total phenol (TP, Folin-Ciocalteu method) and phenolic acid (UPLC-MS/MS) contents of leaf and flower infusions of Teucrium arduini L. from six different mountainous localities in Croatia (Ucka, Vosac, Sveti Jure, Snjeznica, Vaganac, Susanj) were analysed in this study. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The antioxidant potency composite index (ACI), giving equal weight to all three methods used to quantify antioxidant capacity, was the highest for the sample from Vosac (96.7) among flower infusions, while maximum ACI (100) was determined for the infusion from Ucka among leaf infusions. Strong positive correlation was found between the total phenols and ACI for leaf (r=0.953) and flower (r=0.977) infusions. Our results point to significantly (p<0.05) different TP content between leaf and flower infusions, as well as across localities. Leaf infusions of T. arduini from Susanj exhibited marked antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, while none of the tested infusions exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacterial species, or the tested fungal species.

  13. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Li, Haibing; Li, Xiaoyue; Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Wenbo

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a fraction (AAP-2A) of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus (AAP) were investigated. Characteriztion assay showed that AAP-2A had molecular weight (Mw), root-mean square (RMS) radius and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of 2.252 × 10(3)kDa, 28.4 nm and 1.038, respectively. There were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in FT-IR spectroscopy. AAP-2A was composed of rhamnose (Rha), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara) and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 1:2.13:3.22:6.18 in GC analysis. Methylation analysis combined with NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that a preliminary structure of AAP-2A was proposed as follows: 1,3-linked Rhap, 1,3-linked Galp, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp and 1,4,6-linked Glcp interspersed with terminal Glcp. AAP-2A exhibited a surface with a sheet-like appearance in scanning electron microscope and stronger antioxidant capacity compared with AAP.

  14. Preparation and characterization of catechin-grafted chitosan with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the preparation, characterization, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of catechin-grafted chitosan (catechin-g-chitosan) were investigated. The graft of catechin onto chitosan was achieved by redox system and confirmed using various instrumental methods. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that catechin has been successfully grafted onto chitosan. The morphology observation shows that chitosan changes to a softened nature with porous surface after grafting. Catechin-g-chitosan also exhibits reduced thermal stability and enhanced crystallinity compared to chitosan. Moreover, catechin-g-chitosan shows 0.51 of reducing power, 46.81% of hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and 67.08% of DPPH radical-scavenging activity at 1mg/ml, which are much higher than that of chitosan. The antidiabetic activity in vitro assays shows that the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect decreases in the order of catechin-g-chitosan>catechin>acarbose>chitosan, and the α-amylase inhibitory effect decreases in the order of acarbose>catechin-g-chitosan>catechin>chitosan. The improved antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of catechin-g-chitosan are attributed to the phenolic groups in the catechin residues.

  15. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant.

  16. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  17. NMR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. Philip Chang; Changho Choi; Jeromy T. Hollenshead; Rudi Michalak; Jack Phan; Ramon Saavedra; John C. Slattery; Jinsoo Uh; Randi Valestrand; A. Ted Watson; Song Xue

    2005-01-01

    A critical and long-standing need within the petroleum industry is the specification of suitable petrophysical properties for mathematical simulation of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterization). The development of accurate reservoir characterizations is extremely challenging. Property variations may be described on many scales, and the information available from measurements reflect different scales. In fact, experiments on laboratory core samples, well-log data, well-test data, and reservoir-production data all represent information potentially valuable to reservoir characterization, yet they all reflect information about spatial variations of properties at different scales. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) provide enormous potential for developing new descriptions and understandings of heterogeneous media. NMR has the rare capability to probe permeable media non-invasively, with spatial resolution, and it provides unique information about molecular motions and interactions that are sensitive to morphology. NMR well-logging provides the best opportunity ever to resolve permeability distributions within petroleum reservoirs. We develop MRI methods to determine, for the first time, spatially resolved distributions of porosity and permeability within permeable media samples that approach the intrinsic scale: the finest resolution of these macroscopic properties possible. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the permeability is actually resolved at a scale smaller than the sample. In order to do this, we have developed a robust method to determine of relaxation distributions from NMR experiments and a novel implementation and analysis of MRI experiments to determine the amount of fluid corresponding to imaging regions, which are in turn used to determine porosity and saturation distributions. We have developed a novel MRI experiment to determine velocity distributions within flowing experiments, and

  18. Haematopoietic, Antioxidant and Membrane Stabilizing Property of Diallyl Disulphide in Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tenkanidiyoor, Yogish Somayaji; Vasudeva, Vidya; Rao, Shama; Gowda, Damodara; Rao, Chandrika; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diallyl disulphide is an organo-sulphur compound which is present in garlic and responsible for the characteristic odor of garlic. It is known for its anticancer and invitro membrane stabilizing properties. Aim The main aim was to evaluate the haematopoietic, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing property of diallyl disulfide in irradiated mice. Materials and Methods Mice were grouped into 6 groups as control, drug control, radiation control and drug pre-treatment groups (i.e. drug administration + radiation group) The mice were fed orally for 15 consecutive days and on the 15th day, one hour after drug administration, the mice were irradiated with 6Gy electron beam radiation. The changes in blood cell count, total antioxidant levels, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels were determined. The immunomodulatory response of DADS to the radiological effects was determined by the estimation of IL-6 levels. Results A significant improvement in pre-drug treatment group when compared to control groups in the haemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haematocrit and platelet counts was observed. There is an increased level of interleukin-6 in the drug treated groups compared to the radiation control. An increase in the malondialdehyde levels and decrease in the glutathione levels in the irradiated group indicate increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, whereas, there is a significant reduction in the malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in the drug pre-treatment groups showing membrane stabilization. Conclusion Thus DADS proves to be an effective haematopoietic and antioxidative agent to counter radiation induced haematopoietic suppression and oxidative stress. PMID:27042448

  19. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

    2014-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  20. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra S; Abozed, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes' residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker's formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods.

  1. Purification and characterization of flavonoids from the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and correlation between their structure and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Lina; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Jingfang

    2014-01-01

    Nine flavonoids were isolated and characterized from the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques as quercetin (1), afzelin (2), quercitrin (3), trifolin (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (5), isorhamnetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (6), hyperoside (7), vitexin (8) and rutin (9). All compounds were isolated from the leaves of Z. bungeanum for the first time. Five compounds (2, 4, 5, 6 and 8) were found for the first time in the genus Zanthoxylum. To learn the mechanisms underlying its health benefits, in vitro (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) and in vivo (protective effect on Escherichia coli under peroxide stress) antioxidant activities of the nine flavonoids were measured. Quercetin and quercetin glycosides (compounds 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) showed the highest antioxidant activity. Structure-activity relationships indicated that the -OH in 4' position on the B ring and the -OH in 7 position on the A ring possessed high antioxidant activity; B ring and/or A ring with adjacent -OH groups could greatly increase their antioxidant ability. Also, due to the different structures of various flavonoids, they will certainly exhibit different antioxidant capacity when the reactions occur in solution or in oil-in-water emulsion. These findings suggest that Z. bungeanum leaves may have health benefits when consumed. It could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products and functional food ingredients in both nutraceutical and food industries as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile. PMID:21699688

  3. Use of food and packaging model matrices to investigate the antioxidant properties of biorefinery grass lignins.

    PubMed

    Aguié-Béghin, Véronique; Foulon, Laurence; Soto, Paola; Crônier, David; Corti, Elena; Legée, Frédéric; Cézard, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Baumberger, Stéphanie

    2015-11-18

    The antioxidant properties of grass lignins recovered from an alkaline industrial process and from different ethanol organosolv pretreatment processes were compared using two types of tests: (i) classical radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging tests in dioxane/water or ethanol and (ii) tests involving multiphasic systems (lipid dispersion in water or cellulose film suspended in ethanol). These multiphasic systems were representative of food and packaging matrices in view of high-value applications. All lignins, in solution or in the film, effectively scavenged radicals. Moreover, they were competitive with a food commercial rosemary extract to protect linoleic acid against oxidation. Whereas the DPPH(•) test in dioxane was not discriminant, differences appeared between lignins when the test was performed in ethanol or with the multiphasic systems. Moreover, radical scavenging activity was preserved in the film even after its immersion in ethanol. Structural analysis of lignins revealed that low-molar-mass phenolics, namely p-hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin depolymerization products, governed lignin antioxidant properties in the multiphasic systems.

  4. In vitro antioxidant properties of chicken skin enzymatic protein hydrolysates and membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E; Aliani, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Chicken thigh and breast skin proteins were hydrolysed using alcalase or a combination of pepsin and pancreatin (PP), each at concentrations of 1-4%. The chicken skin protein hydrolysates (CSPHs) were then fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration into different molecular weight peptides (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10kDa) and analysed for antioxidant properties. Results showed that the CSPHs had a significantly (p<0.05) lower scavenging activity against DPPH radicals when compared to reduced glutathione. The chicken breast skin hydrolysates had significantly higher DPPH scavenging activity than the chicken thigh skin hydrolysates. DPPH scavenging and metal ion chelation increased significantly (p<0.05) from 29-40% to 86-89%, respectively with increasing proteolytic enzyme concentration. In contrast, the antioxidant properties decreased as peptide size increased. We conclude that CSPHs and their peptide fractions may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the control and management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  5. The effect of cupric and ferric ions on antioxidant properties of human serum albumi.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Behbehani, Gholamreza; Gonbadi, Katayon; Eslami, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of both ferric (Fe³⁺) and cupric (Cu²⁺) ions with human serum albumin (HSA) was assayed at a temperature of 27°C in aqueous solution using isothermal titration calorimetry. The association equilibrium constant and the molar enthalpy for one binding is 1.7 × 10⁵ M-1 and -31.37 kJ • M⁻¹, respectively. To obtain the binding parameters of metal ion-protein interaction over the whole range of Fe³⁺ concentrations, the extended solvation model was applied. The solvation parameters obtained from this model were attributed to the structural change of HSA. The binding parameters obtained from the extended solvation model indicate that the stability of HSA was decreased as a result of its binding with ferric ions, which cause dampening the antioxidant property of HSA. Cuperic ion increases the stability of HSA considerably, indicating that the antioxidant property of human serum albumin are increased as a result of its interaction with cupric ion.

  6. Optimization and prediction of antioxidant properties of a tea-ginger extract

    PubMed Central

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Sanni, David Morakinyo

    2015-01-01

    A response surface approach was used to investigate the effects of temperature, concentration, and time on the antioxidant properties (total flavonoid (TF), total phenol (TP), peroxide scavenging activity (PS), iron chelating activity (IC), DPPH radical-scavenging ability (DPPH), ABTS assay (ABTS)) of aqueous extract of tea-ginger (2:1) powder. Color indices, pH, and redox potential of the tea-ginger powder were also measured and used as independent variables for the prediction of antioxidant properties of the extract using ordinary least square (OLSR), principal component (PCR), and partial least square (PLSR) regression. The R2 values for TP, TF, ABTS, and PS response surface models were 0.8873, 0.9639, 0.6485, and 0.5721, respectively. The OLSR, PCR, and PLSR were able to provide predictive models for DPPH, TP, and TF of the tea-ginger extract (P < 0.05). The PLSR gave the most parsimonious model with an R2 of 0.851, 0.736, and 0.905 for DPPH, TP, and TF, respectively. PMID:26405530

  7. Citrullus colocynthis failed to combat against renal derangements, in spite of its strong antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Mir Azam; Asif, Afzal Haq; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    Gentamicin is a potent antibiotic, effective against Gram negative bacteria. The most common adverse effect of gentamicin is nephrotoxicity. Present study was aimed to explore the protective potentials of Citrullus colocynthis against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity due to its strong antioxidant properties. Toxic doses of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/day, i.m.) were administered alone and as co-therapy with the extract of C. colocynthis (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Physiological, biochemical and histological examinations were performed to compare the experimental and toxic groups (n = 6) with control group animals. Co-therapy of C. colocynthis with gentamicin protected changes in the body weight, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, proteins and lactate dehydrogenase excretions. However, a significant rise in serum creatinine and serum uric acid with fall in serum calcium and serum potassium was observed, which were significantly different from control group animals. Necrotic and ruptured tubules were also found abundantly. This study revealed that co-theapy of C. colocynthis with gentamicin for twenty one days, failed to protect renal injury associated by gentamicin in spite of its strong antioxidant properties.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of 1,2,4-oxadiazole analogs of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Gobec, Martina; Tomašič, Tihomir; Markovič, Tijana; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jakopin, Žiga

    2015-10-05

    The chemopreventive properties of resveratrol are ascribed mostly to its antioxidant activity, in particular its scavenging ability for reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to the inhibition of NF-κB pathway which has also been suggested as an important underlying mechanism of its reported properties. In present study, a small library of nine 1,2,4-oxadiazole-based structural analogs of resveratrol were assayed for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Several compounds showed significant inhibitory activities against NF-κB and/or ROS production. Compound 2, incorporating two para-hydroxyphenyl moieties connected by the 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring, was the most active, its potency in inhibiting activation of NF-κB and ROS scavenging abilities surpassing that of resveratrol. Additionally, we elucidated the mechanisms underlying the NF-κB inhibitory activity of compound 2. Finally, in contrast to resveratrol, compound 2 significantly reduced the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating its prominent anti-inflammatory potential.

  9. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Roncada, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Boswellia serrata (BS) is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour). The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B. serrata extracts were employed to compare their AKBA content and in vitro antioxidant power. Furthermore, their ability to modulate the immune system regulatory properties was investigated. Our results showed that the AKBA content varied from 3.83 ± 0.10 to 0.03 ± 0.004%, with one sample in which it was not detectable. The highest antioxidant power and phenolic content were shown by the same extract, which also exhibited the highest AKBA concentration. Finally, the BS extracts showed the ability to influence the regulatory and effector T-cell compartments. Our results suggest that frankincense should be further investigated for its promising potentiality to modulate not only inflammation/oxidative stress but also immune dysregulation, but attention should be paid to the composition of the commercial extracts. PMID:28386311

  10. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property.

  11. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts.

    PubMed

    Beghelli, Daniela; Isani, Gloria; Roncada, Paola; Andreani, Giulia; Bistoni, Onelia; Bertocchi, Martina; Lupidi, Giulio; Alunno, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Boswellia serrata (BS) is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour). The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B. serrata extracts were employed to compare their AKBA content and in vitro antioxidant power. Furthermore, their ability to modulate the immune system regulatory properties was investigated. Our results showed that the AKBA content varied from 3.83 ± 0.10 to 0.03 ± 0.004%, with one sample in which it was not detectable. The highest antioxidant power and phenolic content were shown by the same extract, which also exhibited the highest AKBA concentration. Finally, the BS extracts showed the ability to influence the regulatory and effector T-cell compartments. Our results suggest that frankincense should be further investigated for its promising potentiality to modulate not only inflammation/oxidative stress but also immune dysregulation, but attention should be paid to the composition of the commercial extracts.

  12. Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on Vitamin C and Its Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S.; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong; Xiong, Xia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments and their effects on the structure of vitamin C (VIT-C) were estimated by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the relative content of VIT-C was measured by HPLC and the antioxidant properties of treated VIT-C by DPPH radical scavenging as well as reducing power tests. The fluorescence intensity of treated VIT-C increased slightly compared to the untreated VIT-C. Moreover, the effect of PEF on the structure of VIT-C was observed using the FT-IR spectra. These phenomena indicated that the PEF affected the conformation of VIT-C, which promoted the VIT-C isomer transformed enol-form into keto-form. In addition, the PEF treatments did not suffer the damage to VIT-C and could slow down the oxidation process in involving of experimental conditions by HPLC. The antioxidant properties of the treated VIT-C were enhanced, which was proved by radical scavenging and also the reducing power tests. PMID:26473846

  13. Characterization of Energetic Properties of Porous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Blake

    2012-10-01

    Porous silicon has recently been found to explode when under certain oxidation or nitration conditions. However, characterization of the velocity and pressure of these explosions is not been complete, as there are many kinds of porous silicon. We present a simple and inexpensive method to measure these properties using PVDF piezoelectric gauges. Here, the gauges are calibrated qualitatively against common firecrackers, similar to black cats. While the pressure measurements from our results are still being analyzed, the velocity of the shock wave produced by the explosion is faster than the speed of sound, about 430 m/s.

  14. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source. PMID:26690454

  15. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-12-11

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source.

  16. Phenolic substance characterization and chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities of 11 lentils grown in the northern United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2010-02-10

    Chemical and cellular antioxidant activities and phenolic profiles of 11 lentil cultivars grown in the cool northern parts of the United States were investigated. Individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanins, were further quantitatively investigated by HPLC. Cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC) were evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader. Cultivar Morton exhibited the highest individual flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and total flavonoids, as well as the highest antioxidant properties (PRSC and CAA) among all lentils tested. Five phenolic acids of the benzoic types and their derivates (gallic, protocatechuic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and protocatechualdehyde) and four phenolic acids of the cinnamic type (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, and sinapic acid) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Two flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and one flavone (luteolin) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Among all phenolic compounds detected, sinapic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, and (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the predominant flavonoids. These results showed that different phenotype lentils possessed considerable variations in their individual phenolic compounds, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and total flavonoids significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Cellular antioxidant assay significantly correlated with chemical antioxidant assay ORAC. The results from this study could be very interesting for breeding programs to improve lentils for use as functional foods.

  17. Antioxidant properties of flavone-6(4')-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ayhan-Kilcigil, Gülgün; Coban, Tülay; Tunçbilek, Meral; Can-Eke, Benay; Bozdağ-Dündar, Oya; Ertan, Rahmiye; Iscan, Mümtaz

    2004-06-01

    The in vitro antioxidant properties of some flavone-6(4)-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives (Ia-f, IIa-f) were determined by their effects on the rat liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation (LP) levels by measuring the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The free radical scavenging properties of the compounds were also examined in vitro by determining their capacity to scavenge superoxide anions and interact with the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The most active compounds, IIb (Flavone-4'-carboxaldehyde-O-ethyl oxime) and Id (Flavone-6-carboxaldehyde-O-[2-(1-pyrolidino) ethyl] oxime), caused 98 and 79% inhibition of superoxide anion production and DPPH stable free radical at 10(-3) M, respectively.

  18. [Influence of vermiculite particles on antioxidant properties of cultural medium of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I A; Kudrish, I K

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the process of cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 in the medium with vermiculite (1.5-5.0 g/l) one can observe the oppressing of some indexes of antioxidant properties of cultural medium of bacteria. In particular, a decline of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the Fenton reaction by 2.8-11.6%, ability to inhibit formation of malondialdehyde - by 4.4-13.1% and inactivation of 2,2'-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical - by 3.1-8.5% were observed. Thus oxidant activity increased substantially. Besides oppressing influence of particles of vermiculite on protector properties of the cultural medium of bacilli it is found out that with the increase of the content of dispersible material in the nutrient medium the reducing power of cultural medium of these bacteria increased.

  19. Propolis as potential cosmeceutical sunscreen agent for its combined photoprotective and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Grassato, Luigi; Stevanato, Roberto

    2011-02-28

    Propolis, bee glue, and its main polyphenolic components show high antioxidant activity as found measuring their inhibitory action on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. Furthermore, these substances evidence effectiveness as broad spectrum UVB and UVA photoprotection sunscreens, as it results by measurements of sun protection factor (SPF), the universal indicator related primarily to UVB radiations, and of the two parameters giving an indication of the UVA absorbance properties, i.e. UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The combination of these characteristics moves up propolis and its main polyphenolic components to the class of cosmeceuticals, as possible active ingredient of sunscreen commercial formulations for their protective and preventive properties.

  20. Influence of growing season on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of grape berries from vines grown in subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Zhang, Yali; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Yu; Lu, Jiang

    2011-02-23

    The influence of growing season (winter vs summer) on the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties was studied in five grape cultivars for three consecutive years. Four phenolic compound parameters (total phenols, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) and three antioxidant property parameters [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulfonic acid) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] were investigated. Results showed that both phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in the seed and skin of winter berries were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of summer berries for all of the cultivars investigated. The anthocyanin profiles of berry skins appeared to be extremely consistent in different years for the same crop, whereas they varied greatly between the two crops within the same year (winter vs summer). Winter berries contained richer glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, and malvidin than summer berries. These seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties on grape berries were largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, and hydrothermic coefficient between different growing seasons.

  1. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices.

  2. Synthese and characterization of boronic acid functionalized macroporous uniform poly(4-chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene) particles and its use in the isolation of antioxidant compounds from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Onur; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Ciçek, Hüseyin

    2012-11-15

    Aminophenyl boronic acid (APBA) carrying uniform-macroporous poly(chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene), poly(CMS-co-DVB) particles were synthesized for selective separation of cis-diol-containing flavonoids from plant extracts. For this purpose, 2.5 μm polystyrene seed particles were first swelled by a mixture of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and dodecanol, then by a monomer mixture including CMS and DVB. The repolymerization of the monomer phase in the swollen seed particles provided macroporous and uniform particles, approximately 7 μm in size. Chlorine atoms on the surface of these particles were derivatized with APBA to gain affinity properties for flavonoids containing vicinal hydroxyl groups. Model adsorption studies showed that these particles selectively adsorbed quercetin and rutin containing cis-diol groups, but did not adsorb apigenin similar to quercetin and not carrying cis-diol groups. These particles were also tested in adsorption/desorption studies for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the Hypericum perforatum (HP) stems to obtain high antioxidant mixtures. With ethanol extract, the antioxidant activity of the desorption solution was a bit higher than that of the post-adsorption solutions. However, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the desorption solution decreased with respect to the original extract and post-adsorption solutions. A similar result was obtained for the antioxidant activity of the desorption solution using ethyl acetate extract. An interesting result was obtained that DPPH radical scavenging activity of the post-adsorption solution was higher than that of the original ethyl acetate extract and desorption solutions. These results were attributed to selective adsorption of antioxidant characterized cis-diol-containing apolar molecules much more rather than that radical scavenger characterized polar molecules.

  3. Characterization of a cadmium resistance Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain by antioxidant assays and proteome profiles methods.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yao; Yang, Xuan; Lian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination poses a major threat to the environment and human health for their potential toxicity and non-biodegradable properties. At present, some probiotics bacteria are reported to have great potential to eliminate heavy metals from food and water. In this study, resistance properties of a newly isolated Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis for cadmium were studied by antioxidant assays and proteomics analysis. Antioxidant capacity of this strain was significantly activated under cadmium stress indicated by Fenton reaction, DPPH assay, SOD assay and GSH assay. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase were suggested to play vital roles in the activated antioxidant capacity. The up-regulated cadA was associated with the activated P-type ATPases that plays an important role in cadmium resistance. Proteomics analysis identified 12 over-expressed proteins under 50mg/L cadmium stress and these proteins are abundant in oxidative stress response and energy metabolism regulation, which were considered as consequences as cadmium resistance of the strain. Thus, the probiotics Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis may resist cadmium stress through antioxidant approach and enhanced energy metabolism. The food grade lactis strain may be applied in metal decontamination in environment and food/feed.

  4. Isolation of fucoidan from Sargassum polycystum brown algae: Structural characterization, in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Subramanian; Vinosha, Manoharan; Marudhupandi, Thangapandi; Rajasekar, Periyannan; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu

    2017-04-08

    In this study antioxidant and anticancer effect of fucoidan isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum polycystum was investigated. The total yield of fucoidan was 4.51±0.24%, of these, 46.8% of fucose and 22.35±0.23% of sulphate respectively. The structural characteristic of fucoidan was analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnatic resonance. The antioxidant properties were determined by DPPH scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant assays. The maximum DPPH scavenging activity (61.2±0.33%), reducing ability (67.56±0.26%) and total antioxidant activity (65.3± 0.66%) were obtained at 1000μg/ml of fucoidan. The cytotoxicity effect of fucoidan showed a higher percentage (90.4±0.25%) of inhibition against the MCF-7cell line at 150μg/ml with an estimated IC50 at 50μg/ml. Further, cytomorphological and apoptosis changes of fucoidan treated cells were observed under inverted light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results demonstrated that the isolated fucoidan from S. polycystum possessed potent antioxidant and anticancer properties.

  5. Antioxidants and its Properties as Affected by Extrusion Process: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sajad A; Kumar, Pradyuman

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are important for plant and animal's life or health. These are the substances that protect them from the damage produced by unstable molecules called as free radicals. There are various types of antioxidants to be reported both natural as well as synthetic such as melatonin, Vitamin C, glutathione, tocopherols and tocotrienols, BHA and BHT, etc. A new antioxidant 5-O-[6˝-(3- hydroxy-3methyl glutarate) β-D-glucodise was found while studying bioactive antioxidants from plant foods for nutraceutical product development. Antioxidants have been used for increasing shelf life of various food products including extruded product. Antioxidants, their beneficial advantages and the effect of extrusion on antioxidants were reviewed and found to be effective in increasing the shelf life. This review article discusses recent patents, presents importance of antioxidant, phytochemicals and effect of process of extrusion on antioxidants.

  6. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p < 0.05) water holding capacity (4.96 and 4.31 g water/g sample, respectively), however oil holding capacity was low (1.59-1.85 g oil/g sample) for the three matrices studied. Regarding the phenolic content, values ranged from 3.78 to 4.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, with MAC showing the highest content. Through high performance liquid chromatography analysis, six compounds were identified and quantified (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, and mangiferin) in the fruit co-products. As observed for the phenolic content, the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) was found in MAC when measured by both DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  8. Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México.

    PubMed

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 μg mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  9. Antioxidant properties of carnosine re-evaluated with oxidizing systems involving iron and copper ions.

    PubMed

    Mozdzan, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Rysz, Jacek; Nowak, Dariusz

    2005-05-01

    Carnosine has antioxidant properties and is efficient in the treatment of chemically-induced inflammatory lesions in animals. However, some studies question its biological significance as antioxidant and show lack of protection and even pro-oxidant effect of carnosine in systems containing nickel and iron ions. The ability of carnosine to: (1) reduce Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions; (2) protect deoxyribose from oxidation by Fe(2+)-, Fe(3+)-, and Cu(2+)-H(2)O(2)-EDTA systems; (3) protect DNA from damage caused by Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems; (4) inhibit HClO- and H(2)O(2)-peroxidase-induced luminol dependent chemiluminescence was tested in vitro. At concentration 10 mM carnosine reduced 16.6+/-0.5 nmoles of Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions during 20 min. incubation and added to plasma significantly increased its ferric reducing ability. Inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation by 10 mM carnosine reached 56+/-5, 40+/-11 and 30+/-11% for systems containing Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively. The damage to DNA was decreased by 84+/-9 and 61+/-14% when Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems were applied. Combination of 10 mM histidine with alanine or histidine alone (but not alanine) enhanced 1.3 and 2.3 times (P<0.05) the DNA damage induced by Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate. These amino acids added to 10 mM carnosine decreased 3.1-fold (P<0.05) its protective effect on DNA. Carnosine at 10 and 20 mM decreased by more than 90% light emission from both chemiluminescent systems. It is concluded that carnosine has significant antioxidant activity especially in the presence of transition metal ions. However, hydrolysis of carnosine with subsequent histidine release may be responsible for some pro-oxidant effects.

  10. Nutrient Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Harungana madagascariensis Stembark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Antia, Bassey Sunday; Ita, Basil Nse; Udo, Uwemedimo Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The stembarks of Harungana madagascariensis were analyzed for their content of chemical constituents, antinutrients, vitamin levels, and in vitro antioxidant properties in two solvent systems. Phytochemical screening revealed higher levels of alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids in the methanolic (MHM) extract than in the dichloromethane (DCM) extract. The methanolic extract had higher contents of minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients except K, vitamin B1, and phytic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potentials of the stembark extracts were assessed by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and ferric reducing power. The methanolic extract showed a better antioxidant activity (IC50=87.66±0.97 μg/mL) in the DPPH system. The metal chelating activity was higher in the methanolic extract (92.4% at 20 mg/mL), but lower than the control ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The methanolic extract also showed greater ferric reducing power and was richer in phenolics (132.24±0.61 mgGAE/g) and flavonoids (259.05±2.85 mgQE/g). Antinutrient analysis of the extracts indicated low levels of phytic acid, oxalates, and hydrocyanides below the lethal doses. The LD50 (i.p. mice) of the extracts showed relatively low toxicity in the range 1000–1414 mg/kg. These results support the ethnomedicinal uses of this plant in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress and suggest that consumption of H. madagascariensis is not harmful nutritively. PMID:25785542

  11. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05) during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%). Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05) decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  12. Boswellia serrata has beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in a model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi; Martins, Maria Isabel Morgan; Meurer, Luise; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2014-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease that involves only the colon and rectum, being characterized by leukocyte infiltrate and superficial ulcers in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extract from the Boswellia serrata plant in an experimental rat model of acute ulcerative colitis induced by the administration of acetic acid (AA). An extract of B. serrata (34.2 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for 2 days before and after the induction of colitis with 4 mL of 4% AA. The anal sphincter pressure in the colitis group showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control groups (p < 0.001). The analysis of the values of lipid peroxidation (LPO) obtained by substances that react with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) showed a significantly increased LPO in the colitis group compared to the control groups (p < 0.001). The nitric oxide levels and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) showed a significant increase in the colitis group compared to control groups (p < 0.01). Both pretreatment and treatment with B. serrata exhibited significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and iNOS and showed improvements in tissue injury and anal sphincter pressure in animals with ulcerative colitis. The B. serrata extract has protective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that inhibit inflammatory mediators in acute experimental colitis.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Mushroom Mycelia Obtained by Batch Cultivation and Tocopherol Content Affected by Extraction Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r2 = 0.7665–0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products. PMID:25110715

  14. Antioxidant and antiradical properties of methanolic extracts from algerian wild edible desert truffles (terfezia and tirmania, ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Gouzi, Hicham; Leboukh, Mourad; Bouchouka, Elmouloud

    2013-01-01

    Wild edible truffles (namely, Terfezia leonis, Tirmania pinoyi, and T. nivea) were commercially obtained from Southern Algeria and methanolic extracts were prepared from these truffles. Their antioxidant and antiradical properties were studied by using five analytical methods: scavenging capacity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS·+), superoxide anion (O2·-) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay. Chemical constituents contributing to these activities were also investigated. T. leonis had the highest total phenolics, total carotenoids, and anthocyanin contents. At 2.6 mg/mL, scavenging effects on the DPPH· radical were 92.47%, 53.06%, and 41.34% for T. leonis, T. pinoyi, and T. nivea, respectively. T. leonis showed the most potent radical scavenging activities on DPPH·, ABTS·+, and O2·- radicals, with EC50 values of 1.08, 1.35, and 7.27 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, T. leonis exhibited the highest reductive capabilities. On the basis of the EC50 values, T. leonis had good antioxidant and antiradical properties. These results showed that methanolic extracts from these three truffles species had effective antioxidant and antiradical properties. Therefore, wild edible desert truffles could serve as an easily accessible item of food rich in natural antioxidants, as a possible food supplement, or even as a pharmaceutical agent.

  15. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane for cardiac tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Yeganeh, Hamid; Ai, Jafar; Gharibi, Reza; Azami, Mahmoud; Faghihi, Faezeh

    2014-11-01

    There has been a growing trend towards applying conducting polymers for electrically excitable cells to increase electrical signal propagation within the cell-loaded substrates. A novel biodegradable electroactive polyurethane containing aniline pentamer (AP-PU) was synthesized and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. To tune the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility, the AP-PU was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL). The presence of electroactive moieties and the electroactivity behavior of the prepared films were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A conventional four probe analysis demonstrated the electrical conductivity of the films in the semiconductor range (~10(-5)S/cm). MTT assays using L929 mouse fibroblast and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed that the prepared blend (PB) displayed more cytocompatibility compared with AP-PU due to the introduction of a biocompatible PCL moiety. The in vitro cell culture also confirmed that PB was as supportive as tissue culture plate. The antioxidant activity of the AP-PU was proved using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-vis spectroscopy. In vitro degradation tests conducted in phosphate-buffered saline, pH7.4 and pH5.5, proved that the films were also biodegradable. The results of this study have highlighted the potential application of this bioelectroactive polyurethane as a platform substrate to study the effect of electrical signals on cell activities and to direct desirable cell function for tissue engineering applications.

  17. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  18. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  19. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemoprotective Properties of Acacia catechu Heartwood Extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu heartwood are rich source of catechin and epicatechin (gallic acid derivatives), with smaller amounts of flavonoids. Extracts have also been prepared with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol, and the properties of these extracts have been studied and are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This antioxidant activity is believed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory, tissue protectant, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities that have been demonstrated and clearly established in animal and cell culture systems. Furthermore, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. No adverse effects have been observed in animal or human studies or in cell culture systems. In spite of the fact that Acacia products have been used for many years and the general safety of catechins and epicatechins is well documented, few human studies have ever been conducted on the efficacy or safety of A. catechu heartwood extracts. Several studies have shown that a two-ingredient combination product containing A. catechu extract exhibited no adverse effects when administered daily for up to 12 weeks while exhibiting significant anti-inflammatory activity in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a need for additional human clinical studies with regard to efficacy and safety.

  20. The in vivo antioxidant and antifibrotic properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Ting, Hung-Chih; Huang, Chun-Fa; Yen, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-02-15

    The in vivo antioxidant and antifibrotic properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) were investigated with a study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in male ICR mice. Oral administration of green tea extract at doses of 125, 625 and 1250 mg/kg for 8 weeks significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls in the liver by at least 28% compared with that was induced by CCl(4) (1 mL/kg) in mice. Moreover, green tea extract administration significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) in the liver. Our study found that oral administration of green tea extract prevented CCl(4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, as evidenced by a decreased hydroxyproline level in the liver and a reduced incidence of hepatic fibrosis by histological observations. These results indicate that green tea exhibits potent protective effects against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in mice by inhibiting oxidative damage and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.

  1. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Roll, Mariana Matos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Salgado, Hugo Leonardo Crisóstomo; Santos, Alberdan Silva; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-05-13

    Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997). GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Tests in vitro showed that oil sample 3 from southwestern of Brazilian Amazon had a high antioxidant capacity that may protect biological systems from oxidative stress, although this activity remains to be demonstrated in vivo.

  2. Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of the sim fruit (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Lai, Thi Ngoc Ha; André, Christelle; Rogez, Hervé; Mignolet, Eric; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thuy; Larondelle, Yvan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, detailed chemical properties of sim (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk.) fruit including nutritional composition, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined for the first time. A 150g serving of sim fruit contained high levels of dietary fibre (69.94-87.43% of Recommended Daily Intake (RDI)), α-tocopherol (38.90-51.87% RDI), manganese (>100% RDI), and copper (44.44% RDI) but low levels of protein (2.63% RDI), lipid (1.59-3.5% RDI), and sugars (5.65% RDI). The predominant fatty acid in the sim fruit sample was linoleic acid (75.36% of total fatty acids). Interestingly, total phenolics (49.21±0.35mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW)) were particularly high and resulted in a high antioxidant capacity (431.17±14.56μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g DW). These results, together with our recent discovery of high amount of piceatannol, a stilbene with potent biological activities, highlight the potential of sim, an under-utilised plant species from South-East Asia, as a new source of health-promoting compounds including dietary fibres, essential fatty acids, and phenolic compounds.

  3. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lançon, Allan; Frazzi, Raffaele; Latruffe, Norbert

    2016-03-02

    Resveratrol (3,4',5 trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is one of the best known phytophenols with pleiotropic properties. It is a phytoalexin produced by vine and it leads to the stimulation of natural plant defenses but also exhibits many beneficial effects in animals and humans by acting on a wide range of organs and tissues. These include the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, anti-cancer potential, neuroprotective effects, homeostasia maintenance, aging delay and a decrease in inflammation. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main causes of deterioration of vision in adults in developed countries This review deals with resveratrol and ophthalmology by focusing on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic effects of this molecule. The literature reports that resveratrol is able to act on various cell types of the eye by increasing the level of natural antioxidant enzymatic and molecular defenses. Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effects are due to its capacity to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukins and prostaglandins, and also to decrease the chemo-attraction and recruitment of immune cells to the inflammatory site. In addition to this, resveratrol was shown to possess anti-VEGF effects and to inhibit the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Resveratrol has the potential to be used in a range of human ocular diseases and conditions, based on animal models and in vitro experiments.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Soni, Badrish; Dalwadi, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant property of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts using in vitro models. The dose-dependent aqueous and ethanolic extracts demonstrated the scavenging activity against nitric oxide (concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals [IC(50)]=72 and 62.1 microg/ml, respectively), superoxide (IC(50)=64.2 and 38.4 microg/ml, respectively), hydroxyl (IC(50)=81.9 and 63 microg/ml, respectively), DPPH (IC(50)=43.6 and 28.3 microg/ml, respectively) and ABTS(*+) (IC(50)=77.3 and 57.2 microg/ml, respectively) radicals. Further, both extracts showed strong reducing power and iron-chelating capacities. In the Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, both extracts were found to inhibit mitochondrial fraction lipid peroxidation. In copper-catalyzed human serum and low-density lipoprotein oxidation models, both extracts significantly (P<0.05) lengthened the lag phase along with a decline in the oxidation rate, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance formation. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of G. glabra possess considerable antioxidant activity and protective effect against the human lipoprotein oxidative system.

  5. Antioxidant and biological properties of bioactive phenolic compounds from Quercus suber L.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana; Fernandes, Iva; Cruz, Luís; Mateus, Nuno; Cabral, Miguel; de Freitas, Victor

    2009-12-09

    Phenolic compounds, namely, hydrolyzable tannins and low molecular weight phenolic compounds, were isolated and purified from Portuguese cork from Quercus suber L. Some of these compounds were studied to evaluate their antioxidant activity, including free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH method) and reducing capacity (FRAP method). All compounds tested showed significant antioxidant activity, namely, antiradical and reducing properties. The antiradical capacity seemed to increase with the presence of galloyl groups. Regarding the reducing capacity, this structure-activity relationship was not so clear. These compounds were also studied to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect on the estrogen responsive human breast cancer cell line (ER+) MCF-7 and two other colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Generally, all the compounds tested exhibited, after a continuous exposure during a 48 h period, a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Relative inhibitory activity was primarily related to the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (galloyl and HHDP moieties) found in the active structures, with more groups generally conferring increased effects, except for HHDP-di-galloyl-glucose. Mongolicain B showed a greater potential to inhibit the growth of the three cell lines tested, identical to the effect observed with castalagin. Since these compounds are structurally related with each other, this activity might be based within the C-glycosidic ellagitannin moiety.

  6. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors.

  7. Preservation of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate antioxidant properties loaded in heat treated β-lactoglobulin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Du, Wenkai; Jin, Jianchang; Du, Qizhen

    2012-04-04

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was loaded in heat treated β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) for the preservation of antioxidant activity. The effects of pH (2.5-7.0), the heating temperature of β-Lg (30-85 °C), the molar ratio of β-Lg to EGCG (1:2-1:32), and the β-Lg concentration (1-10 mg/mL) on the properties of β-Lg-EGCG complexes were studied. All four factors significantly influenced the particle size, the ζ-potential, and the entrapment efficiency of EGCG and EGCG loading in β-Lg particles. A stable and clear solution system could be obtained at pH 6.4-7.0. The highest protection of EGCG antioxidant activity was obtained with β-Lg heated at 85 °C and the molar ratio of 1:2 (β-Lg: EGCG). β-Lg-EGCG complexes were found to have the same secondary structure as native β-Lg.

  8. Two new benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Thalictrum foliolosum and their antioxidant and in vitro antiproliferative properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hong; Guo, Jia; Bin, Wen; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Kai-Bo; Li, Jian-Yong; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Two novel rare chloro-containing benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, thalfoliolosumines A (1) and B (2), along with eight known isoquinoline alkaloids (3-10) were isolated from the whole plant of Thalictrum foliolosum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectral analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) experiments. The antiproliferative effects of all the isolated compounds were evaluated by MTT method against MCF-7, PC-3, and U937 cells, and trypan blue method against HL-60 cells. New compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate in vitro antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, PC-3, and HL-60 cells, and good inhibitory effects against U937 cells with IC50 values of 7.50 and 6.97 μM, respectively. Compounds 7 and 10 showed the strongest in vitro antiproliferative with IC50 values of 0.93 and 1.69 μM against HL-60 cell line. The antioxidant properties were also measured, bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids 3-6 showed the strongest antioxidant activities in ABTS assay.

  9. Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products.

  10. Antioxidant properties of 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Rie; Abe, Shigeki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Tai, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of a provitamin C agent, 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2betaG), was compared to that of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) and ascorbic acid (AA) using four in vitro methods, 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(*+))-scavenging assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis inhibition assay. AA-2betaG slowly and continuously scavenged DPPH radicals and ABTS(*+) in roughly the same reaction profiles as AA-2G, whereas AA quenched these radicals immediately. In the ORAC assay and the hemolysis inhibition assay, AA-2betaG showed similar overall activities to AA-2G and to AA, although the reactivity of AA-2betaG against the peroxyl radical generated in both assays was lower than that of AA-2G and AA. These data indicate that AA-2betaG had roughly the same radical-scavenging properties as AA-2G, and a comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity of AA-2betaG appeared to be comparable not only to that of AA-2G but also to that of AA.

  11. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Roll, Mariana Matos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Salgado, Hugo Leonardo Crisóstomo; Santos, Alberdan Silva; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997). GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Tests in vitro showed that oil sample 3 from southwestern of Brazilian Amazon had a high antioxidant capacity that may protect biological systems from oxidative stress, although this activity remains to be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27192128

  12. Assessment of antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Cymbopogon winterianus leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Bárbara L S; Bonfim, Rangel R; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Thomazzi, Sara M; Araújo, Adriano A S; Blank, Arie F; Estevam, Charles S; Cambui, Erica V F; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo L C; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2010-10-01

    The present study investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the leaf essential oil (LEO) of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae). In the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests, the LEO (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of writhings and paw licking times in the first (0-5 min) and second (15-30 min) phases, respectively. In contrast, the LEO did not alter the latency time for mice licking the rear paws in hot-plate test. The LEO inhibited the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (35.5%, 42.8%, and 66.1% at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively, p < 0.001). Moreover, LEO exhibited higher scavenging activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals with an IC(50) (12.66 ± 0.56 μg/mL). Our present results demonstrated that the LEO has antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.

  13. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  14. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity.

  15. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C.

  16. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-07-29

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  17. In vitro study of the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives against oxidation of plasma components.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Since the endogenous antioxidant defense may be not adequate to counteract the enhanced generation of oxidants, a growing interest in research for exogenous nutrients has been observed. The present study was designed to assess in vitro the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives: calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate (0.5-3 mM) in the protection of plasma proteins and lipids, against the damage caused by 0.1 mM peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻). Exposure of plasma to ONOO⁻ resulted in carbonyl groups increase, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, reduction in thiol groups, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. D-gluconic acid lactone and sodium D-gluconate effectively decreased 3-NT formation; the antinitrative action of calcium D-glucarate was less effective. In plasma samples incubated with ONOO⁻ and tested compounds, the level of carbonyl groups was decreased in comparison to plasma samples treated only with ONOO⁻. The level of protein -SH groups and glutathione was significantly higher in the presence of glucose derivatives than in plasma samples treated with ONOO⁻ only. All the tested compounds had the inhibitory effect on the peroxynitrite-induced plasma lipids peroxidation. The results obtained from our work indicate that calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate may partly protect plasma proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-induced damages.

  18. Antioxidant and signal modulation properties of plant polyphenols in controlling vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Vladimir A; Potapovich, Alla I; Suhan, Tatyana O; de Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2011-05-11

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) play a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signaling. In the present work we investigated the role of antioxidant and signal modulation properties of plant polyphenols in controlling vascular inflammation. Significant decrease in intracellular NO level and superoxide overproduction was found in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with oxLDL, but not with LDL. The redox imbalance was prevented by the addition of quercetin or resveratrol. Expression analysis of 14 genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation revealed oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of genes specifically involved in leukocyte recruitment and adhesion. This up-regulation could be partially avoided by the addition of verbascoside or resveratrol, while treatment with quercetin resulted in a further increase in the expression of these genes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HUVEC were also used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potency of plant polyphenols. Significant differences between HUVEC treaded with oxLDL and LPS were found in both the expression pattern of inflammation-related genes and the effects of plant polyphenols on cellular responses. The present data indicate that plant polyphenols may affect vascular inflammation not only as antioxidants but also as modulators of inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  19. Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

  20. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these

  1. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shoutian

    ZnO, Si, silica, Ge, Ga oxide, W oxide and Mo oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized, and their optical properties have been investigated. These particles were synthesized by a Laser Vaporization and Controlled Condensation (LVCC) technique in a modified diffusion cloud chamber. The particles deposited on smooth substrates reveal highly organized web-like structures with uniform micrometer size pores. The effect of solvents on the web-like structures was also investigated. ZnO nanoparticles were also prepared by wet chemical methods such as the reversed micelle and sol solutions technique. The photoluminescence quantum yield is enhanced 10 times once the surfaces of the ZnO nanoparticles are coated with a layer of stearate molecules. Many techniques have been used to characterize the nanoparticles. SEM gives information about particle size and morphology; X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy determine the crystallinity and crystal structure; XPS and FTIR reveal the surface chemical composition; UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements characterize the optical properties of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles, prepared in an amorphous phase, show bright blue photoluminescence upon irradiation with UV light, but the luminescence has a very short lifetime (less than 20 ns). Si nanoparticles, with a diamond-like crystal phase, acquire oxidized-surfaces on exposure to air. The surface-oxidized Si nanocrystals show a short- lived blue emission characteristic of the SiO2 coating and a longer-lived red emission at room temperature. The lifetime of the red emission depends on the emission wavelength. Some substituted benzene molecules and tungsten oxide nanoparticles can quench the red photoluminescence of the Si nanocrystals. Tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide nanoparticles show photochromic properties: they change color to blue when irradiated. The photons drive a transition from one chemical state to another. The color change of

  2. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant

  3. Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Richard A

    2008-03-01

    Resveratrol, an antioxidant polyphenol from red wine, has been the subject of intense interest in recent years due to a range of unique anti-aging properties. These include cardiovascular benefits via increased nitric oxide production, down-regulation of vasoactive peptides, lowered levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and cyclooxygenase inhibition; possible benefits on Alzheimer's disease by breakdown of beta-amyloid and direct effects on neural tissues; phytohormonal actions; anticancer properties via modulation of signal transduction, which translates into anti-initiation, antipromotion, and antiprogression effects; antimicrobial effects; and sirtuin activation, which is believed to be involved in the caloric restriction-longevity effect. Here we report a resveratrol-based skin care formulation, with 17 times greater antioxidant activity than idebenone. The role of resveratrol in prevention of photoaging is reviewed and compared with other antioxidants used in skin care products.

  4. Sulfation of a polysaccharide produced by a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108 alters its antioxidant properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, X B; Gao, X D; Han, F; Tan, R X

    2005-08-30

    Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by all aerobic cells and are widely believed to play a significant role in aging as well as a number of degenerative or pathological diseases. This study compared the free radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activity of YCP, a polysaccharide from the mycelium of a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS 4108 and its two chemically sulfated derivatives YCP-S1 and YCP-S2. Sulfation, which masks hydroxyl groups of YCP polysaccharide molecule, could introduce new antioxidant activity, such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, metal chelating action, lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid oxidation inhibition capability. Furthermore, sulfated YCP was more potent than YCP at protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage hemolysis. The current data suggest for the first time that sulfation of polysaccharide significantly increases its antioxidant activity and the chemical modification of polysaccharides may allow the preparation of derivatives with new properties and a variety of applications.

  5. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties.

  6. Proximate composition, antihypertensive and antioxidative properties of the semimembranosus muscle from pork and beef after cooking and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Dort, Junio; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare proximate composition, antihypertensive activity and antioxidative capacity of the semimembranosus muscle from pork and beef and to study how these characteristics were affected by household preparation and subsequent digestion. The proximate composition was similar between pork and beef. Both pork and beef contained protein with the essential amino acids. Cooking in a heated pan did not affect the retention of lipid or sum of amino acids, but reduced the amount of the free amino acid taurine. The antihypertensive effect did not differ significantly between pork and beef, whereas the antioxidative capacity did. Cooking affected the antioxidative capacity negatively. The results from this study show that pork and beef are equally good sources of protein and bioactive properties, and whereas the nutritional composition is not affected, bioactive properties may be reduced after household preparations.

  7. Effect of incorporating hydrothermal, kilned and defatted oats on antioxidant and chapatti making properties of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Paras; Gill, Balmeet Singh; Kaur, Sumandeep

    2013-06-01

    Oats were subjected to treatments like defatting, hydrothermal cooking and kilning, milled into flour and then the control and treated flours were incorporated into wheat flour at 25% and 50% levels and chapatti making behaviour and antioxidant properties were studied. The treatments significantly affected the antioxidant properties of oats. Incorporating oat flours to wheat increased total phenolic content but lowered the antioxidant activity however both were decreased significantly upon baking. The reducing power of the oat blended flour was higher than the wheat flours and ranged from 8.0 to 15.5 μmol AAE/g and was further increased upon baking. The metal chelating activity of flour blends varied from 62.0% to 73.8% and further increased upon baking. After baking the total flavonoid content was lowered and ranged from 308 to 389 μg CE/g. The non-enzymatic browning index significantly increased up to 27.6% upon baking.

  8. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    PubMed Central

    Hosu, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+∙) assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The fruit extract was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 19 days. No major differences in the total antioxidant capacity were observed during this period, indicating that storage does not have any deleterious effect on the antioxidant properties of the investigated fruits extract. The antioxidant capacity varied between 12.91 and 12.83 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the HPTLC method and from 36.13 to 33.93 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the ABTS assay. PMID:27957382

  9. Effect of citric acid deamidation on in vitro digestibility and antioxidant properties of wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-01

    The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the α-helix and β-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the β-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced.

  10. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  11. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  12. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from peony seed dreg.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Yu-Han; Qu, Jie; Li, Ling; Prasad, Chandan; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The sequential extraction of peony seed dreg polysaccharides (PSDP) with hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS) yielded four different polysaccharide fractions. Based on their absorptions at 3600-3200cm(-1) and 1200-800cm(-1), these fractions were confirmed to be polysaccharides. The properties of four PSDPs displayed some slight differences. The CASS showed the highest peak temperature and endothermic enthalpy. The emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability of four PSDPs exhibited a dose-dependent pattern; HBSS showed the highest emulsifying activity, and CHSS displayed the longest emulsifying stability. The four PSDPs also exhibited wide variations in their antioxidant activities. For example, i) CASS showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and ABTS radical scavenging activity; ii) HBSS exhibited the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and iii) CHSS displayed the higher ferrous ions chelating ability than others.

  13. Theoretical study on the antioxidant properties of 2'-hydroxychalcones: H-atom vs. electron transfer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yunsheng; Zheng, Youguang; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Wenya; Yu, Ding; Liu, Yi

    2013-09-01

    The free radical scavenging activity of six 2'-hydroxychalcones has been studied in gas phase and solvents using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The three main working mechanisms, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), stepwise electron-transfer-proton-transfer (ET-PT) and sequential-proton-loss-electron-transfer (SPLET) have been considered. The O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters have been computed in gas phase and solvents. The theoretical results confirmed the important role of the B ring in the antioxidant properties of hydroxychalcones. In addition, the calculated results matched well with experimental values. The results suggested that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining the radical-scavenging activity of hydroxychalcone in gas phase, whereas SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically preferred pathway in aqueous solution.

  14. Analysis and enhancement of nutritional and antioxidant properties of Vigna aconitifolia sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kestwal, Rakesh M; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-06-01

    Vigna aconitifolia sprouts (Moth bean sprouts, MBS) were analyzed for their nutritional and antioxidant properties during sprouting. Sprouting for six days led to a 7.0 fold increase in fresh weight, 2.4 fold increase in soluble proteins, 3.0 fold increase in carbohydrates, and a 5.5 fold increase in mineral content. Phenolic content also increased by 28% during germination. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol were the predominant phenolic compounds detected in the ethanolic extracts of MBS by HPLC. Following supplementation with metal ions (200 μg ml⁻¹), the sprouts demonstrated a considerable increase in metal ion uptake, with improved phenolic content. MBS ethanolic extracts also reduced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

  15. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G.

    2016-06-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0

  16. Drugs with anti-oxidant properties can interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Niraj; Stenson, Mary; Lawson, Joshua; Abeykoon, Jithma; Patnaik, Mrinal; Wu, Xiaosheng; Witzig, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Cell viability assays such as Cell Titer Blue and Alamar Blue rely on the reducing property of viable cells to reduce the reagent dye to a product which gives a fluorescent signal. The current manufacture-recommended protocols do not take into account the possibility of the reagent substrate being reduced directly to the fluorescent product by drugs with an anti-oxidant property. After suspecting spurious results while determining the cytotoxic potential of a drug of interest (DOI) with known anti-oxidant property against a renal cell cancer (RCC) cell line, we aimed to establish that drugs with anti-oxidant property can indeed cause false-negative results with the current protocols of these assays by direct reduction of the reagent substrate. We also aimed to counter the same with a simple modification added to the protocol. Through our experiments, we conclusively demonstrate that drugs with anti-oxidant properties can indeed interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells. A simple modification in the protocol, as elaborated in the manuscript, can prevent spurious results with these otherwise convenient assays.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.18.

  17. Metabolic conversion of dietary flavonoids alters their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Chung S; Crozier, Alan; Frei, Balz

    2011-07-15

    The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in the formation of glucuronide, methyl, and sulfate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1-30 μM quercetin, 3'- or 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3'-O-sulfate or 20-100 μM EGCG, 4''-O-methyl-EGCG, and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to coincubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3'-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC(50) values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0, and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20-100 μM), quercetin-3'-O-sulfate (10-30 μM), and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20-100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4',4''-Di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC(50) value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20-60 μM) and 4''-O-methyl-EGCG (20-100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3'-O-methyl-quercetin and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG on

  18. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Adriana; Vuong, Quan V.

    2015-01-01

    The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C), time (min), and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL), and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC), flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity. PMID:26783954

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil constituents encapsulated in zein nanoparticles prepared by liquid-liquid dispersion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thymol and carvacrol, two isomeric terpenoids found in the essential oil of thyme, were encapsulated in nanoparticles of the corn protein zein using a liquid-liquid dispersion method. The morphology, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity were determined for nanaparticles formed under ac...

  20. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-11-15

    Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 μg/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 μg/g α- and δ-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties.

  1. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  2. Quercetin-Iron Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, DNA Cleavage, and Antibacterial Activity Studies.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Xu, Xiuquan; Xia, Li; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin-iron (II) complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron micrography and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal:ligand) of the complex. Antioxidant study of the quercetin and its metal complex against 2, 2-di-phenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical showed that the complex has much more radical scavenging activity than free quercetin. The interaction of quercetin-iron (II) complex with DNA was determined using ultraviolet visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that quercetin-iron (II) complex can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form to nicked circular form and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was an oxidative cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of complex to cleave DNA. In addition, antibacterial activity of complex on E.coli and S. aureus was also investigated. The results showed that complex has higher antibacterial activity than ligand.

  3. Rutin-Nickel Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, and DNA Cleavage Activities.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Bano, Shumaila; Xu, Xiuquan; Zhang, Rong Xian; Khalid, Haider; Iqbal, Furqan Muhammad; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-12-17

    The rutin-nickel (II) complex (RN) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, IR, mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, TG-DSC, SEM, and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal/ligand) of the complex. An antioxidant study of rutin and its metal complex against DPPH radical showed that the complex has more radical scavenging activity than free rutin. The interaction of complex RN with DNA was determined using fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that RN can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide (EB), and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form (SC) to nicked circular form (NC), and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was a hydrolytic cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of the complex to cleave DNA.

  4. Characterization of polysaccharides with antioxidant and immunological activities from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuxia; Song, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tingting; Chen, Lu; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-11-20

    Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, three novel polysaccharides designated RATPW, RATPS1 and RATPS2 were isolated from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography. Their structures were characterized using physicochemical and spectral methods. Chemical analysis indicated that RATPW (6.5×10(3)Da) mainly composed of glucose and fructose. RATPS1 (1.5×10(5)Da) contained galactose and arabinose, while RATPS2 (5.3×10(4)Da) contained ∼49.5% galacturonic acid along with rhamnose, fructose, galactose, and arabinose. In vitro, RATPS2 showed the most significant scavenging activity on DPPH and hydroxyl radical. Three polysaccharides could protect the PC12 cells from H2O2-induced damage. Immunological tests indicated that both RATPW and RATPS2 significantly stimulated NO production and phagocytic activity in RAW264.7, and promoted splenocyte proliferation. These data suggested that polysaccharides RATPW and RATPS2 had the potential as novel natural sources of antioxidative and immunopotentiating agents.

  5. Honeybee-collected pollen from five Portuguese Natural Parks: palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Margarida; Moreira, Leandro; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of pollen from five Portuguese Natural-Parks [Parque Nacional Peneda Gerês (PNPG); Parque Natural do Montesinho (PNM); Parque Natural do Alvão (PNA); Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela (PNSE) and Parque Natural do Douro Internacional (PNDI)]. Eight families were found in the mixture of bee pollen: Rosaceae, Cistaceae, Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Fagaceae, Ericaeae, Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. The phenolic compounds content, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied between 10.5 and 16.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract (mg GAE/g) found in bee pollen from PNM and PNDI, respectively. The free radical scavenging measured showed the highest effective extract - PNM with EC(50) 2.16, followed by PND with 2.24 mg/mL. In the β-carotene bleaching assay the same behaviour as in the DPPH method was verified. We also verified that the presence of pollen differentially affected the growth of bacteria Gram-positive, Gram-negative and yeasts under study, depending this on the microorganism and the pollen used. This is an important study since, as far we know, it is the first time that Portuguese bee pollen from Natural Parks was studied, and their characterization can increase their economic value.

  6. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of ripe pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) hulls.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Every year tons of pistachio hulls are separated and eliminated, as waste products, from pistachio seeds. In this study the hulls of ripe pistachios were extracted with two organic solvents (ethanol and methanol) and characterized for phenolic composition, antioxidant power and cytoprotective activity. RP-HPLC-DAD-FLU separation enabled us to identify 20 derivatives, including and by far the most abundant gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, naringin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and catechin. Methanol extraction gave the highest yields for all classes of compounds and presented a higher scavenging activity in all the antioxidant assays performed. The same was found for cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. These findings highlight the strong antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of the extract components, and illustrate how a waste product can be used as a source of nutraceuticals to employ in manufacturing industry.

  7. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from

  8. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)<3 weeks after sowing (WAS3)<10 weeks after sowing (WAS10), whereas the soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (p<0.05), whilst ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was induced to an elevated level at moderate cadmium stress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production.

  9. Thiol antioxidant-functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Mortensen, Luke J; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing industry with wide ranging applications in consumer product and technology development. In the biomedical field, nanoparticles are finding increasing use as imaging agents for biomolecular labeling and tumor targeting. The nanoparticle physiochemical properties must be tailored for the specific application. For example, nanoparticle chemical and physical stability in the biological milieu (no oxidation, aggregation, agglomeration or toxicity) are often required. Nanoparticles used for biomolecular fluorescent imaging should also have high quantum yield (QY). The aim of this paper is to examine the QY, stability, and cell toxicity of a series of positive, negative and neutral surface charge quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. Simple protocols are described to prepare water soluble QDs by modifying the surface with thiol containing antioxidant ligands and polymers keeping the QD core/shell composition constant. The ligands used to produce negatively charged QDs include glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), tiopronin (TP), bucilliamine (BUC), and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA). Ligands used to produce positively charged QDs include cysteamine (CYS) and polyethylenimine (PEI). Dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to produce neutral charged QDs. Commercially available nonaqueous octadecylamine (ODA) capped QDs served as the starting material. Our results suggest that QD uptake and cytotoxicity are both dependent on surface ligand coating composition. The negative charged GSH coated QDs show superior performance exhibiting low cytotoxicity, high stability, high QY and therefore are best suited for bioimaging applications. PEI coated QD also show superior performance exhibiting high QY and stability. However, they are considerably more cytotoxic due to their high positive charge which is an advantageous property that can be exploited for gene transfection and/or tumor targeting applications. The synthetic procedures

  10. Effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and ACE inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate hydrolysates incorporated into expanded maize products.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Luggren, Pablo; Drago, Silvina R

    2011-11-01

    Extrusion process has been widely used for the development of many functional foods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC) hydrolysates (P, FC, PF and FCF). Extrusion was carried out with a Brabender single screw extruder. The ACE inhibition and the antioxidant capacity (AC) were estimated by the inhibition of the ACE and ABTS+√ radical cation expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), respectively. The ACE inhibition and TEAC values from hydrolysates were significantly higher than that from BHC. The highest ACE inhibition corresponded to P hydrolysate and the highest TEAC corresponded to PF and FCF hydrolysates. The ACE inhibition and AC from extruded products with added hydrolysates were higher than that from maize control; however, the extrusion process modified both ACE inhibition and AC formerly present in hydrolysates.

  11. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS OF pRi-TRANSFORMED PLANTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH.

    PubMed

    Piatczak, Ewelina; Dfbska, Marta; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Wysokinskai, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts derived from shoots (HR-shoots) and roots (HR-roots) of pRi-transformed Rehmannia glutinosa plants were determined. The activity was indicated by the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit superoxide anion (O2(-·)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production in resting blood platelets and platelets activated by thrombin. The strongest activity was exhibited by the HR-shoot extract (50 μg/mL). The present study also examines the antioxidant properties of the plant extracts against human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe. The study shows that extracts from transformed R. glutinosa plants may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, which would be valuable in various cardiovascular diseases. The extracts may also protect lipids against oxidative modifications.

  12. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  13. Influence of Eu(3+) doping content on antioxidant properties of Lu2O3 sol-gel derived nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Olvera Salazar, Arturo; García Hernández, Margarita; López Camacho, Perla Yolanda; López Marure, Arturo; Reyes de la Torre, Adriana Isabel; Morales Ramírez, Ángel de Jesús; Hernández Santiago, Felipe; Aguilera Vázquez, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of pure and europium-doped lutetium oxide (Lu2O3) powders prepared by sol-gel method. The influence of europium ion concentration into Lu2O3 nanocrystallites was investigated for first time in an in vitro system using a modified ABTS radical cation decolorization assay to determine the antioxidant activity. The crystalline structure of Lu2O3 and Eu:Lu2O3 powders was elucidated by XRD obtaining cubic phase in all system without secondary products in accordance with FT-IR results. By TEM and Scherrer equation, it was determined that Lu2O3 and Eu:Lu2O3 powders presented nearly spherical particle morphology with crystallites sizes in the range of 8 to 13nm. The antioxidant assays results revealed that europium ion enhance Lu2O3 powders antioxidant properties, showing that 12.5mol% of europium is sufficient to reach its maximum capacity.

  14. Exploring the antioxidant property of bioflavonoid quercetin in preventing DNA glycation: A calorimetric and spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Bidisa . E-mail: bidisa@fy.chalmers.se; Uematsu, Takashi; Jacobsson, Per; Swenson, Jan

    2006-01-06

    Reducing sugars for example glucose, fructose, etc., and their phosphate derivatives non-enzymatically glycate biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, DNA and lipids) and is related to the production of free radicals. Here we present a novel study, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) along with UV/Vis absorption and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), on normal and glycated human placenta DNA and have explored the antioxidant property of the naturally occurring polyhydroxy flavone quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in preventing the glycation. The decrease in the absorption intensity of DNA in presence of sugars clearly indicates the existence of sugar molecules between the two bases of a base pair in the duplex DNA molecule. Variations were perceptible in the PCS relaxation profiles of normal and glycated DNA. The melting temperature of placenta DNA was decreased when glycated suggesting a decrease in the structural stability of the double-stranded glycated DNA. Our DSC and PCS data showed, for the first time, that the dramatic changes in the structural properties of glycated DNA can be prevented to a significant extent by adding quercetin. This study provides valuable insights regarding the structure, function, and dynamics of normal and glycated DNA molecules, underlying the manifestation of free radical mediated diseases, and their prevention using therapeutically active naturally occurring flavonoid quercetin.

  15. Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Koşar, Müberra; Kahlos, Kirsti; Holm, Yvonne; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2003-07-30

    Water-soluble extracts from the Mentha species M. aquatica L. and M. haplocalyx Briq., the hybrids M. x dalmatica L. and M. x verticillata L., the varieties M. arvensis var. japanensis [M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Holmes ex Christ] and M. spicata L. var. crispa Benth, and M. x piperita L. "Frantsila", M. "Morocco", and M. "Native Wilmet" cultivars were screened for potential antioxidative properties. These properties included iron(III) reduction, iron(II) chelation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and the ability to inhibit iron(III)-ascorbate-catalyzed hydroxyl radical-mediated brain phospholipid peroxidation. Total phenol content and qualitative and quantitative compositional analyses of each extract were also made. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in each assay, with the M. x piperita "Frantsila" extract being better than the other extracts, except for ferrous iron chelation. With the exception of iron chelation, it appeared that the level of activity identified was strongly associated with the phenolic content.

  16. Physical, structural, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-chitosan composite edible films.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Hajji, Sawssan; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Lassoued, Imen; Mbarek, Aïcha; Kammoun, Maher; Souissi, Nabil; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-06-01

    Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin (G), chitosan (C) from shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) and composite films (G75/C25, G50/C50, G25/C75) plasticized with glycerol were investigated. The results indicated that chitosan film had higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break when compared with the other films. Composite films show no significant difference in tensile strength (TS), thickness and transparency. The structural properties evaluated by FTIR and DSC showed total miscibility between both polymers. DSC scans showed that the increase of chitosan content in the composite films increases the transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy (ΔHg) of films. The morphology study of gelatin, chitosan and composite films showed a compact and homogenous structure. In addition, gelatin and G75/C25 films demonstrated a high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical-scavenging and reducing power activities, while films contained chitosan exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Valorization of Pomace Powder Obtained from Native Mexican Apple (Malus domestica var. rayada): Chemical, Techno-functional and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Tapia, Angélica; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Fernández-López, Juana; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the work were to determine the chemical, techno-functional and antioxidant properties of native Mexican apple pomace powder (MAPP) obtained from cider industry. The proximate composition and the total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre content were determined, as well as the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), swelling (SWC) capacities and the polyphenolic profile. For antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (DPPH, FIC and FRAP). The total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber content of MAPP was 70.91, 48.43 and 22.48 g/100 g, respectively. MAPP had a WHC, OHC and SWC of 4.2 g water/g sample, 1.69 g oil/g sample and 3.2 mL/g sample, respectively. Polyphenolic profile showed 10 flavonoid compounds identified mainly quercetin glycosides. MAPP showed good antioxidant activity with high correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The results obtained showed that MAPP could be considered a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  18. Effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction on phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of soft winter wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Whent, Monica; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-05-01

    The effect of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G×E) on the antioxidant properties and chemical compositions were investigated using the flour samples of 10 wheat varieties grown in four different locations in Maryland. Lutein content of wheat flour ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 μg/g, and α-tocopherol ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 μg/g. Total carotenoids were primarily affected by E (45.7%), while G×E interaction had a larger effect on the level of total tocopherols (71.6%). E had the largest effect on antioxidant activity against oxygen, hydroxyl, and ABTS(·+) radicals. G had the least influence on the measured phytochemicals and antioxidant activity assays. Total carotenoids had a significant correlation with average low air temperature (r=0.359, p<0.01) as well as precipitation level (r=0.214, p<0.01). ABTS(·+) radical scavenging capacity had a positive correlation with average air temperature (r=0.705, p<0.01), while hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity had a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.269. p<0.01). These results show that environment, genotype, and their interaction could influence the levels of lipophilic antioxidants and antioxidant activities of wheat flour.

  19. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril and the nucleotide enhancing agent, acadesine.

    PubMed

    Wasil, M; Kelly, F J

    1995-11-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril and the nucleotide enhancing agent, acadesine, protect myocardial tissue from ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury. Although both drugs have well established, independent mechanisms of cardiac protection, they may also have antioxidant activity which could contribute to their beneficial action. In this study we have examined the antioxidant activity of captopril and acadesine by examining their ability to scavenge ABTS radicals, formed from the interaction of ferryl metmyoglobin with phenothiazine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. For comparison, we compared these results to those obtained for a range of other drugs commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. These included verapamil (arrhythmia), isosorbide dinitrate (angina), atenolol (hypertension) and enalapril (congestive heart failure). The antioxidant properties of these drugs were then compared to the well characterised antioxidants, Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue), ascorbate and glutathione. Captopril and acadesine were both shown to be efficient scavengers of ABTS radicals, importantly at drug concentrations expected to be found in vivo. These data confirm that the antioxidant potential of captopril and acadesine may be an important component of their mechanism of action, with both drugs probably protecting the myocardium against oxygen derived free radicals during ischaemia/reperfusion.

  1. Phloroglucinol: antioxidant properties and effects on cellular oxidative markers in human HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Quéguineur, Benoît; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Martín, Maria Angeles; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Phloroglucinol is an ubiquitous secondary metabolite encountered in a free state or polymerised as phlorotannins in brown macroalgae, and present in higher plants. FRAP and TEAC assays measured the antioxidant properties of phloroglucinol in non-biological conditions. Additionally, the biological effects of phloroglucinol (4-400 μM) were scrutinised using cellular oxidative stress markers, such as the generation of ROS, antioxidant defences (concentration of GSH and activities of GPx, GR and GST), and levels of MDA as a marker for lipid peroxidation. The direct effect was assessed immediately after an incubation period, whereas for the protective effect, the incubation period was followed by 3-h treatment with the pro-oxidant t-BOOH. The results indicated that despite having a higher radical scavenging capacity than Trolox after 30 min, phloroglucinol was not a suitable antioxidant standard for phlorotannins. Regarding the biological effects, phloroglucinol had no impact on cell viability, reduced levels of ROS and increased antioxidant defences in the direct treatment for most concentrations. The results of the protective effect were mitigated as phloroglucinol failed to protect from ROS generation but evoked a significant recovery of the stress-altered cellular antioxidant defences to restful conditions. Additionally, MDA levels were greatly reduced, preventing a radical chain oxidation.

  2. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from the pulp of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingqing; Chen, Juncheng; Du, Hongtao; Li, Qi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Gechao; Liu, Hong; Wang, Junru

    2014-06-26

    In this study, two polysaccharides (Elaeagnus angustifolia L. polysaccharide-1 (PEA-1) and PEA-2) were prepared from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Then, the preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated. The results showed that the average molecular weights for PEA-1 and PEA-2 were 9113 and 5020 Da, respectively. And, PEA-1 was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. The components of PEA-2 were rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. Moreover, the Antioxidant assays demonstrated that PEA-1 possessed of strong free radicals scavenging activity and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, suggesting that PEA-1 could potentially be used as natural antioxidant.

  3. Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides Extracted from the Pulp of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingqing; Chen, Juncheng; Du, Hongtao; Li, Qi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Gechao; Liu, Hong; Wang, Junru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two polysaccharides (Elaeagnus angustifolia L. polysaccharide-1 (PEA-1) and PEA-2) were prepared from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Then, the preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated. The results showed that the average molecular weights for PEA-1 and PEA-2 were 9113 and 5020 Da, respectively. And, PEA-1 was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. The components of PEA-2 were rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. Moreover, the Antioxidant assays demonstrated that PEA-1 possessed of strong free radicals scavenging activity and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, suggesting that PEA-1 could potentially be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:24972139

  4. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  5. Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness of pigskin gelatin films incorporated with hydrolysable chestnut tannin.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodriguez, Cristina; Martucci, Josefa F; Neira, Laura M; Arbelaiz, Aitor; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the incorporation of 10% w/w of hydrolyzable chestnut tannin into pigskin gelatin (G) films plasticized with glycerol (Gly) on the physicochemical properties as well as the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness against food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus was investigated. A higher tendency to both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) coloration characterized gelatin films incorporated with chestnut tannin. The reduced lightness (L) and transparency of gelatin-chestnut tannin films plasticized with 30% w/w Gly might be associated with certain degree of phase separation which provoked the migration of the plasticizer to the film surface. The incorporation of chestnut tannin and glycerol affected the chemical structure of the resultant films due to the establishment of hydrogen interactions between components as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These interactions reduced gelatin crystallinity and seemed to be involved in the substantial decrease of the water uptake of films with tannin, irrespective of the glycerol level. Such interactions had minor effect on tensile properties being similar to those of the control films (without chestnut tannin) at the same glycerol level. Films modified with 10% w/w chestnut tannin showed significant (P < 0.05) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ca. from 0 ± 0.033 to 87.1 ± 0.002% for chestnut tannin-free and chestnut tannin-containing gelatin films. The limited inhibitory activity of films incorporated with 10% w/w chestnut tannin against the selected bacteria evidenced by disk diffusion method probably resulted from the interactions within the film restricting the diffusion of the active agent into the agar medium. The more modest protective effect observed against a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus) was also discussed.

  6. Purification, characterization, antioxidant activity and anti-aging of exopolysaccharides by Flammulina velutipes SF-06.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao; Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Zheng, Lan; Jia, Le

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to purify the exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Flammulina velutipes SF-06 and investigate the relationship between the different purified fractions and bioactive activity. Two fractions (EPS-1 and EPS-2) were separated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 cellulose column chromatography. Monosaccharides composition analysis by gas chromatography indicated that EPS, EPS-1 and EPS-2 were heteropolysaccharides in which rhamnose was a major component. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis detected furanose-ring in EPS-1 and EPS-2. All fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity, while EPS-2 has stronger antioxidant activity than EPS and EPS-1 in vitro. The EPS also exhibited potent anti-aging activation in mice, such as increased catalase and total antioxidant capacity, and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Both the antioxidant in vitro and anti-aging in vivo potentials of EPS could be further utilized in the food industry.

  7. Functionality and antioxidant properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

    2010-04-26

    Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU) for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes <3,000 Da were more predominant in FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, while in hydrolysed by Flav and Neut they were >8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have 'U' shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients.

  8. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

    2010-01-01

    Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU) for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes <3,000 Da were more predominant in FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, while in hydrolysed by Flav and Neut they were >8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients. PMID:20480046

  9. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Numpraphrut, Pornpayom; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Neungton, Neelobol; Tunrungruangtavee, Vachara; Jaisupa, Nattapon; Charoensak, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME]) has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood. PMID:27703599

  10. Comparative study on antiproliferation properties and cellular antioxidant activities of commonly consumed food legumes against nine human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this work were to compare health promoting effects of commonly consumed food legumes in terms of cancer cell proliferation inhibitory effects and cellular antioxidant activ