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Sample records for characterization antioxidant properties

  1. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. Methods For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Results Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. Conclusion These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile. PMID:24330337

  2. Characterization and antioxidative properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from prunes, dried fruit of Prunus domestica L.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Ito, Hideyuki; Kawaji, Miyuki; Ikami, Takao; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    A prune extract was separated by an antioxidant-guided assay to obtain an oligomeric proanthocyanidin fraction. The antioxidative oligomer was characterized as a procyanidin oligomer with an average polymerization degree of five and composed of epicatechin and catechin units. The antioxidative activity of the oligomer showed greater potency than chlorogenic acid which is known as an antioxidative component in prunes.

  3. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  4. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it. PMID:26396378

  5. Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy; Siong, Julius Yong Fu; Syamsumir, Desy Fitrya

    2011-01-01

    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.

  6. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaf.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Raddatz, H; Henle, T

    2009-01-01

    Corchorus olitorius (jute) is a native plant of tropical Africa and Asia, and has since spread to Australia, South America and some parts of Europe. Its leafy vegetable is popularly used in soup preparation and folk medicine for the treatment of fever, chronic cystitis, cold and tumours. A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extract (HE) and lipophilic extract (LE) constituents of the leafy vegetable has been assessed. HE and LE of the leaf were prepared using water and hexane, respectively and their antioxidant properties were determined. HE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability (aqueous, 9.6-84.4%; hexane, 2.0-20.4%), reducing power (aqueous, 0.67 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g; hexane, 0.49 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (aqueous, 2.3 mmol/g; hexane, 1.1 mmol/g) than LE; conversely, LE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) OH. scavenging activity (44.5-46.2%) than HE (11.6-32.3%), while there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in their Fe(II) chelating ability (HE, 57.7-66.7%; LE, 56.4-61.1%). The higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability, reducing power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract may be due to its significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol (630.8 mg/100 g), total flavonoid (227.8 mg/100 g) and non-flavonoid polyphenols (403.0 mg/100 g), and its high ascorbic acid content (32.6 mg/100 g). While the higher OH. scavenging ability of LE may be due to its high total carotenoid content (42.5 mg/100 g). Therefore, the additive/synergistic antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents may contribute to the medicinal properties of C. olitorius leaf.

  7. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaf.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Raddatz, H; Henle, T

    2009-01-01

    Corchorus olitorius (jute) is a native plant of tropical Africa and Asia, and has since spread to Australia, South America and some parts of Europe. Its leafy vegetable is popularly used in soup preparation and folk medicine for the treatment of fever, chronic cystitis, cold and tumours. A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extract (HE) and lipophilic extract (LE) constituents of the leafy vegetable has been assessed. HE and LE of the leaf were prepared using water and hexane, respectively and their antioxidant properties were determined. HE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability (aqueous, 9.6-84.4%; hexane, 2.0-20.4%), reducing power (aqueous, 0.67 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g; hexane, 0.49 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (aqueous, 2.3 mmol/g; hexane, 1.1 mmol/g) than LE; conversely, LE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) OH. scavenging activity (44.5-46.2%) than HE (11.6-32.3%), while there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in their Fe(II) chelating ability (HE, 57.7-66.7%; LE, 56.4-61.1%). The higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability, reducing power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract may be due to its significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol (630.8 mg/100 g), total flavonoid (227.8 mg/100 g) and non-flavonoid polyphenols (403.0 mg/100 g), and its high ascorbic acid content (32.6 mg/100 g). While the higher OH. scavenging ability of LE may be due to its high total carotenoid content (42.5 mg/100 g). Therefore, the additive/synergistic antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents may contribute to the medicinal properties of C. olitorius leaf. PMID:19391031

  8. Characterization of selenium-enriched mycelia of Catathelasma ventricosum and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Li, Caiming; Luo, Xiaohu; Han, Guoquan; Xu, Shude; Niu, Fuge; Hu, Xinjie; Wu, Hejun; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-01-21

    This is the first report concerning the selenium enrichment of Catathelasma ventricosum mycelia. The selenium-containing proteins present in selenium-enriched mycelia (Se-MC) were identified using size-exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). The selenium-containing amino acids liberated by hydrolysis of these proteins were identified using anion exchange-ICP-MS. Se-MC was found to contain selenoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 1.7 to 60.5 kDa. The main selenium-containing amino acids within them were selenomethionine and selenocysteine. Furthermore, Se-MC possessed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties. Se-MC normalized biochemical parameters like insulin level, blood glucose level, body weight, and antioxidant enzyme activity in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. It also inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities present in in vitro gastric and intestinal models. In conclusion, Se-MC has the potential to serve as a dietary supplement of selenium, an antioxidant, or an ingredient for the formulation of nutraceuticals.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and antioxidant properties of novel inulin derivatives with amino-pyridine group.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunxia; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Gang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2014-09-01

    A series of novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via reaction of chloracetyl inulin (CAIL) with amino-pyridines, including 2-(2-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2APAIL), 2-(3-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (3APAIL), 2-(4-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (4APAIL), 2-(2,3-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2,3DAPAIL), and 2-(3,4-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin (3,4DAPAIL). The antioxidant property of the products and 2-pyridylacetyl inulin chloride (PAIL) against hydroxyl radicals (·OH), superoxide radicals (O2·), and DPPH radicals (DPPH·) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. Results showed that 4APAIL and 3,4DAPAIL exhibited remarkable improvement on scavenging ·OH and DPPH·, which can scavenge the radical of OH completely at 0.4 mg/mL. Besides, the scavenging activity of 2,3DAPAIL to O2· was excellent among all of the tested samples, reaching 85% at 1.6 mg/mL. These data indicate that all of the inulin derivatives have better antioxidant activities than inulin, and the scavenging effect indices are affected by the number and position of the amino group on pyridine grafted to the inulin derivatives.

  10. Molecular Characterization, Antioxidant and Protein Solubility-Related Properties of Polyphenolic Compounds from Walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Labuckas, Diana; Maestri, Damián; Lamarque, Alicia

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous ethanol extraction of partially defatted walnut flours provides a simple and reliable method to obtain extracts with high content of polyphenolic compounds. These were characterized by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical techniques and molecular parameters. Considering the whole set of polyphenolic compounds identified, a high average number of phenolic-OH groups was found. Although these represent potential hydrogen-atom transfer sites, which are associated with high free-radical scavenging capacity, results show that such a property could be strongly limited by the low lipophilicity of polyphenols affecting the accessibility of these molecules to lipid substrates. Variations in pH values were found to change the ionization behavior of phenolic compounds. These changes, however, had minor effects on walnut protein solubility-related properties. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of molecular characterization of walnut phenolic compounds in order to assess better their bioactive properties.

  11. Molecular Characterization, Antioxidant and Protein Solubility-Related Properties of Polyphenolic Compounds from Walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Labuckas, Diana; Maestri, Damián; Lamarque, Alicia

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous ethanol extraction of partially defatted walnut flours provides a simple and reliable method to obtain extracts with high content of polyphenolic compounds. These were characterized by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical techniques and molecular parameters. Considering the whole set of polyphenolic compounds identified, a high average number of phenolic-OH groups was found. Although these represent potential hydrogen-atom transfer sites, which are associated with high free-radical scavenging capacity, results show that such a property could be strongly limited by the low lipophilicity of polyphenols affecting the accessibility of these molecules to lipid substrates. Variations in pH values were found to change the ionization behavior of phenolic compounds. These changes, however, had minor effects on walnut protein solubility-related properties. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of molecular characterization of walnut phenolic compounds in order to assess better their bioactive properties. PMID:27319138

  12. Efficient MW-Assisted Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, X-ray and Antioxidant Properties of Indazole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Polo, Efrain; Trilleras, Jorge; Ramos, Juan; Galdámez, Antonio; Quiroga, Jairo; Gutierrez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    A small series of tetrahydroindazoles was prepared, starting from 2-acetylcyclohexanone and different hydrazines using reflux and a focused microwave reactor. Microwave irradiation (MW) favored the formation of the desired products with improved yields and shortened reaction times. This is a simple and green method for the synthesis of substituted tetrahydroindazole derivatives. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS methods. In these assays, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3f) showed moderate DPPH decoloring activity, while 3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indazole (3a), 3-methyl-2-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3b) and 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3f) were the most active in the ABTS assay. All compounds were well characterized by IR, ¹H-, (13)C-NMR and GC-MS spectroscopy and physical data, while the structure of 4-(3-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-2-yl)benzoic acid (3e) was also determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. PMID:27409599

  13. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity.

  14. Antioxidant properties and TLC characterization of four Chilean Haplopappus-species known as bailahuén.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Hermine; González, Mauricio; Faini, Francesca; Razmilic, Iván; Rodríguez, Jaime; Martín, José San; Urbina, Francisco

    2005-02-10

    "Bailahuén" is the common name of a medicinal shrub native to Chile where this resinous herb is widely used for its liver stimulating properties. Although the official species is Haplopappus baylahuen Remy (Asteraceae), other species of the same genus are also used in different regions as "bailahuén". A thin layer chromatography (TLC) method for rapid identification of different species and detection of adulterations is described for four of the species: Haplopappus baylahuen, Haplopappus taeda Reiche, Haplopappus multifolius Phil., and Haplopappus remyanus Wedd. To confirm efficiency in all species antioxidant properties were screened in resins, infusions, and methanolic extracts by tests of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes and free radical scavenging activity by DPPH. In both studies Haplopappus baylahuen showed the lowest antioxidant capacity. In DPPH analyses, infusion and resins of Haplopappus baylahuen also showed the lowest and Haplopappus remyanus the major inhibiting activity of free radicals, while Haplopappus multifolius proved to have the highest result when the methanolic extracts were used. The chemical characterization of the studied species showed important levels of flavonoids and coumarins, with flavonoids predominating in Haplopappus taeda, coumarins in Haplopappus multifolius and both of them in Haplopappus baylahuen and Haplopappus remyanus. PMID:15652282

  15. Antioxidant properties of Ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Nowak, D; Antczak, A; Król, M; Bialasiewicz, P; Pietras, T

    1994-04-01

    We tested whether Ambroxol, a drug which stimulates the release of surfactant by pneumocytes type II, may also possess antioxidant properties. To assess the reactivity of Ambroxol with reactive oxygen species, we analysed its ability to decompose hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and to inhibit the superoxide (O2.-)-dependent autooxidation of pyrogallol, hydroxyl radical (.OH)-mediated deoxyribose oxidation, and hypochlorous acid (HClO-induced chlorination of monochlorodimedon. Ambroxol was found to be a sufficient scavenger of HClO and .OH and also revealed the capacity to decompose H2O2. At concentrations of 25 and 70 microM, it inhibited HClO-induced chlorination of monochlorodimedon by 22 +/- 13 and 59 +/- 14%, respectively. Similarly, at concentrations of 1, 2, and 10 mM, Ambroxol decreased .OH-mediated deoxyribose oxidation by 47 +/- 11, 75 +/- 9, and 89 +/- 4%. In addition, at concentrations of 1 to 5 mM, it completely protected linoleic acid from .OH-induced peroxidative damage. Ambroxol had a weak effect on O2.(-)-dependent autooxidation of pyrogallol. Our results indicate that Ambroxol has antioxidant activity, which may have clinical significance in protecting lung tissue from oxidant-induced injury. PMID:8005537

  16. [Antioxidant properties of dihydroquercetin].

    PubMed

    Teselkin, Iu O; Zhambalova, B A; Babenkova, I V; Tiukavkina, N A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of dihydroquercetin on peroxidation process of liposome membranes from egg phospholipids induced by ferrous sulfate or Fe(2+)-ascorbate system was studied. It was shown that dihydroquercetin antioxidant activity matches antioxidant activity of alpha-tocopherol. It was suggested that the mechanism dihydroquercetin antioxidant action consists in scavenging of lipids radicals. PMID:8924461

  17. Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant Properties and Production of Chrysolaminarin from Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Song; Gao, Baoyan; Li, Aifen; Xiong, Jihai; Ao, Ziqiang; Zhang, Chengwu

    2014-01-01

    A new chrysolaminarin, named CL2, with a molecular mass of 7.75 kDa, was purified from the marine diatom, Odontella aurita, using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel-filtration chromatography. The monosaccharide and structural analysis revealed that CL2 was a glucan mainly composed of glucose, which was linked by the β-d-(1→3) (main chain) and β-d-(1→6) (side chain) glycosidic bond, demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The antioxidant activity tests revealed that the CL2 presented stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with increasing concentrations, but less was effective on reducing power analysis and scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The influences of nitrogen concentration and light intensity on chrysolaminarin production of O. aurita were further investigated in a glass column photobioreactor, and a record high chrysolaminarin productivity of 306 mg L−1 day−1 was achieved. In conclusion, the chrysolaminarin CL2 from O. aurita may be explored as a natural antioxidant agent for application in aquaculture, food and pharmaceutical areas. PMID:25251034

  18. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  19. Production and Characterization of Antioxidant Properties of Exopolysaccharide(s) from Peanibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Tseng, Shih-Chun; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides have received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Although most microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) use sugars as the major carbon source, such as glucose or sucrose, in this study, EPSs were induced from a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Paenibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum EPS yield (14.8 g/L) was obtained. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of an EPS fraction purified by gel filtration revealed two mass peaks with molecular weights of ∼1.05 × 104 and ∼1.35 × 104 Da, respectively. The analysis of the hydrolysates of TKU032 EPS with cellulase, pectinase or α-amylase indicated that the glycosidic bond of TKU032 EPS is most likely an α-1,4 glycosidic bond and the hydrolysates are similar to those of starch. In addition, the purified EPS demonstrated strong antioxidant abilities. PMID:26907304

  20. Structural characterization, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic properties of seagrass, Cymodocea serrulata (R.Br.) Asch. & Magnus mediated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chanthini, Abdhul Basheer; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Balakumaran, Manickam Dakshinamoorthi; Kalaichelvan, Pudhupalayam Thangavelu; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-12-01

    The present study pertains to the synthesis, structural elucidation, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from marine angiosperm, Cymodocea serrulata aqueous extract (CSAE). The characterization was made through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential and dynamic light scanning (DLS) analyses. The UV-Vis spectrum resulted in a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 430 nm. The average crystalline size of the AgNPs was predicted through XRD peaks that indicated the 2 theta values of 37.84°, 44.06°, 64.42° and 77.74° for Bragg's refraction index. The functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction of Ag(+) into Ag(0) were focused through FTIR spectrum. The FESEM images showed that the C. serrulata mediated AgNPs (CS-AgNPs) were spherical in shape. DPPH assay revealed the higher free radical scavenging activity in CS-AgNPs, when compared to CSAE. The cytotoxicity assay on the cervical cancer (HeLa) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells upon treatment with CSAE: 107.7 & 124.3 μgml(-1) and CS-AgNPs: 34.5 & 61.24 μgml(-1), respectively showed good inhibition rate. These findings highlight the fact that C. serrulata could be a potential source for developing potent drugs and further studies are needed.

  1. Comparison of the preliminary characterizations and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuo-fa; Lv, Guo-ying; Song, Ting-ting; Jin, Qun-li; Huang, Jian-bo; Fan, Lei-fa; Cai, Wei-ming

    2015-11-01

    Three polysaccharides (PPB-MB, PPB-MW and PPB-MM) were obtained from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates (mulberry branches, mixed wood sawdust and an equal combination of the two materials) and their chemical composition was investigated. PPB-MM contained the highest contents of neutral sugar (66.59%) and uronic acid (23.38%), followed by PPB-MW and PPB-MB, with PPB-MW having the highest protein content. The three polysaccharides were all composed of six kinds of monosaccharides, namely fucose, mannose, glactose, xylose, arabinose and glucose. The antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides were determined using lipid peroxidant inhibition, ABTS radical scavenging, and Fe(2+)-chelating assay. Results showed that PPB-MM exhibited the highest antioxidant properties in all the assays. As a result, an equal combination of mulberry branches and mixed wood sawdust serves as a good culture substrate for producing such antioxidant polysaccharides.

  2. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  3. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  4. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  5. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  6. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  7. Characterization of main primary and secondary metabolites and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties in the mesocarp of three biotypes of Pouteria lucuma.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Gálvez, Lena; Cobos, Ariel; Olaeta, José Antonio; Defilippi, Bruno G; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Pedreschi, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas' times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg β-carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties. PMID:26212989

  8. Characterization of main primary and secondary metabolites and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties in the mesocarp of three biotypes of Pouteria lucuma.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Gálvez, Lena; Cobos, Ariel; Olaeta, José Antonio; Defilippi, Bruno G; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Pedreschi, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas' times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg β-carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties.

  9. Purification, characterization and antioxidant properties of low molecular weight collagenous polypeptide (37 kDa) prepared from whale shark cartilage (Rhincodon typus).

    PubMed

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Zhang, Jingyi; Hong, Shaotong; Wu, Wenhui

    2015-10-01

    A low molecular weight type-II collagenous polypeptide (CIIp) from whale shark (WS) cartilage was prepared by thermolysin digestion; and examined for their physico-functional and antioxidant properties. The purified collagen was composed of an identical (α1)3 chains and was characterized as type-II. After hydrolysis with thermolysin, the α-chain of the WS collagen was degraded into smaller peptides with molecular weight ranging from 70 to 20KDa. CIIp was successfully separated from the hydrolysates with molecular weight of approximately 37 kDa. Amino acid analysis of CII, and CIIp indicated imino acid contents of 155 and 121 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CII and CIIp were observed, which suggested that the hydrolysis process by thermolysin affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of CII (34 °C) was higher than that of CIIp. Low content of glycoprotein was observed in CII than CIIp due to removal of some polypeptides by thermolysin digestion. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIp was greater than that of CII. The results proposed that the purified CIIp from WS cartilage with excellent antioxidant activities could be the suitable biomaterial for therapeutic applications.

  10. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  11. Antitrypanosomal and antioxidant properties of 4-hydroxycoumarins derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cruz, Fernanda; Serra, Silvia; Delogu, Giovanna; Lapier, Michel; Maya, Juan Diego; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    In the present communication we prepared a series of six 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives, isosters of quercetin, recognized as an antioxidant natural compound, with the aim of evaluating the antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, and the antioxidant properties. We have used the 4-hydroxycoumarin moiety (compound 1) as the molecular template for the synthesis of compounds 2-7. These derivates have shown moderate trypanocidal activity. However they have been proved to be good antioxidants. In particular compound 7 is the most active antioxidant and it is, therefore, a potential candidate for a successful employment in conditions characterized by free radicals overproduction.

  12. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  13. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  14. Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract(decoction)of Antigonon leptopus Hook. &Arn.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Pazhanimuthu, Annamalai; Natarajan, Thillainathan; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-04-01

    Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring boiling water over alleviated leaves of the tea plant. Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus has been traditionally used as remedy for cold, diabetes and pain in many countries. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) synthesized from powdered leaf extract (decoction) of A. leptopus were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses to define the formation of Au NPs. Further, the synthesized Au NPs were well characterized based on their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR), crystalline nature, functional groups, size and dispersed shapes, purity and Bragg's reflections of face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic gold. The Au NPs showed higher free radical scavenging property when compared to the effect of leaf extract. Cytotoxicity study of synthesized Au NPs exhibited the growth inhibitory property at the concentration (GI50) of 257.8 μg/mL in human adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF-7) cells after 48 h. Thus, the Au NPs synthesized from the Mexican creeper, A. leptopus revealed the important biological properties: as a free radical as well as anticancer agent. We conclude that the A. leptopus derived biological materials have promising potential as a source for the development of anticancer drug in future.

  15. Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract(decoction)of Antigonon leptopus Hook. &Arn.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Pazhanimuthu, Annamalai; Natarajan, Thillainathan; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-04-01

    Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring boiling water over alleviated leaves of the tea plant. Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus has been traditionally used as remedy for cold, diabetes and pain in many countries. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) synthesized from powdered leaf extract (decoction) of A. leptopus were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses to define the formation of Au NPs. Further, the synthesized Au NPs were well characterized based on their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR), crystalline nature, functional groups, size and dispersed shapes, purity and Bragg's reflections of face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic gold. The Au NPs showed higher free radical scavenging property when compared to the effect of leaf extract. Cytotoxicity study of synthesized Au NPs exhibited the growth inhibitory property at the concentration (GI50) of 257.8 μg/mL in human adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF-7) cells after 48 h. Thus, the Au NPs synthesized from the Mexican creeper, A. leptopus revealed the important biological properties: as a free radical as well as anticancer agent. We conclude that the A. leptopus derived biological materials have promising potential as a source for the development of anticancer drug in future. PMID:25432487

  16. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of SiO2/PEG hybrid materials containing quercetin as implants with antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Gloria, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, Silica/Polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid nanocomposites containing an antioxidant agent, the quercetin, were synthesized via sol-gel to be used as implants with antioxidant properties. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis proved that a modification of both polymer and quercetin occurs due to synthesis process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the proposed materials were hybrid nanocomposites. The bioactivity was ascertained by soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF).

  17. Pectic polysaccharide from the green fruits of Momordica charantia (Karela): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Panda, Bibhash C; Mondal, Soumitra; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Khatua, Somanjana; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2015-01-12

    A water soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the aqueous extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia contains D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:4. It showed splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations. Moreover, it exhibited potent antioxidant activities. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and 1D and 2D NMR studies, the structure of the repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [Formula: see text].

  18. The antioxidant properties of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Klebanov, G I; Kapitanov, A B; Teselkin YuO; Babenkova, I V; Zhambalova, B A; Lyubitsky, O B; Nesterova, O A; Vasil'eva, O V; Popov, I N; Lewin, G; Vladimirov YuA

    1998-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of the carotenoid lycopene were compared in three different model oxidative systems. In egg yolk liposomes, in the presence of 2.5 mM FeSO4 and 200 mM ascorbate, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene inhibited the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products reacting with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) in a dose-dependent mode, with the concentration of half-inhibition being 80, 30 and 130 mM, respectively. In the liposomes subjected to illumination with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) at a dose of 10.5 J/cm2, in the presence of 32.5 micrograms/ml hematoporphyrin derivatives (Fotogem, NIOPIC, Russia) TBARS accumulated, and this effect was inhibited by lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, and dihydroquercetin with approximately equal efficiencies (the half-inhibition concentrations were 10(-5) mM). In both systems studied, sodium azide at a concentration of 10 mM inhibited the TBARS accumulation by no more than 20%. Apparently, the inhibitory action of not only alpha-tocopherol, but also beta-carotene and lycopene was the result of their antiradical action, rather than quenching of the singlet oxygen in an aqueous medium. The introduction of lycopene, as well as beta-carotene in liposomes subjected to Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation decreased the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity at the stage of CL slow flash, with no essential influence on the lag period. These data suggest that the effect of lycopene on lipid peroxidation was the result of its interaction with free radicals rather than chelating ferrous ions. The antiradical activity of lycopene was also confirmed by the method of luminol photochemiluminescence (PCL). Lycopene increased the PCL lag period (L) and decreased the PCL amplitude (A), which implies its antiradical and SOD-like activity in this system. PMID:9879551

  19. Identification and molecular characterization of peroxiredoxin 6 from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) revealing its potent antioxidant properties and putative immune relevancy.

    PubMed

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Kim, Yucheol; Udayantha, H M V; Lee, Seongdo; Herath, H M L P B; Lakmal, H H Chaminda; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Kang, Seong Il; Jeong, Hyung Bok; Kim, Shin Kwon; Kim, Dae Jung; Lim, Bong Soo

    2016-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prdx) are thiol specific antioxidant enzymes that play a pivotal role in cellular oxidative stress by reducing toxic peroxide compounds into nontoxic products. In this study, we identified and characterized a peroxiredoxin 6 counterpart from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (AjPrdx6) at molecular, transcriptional and protein level. The identified full-length coding sequence of AjPrdx6 (669 bp) coded for a polypeptide of 223 aa residues (24.9 kDa). Deduced protein of AjPrdx6 showed analogy to characteristic structural features of 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin sub-family. According to the topology of the generated phylogenetic reconstruction AjPrdx6 showed closest evolutionary relationship with Salmo salar. As detected by Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), AjPrdx6 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all the tissues examined. Upon the immune challenges with Edwardsiella tarda, lipopolysaccharides and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, expression of AjPrdx6 mRNA transcripts were significantly induced. The general functional properties of Prdx6 were confirmed using purified recombinant AjPrdx6 protein by deciphering its potent protective effects on cultured vero cells (kidney epithelial cell from an African green monkey) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protection against oxidative DNA damage elicited by mixed function oxidative (MFO) system. Altogether, our findings suggest that AjPrdx6 is a potent antioxidant protein in Japanese eels and its putative immune relevancy in pathogen stress mounted by live-bacteria or pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

  20. Identification and molecular characterization of peroxiredoxin 6 from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) revealing its potent antioxidant properties and putative immune relevancy.

    PubMed

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Kim, Yucheol; Udayantha, H M V; Lee, Seongdo; Herath, H M L P B; Lakmal, H H Chaminda; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Kang, Seong Il; Jeong, Hyung Bok; Kim, Shin Kwon; Kim, Dae Jung; Lim, Bong Soo

    2016-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prdx) are thiol specific antioxidant enzymes that play a pivotal role in cellular oxidative stress by reducing toxic peroxide compounds into nontoxic products. In this study, we identified and characterized a peroxiredoxin 6 counterpart from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (AjPrdx6) at molecular, transcriptional and protein level. The identified full-length coding sequence of AjPrdx6 (669 bp) coded for a polypeptide of 223 aa residues (24.9 kDa). Deduced protein of AjPrdx6 showed analogy to characteristic structural features of 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin sub-family. According to the topology of the generated phylogenetic reconstruction AjPrdx6 showed closest evolutionary relationship with Salmo salar. As detected by Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), AjPrdx6 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all the tissues examined. Upon the immune challenges with Edwardsiella tarda, lipopolysaccharides and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, expression of AjPrdx6 mRNA transcripts were significantly induced. The general functional properties of Prdx6 were confirmed using purified recombinant AjPrdx6 protein by deciphering its potent protective effects on cultured vero cells (kidney epithelial cell from an African green monkey) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protection against oxidative DNA damage elicited by mixed function oxidative (MFO) system. Altogether, our findings suggest that AjPrdx6 is a potent antioxidant protein in Japanese eels and its putative immune relevancy in pathogen stress mounted by live-bacteria or pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PMID:26911410

  1. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  2. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-09-03

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  3. Tunisian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by-products: Characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Souissi, Nabil; Salem, Marwa Ben; Ayadi, M A; Nasri, Moncef; Azabou, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Three Tunisian date varieties, Deglet Nour, Kentichi and Allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. Sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating Deglet Nour and Kentichi syrup offers the most desirable formulation. Furthermore, syrup polysaccharides and fibers contribute to better maintain the final product texture. In addition, date by-products create a good source of natural thickening agents, involved in enhancing apparent viscosity and spontaneous exudation. Thanks to their high content in phenolic compounds, date by-products considerably improve antioxidant activities of the formulated desserts. Therefore, they could be valued as natural ingredients in the formulation of novel dairy products with high nutritional-properties. PMID:26041157

  4. Tunisian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by-products: Characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Souissi, Nabil; Salem, Marwa Ben; Ayadi, M A; Nasri, Moncef; Azabou, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Three Tunisian date varieties, Deglet Nour, Kentichi and Allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. Sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating Deglet Nour and Kentichi syrup offers the most desirable formulation. Furthermore, syrup polysaccharides and fibers contribute to better maintain the final product texture. In addition, date by-products create a good source of natural thickening agents, involved in enhancing apparent viscosity and spontaneous exudation. Thanks to their high content in phenolic compounds, date by-products considerably improve antioxidant activities of the formulated desserts. Therefore, they could be valued as natural ingredients in the formulation of novel dairy products with high nutritional-properties.

  5. Antiglycation and Antioxidant Properties of Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Aljohi, Ali; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Ahmed, Nessar

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In many developing countries, diabetes treatment is unaffordable, and plants such as bitter gourd (or bitter melon; Momordica charantia) are used as traditional remedies because they exhibit hypoglycaemic properties. This study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. Lysozyme was mixed with methylglyoxal and 0-15 mg/ml of M. charantia extracts in a pH 7.4 buffer and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. Crosslinked AGEs were assessed using gel electrophoresis, and the carboxymethyllysine (CML) content was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using assays to assess DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity and reducing power of the extracts. The phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid content of the extracts were also determined. All extracts inhibited the formation of crosslinked AGEs and CML in a dose-dependent manner, with MCF being the most potent. The antioxidant activity of MCF was higher than that of MCP, but MCP showed the highest metal-chelating activity. MCF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, whereas MCP had the highest flavonol content. M. charantia has hypoglycaemic effects, but this study shows that M. charantia extracts are also capable of preventing AGE formation in vitro. This activity may be due to the antioxidant properties, particularly the total phenolic content of the extracts. Thus, the use of M. charantia deserves more attention, as it may not only reduce hyperglycaemia but also protect against the build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative stress in patients with diabetes. PMID:27513747

  6. Antiglycation and Antioxidant Properties of Momordica charantia

    PubMed Central

    Aljohi, Ali; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Ahmed, Nessar

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In many developing countries, diabetes treatment is unaffordable, and plants such as bitter gourd (or bitter melon; Momordica charantia) are used as traditional remedies because they exhibit hypoglycaemic properties. This study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. Lysozyme was mixed with methylglyoxal and 0–15 mg/ml of M. charantia extracts in a pH 7.4 buffer and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. Crosslinked AGEs were assessed using gel electrophoresis, and the carboxymethyllysine (CML) content was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using assays to assess DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity and reducing power of the extracts. The phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid content of the extracts were also determined. All extracts inhibited the formation of crosslinked AGEs and CML in a dose-dependent manner, with MCF being the most potent. The antioxidant activity of MCF was higher than that of MCP, but MCP showed the highest metal-chelating activity. MCF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, whereas MCP had the highest flavonol content. M. charantia has hypoglycaemic effects, but this study shows that M. charantia extracts are also capable of preventing AGE formation in vitro. This activity may be due to the antioxidant properties, particularly the total phenolic content of the extracts. Thus, the use of M. charantia deserves more attention, as it may not only reduce hyperglycaemia but also protect against the build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative stress in patients with diabetes. PMID:27513747

  7. Antiglycation and antioxidant properties of soy sauces.

    PubMed

    Mashilipa, Changwe; Wang, Qiuyu; Slevin, Mark; Ahmed, Nessar

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia increases formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and metal-catalyzed production of free radicals. This study compared the antioxidant capacities of dark and light soy sauces of different brands and investigated their abilities to inhibit AGEs and whether their mechanism of action was pre- or post-Amadori or involved chelation of transition metals. The antioxidant capacities of soy sauces were compared using the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) method and by measuring their total phenolic contents. Model proteins (lysozyme, albumin) were glycated using fructose with or without soy sauces with subsequent analysis of cross-linked AGEs by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The effect of soy sauces on pre- and post-Amadori inhibition of AGEs was investigated by measuring fructosamine and AGEs following reincubation of ribose-glycated (ribated) lysozyme, respectively. Dark soy sauces had higher antioxidant capacities and phenolic content and were more effective inhibitors of post-Amadori-derived cross-linked AGEs. However, light soy sauces were more effective at inhibiting fructosamine and had more potent metal chelation properties. This study reports the antiglycation properties of soy sauces, but further studies are required to determine the constituents responsible for this effect and whether soy sauce consumption can reduce oxidative stress and AGEs in diabetic subjects.

  8. [Antioxidant properties of benzofurocaine, phenycaberan and orthophen].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, A V; Kuz'min, A V; Levitskiĭ, D O; Stepaniuk, G I

    1989-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of benzofurocaine, phenycaberan, crithophen, alpha-tocopherol and ionol were evaluated by inhibition of oxygen absorption by liposomes from egg phosphatidylcholine induced by the addition of an prooxidant. The activity of the tested agents at inhibition of Fe2+-ascorbater-initiated oxidation decreases in the order: ionol, benzofurocaine, phenycaberan, orthophen, alpha-tocopherol; emine-initiated (EDTA-independent) oxidation of phosphatidylcholine is inhibited only by ionol, orthophen and alpha-tocopherol. Phenycaberan exerts no effect on oxidation and benzofurocaine increases the rate of emine-initiated absorption of oxygen. Thus, benzofurocaine, phenycaberan and orthophen may be referred to as selective inhibitors of Fe2+-initiated peroxidation of phosphatidylcholine.

  9. Innovative phytosynthesized silver nanoarchitectures with enhanced antifungal and antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortan, Alina; Fierascu, Irina; Ungureanu, Camelia; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Dumitrescu, Ovidiu; Dinu-Pirvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-12-01

    While in the early era of nanotechnology, nanoparticles of noble metals were obtained through expensive methods, using toxic chemical reagents, in the last decade attempts are made to obtain the desired chemical composition, size, morphology, and other properties by eco and green synthesis, using plants. The aim of this paper is to compare two extraction methods (hydroalcoholic extraction and microwave extraction) used to phytosynthesize silver nanoparticles, in terms of nanoparticle (NP) morphology, antioxidant, and antifungal action, using an European native plant, Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. The extracts and the obtained NPs were characterized by modern analytical techniques (GC-MS, UV-Vis, SEM, TEM) and by phytochemical assays (total flavonoids, total terpenoids and total phenolic content). The antifungal activity (evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer method, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum) and the antioxidant activity (determined by the DPPH assay and a chemiluminescence assay) revealed notable differences between the samples, differences due to the extraction procedure followed. Also, preliminary studies regarding the stability and the toxicity of the nanoparticles are presented. By using the microwave-assisted extraction, not only smaller particles (less than 10 nm) were obtained, but also with better antifungal and antioxidant properties than the ones obtained by classical extraction.

  10. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties. PMID:27433585

  11. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties.

  12. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of partridgeberry polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-02-01

    Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a polyphenol-rich berry of the Ericaceous family, grown in Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada. The aims of this study were to identify extraction solvents for the maximum recovery of polyphenols, to establish fractionation technique for isolation of major sub-classes of polyphenols, and to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of the partridgeberry polyphenol preparations. The acidified 70% acetone was identified as the ideal solvent for the maximum recovery of polyphenols from partridgeberry. Further, aqueous two-phase extraction, column chromatography and UPLC-MS/MS were employed to produce three partridgeberry polyphenol fractions, rich in either, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols or flavonols. All the three PPF were potent antioxidants and displayed cytoprotective activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of cellular death. The current study suggests that partridgeberry has numerous potential health implications in both prevention and amelioration of various diseases involving oxidative stress.

  13. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  14. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  15. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•−) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•− was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•−. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•− and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant capacity of naringenin-oxime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkkan, Baki; Özyürek, Mustafa; Bener, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of the benefits of polyphenolic antioxidants is eliciting increasing interest in the search for new polyphenolic derivatives with improved antioxidant activity. Since naringenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone) (NG) is one of the most abundant citrus and grapefruit polyphenolics and flavanone oximes were used in the synthesis of anticancer and radioprotector compounds having antiradical activity, the corresponding oxime of NG, naringenin oxime (NG-Ox), was synthesized and investigated. The structure of NG-Ox was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, and the synthesized compound was screened for its antioxidant capacity by using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of NG-Ox was measured to be higher than that of the parent compound, NG. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on rad OH, O 2rad -, and H 2O 2) of NG-Ox were also determined.

  17. Chemical properties and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Slovenian propolis.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Ana; Abramovič, Helena; Polak, Tomaž; Bertoncelj, Jasna; Jamnik, Polona; Smole Možina, Sonja; Jeršek, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two EtOH extracts of propolis (PEEs) from Slovenia were determined. EtOH was used as extracting solvent at 70 and 96%, providing the extracts PEE70 and PEE96, respectively. The extraction with 70% EtOH was more efficient than that with 96% EtOH, as the PEE70 was richer in total phenolic compounds than the PEE96. The Slovenian propolis was characterized by different phenolic acids and flavonoids. The PEE96 was slightly richer in three specific compounds, i.e., caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and luteolin, while all other substances detected showed higher contents in the PEE70. The PEE70 showed a stronger reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions than the PEE96. Both PEEs were in the main more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli, with the exception of Campylobacter. The PEE96 decreased the intracellular oxidation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. The antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties were related to the total phenolic contents. The two PEEs have the potential for use as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in foods.

  18. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Peter; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán

    2006-01-01

    The increasing recognition of the participation of free radical-mediated oxidative events in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular, tumoural, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, has given rise to the search for new antioxidant molecules. An important source of such molecules has been plants for which there is an ethno-cultural base for health promotion. An important example of this is boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a chilean tree whose leaves have been traditionally employed in folk medicine and is now widely recognized as a herbal remedy by a number of pharmacopoeias. Boldo leaves are rich in several aporphine-like alkaloids, of which boldine is the most abundant one. Research conducted during the early 1990s led to the discovery that boldine is one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Prompted by the latter, a large and increasing number of studies emerged, which have focused on characterizing some of the pharmacological properties that may arise from the free radical-scavenging properties of boldine. The present review attempts to exhaustively cover and discuss such studies, placing particular attention on research conducted during the last decade. Mechanistic aspects and structure-activity data are discussed. The review encompasses pharmacological actions, which arise from its antioxidant properties (e.g., cyto-protective, anti-tumour promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic actions), as well as those that do not seem to be associated with such activity (e.g., vasorelaxing, anti-trypanocidal, immuno- and neuro-modulator, cholagogic and/or choleretic actions). Based on the pharmacological and toxicological data now available, further research needs and recommendations are suggested to define the actual potential of boldine for its use in humans. PMID:16221469

  19. Orange Peel Extracts: Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant, Antioxidative Burst, and Phytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Iqbal Chaudhary, M; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Shukralla, Ahmed; Muhammad, Aliyu; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Elemo, Gloria N

    2016-01-01

    The search for novel drugs and alternative medicine has led to increased research in medicinal plants. Among such plants is the orange fruit. Its peels have been utilized for long as an active ingredient in most traditional medicines. This study aims at investigating the chemical properties of the hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of orange peel as well as their biological potentials. Blended peels were extracted with n-hexane and n-dichloromethane, respectively. The resulting extracts were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) characterization. The extracts were also assayed for free radical scavenging ability against 1,1 -diphenyl -2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidative burst via measuring luminol -amplified chemiluminescence response in human blood, and phytotoxicity against lemna minor. GCMS analysis revealed a predominance of fatty acid methyl esters in the hexane extract, while the DCM extract had more ketone metabolites. The DCM extract had significant (p < .05) higher free radical scavenging and antioxidative burst activities compared to the hexane. Both extracts revealed a significantly (p < .05) high phytotoxicity activity. Results from this study indicated that solvent type played a vital a role in the extraction of secondary metabolites, which are responsible for the observed biological activities. The higher activities by the DCM extract can be attributed to its constituents as revealed by GCMS analysis. There is great need to explore the phytotoxicity potentials of both extracts as natural herbicides. PMID:26930349

  20. Antioxidant and pasting properties of oat ß-glucan hydrocolloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four oat ß-glucan enriched hydrocolloids (Nutrim10, C-Trim20, C-Trim30, C-Trim50), oat bran concentrate (OBC), and ß-Glucan95 were investigated for antioxidant and pasting properties. C-Trim30 had the highest soluble phenolic content, followed by C-Trim20. The trend of antioxidant activity was sim...

  1. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries. PMID:26008718

  2. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.

  3. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of β-carotene, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, β-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  4. Antioxidant characterization of native monofloral Cuban honeys.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M; González-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Battino, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Five typical Cuban monofloral honeys were analyzed for their in vitro total antioxidant capacity (TAC), phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid content. Identification and quantification of phenolics were carried out by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Fourteen phenolic compounds could be identified (eight phenolic acids and six flavonoids), including three glycosylated derivatives. Similar contents of total phenolics were found in the different honeys, although they differed in their qualitative profiles. A significant (positive) correlation was found between the results of TAC obtained by parallel FIA-ABTS system and ORAC assay (r=0.9565, p<0.001). Similar correlations were also established between total phenolics and TAC, determined by either the ORAC (r=0.9633; pantioxidant capacity of the honeys, but they were not uniquely responsible for it. The antioxidant activity appeared to be a result of the combined activity of a range of compounds including phenolics and other minor components. Ascorbic acid was not detected.

  5. Enzymatic Glycosylation of Phenolic Antioxidants: Phosphorylase-Mediated Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Karel; Dewitte, Griet; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; De Laet, Sylvie; Pelantová, Helena; Křen, Vladimír; Desmet, Tom

    2015-11-25

    Although numerous biologically active molecules exist as glycosides in nature, information on the activity, stability, and solubility of glycosylated antioxidants is rather limited to date. In this work, a wide variety of antioxidants were glycosylated using different phosphorylase enzymes. The resulting antioxidant library, containing α/β-glucosides, different regioisomers, cellobiosides, and cellotriosides, was then characterized. Glycosylation was found to significantly increase the solubility and stability of all evaluated compounds. Despite decreased radical-scavenging abilities, most glycosides were identified to be potent antioxidants, outperforming the commonly used 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol (BHT). Moreover, the point of attachment, the anomeric configuration, and the glycosidic chain length were found to influence the properties of these phenolic glycosides.

  6. Enzymatic Glycosylation of Phenolic Antioxidants: Phosphorylase-Mediated Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Karel; Dewitte, Griet; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; De Laet, Sylvie; Pelantová, Helena; Křen, Vladimír; Desmet, Tom

    2015-11-25

    Although numerous biologically active molecules exist as glycosides in nature, information on the activity, stability, and solubility of glycosylated antioxidants is rather limited to date. In this work, a wide variety of antioxidants were glycosylated using different phosphorylase enzymes. The resulting antioxidant library, containing α/β-glucosides, different regioisomers, cellobiosides, and cellotriosides, was then characterized. Glycosylation was found to significantly increase the solubility and stability of all evaluated compounds. Despite decreased radical-scavenging abilities, most glycosides were identified to be potent antioxidants, outperforming the commonly used 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol (BHT). Moreover, the point of attachment, the anomeric configuration, and the glycosidic chain length were found to influence the properties of these phenolic glycosides. PMID:26540621

  7. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Yen, Wen-Jye; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chang, Lee-Wen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2005-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of roasted coffee residues was evaluated. Extraction with four solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) showed that water extracts of roasted coffee residues (WERCR) produced higher yields and gave better protection for lipid peroxidation. WERCR showed a remarkable protective effect on oxidative damage of protein. In addition, WERCR showed scavenging of free radicals as well as the reducing ability and to bind ferrous ions, indicating that WERCR acts as both primary and secondary antioxidants. The HPLC analyses showed that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and nonphenolic compounds [caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuraldehyde] remained in roasted coffee residues. These compounds showed a protective effect on a liposome model system. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in roasted coffee residues were 8,400 and 20,400 ppm, respectively. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) remaining in roasted coffee residues were believed to show antioxidant activity. These data indicate that roasted coffee residues have excellent potential for use as a natural antioxidant source because the antioxidant compounds remained in roasted coffee residues. PMID:15796608

  8. Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) Seeds: Chemical Characterization and Extraction of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hacke, Ana Carolina Mendes; Granato, Daniel; Maciel, Laércio Galvão; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effect of time and temperature on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora cv. Sabará), to optimize the solvent proportion (water, ethyl alcohol, and propanone), and to characterize the extract according to the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Proximal composition, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were analyzed. The optimized solvent ratio of 60% water and 40% propanone provided a mean TPC of 8.65 g GAE/100 g seeds and the antioxidant activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 82.79% ± 0.50%. Time and temperature parameters did not influence the yield of TPC. The gross seed extract was partially purified and both exhibited a high antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potential toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The purified jabuticaba seed lyophilized extract contained a higher (P < 0.05) TPC, o-diphenols, flavonols, and antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH assay and total reducing capacity as compared to the gross lyophilized extract. Electrospray ionization coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) data showed the presence of ellagitannins and ellagic acid in the extracts, which are probably the responsible for the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. PMID:27490163

  9. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  10. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  11. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  12. Lipophilicity, antifungal and antioxidant properties of persilben.

    PubMed

    Smolarz, Helena D; Kosikowska, Urszula; Baraniak, Barbara; Malm, Anna; Persona, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The lipophilicity of persilben, an important parameter influencing the penetration of the compound through biological membranes, was determined experimentally by dynamic method and was theoretically calculated according to the fragmentation methods introduced by Crippen, Broto and Viswanadhan. The higher value of partition coefficient (log P = 3.89) obtained for persilben than that for resveratrol points to potentially higher ease of penetration of persilben into cells of living organism. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of persilben were tested. The obtained data suggest that this compound possesses some antioxidant activity. Persilben appears to have also some inhibitory effect against some species of dermatophytes from Tnichophyton genus but only at high concentrations.

  13. The antioxidant properties of different phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Puntel, Gustavo Orione; Dalla Corte, Cristiane Lenz; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Bastos, Luiza Lena; Avila, Daiana Silva; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; da Silva, Edegar Ozorio; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. From this perspective, we have evaluated the possible antioxidant capacities of five different phthalocyanines (PCs), consisting of four metallophthalocyanines (MPCs) and one simple phthalocyanine (PC) in order to explore, for the first time, the potential antioxidant activities of these compounds. Our results show that all PCs tested in this study have significant antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation assay, providing protection from sodium nitroprusside -induced oxidative damage to supernatant from the homogenized liver, brain, e rim of mice. Compared to the non-induced control, the PCs were generally more efficient in reducing malondialdehyde levels in all assays on lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside; the order of approximate decrease in efficiency was as follows: manganese-PC (better efficiency)>copper-PC>iron-PC>zinc-PC>PC (worst efficiency). Furthermore, the copper-PC and manganese-PC compounds exerted a significant protective effect in deoxyribose degradation assays, when employing Fe(2+), Fe(2+)+H(2)O(2), and H(2)O(2) solutions. In conclusion, all PCs tested here were shown to be promising compounds for future in vivo investigations, because of their potential antioxidant activities in vitro. PMID:22024102

  14. Antioxidant characterization of some Sicilian edible wild greens.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Sara; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brenna, Oreste V; Del Rio, Daniele; Frasca, Graziella; Brighenti, Furio; Tumino, Rosario

    2005-11-30

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that many antioxidants and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet may protect against cancers and cardiovascular disease. Common fruits and vegetables are good sources of antioxidants, although in some Mediterranean areas traditional wild greens are responsible for a significant percentage of total dietary antioxidant intake. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of Ragusa (Sicily), a high number of subjects were found to frequently eat wild greens, including Sinapis incana and Sinapis nigra, Diplotaxis erucoides, Cichorium intybus, Asparagus acutifolius, and Borrago officinalis. On the basis of these observations, detailed characterization of single antioxidant components (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and ascorbic acid) and the TAC of these edible wild traditional plants was performed. The wild plants examined were found to be very rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, with high TAC values, suggesting that the importance of these vegetables, not only in the traditional but even in the contemporary diet, needs to be emphasized. PMID:16302763

  15. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health. PMID:26784174

  16. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health. PMID:26784174

  17. Antioxidant properties of enzymatic hydrolysates from royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takeshi; Inoue, Reiji; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Nagashima, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates were prepared from royal jelly using three enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, and papain), and their antioxidative properties were evaluated. The yield of these hydrolysates was very high, about 20-26% on a raw weight basis. In comparison with the antioxidative activities of water extract and alkaline extract of royal jelly, the antioxidative activities and scavenging activities against active oxygen species such as superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical of each hydrolysate were high in the sample with a low protein concentration. These results suggest that once royal jelly is hydrolyzed using enzyme, the hydrolysate possesses much higher antioxidative activity and scavenging activity against active oxygen species. Royal jelly will act as a medicinal food in the human body. PMID:17004899

  18. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  19. Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

  20. Antiarrhythmic and antioxidant activity of novel pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives with adrenolytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Nowaczyk, Alicja; Kulig, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A series of novel pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives (17 compounds) with adrenolytic properties was evaluated for antiarrhythmic, electrocardiographic and antioxidant activity. Some of them displayed antiarrhythmic activity in barium chloride-induced arrhythmia and in the rat coronary artery ligation-reperfusion model, and slightly decreased the heart rate, prolonged P–Q, Q–T intervals and QRS complex. Among them, compound EP-40 (1-[2-hydroxy-3-[4-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl]pyrrolidin-2-one showed excellent antiarrhythmic activity. This compound had significantly antioxidant effect, too. The present results suggest that the antiarrhythmic effect of compound EP-40 is related to their adrenolytic and antioxidant properties. A biological activity prediction using the PASS software shows that compound EP-35 and EP-40 can be characterized by antiischemic activity; whereas, compound EP-68, EP-70, EP-71 could be good tachycardia agents. PMID:20949258

  1. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jiao; Meng, Yonghong; Liu, Lei; Li, Jie; Ren, Daoyuan; Guo, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple (TYA) were investigated in the study. A water-soluble polysaccharide (TYAP) was obtained with hot water extraction, which was further purified by chromatography of Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-150 to get three purified fractions of TYAP-1, TYAP-2 and TYAP-3. HPLC analysis showed that the three fractions were mainly composed of galactose and arabinose with the average molecular weights of 115 kDa, 479 kDa and 403 kDa, respectively and the monosaccharide compositions of TYAP-2 and TYAP-3 were more complicated than that of TYAP-1. Moreover, TYAP fractions of three had no absorptions at 260 nm and 280 nm in the UV spectrum, indicating the absence of protein and nucleic acid. Their structure properties were further confirmed by FT-IR. In vitro antioxidant activities of three fractions were characterized by DPPH(•), HO(•), O2(•-) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power systems. The results indicated that TYAP-1, TYAP-2 and TYAP-3 possessed significant antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependant manner in the tested concentration range of 0.25-5.0mg/mL. Among the fractions tested, TYAP-3 showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of TYAP-1 and TYAP-2. All of these findings provide a scientific basis for the further use of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple. PMID:25109456

  2. Antioxidant Properties of Aminoethylcysteine Ketimine Decarboxylated Dimer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Macone, Alberto; Fontana, Mario; Barba, Marco; Botta, Bruno; Nardini, Mirella; Ghirga, Francesca; Calcaterra, Andrea; Pecci, Laura; Matarese, Rosa Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is a natural sulfur-containing compound detected in human plasma and urine, in mammalian brain and in many common edible vegetables. Over the past decade many studies have been undertaken to identify its metabolic role. Attention has been focused on its antioxidant properties and on its reactivity against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species. These properties have been studied in different model systems starting from plasma lipoproteins to specific cellular lines. All these studies report that aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is able to interact both with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite and its derivatives). Its antioxidant activity is similar to that of Vitamin E while higher than other hydrophilic antioxidants, such as trolox and N-acetylcysteine. PMID:21686170

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of monoaromatic derivatives of pulvinic acids.

    PubMed

    Habrant, Damien; Poigny, Stéphane; Ségur-Derai, Muriel; Brunel, Yves; Heurtaux, Benoît; Le Gall, Thierry; Strehle, Axelle; Saladin, Régis; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles; Wagner, Alain

    2009-04-23

    The natural mushroom pigment Norbadione A and three other pulvinic acids were shown by our group to display very efficient antioxidant properties by comparison with a collection of potent molecules including catechols, flavonoids, stilbenes, or coumarins. Despite numerous publications on robust and straightforward synthetic access to pulvinic acids by us and others, no report has been made to unravel the structure-activity relationships that govern the striking antioxidant activity. Herein is presented the synthesis of 18 diverse pulvinic acid derivatives and the study of their radical scavenging capacities by four different assays. The influence of each of the two phenyl rings, of their substituents and of the lateral chain on the antioxidant properties, was explored to reveal a simplified structure of excellent activity. These results, along with the absence of cytotoxicity, make the synthesized compounds interesting to evaluate for several biological activities and especially for anti-inflammatory effects and skin protection against UV induced oxidative stress.

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz)

    PubMed Central

    Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition that oxidative stress is a major component of several chronic diseases has engendered numerous trials of antioxidant therapies with minimal or no direct benefits. Nanomolar quantities of nitric oxide released into the circulation by pharmacologic stimulation of eNOS have antioxidant properties but physiologic stimulation as through increased pulsatile shear stress of the endothelium has not been assessed. The present study utilized a non-invasive technology, periodic acceleration (pGz) that increases pulsatile shear stress such that upregulation of cardiac eNOS occurs, We assessed its efficacy in normal mice and mouse models with high levels of oxidative stress, e.g. Diabetes type 1 and mdx (Duchene Muscular Dystrophy). pGz increased protein expression and upregulated eNOS in hearts. Application of pGz was associated with significantly increased expression of endogenous antioxidants (Glutathioneperoxidase-1(GPX-1), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide, Superoxide Dismutase 1(SOD1). This led to an increase of total cardiac antioxidant capacity along with an increase in the antioxidant response element transcription factor Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. pGz decreased reactive oxygen species in both mice models of oxidative stress. Thus, pGz is a novel non-pharmacologic method to harness endogenous antioxidant capacity. PMID:26133377

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz).

    PubMed

    Uryash, Arkady; Bassuk, Jorge; Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R; Adams, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    The recognition that oxidative stress is a major component of several chronic diseases has engendered numerous trials of antioxidant therapies with minimal or no direct benefits. Nanomolar quantities of nitric oxide released into the circulation by pharmacologic stimulation of eNOS have antioxidant properties but physiologic stimulation as through increased pulsatile shear stress of the endothelium has not been assessed. The present study utilized a non-invasive technology, periodic acceleration (pGz) that increases pulsatile shear stress such that upregulation of cardiac eNOS occurs, We assessed its efficacy in normal mice and mouse models with high levels of oxidative stress, e.g. Diabetes type 1 and mdx (Duchene Muscular Dystrophy). pGz increased protein expression and upregulated eNOS in hearts. Application of pGz was associated with significantly increased expression of endogenous antioxidants (Glutathioneperoxidase-1(GPX-1), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide, Superoxide Dismutase 1(SOD1). This led to an increase of total cardiac antioxidant capacity along with an increase in the antioxidant response element transcription factor Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. pGz decreased reactive oxygen species in both mice models of oxidative stress. Thus, pGz is a novel non-pharmacologic method to harness endogenous antioxidant capacity. PMID:26133377

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz).

    PubMed

    Uryash, Arkady; Bassuk, Jorge; Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R; Adams, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    The recognition that oxidative stress is a major component of several chronic diseases has engendered numerous trials of antioxidant therapies with minimal or no direct benefits. Nanomolar quantities of nitric oxide released into the circulation by pharmacologic stimulation of eNOS have antioxidant properties but physiologic stimulation as through increased pulsatile shear stress of the endothelium has not been assessed. The present study utilized a non-invasive technology, periodic acceleration (pGz) that increases pulsatile shear stress such that upregulation of cardiac eNOS occurs, We assessed its efficacy in normal mice and mouse models with high levels of oxidative stress, e.g. Diabetes type 1 and mdx (Duchene Muscular Dystrophy). pGz increased protein expression and upregulated eNOS in hearts. Application of pGz was associated with significantly increased expression of endogenous antioxidants (Glutathioneperoxidase-1(GPX-1), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide, Superoxide Dismutase 1(SOD1). This led to an increase of total cardiac antioxidant capacity along with an increase in the antioxidant response element transcription factor Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. pGz decreased reactive oxygen species in both mice models of oxidative stress. Thus, pGz is a novel non-pharmacologic method to harness endogenous antioxidant capacity.

  7. Investigation of antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol.

  8. [Graded ethanol precipitation method on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Astragalus Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-fa; Guo, Song-bo; Man, Shu-li; Fan, Ya-ya; Wang, Ting-ting; Li, Xia; Gao, Wen-yuan

    2015-06-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide has been widely used in food and medicinal industry owing to its health-promoting properties. In order to characterize better the relationship among molecular weight, structure-activity and activities, a simple method was used different concentration of ethanol including 30% (PW30), 50% (PW50), 70% (PW70), 75% (PW75), 80% (PW80) and 90% (PW90) to precipitate Astragalus polysaccharides into different molecular weight. As a result, PW90 showed smooth surface and the strongest antioxidant activity among these six fractions (P < 0.05). In conclusion, graded ethanol precipitation was a simple method to separate Astragalus polysaccharides into different molecular weight with different antioxidant activity fractions.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and trypanocidal properties of a selected series of coumarin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Guíñez, Roberto Figueroa; Matos, Maria João; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Saleta; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Maya, Juan Diego

    2013-10-01

    This article describes the preparation and characterization of a selected series of coumarin derivatives with the aim of evaluating their antioxidant properties and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease. All the derivatives demonstrated moderate trypanocidal activity in the epimastigote and trypomastigote stages (clone Dm28c), with Compound 3 presenting the highest trypanocidal activity of the entire series, displaying higher activity than nifurtimox, which was used as a reference compound. In addition to the trypanocidal activity, this compound proved to have a very interesting antioxidant profile, as well as no cytotoxicity. These preliminary findings encouraged the authors to study the future structural optimization of this scaffold.

  10. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. PMID:20674287

  11. Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo)

    PubMed Central

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M.; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2010-01-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  12. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective capacity of strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo).

    PubMed

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2010-02-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  13. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively.

  14. Studies on the antioxidant properties of Tualang honey of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sirajudeen, Kns; Swamy, M; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2009-10-15

    Honey has been used since ancient times for its nutritional as well as curative properties. Tualang honey is collected from wild honey bees' hives on Tualang trees found in the Malaysian rain forest. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, where its therapeutic value has partly been related to its antioxidant properties. This study therefore assessed the colour intensity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antiradical activity of gamma irradiated Tualang Honey. The colour intensity at ABS₄₅₀ was 489.5 ± 1.7 mAU, total phenolic content was 251.7 ± 7.9 mg (gallic acid) /Kg honey, total antioxidant activity by FRAP assay was 322.1 ± 9.7 (µM Fe(II)) and the antiradical activity by DPPH assay was 41.30 ± 0.78 (% inhibition). The data confirms that the antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated Tualang honey are similar to other types of honeys reported in the literature.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  16. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  17. Influence of hydroxyl substitution on flavanone antioxidants properties.

    PubMed

    Masek, Anna; Chrzescijanska, Ewa; Latos, Malgorzata; Zaborski, Marian

    2017-01-15

    The aim of our study was to determine the effect of the position of the hydroxyl group on the antioxidant properties of flavonoid derivatives. For this purpose, we performed electrochemical analysis and quantum-mechanical calculations to describe the mechanisms of electrochemical oxidation, and we selected the two methods of ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate), which allowed us to determine the ability to scavenge free radicals. On the basis of the research, we found that the derivatives of flavonoids, which have a hydroxyl group substituted at the R-3 position on the C ring, have outstanding antioxidant activity. Flavone, which had an OH group substituted at the R-6 and R-7 position on the ring A, showed similar antioxidant activity to flavone without -OH groups in the structure and slightly higher activity than the di-substituted flavone on the ring A. PMID:27542504

  18. Explorative study of apple juice fluorescence in relation to antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Włodarska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Lemańska, Katarzyna; Khmelinskii, Igor; Sikorska, Ewa

    2016-11-01

    Total fluorescence spectra (excitation-emission matrices, EEM) were recorded for a series of commercial apple juices, including clear and cloudy juices produced from concentrate, cloudy juices that were not from concentrate, and freshly squeezed juices. An exploratory study of the spectra with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed three groups of fluorophores with different emission properties, and these properties were characterized by excitation/emission maxima at 270/315nm, (310, 370)/455nm, and 430/(550, 680)nm, respectively. A regression analysis of the total fluorescence spectra arranged into three-way arrays using N-way partial least squares regression methods (NPLS1 and NPLS2) and an analysis of the unfolded spectra by partial least squares methods (PLS1 and PLS2) revealed quantitative relations between the fluorescence and antioxidant properties of juices. The best models for the total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacities were obtained by applying the NPLS1 method to the EEM. The model parameters were as follows: R(2)CV=0.802, RPD=2.3 for the total phenolic content and R(2)CV=0.808 and RPD=2.3 for the total antioxidant capacity. These results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening apple juices for their antioxidant properties.

  19. Explorative study of apple juice fluorescence in relation to antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Włodarska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Lemańska, Katarzyna; Khmelinskii, Igor; Sikorska, Ewa

    2016-11-01

    Total fluorescence spectra (excitation-emission matrices, EEM) were recorded for a series of commercial apple juices, including clear and cloudy juices produced from concentrate, cloudy juices that were not from concentrate, and freshly squeezed juices. An exploratory study of the spectra with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed three groups of fluorophores with different emission properties, and these properties were characterized by excitation/emission maxima at 270/315nm, (310, 370)/455nm, and 430/(550, 680)nm, respectively. A regression analysis of the total fluorescence spectra arranged into three-way arrays using N-way partial least squares regression methods (NPLS1 and NPLS2) and an analysis of the unfolded spectra by partial least squares methods (PLS1 and PLS2) revealed quantitative relations between the fluorescence and antioxidant properties of juices. The best models for the total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacities were obtained by applying the NPLS1 method to the EEM. The model parameters were as follows: R(2)CV=0.802, RPD=2.3 for the total phenolic content and R(2)CV=0.808 and RPD=2.3 for the total antioxidant capacity. These results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening apple juices for their antioxidant properties. PMID:27211686

  20. Angiomodulatory properties of Rhodiola spp. and other natural antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara J.; Białoszewska, Agata; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Borecka, Anna; Hevelke, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of angiogenesis and oxidative stress can lead to many serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. Substances neutralizing oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. They can affect angiogenesis process also, and thus, they modulate therapy results. Antioxidants become more and more frequently used in order to maintain homeostasis of the organism and diminish the risk of disease. Herein, we introduce some antioxidant preparations of natural plant origin (Rhodiola, Aloe vera, Resveratrol, Echinacea, Plumbagin) and antioxidant supplements (Padma 28, Reumaherb, Resvega). Analyses of their angiogenic properties, their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis as well as medical application are within the scope of this review. Most of presented preparations down regulate neovascularization. They can be safely administered to patients with abnormally high angiogenesis. Rhodiola modulates, and Echinacea, Aloe vera and Plumbagin inhibit tumour-related angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (animal models). Resveratrol and Resvega reduce neovascularization in the eye and may be applicable in eye disorders. Padma 28 preparation exhibits angioregulatory activity, decreasing high angiogenesis of cancer cells and increasing physiological angiogenesis, therefore can be used in therapy of patients with various disturbances of angiogenesis. Antioxidant application in the case of angiogenesis-related diseases should take into consideration angiogenic status of the patient. PMID:26557041

  1. In vitro antioxidant properties of fucoidan fractions from Sargassum tenerrimum.

    PubMed

    Marudhupandi, T; Kumar, T T Ajith; Senthil, S Lakshmana; Devi, K Nanthini

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study is conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential and toxicity effect of polysaccharide-fucoidan from the brown seaweed Sargassum tenerrimum. Fucoidan-a sulphated polysaccharide contains fucose and sulphate as major compounds. Interestingly, various studies reported that the presence of sulphate content of the sample plays a significant role in pharmacological activities. In this study, fucoidan was fractionated by Ion exchange chromatography method and it major chemical constituent sulphate and fucose was determined by the biochemical methods. The toxicity effect of fucoidan was analyzed by the brine shrimp toxicity assay. Three fucoidan fractions (F1, F2 and F3) were obtained from Intact Fucoidan (IF) through anion-exchange column chromatography. In vitro antioxidant capability was analyzed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging and total antioxidant assays and intact fucoidan showed the maximum activity 83.66 +/- 0.35, 81.73 +/- 0.35% and 41.6 +/- 0.43 mg g(-1), respectively. The finding of the present study was confirmed that the antioxidant property of fucoidan was depending upon the sulphate content of the fraction and these studies proved that fucoidan have non toxicity effect. Hence, fucoidan have the scope of being used as natural antioxidants in treating many human diseases. PMID:24897795

  2. Angiomodulatory properties of Rhodiola spp. and other natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara J; Białoszewska, Agata; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Borecka, Anna; Hevelke, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of angiogenesis and oxidative stress can lead to many serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. Substances neutralizing oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. They can affect angiogenesis process also, and thus, they modulate therapy results. Antioxidants become more and more frequently used in order to maintain homeostasis of the organism and diminish the risk of disease. Herein, we introduce some antioxidant preparations of natural plant origin (Rhodiola, Aloe vera, Resveratrol, Echinacea, Plumbagin) and antioxidant supplements (Padma 28, Reumaherb, Resvega). Analyses of their angiogenic properties, their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis as well as medical application are within the scope of this review. Most of presented preparations down regulate neovascularization. They can be safely administered to patients with abnormally high angiogenesis. Rhodiola modulates, and Echinacea, Aloe vera and Plumbagin inhibit tumour-related angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (animal models). Resveratrol and Resvega reduce neovascularization in the eye and may be applicable in eye disorders. Padma 28 preparation exhibits angioregulatory activity, decreasing high angiogenesis of cancer cells and increasing physiological angiogenesis, therefore can be used in therapy of patients with various disturbances of angiogenesis. Antioxidant application in the case of angiogenesis-related diseases should take into consideration angiogenic status of the patient. PMID:26557041

  3. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  4. Contribution of anthocyanin fraction to the antioxidant properties of wine.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Pérez, M D; Muñiz, P; González-Sanjosé, M L

    2008-08-01

    The wine is a beverage with an important antioxidant efficiency which is attributed to their bioactives compounds, especially polyphenols. The anthocyanins are the main phenolic compounds of red wine and its consumption has been partially related with the "French Paradox". The aim of the present work was to evaluate the contribution of the anthocyanins to the antioxidant properties of red wines. So, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), hydroxyl and superoxide scavenger activity and lipid peroxidation of 80 Spanish red wines and their anthocyanins fractions have been assessed for ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP methods, hydroxyl radical (HRSA), superoxide radical scavenger activity (SRSA) and ABAP-lipid peroxidation (ABAP-LP). The results showed that free anthocyanins fraction are main responsible of the total antioxidant capacity of red wines correlated with electron transference processes. In similar way, free anthocyanins are the maximum responsible of HRSA scavenger activity of red wines, contributing less extensively to their SRSA capacity or to their protective action on lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, simple anthocyanins exert a low action in TAC process involved with proton transference. Glycosilated and methoxylic anthocyanins as malvidin-3-glucoside, seem to be the type of anthocyanins with higher participation on the antioxidant effect of red wine.

  5. Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Properties of Anthocyanins from Defatted Dabai Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Nurulhuda, M. Halid; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir; Roowi, Suri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine anthocyanins and their antioxidative and cardioprotective properties in defatted dabai parts. Anthocyanins in crude extracts and extract fractions of defatted dabai peel and pericarp were quantified using UHPLC, while their antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress inhibition ability were evaluated by using DPPH and CUPRAC assays as well as linoleic acid oxidation system, hemoglobin oxidation, and PARP-1 inhibition ELISA. Cardioprotective effect of the defatted dabai peel extract was evaluated using hypercholesterolemic-induced New Zealand white rabbits. Six anthocyanins were detected in the defatted dabai peel, with the highest antioxidant capacities and oxidative stress inhibition effect compared to the other part. The defatted dabai peel extract has also inhibited lipid peroxidation (plasma MDA) and elevated cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in the tested animal model. Major anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) and other anthocyanins (pelargonidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) detected in the defatted dabai peel are potential future nutraceuticals with promising medicinal properties. PMID:24368926

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of monofloral bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Kačániová, Miroslava; Máriássyová, Magda; Rovná, Katarína; Stričík, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of monofloral bee pollen samples to pathogenic bacteria. These samples were collected in different localities in Slovakia. The antioxidant properties of examined plant species were different and decreasing in the following order: Brassica napus subsp. napus L > Papaver somniferum L. > Helianthus annuus L. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested by using the agar well diffusion method. The methanol (99.9% and 70%) and the ethanol (96% and 70%) were used for extraction. In this study, five different strains of bacteria were tested: Listeria monocytogenes CCM 4699; Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus CCM 3953; Salmonella enterica CCM 4420; and Escherichia coli CCM 3988. The most sensitive bacteria of the poppy pollen ethanolic extract was Staphylococcus aureus was (70%) The most sensitive bacteria of rape bee pollen methanolic extract (70%) and sunflower ethanolic extract (70%) was Salmonella enterica. PMID:23305281

  7. Characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Thanzami, K; Malsawmtluangi, C; Lalhlenmawia, H; Seelan, T Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to characterize the physicochemical properties and to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates collected from Northeast India. The total carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein contents, monosaccharide composition and the molecular weight distribution of the purified gum was determined. The powder flow property and preliminary compressibility test were performed on the dried gum exudates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study was performed to analyze the functional groups present in the structure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTA) analyses were performed to study the thermal stability of the gum. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging activities and reducing power. The total carbohydrate and protein contents of the gum were found to be 75.17±3.21% and 2.60±1.05% respectively. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow showing pH dependent swelling. Arabinose and galactose were found to be the main monosaccharides present in the gum exudates and the molecular weight distribution of the gum was also found to be polydispersed. Results from DPPH, hydroxyl scavenging and reducing power studies showed the gum possesses antioxidant properties.

  8. Antioxidant properties of violacein: possible relation on its biological function.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Marlon; De Marco, Daniela; Cordova, Clarissa A S; Vieira, Tiago O; Antônio, Regina V; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2006-12-15

    Violacein, a violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention in recent literature due to its pharmacological properties. In this work, the antioxidant properties of violacein were investigated. The reactivity with oxygen and nitrogen reactive species and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical, was evaluated. EPR studies were carried out to evaluate the reactivity with the hydroxyl radical. The action of violacein against lipid peroxidation in three models of lipid membranes, including rat liver microsomes, Egg and Soy bean phosphathidylcholine liposomes were also evaluated. The compound reacted with DPPH (IC(50)=30microM), nitric oxide (IC(50)=21microM), superoxide radicals (IC(50)=125microM) and decreased the hydroxyl radical EPR signal. The compound protected the studied membranes against peroxidation induced by reactive species in the micromolar range. The reconstitution of violacein into the membranes increased its antioxidant effect. These results indicate that the compound has strong antioxidant potential. Based on these results we suggest violacein plays an important role with the microorganism membrane in defense against oxidative stress.

  9. Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits.

    PubMed

    Shrikanta, Akshatha; Kumar, Anbarasu; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits such as Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Mulberry (Morus rubra) were investigated keeping Grape (Vitis vinifera) as a reference. Ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) extracts of different parts of fruit samples including skin, pulp and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and MS for the quantification of resveratrol. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Among the samples analyzed, mulberry fruit (whole) showed highest resveratrol content (50.61 μg g(-1) dry weight) followed by jamun seed (34.87 μg g(-1) dry weight), jamun pulp (13.70 μg g(-1) dry weight) and skin of jamun (11.19 μg g(-1) dry weight). Jamun seed extract exhibited the highest polyphenol content (55.54 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight) and highest antioxidant property (IC50 value-0.40 mg ml(-1)). The results suggest that underutilized fruits high in resveratrol and other polyphenols can be used as functional beverages. PMID:25593373

  10. Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits.

    PubMed

    Shrikanta, Akshatha; Kumar, Anbarasu; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits such as Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Mulberry (Morus rubra) were investigated keeping Grape (Vitis vinifera) as a reference. Ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) extracts of different parts of fruit samples including skin, pulp and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and MS for the quantification of resveratrol. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Among the samples analyzed, mulberry fruit (whole) showed highest resveratrol content (50.61 μg g(-1) dry weight) followed by jamun seed (34.87 μg g(-1) dry weight), jamun pulp (13.70 μg g(-1) dry weight) and skin of jamun (11.19 μg g(-1) dry weight). Jamun seed extract exhibited the highest polyphenol content (55.54 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight) and highest antioxidant property (IC50 value-0.40 mg ml(-1)). The results suggest that underutilized fruits high in resveratrol and other polyphenols can be used as functional beverages.

  11. From genotype to apricot fruit quality: the antioxidant properties contribution.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Annamaria; Bartolini, Susanna; Viti, Raffaella

    2012-12-01

    Apricot fruit (Prunus armeniaca L.) quality strictly relates to the eating quality of fresh produce. Since consumers are more and more interested in healthy food, and apricot germplasm shows a wide choice of new selections and cultivars, apricot nutraceutical properties are under evaluation in order to select outstanding genotypes, which may link breeding and marketing. In the present study, 18 apricot genotypes of the Italian and international germplasm were evaluated over three years according to pomological, total antioxidant and total phenols attributes using principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. The antioxidant capacity ranged from 1.24 to 11.47 μmolTE gFW⁻¹ and total phenols from 0.22 to 1.58 mgGAE gFW⁻¹. Four outstanding genotypes stood out as healthy food for fresh consumption which may also be introduced in breeding programs to produce new cultivars with improved nutraceutical values in addition to fruit qualitative attributes.

  12. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    PubMed

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  13. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.

    PubMed

    Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

    2014-11-01

    The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87 mg gallic acid equiv./100 g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72 mg rutin equiv./100 g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14 mg/100 g honey in LH and 42.65 mg/100 g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06 mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23 mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60 mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots.

  14. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals.

  15. Effect of the incorporation of antimicrobial/antioxidant proteins on the properties of potato starch films.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Olga; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2015-11-20

    Glycerol plasticized potato starch films containing bioactive proteins (lactoferrin (LF) and/or lysozyme (LZ), at 0.1 and 0.2 ratio with respect to starch) were obtained by casting method and characterized as to their microstructural, thermal and physical (water content, mechanical, water and oxygen barrier, optical) properties. The bioactive properties, named antioxidant and antimicrobial, of the proteins and the films were also characterized. The incorporation of proteins affected the structural and physical properties of potato starch films, while modifying their thermal behavior and increasing the glass transition temperature. Both proteins showed a certain degree of compatibility with starch chains through the bond formations (increase in Tg), while a part is separated and migrates to the film surface. Their incorporation, especially that of lactoferrin, greatly increased the film's brittleness, regardless of the films water content, although they enhance the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties, whatever the age of the film. Protein also reduced the film's transparency and gloss, while lactoferrin induced color changes. The thermal degradation of blend films and isolated proteins occurred at temperatures of over 250°C, which means that blend starch films can be thermoprocessed, according to their thermoplastic properties and following the usual practices of the plastics industries. A synergistic antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli and coliforms was observed when both LZ and LF were simultaneously applied. Both of these exhibited antioxidant capacity. PMID:26344291

  16. Effect of the incorporation of antimicrobial/antioxidant proteins on the properties of potato starch films.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Olga; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2015-11-20

    Glycerol plasticized potato starch films containing bioactive proteins (lactoferrin (LF) and/or lysozyme (LZ), at 0.1 and 0.2 ratio with respect to starch) were obtained by casting method and characterized as to their microstructural, thermal and physical (water content, mechanical, water and oxygen barrier, optical) properties. The bioactive properties, named antioxidant and antimicrobial, of the proteins and the films were also characterized. The incorporation of proteins affected the structural and physical properties of potato starch films, while modifying their thermal behavior and increasing the glass transition temperature. Both proteins showed a certain degree of compatibility with starch chains through the bond formations (increase in Tg), while a part is separated and migrates to the film surface. Their incorporation, especially that of lactoferrin, greatly increased the film's brittleness, regardless of the films water content, although they enhance the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties, whatever the age of the film. Protein also reduced the film's transparency and gloss, while lactoferrin induced color changes. The thermal degradation of blend films and isolated proteins occurred at temperatures of over 250°C, which means that blend starch films can be thermoprocessed, according to their thermoplastic properties and following the usual practices of the plastics industries. A synergistic antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli and coliforms was observed when both LZ and LF were simultaneously applied. Both of these exhibited antioxidant capacity.

  17. Pharmacognostic and Antioxidant Properties of Dracaena sanderiana Leaves.

    PubMed

    Ong, Mei Gee; Mat Yusuf, Siti Nur Aishah; Lim, Vuanghao

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants are used to neutralise free radicals and protect the body from free radicals by maintaining the redox balance. The antioxidant properties of Dracaena sanderiana leaves were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. The classes of secondary metabolites were evaluated through pharmacognostic studies, and active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). All ethanol-water extracts and D. sanderiana leaf powder were positive for tannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, and quinones. Flavonoids were present in 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% ethanol extracts (E100, E80, E60, and E40). E100 showed the highest total flavonoid content, whereas E60 extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. GC-MS revealed the presence of glycerol, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one, n-dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoid acid, (n-) hexadecanoid acid, and n-octadecanoic acid in the E60 extract. PMID:27556495

  18. Pharmacognostic and Antioxidant Properties of Dracaena sanderiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei Gee; Mat Yusuf, Siti Nur Aishah; Lim, Vuanghao

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants are used to neutralise free radicals and protect the body from free radicals by maintaining the redox balance. The antioxidant properties of Dracaena sanderiana leaves were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. The classes of secondary metabolites were evaluated through pharmacognostic studies, and active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). All ethanol-water extracts and D. sanderiana leaf powder were positive for tannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, and quinones. Flavonoids were present in 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% ethanol extracts (E100, E80, E60, and E40). E100 showed the highest total flavonoid content, whereas E60 extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. GC-MS revealed the presence of glycerol, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one, n-dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoid acid, (n-) hexadecanoid acid, and n-octadecanoic acid in the E60 extract. PMID:27556495

  19. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; de Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antônia

    2014-01-01

    Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was tested using two methods (DPPH inhibition and sequestration of nitric oxide). The antiangiogenic properties were evaluated using the inflammatory angiogenesis model in the corneas of rats. The extract of C. echinata demonstrated a high capacity to inhibit free radicals, with IC50 equal to 42.404 µg/mL for the DPPH test and 234.2 µg/mL for nitric oxide. Moreover, it showed itself capable of inhibiting the inflammatory angiogenic response by 77.49%. These data suggest that biochemical components belonging to the extract of C. echinata interfere in mechanisms that control the angiogenic process, mediated by substrates belonging to the arachidonic acid cascade, although the data described above also suggest that the NO buffer may contribute to some extent to the reduction in the angiogenic response. PMID:24563668

  1. Antimutagenic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Maytenus krukovii bark.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Renato; Rossi, Damiano; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Romagnoli, Carlo; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Besco, Elena; Choquecillo, Fritz; Peralta, Katia; Lora, William Schmitt; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2006-12-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Maytenus krukovii bark was investigated for its in vitro mutageno-protective activities by means of the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The extract showed an inhibitory effect in both T98 and T100 strains against the mutagenic activity of promutagen 2-aminoanthracene but was not protective against directly acting mutagens sodium azide and 2-nitrofluorene. When tested as a radical scavenger and antioxidant it produced a dose-dependent inhibition. The extract did not show significant antibacterial properties, and was weakly active against dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi, but inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Pithyum ultimum. PMID:16963198

  2. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  3. Cordycepin protects PC12 cells against 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Increasing evidence has indicated that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therapeutic options that target the antioxidant machinery may have potential in the treatment of PD. Cordycepin, a nucleoside isolated from Cordyceps species displayed potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, its neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity as well as underlying mechanisms is still unclear. In this present study, we investigated the protective effect of cordycepin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity and its underlying mechanism. We observed that cordycepin effectively inhibited 6-OHDA-induced cell death, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Cordycepin also inhibited cell apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA as observed in the reduction of cytochrome c release from the mitochondrial as well as the inhibition of caspase-3. In addition cordycepin markedly reduced cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) content and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Cordycepin also significantly increased the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in 6-OHDA-treated cells. The results obtained unambiguously demonstrated that cordycepin protects PC12 cells against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity through its potent antioxidant activity. PMID:27261571

  4. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants.

  5. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties.

  6. Assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant property using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of hypertension or stroke is associated with an excess of ROS generation in the vascular system, and results in induction of various pathological cascades of cerebrovascular damage. We have demonstrated that electron spin resonance methods using a spin trap or spin probe will be useful for understanding redox status under conditions of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat or stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. We have used electron spin resonance imaging and noninvasive L-band electron spin resonance to characterize the higher degree of brain oxidative stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the Wistar-Kyoto rat brain, and the lower extent of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. Indeed, we may be able to confirm propofol medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) as neuroprotective anesthesia and crocetin as antioxidant food factor against human stroke after screening for antioxidant properties in stroke models such as stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Thus, our electron spin resonance biomedical application suggests that it could be used to assess antioxidant effects on oxidative stress in the brain using spontaneously hypertensive rat and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. We hope that further advances in the instrumentation used for electron spin resonance imaging and the development of optimized nontoxic spin probes will make this technology even more promising for novel clinical prediction or noninvasive diagnosis of human stroke. After screening drugs or foods for antioxidant property using in vitro or in vivo electron spin resonance assessment, it will be possible to find and develop novel drugs or food factors with such properties for the prevention of stroke in the near future. PMID:23341690

  7. Assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant property using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of hypertension or stroke is associated with an excess of ROS generation in the vascular system, and results in induction of various pathological cascades of cerebrovascular damage. We have demonstrated that electron spin resonance methods using a spin trap or spin probe will be useful for understanding redox status under conditions of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat or stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. We have used electron spin resonance imaging and noninvasive L-band electron spin resonance to characterize the higher degree of brain oxidative stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the Wistar-Kyoto rat brain, and the lower extent of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. Indeed, we may be able to confirm propofol medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) as neuroprotective anesthesia and crocetin as antioxidant food factor against human stroke after screening for antioxidant properties in stroke models such as stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Thus, our electron spin resonance biomedical application suggests that it could be used to assess antioxidant effects on oxidative stress in the brain using spontaneously hypertensive rat and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. We hope that further advances in the instrumentation used for electron spin resonance imaging and the development of optimized nontoxic spin probes will make this technology even more promising for novel clinical prediction or noninvasive diagnosis of human stroke. After screening drugs or foods for antioxidant property using in vitro or in vivo electron spin resonance assessment, it will be possible to find and develop novel drugs or food factors with such properties for the prevention of stroke in the near future.

  8. The Anti-Oxidant and Antitumor Properties of Plant Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Rui; Liu, Yingxia; Gao, Hao; Xiao, Jia; So, Kwok Fai

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been increasingly recognized as a major contributing factor in a variety of human diseases, from inflammation to cancer. Although certain parts of signaling pathways are still under investigation, detailed molecular mechanisms for the induction of diseases have been elucidated, especially the link between excessive oxygen reactive species (ROS) damage and tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence suggests anti-oxidant therapy can play a key role in treating those diseases. Among potential drug resources, plant polysaccharides are natural anti-oxidant constituents important for human health because of their long history in ethnopharmacology, wide availability and few side effects upon consumption. Plant polysaccharides have been shown to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, cell viability promotion, immune-regulation and antitumor functions in a number of disease models, both in laboratory studies and in the clinic. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of signaling pathways involved in the initiation and progression of oxidative stress- and cancer-related diseases in humans. The natural sources, structural properties and biological actions of several common plant polysaccharides, including Lycium barbarum, Ginseng, Zizyphus Jujuba, Astragalus lentiginosus, and Ginkgo biloba are discussed in detail, with emphasis on their signaling pathways. All of the mentioned common plant polysaccharides have great potential to treat oxidative stress and cancinogenic disorders in cell models, animal disease models and clinical cases. ROS-centered pathways (e.g. mitochondrial autophagy, MAPK and JNK) and transcription factor-related pathways (e.g. NF-[Formula: see text]B and HIF) are frequently utilized by these polysaccharides with or without the further involvement of inflammatory and death receptor pathways. Some of the polysaccharides may also influence tumorigenic pathways, such as Wnt and p53 to play their anti-tumor roles. In addition, current

  9. The antioxidant and chemical properties of Berberis vulgaris and its cytotoxic effect on human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshyar, Reyhane; Mahboob, Zahra; Zarban, Asghar

    2016-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the biological activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts from the fruit of Berberis vulgaris. The total antioxidant capacity of Berberis was characterized by FRAP, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu while the anthocyanins content was measured by pH differential method. Cell viability and apoptotic property were determined by MTT and DNA fragmentation assays, respectively. Alcoholic extract of Berberis was richer in antioxidants and anthocyanins compared to aqueous extract. Although both extracts significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells (MCF-7); these changes were not observed in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF10-A). The alcoholic extract was more effective in inducing apoptosis as detected by DNA fragmentation in treated cancer cells. Our results suggest that Berberis has potent antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects that can induce apoptosis. Therefore, Berberis can potentially be exploited for the development of therapeutics to fight against human breast cancer.

  10. Scavenger and antioxidant properties of prenylflavones isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    PubMed

    Ko, F N; Cheng, Z J; Lin, C N; Teng, C M

    1998-07-15

    The antioxidant properties of prenylflavones, isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., was evaluated in this study. Among them, artocarpine, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, and cycloheterophyllin diacetate and peracetate had no effect on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. They also did not scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. In contrast, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. They also scavenged peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and the Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. However, they did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, carbon radical, or peroxyl radicals derived from 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) in hexane. Moreover, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and conjugated-diene formations and electrophoretic mobility. It is concluded that cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B serve as powerful antioxidants against lipid peroxidation when biomembranes are exposed to oxygen radicals.

  11. Scavenger and antioxidant properties of prenylflavones isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    PubMed

    Ko, F N; Cheng, Z J; Lin, C N; Teng, C M

    1998-07-15

    The antioxidant properties of prenylflavones, isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., was evaluated in this study. Among them, artocarpine, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, and cycloheterophyllin diacetate and peracetate had no effect on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. They also did not scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. In contrast, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. They also scavenged peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and the Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. However, they did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, carbon radical, or peroxyl radicals derived from 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) in hexane. Moreover, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and conjugated-diene formations and electrophoretic mobility. It is concluded that cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B serve as powerful antioxidants against lipid peroxidation when biomembranes are exposed to oxygen radicals. PMID:9667491

  12. Antioxidant Characterization of Oak Extracts Combining Spectrophotometric Assays and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Boris M.; Štajner, Dubravka; Orlović, Saša; Galić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia) were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water) extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP) determinations against DPPH•, •NO, and O2•− radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC) was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP), pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy. PMID:24453789

  13. Chemistry and pharmacological properties of some natural and synthetic antioxidants for heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Shrivastava, Rupal; Mittal, Megha

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to cause oxidative deterioration of bio-molecules by initiating free radical mediated chain reaction resulting in lipid per-oxidation, protein oxidation and oxidation of nucleic acid like DNA and RNA. The development of effective dual functioning antioxidants, possessing both metal-chelating and free radical-scavenging properties should bring into play. Administration of natural and synthetic antioxidants like, quercetin, catechin, taurine, captopril, gallic acid, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, α- lipoic acid and others have been recognized in the disease prevention and clinical recovery against heavy metal intoxication. These antioxidants affect biological systems not only through direct quenching of free radicals but also via chelation of toxic metal(s). These antioxidants also, have the capacity to enhance cellular antioxidant defense mechanism by regenerating endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione and vitamin C and E. They also influence cellular signaling and trigger redox sensitive regulatory pathways. The reactivity of antioxidants in protecting against heavy metal induced oxidative stress depends upon their structural properties, their partitioning abilities between hydrophilic and lipophilic environment and their hydrogen donation antioxidant properties. Herein, we review the structural, biochemical and pharmacological properties of selected antioxidants with particular reference to their ability to (i) chelate heavy metals from its complex (ii) ameliorate free radical (iii) terminate heavy metal induced free radical chain reaction (iv) regenerate endogenous antioxidants and, (v) excretion of metal without its redistribution.

  14. Chemistry and pharmacological properties of some natural and synthetic antioxidants for heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Shrivastava, Rupal; Mittal, Megha

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to cause oxidative deterioration of bio-molecules by initiating free radical mediated chain reaction resulting in lipid per-oxidation, protein oxidation and oxidation of nucleic acid like DNA and RNA. The development of effective dual functioning antioxidants, possessing both metal-chelating and free radical-scavenging properties should bring into play. Administration of natural and synthetic antioxidants like, quercetin, catechin, taurine, captopril, gallic acid, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, α- lipoic acid and others have been recognized in the disease prevention and clinical recovery against heavy metal intoxication. These antioxidants affect biological systems not only through direct quenching of free radicals but also via chelation of toxic metal(s). These antioxidants also, have the capacity to enhance cellular antioxidant defense mechanism by regenerating endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione and vitamin C and E. They also influence cellular signaling and trigger redox sensitive regulatory pathways. The reactivity of antioxidants in protecting against heavy metal induced oxidative stress depends upon their structural properties, their partitioning abilities between hydrophilic and lipophilic environment and their hydrogen donation antioxidant properties. Herein, we review the structural, biochemical and pharmacological properties of selected antioxidants with particular reference to their ability to (i) chelate heavy metals from its complex (ii) ameliorate free radical (iii) terminate heavy metal induced free radical chain reaction (iv) regenerate endogenous antioxidants and, (v) excretion of metal without its redistribution. PMID:24206124

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds. PMID:26787623

  16. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds. PMID:26787623

  17. Synthesis, structural characterization, electrical properties and antioxidant activity of [p-(NH3)C6H4NH3]3P6O18·6H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fezai, Ramzi; Mezni, Ali; Kahlaoui, Messaoud; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Single crystals of a novel organic cyclohexaphosphate, [p-(NH3)C6H4NH3]3P6O18.6H2O, have been prepared in aqueous solution. Its crystal structure can be described by a three-dimensional framework where the P6O186- rings are interconnected by hydrogen bonds to form anionic layers between which organic cations are located. Hydrogen bonding network connecting the different components is given. The thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of this material are given too. Its DC and AC electrical conductivities, modulus analysis and dielectric constants have been investigated. The AC conductivity is found to obey the universal power law. The DC electrical conductivity indicates a semiconductor behavior. The kind of the observed conduction is protonic by translocation. X-rays structural and electrical results are correlated. This compound has also been screened for its antioxidant activity, determined in vitro, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, reducing power, hydroxyl scavenging ability and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) methods and with ascorbic acid as reference.

  18. Antioxidant properties of 4-methylcoumarins in in vitro cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Giuseppa; Trombetta, Domenico; Singh Brajendra, K; Prasad Ashok, K; Parmar Virinder, S; Naccari, Clara; Mancari, Ferdinando; Saija, Antonina; Cristani, Mariateresa; Firuzi, Omidreza; Saso, Luciano

    2010-09-01

    4-methylcoumarins that possess two hydroxyl groups ortho to each other in the benzenoid ring have shown to have excellent antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties in different experimental models. Furthermore, they cannot be metabolized by the liver P450 monoxygenases and thus cannot form 3,4-coumarin epoxides, which are believed to be mutagenic. Herein, we present a study on the structure activity relationship of eight synthetic 4-methylcoumarins, carried out by employing a series of different chemical cell-free tests. These compounds were tested by means of three assays involving one redox reaction with the oxidant (DPPH assay, ABTS.+ assay and FRAP). Other assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the coumarins under investigation against NO, O2.- and HClO, which are some of the major reactive oxygen and nitrogen species causing damage in the human body. Finally, we have measured the protective capacity of these coumarins against the oxidative damage in a simple biomimetic model of phospholipid membranes. Our results confirm the good antioxidant activity of the 7,8-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarins. In general, their activity is not significantly affected by the introduction of an ethoxycarbonylmethyl or an ethoxycarbonylethyl moiety at the C3 position. A discrete antioxidant activity is retained also by the 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarins, although they are less efficient than the corresponding 7,8-dihydroxy compounds. Furthermore, as demonstrated in the brine shrimp toxicity test, none of the tested coumarins significantly affect the larvae viability. Two of the 4-methylcoumarins (7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and 7,8-dihydroxy-3-ethoxycarbonylethyl-4-methylcoumarin), very interestingly, showed strong scavenging activities against the superoxide anion and were also very effective in protecting the lipid bilayer against peroxidation. On the basis of these findings, these 4-methylcoumarins may be considered as potential therapeutic candidates

  19. New p-Substituted Salicylaldehyde Phenylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yorur-Goreci, Cigdem; Altas-Kiymaz, Nilay; Peksel, Aysegul; Bilgin-Eran, Belkis; Sonmez, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of new p-nitrophenylhydrazone derivatives 3a–f were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their antioxidant activities. These compounds have been synthesized by refluxing (p-nitrophenyl)hydrazine with 4-sub-stituted salicylaldehydes. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS data. The antioxidant activities (free radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating activity, and total anti-oxidant activity) of the hydrazone compounds were evaluated. All of the compounds exhibited significant activities, while compound 3a, with the shortest chain, showed the highest antioxidant activity in all of the tests. PMID:26279974

  20. Vasoactivity and antioxidant properties of Microdesmis keayana roots.

    PubMed

    Zamblé, Alexis; Yao, Datté; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Sahpaz, Sevser; Offoumou, Michel; Bordet, Régis; Duriez, Patrick; Brunet, Claude; Bailleul, François

    2006-03-01

    Endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression increases in the corpora cavernosum, penile arteries and arterioles during erection. But eNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO), the product of its catalytic action, are inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially by superoxide anion. ROS are involved in the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and are responsible for some of the pathologies linked to erectile dysfunction (i.e. hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc.). While investigating Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard (Pandaceae) (syn. Microdesmis puberula Hook.f. ex. Planch.), used in African traditional medicine for erectile dysfunction, the hypotensive and the vasorelaxing properties of the aqueous extract of Microdesmis keayana (AEMK) were, respectively, tested using normotensive rabbits and aorta strips of guinea pigs in an organ bath experience. Interaction of AEMK in endothelial production of eNOS was measured by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis. The scavenging activities versus ROS, such as superoxide anion (O(2)(.-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydroxyl radical (HO.) were evaluated. Action of AEMK on cellular generation of superoxide anion was also tested in a physiopathology model of oxidative burst using human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. The results showed that Microdesmis keayana roots had significant hypotensive and vasorelaxing properties. These properties are due to both antioxidant activities and stimulation of eNOS mRNA expression. Therefore, AEMK stimulated indirectly NO production in the vascular bed. PMID:16289601

  1. Structural, physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sodium alginate isolated from a Tunisian brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Younes, Islem; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Maalej, Hana; Montero, Veronique; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Dahia, Mostefa; Mechichi, Tahar; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    An original sodium alginate from Tunisian seaweed (Cystoseira barbata) was purified and characterized by circular dichroism (CD) and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies. ATR-FTIR spectrum of C. barbata sodium alginate (CBSA) showed the characteristic bands of mannuronic (M) and guluronic acids (G). The M/G ratio was estimated by CD (M/G = 0.59) indicating that CBSA was composed of 37% mannuronic acid and 63% guluronic acid. The analysis of viscosity of CBSA showed evidence of pseudoplastic fluid behaviour. The emulsifying capacity of CBSA was evaluated at different concentrations (0.25-3%), temperatures (25-100 °C) and pH (3.0-11.0). Compared to most commercial emulsifiers, the emulsion formulated by CBSA was found to be less sensitive to temperature changes and more stable at acidic pH. CBSA was examined for antioxidant properties using various antioxidant assays. CBSA exhibited important DPPH radical-scavenging activity (74% inhibition at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml) and considerable ferric reducing potential. Effective hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity (82% at a concentration of 5 mg/ml) and potent protection activity against DNA breakage were also recorded for CBSA. However, in the linoleate-β-carotene system, CBSA exerted moderate antioxidant activity (60% at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml). Therefore, CBSA can be used as a natural ingredient in food industry or in the pharmaceutical field. PMID:25453289

  2. Structural, physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sodium alginate isolated from a Tunisian brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Younes, Islem; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Maalej, Hana; Montero, Veronique; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Dahia, Mostefa; Mechichi, Tahar; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    An original sodium alginate from Tunisian seaweed (Cystoseira barbata) was purified and characterized by circular dichroism (CD) and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies. ATR-FTIR spectrum of C. barbata sodium alginate (CBSA) showed the characteristic bands of mannuronic (M) and guluronic acids (G). The M/G ratio was estimated by CD (M/G = 0.59) indicating that CBSA was composed of 37% mannuronic acid and 63% guluronic acid. The analysis of viscosity of CBSA showed evidence of pseudoplastic fluid behaviour. The emulsifying capacity of CBSA was evaluated at different concentrations (0.25-3%), temperatures (25-100 °C) and pH (3.0-11.0). Compared to most commercial emulsifiers, the emulsion formulated by CBSA was found to be less sensitive to temperature changes and more stable at acidic pH. CBSA was examined for antioxidant properties using various antioxidant assays. CBSA exhibited important DPPH radical-scavenging activity (74% inhibition at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml) and considerable ferric reducing potential. Effective hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity (82% at a concentration of 5 mg/ml) and potent protection activity against DNA breakage were also recorded for CBSA. However, in the linoleate-β-carotene system, CBSA exerted moderate antioxidant activity (60% at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml). Therefore, CBSA can be used as a natural ingredient in food industry or in the pharmaceutical field.

  3. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    PubMed

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents. PMID:20821824

  4. Antioxidant properties of taurine in rat alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Castranova, V.; Banks, M.A.; Porter, D.W.; Martin, W.G. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown )

    1990-02-26

    Isolated rat alveolar macrophages (RAM) which had taken-up and accumulated extracellular (0-500 {mu}M) taurine (TAU) were exposed to 0.45 {plus minus} 0.05 ppm ozone for 30 minutes in a modified tissue culture flask containing TAU-supplemented medium. Recovered cells were assayed for oxidant damage and media analyzed for leakage of intracellular components. Cell viability significantly increased, while recovery of cells decreased (possibly due to increased adherence) with increasing TAU. At 100 {mu}M (rat plasma TAU level), TAU protected against the ozone-induced increase in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence, diminished leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein into the medium, and partially restored the ozone-inactivated Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity of RAM. Efflux of oxidized glutathione was maximized and K{sup +} leakage was minimized by the addition of 250 {mu}M TAU. At 250-500 {mu}M TAU, leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein were enhanced, while the intracellular TAU content dramatically increased. These results indicate that TAU has both direct and indirect antioxidant properties at low levels and pro-oxidant properties at high levels in RAM.

  5. Antioxidant properties of fungal metabolite nigerloxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suresha, B S; Srinivasan, K

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the beneficial influence of the fungal metabolite nigerloxin, a new aldose reductase inhibitor and a lipoxygenase inhibitor on oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In the present study we have investigated the antioxidant potential of nigerloxin in vitro as compared to one of the well known natural antioxidant, curcumin. The fungal metabolite nigerloxin was found to be an effective antioxidant in different in vitro assays including the phosphomolybdenum, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.),2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS.+) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The antioxidant potency of nigerloxin may be attributed to its electron donating nature. The ferric reducing potency of nigerloxin as demonstrated by FRAP assay method was even found to be superior to that of the natural antioxidant curcumin. PMID:25507780

  6. Antioxidant properties of fungal metabolite nigerloxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suresha, B S; Srinivasan, K

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the beneficial influence of the fungal metabolite nigerloxin, a new aldose reductase inhibitor and a lipoxygenase inhibitor on oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In the present study we have investigated the antioxidant potential of nigerloxin in vitro as compared to one of the well known natural antioxidant, curcumin. The fungal metabolite nigerloxin was found to be an effective antioxidant in different in vitro assays including the phosphomolybdenum, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.),2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS.+) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The antioxidant potency of nigerloxin may be attributed to its electron donating nature. The ferric reducing potency of nigerloxin as demonstrated by FRAP assay method was even found to be superior to that of the natural antioxidant curcumin. PMID:25434182

  7. Effect of incorporation of antioxidants on the chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of probiotic petit suisse cheese.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E P R; Cavalcanti, R N; Esmerino, E A; Silva, R; Guerreiro, L R M; Cunha, R L; Bolini, H M A; Meireles, M A; Faria, J A F; Cruz, A G

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of the addition of different antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glucose oxidase, cysteine, and jabuticaba extract) on the rheological and sensorial properties of the probiotic petit suisse cheese. Absence of influence of the antioxidants at the physico-chemical characteristics of the petit suisse cheese was observed. Overall, the petit suisse cheeses presented weak gel characteristics and behaved as pseudoplastic material, except for control. All treatments exhibited a thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior; however, higher hysteresis area was obtained for control sample, which indicates that antioxidants incorporated to petit suisse had a protective effect on the typical thixotropic behavior of the Quark gel. The commercial sample presented higher scores for all aspects by consumers, whereas the probiotic petit suisse samples presented opposite behavior. Projective mapping was able to generate a vocabulary where the sample containing jabuticaba skin extract obtained by supercritical extraction was characterized by the panelists as presenting grape flavor and purple color. PMID:26805976

  8. Effect of incorporation of antioxidants on the chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of probiotic petit suisse cheese.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E P R; Cavalcanti, R N; Esmerino, E A; Silva, R; Guerreiro, L R M; Cunha, R L; Bolini, H M A; Meireles, M A; Faria, J A F; Cruz, A G

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of the addition of different antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glucose oxidase, cysteine, and jabuticaba extract) on the rheological and sensorial properties of the probiotic petit suisse cheese. Absence of influence of the antioxidants at the physico-chemical characteristics of the petit suisse cheese was observed. Overall, the petit suisse cheeses presented weak gel characteristics and behaved as pseudoplastic material, except for control. All treatments exhibited a thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior; however, higher hysteresis area was obtained for control sample, which indicates that antioxidants incorporated to petit suisse had a protective effect on the typical thixotropic behavior of the Quark gel. The commercial sample presented higher scores for all aspects by consumers, whereas the probiotic petit suisse samples presented opposite behavior. Projective mapping was able to generate a vocabulary where the sample containing jabuticaba skin extract obtained by supercritical extraction was characterized by the panelists as presenting grape flavor and purple color.

  9. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Chang, Yu-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC50 values (<10 mg/mL). Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22072892

  10. Antioxidant Property Enhancement of Sweet Potato Flour under Simulated Gastrointestinal pH

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Umar, Imam Mustapha; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF (p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process. PMID:22942747

  11. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2007-09-01

    For a number of years, coenzyme Q (CoQ10 in humans) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular fractions and in plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis on which research supporting the clinical use of CoQ10 is founded. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane level, coenzyme Q is recognized as an obligatory co-factor for the function of uncoupling proteins and a modulator of the transition pore. Furthermore, recent data reveal that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism, and transport and some of the effects of exogenously administered CoQ10 may be due to this property. Coenzyme Q is the only lipid soluble antioxidant synthesized endogenously. In its reduced form, CoQH2, ubiquinol, inhibits protein and DNA oxidation but it is the effect on lipid peroxidation that has been most deeply studied. Ubiquinol inhibits the peroxidation of cell membrane lipids and also that of lipoprotein lipids present in the circulation. Dietary supplementation with CoQ10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoproteins to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Moreover, CoQ10 has a direct anti-atherogenic effect, which has been demonstrated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed with a high-fat diet. In this model, supplementation with CoQ10 at pharmacological doses was capable of decreasing the absolute concentration of lipid hydroperoxides in atherosclerotic lesions and of minimizing the size of atherosclerotic lesions in the whole aorta. Whether these protective effects are only due to the antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q remains to be established; recent data point out that CoQ10 could have a direct effect on endothelial function. In patients with stable moderate CHF, oral CoQ10 supplementation was shown to ameliorate

  12. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  13. Characterization of the differentiated antioxidant profile of human saliva.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Rafael M; Klein, Ifat; Zarzhevsky, Nataly; Drigues, Noam; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2002-02-01

    Saliva is armed with various defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and enzymatic defense systems. In addition, saliva has the ability to protect the mucosa against mechanical insults and to promote its healing via the activity of epidermal growth factor. However, another defense mechanism, the antioxidant system, exists in saliva and seems to be of paramount importance. The most interesting finding of the present study was the demonstration of the existence of much higher concentrations of the various salivary molecular and enzymatic antioxidant parameters in the parotid saliva compared with the submandibular/sublingual saliva. For example, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and total antioxidant status were higher in resting parotid saliva compared with resting submandibular/sublingual saliva by 2405, 235, 245, and 147%, respectively. Another important finding was the distinction between the salivary antioxidant system and the immunological and enzymatic protective systems, as represented by the salivary concentrations of secretory IgA and lysozyme, respectively. These findings suggest that the profound antioxidant capacity of saliva secreted from parotid glands is related either to the different physiological demands related to eating (parotid predominance), to oral integrity maintenance (submandibular/sublingual predominance), or to the high content of deleterious redox-active transitional metal ions present in parotid saliva. This also may signify that our oral cavity environment is only partially protected against oxidative stress during most of the day and night.

  14. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%).

  15. Production, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Fucoxanthin from the Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Song; Wang, Ke; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    The production, characterization, and antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid fucoxanthin from the marine diatom Odontella aurita were investigated. The results showed that low light and nitrogen-replete culture medium enhanced the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin. The maximum biomass concentration of 6.36 g L−1 and maximum fucoxanthin concentration of 18.47 mg g−1 were obtained in cultures grown in a bubble column photobioreactor (Ø 3.0 cm inner diameter), resulting in a fucoxanthin volumetric productivity of 7.96 mg L−1 day−1. A slight reduction in biomass production was observed in the scaling up of O. aurita culture in a flat plate photobioreactor, yet yielded a comparable fucoxanthin volumetric productivity. A rapid method was developed for extraction and purification of fucoxanthin. The purified fucoxanthin was identified as all-trans-fucoxanthin, which exhibited strong antioxidant properties, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC50) of 1,1-dihpenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical being 0.14 and 0.03 mg mL−1, respectively. Our results suggested that O. aurita can be a natural source of fucoxanthin for human health and nutrition. PMID:23880936

  16. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Nayara Simon Gonzalez; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  17. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice)

    PubMed Central

    Simon Gonzalez Schumacher, Nayara; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Baú Betim Cazarin, Cinthia; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Molina Meletti, Laura Maria; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  18. [Influence of the composition of essential oils on their antioxidant and antiradical properties].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Fatkullina, L D; Vorob'eva, A K; Medvedeva, I B; Burlakova, E B

    2012-01-01

    The antiradical and antioxidant properties of essential oil mixtures (EOMs) with various compositions were studied and compared in model systems of hexanal autooxidation, thermal oxidation of methyl linoleate and beta3-carotene, and in a reaction with the stable diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. It was found that all EOMs under investigation exhibited antiradical activity. The highest antiradical activity was observed for an EOM containing monoterpene hydrocarbons as the main components (the phenol content was low). The antioxidant activity of all EOMs was from 60 to 98% and depended on the model system composition and the method of assay. The mixture with the highest phenol content exhibits the highest antioxidant activity level in the hexanal autooxidation system. EOMs with a high content of phenols and alpha- and y-terpinenes were the most efficient antioxidants in the beta3-carotene model system. The study confirmed the possibility to vary the antioxidant and antiradical properties of essential oils by preparing their mixtures with a specific composition.

  19. Comparative studies on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of different tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Xueming; Qu, Zhishuang

    2012-06-01

    Tea is one of the most popular drinks next to water. Tea polyphenol is one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with health functions. In order to find the most bioactive tea polyphynols, polyphenol extracts from green tea, black tea and chemical oxidation products of green tea extracts were comparatively studied on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Results showed physicochemical and antioxidant properties of polyphenol extracts changed greatly after the chemical oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation products (HOP) possessed the highest antioxidant ability among the four tea polyphenol extracts. Thirteen phenolic compounds and one alkaloid in HOP were identified by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation of tea polyphenol extracts could improve the antioxidant activity and could be used to produce antioxidants for food industry. PMID:23729856

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  1. Antioxidant properties of gingerol related compounds from ginger.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuki; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2004-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) shows an antioxidant activity, and we have been engaging to determine the structures of more than 50 antioxidants isolated from the rhizomes of ginger. The isolated antioxidants are divided into two groups; gingerol related compounds and diarylheptanoids. In this study, structure-activity relationship of gingerol related compounds was evaluated. Gingerol related compounds substituted with an alkyl group bearing 10-, 12- or 14-carbon chain length were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of rhizomes using repeated chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated by the following measurements; 1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2) inhibitory effect on oxidation of methyl linoleate under aeration and heating by the Oil Stability Index (OSI) method, and 3) inhibitory effect on oxidation of liposome induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH). These results suggested that the substituents on the alkyl chain might contribute to both radical scavenging effect and inhibitory effect of autoxidation of oils, while inhibitory effects against the AAPH-induced peroxidation of liposome was somewhat influenced by the alkyl chain length; the antioxidant activity might be due to not only radical scavenging activity of antioxidants but also their affinity of the antioxidants to the substrates. PMID:15630214

  2. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  3. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    substantiate the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. cerasus extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect bearing significant fluctuation with biochemical properties. Since many of those molecules are known to have immuno-biochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sour cherries may have putative antiinflammatory potential and applications in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating and attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro. PMID:23651230

  4. Purification, structural characterization, and antioxidant activity of antioxidant substance from the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Lak; Ryu, Il-Hwan

    2009-04-01

    An antioxidant substance (AOS) obtained from an enzymatic extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax was purified by DEAE-Sephadex CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification yield of AOS was 14.3%. The AOS predominantly contained fucose, mannose, and galactose but also contained a sulfate group. The structure of AOS was investigated by periodate oxidation, desulfation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AOS was mainly composed of alternating units of beta-D-Glc(1 --> 2)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal(1 --> 4)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal alpha-D-Man (1 --> 4) beta-D-Glc (or Xyl)- and branched linkage of alpha-D-Man(1 --> 3) alpha-D-Fuc. In addition, the fucose residues were shown to be 2-O- and 4-O-sulfated and, therefore, were either terminal or 3-linked. The antioxidative activity of AOS was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the beta-carotene-linoleate assay systems and was compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid (AscA). The results showed that AOS exhibited higher antioxidative activity than AscA in the DPPH assay model and in the beta-carotene-linoleate assay system at all of the four concentration levels tested (from 50 to 200 microg/mL). These results suggested that AOS from the red seaweed G. tenax is an efficient novel antioxidant. PMID:19459750

  5. Antioxidant properties of prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Shin-ichi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Yamada, Naoko Fukutsuka; Aoki, Asuka; Kasamatsu, Kumi; Yamasaki, Yuka; Ikami, Takao; Suzuki, Tomoo; Mitani, Takahiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2004-01-01

    Prunes contain large amounts of phenolics and show high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to clarify the contents of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, and to estimate the contribution of these isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes. Furthermore, structural elucidation and evaluation of antioxidant activity of prune components were also performed. CQA isomers in prunes were quantified by HPLC analysis, and it has become apparent that prunes contain relatively high amount of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The contribution of CQA isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes was revealed to be 28.4% on the basis of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); hence, it was indicated that residual ORAC is dependent on unknown antioxidant components. Total 28 compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. Four abscisic acid related compounds, a chromanon, and a bipyrrole were novel. Each CQA isomer in prunes showed high antioxidant activities when measured by the oil stability index (OSI) method, O2- scavenging activity, and ORAC. Other isolated compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, coumarins, lignans, and flavonoid showed high ORAC values. Furthermore, a novel chromanon indicated a remarkable synergistic effect on ORAC of CQA isomers.

  6. Antioxidant properties of MitoTEMPOL and its hydroxylamine

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Jan; Blaikie, Frances H.; Logan, Angela; Smith, Robin A. J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Piperidine nitroxides such as TEMPOL have been widely used as antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. MitoTEMPOL is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of TEMPOL designed to protect mitochondria from the oxidative damage that they accumulate, but once there is rapidly reduced to its hydroxylamine, MitoTEMPOL-H. As little is known about the antioxidant efficacy of hydroxylamines, this study has assessed the antioxidant activity of both MitoTEMPOL and MitoTEMPOL-H. The hydroxylamine was more effective at preventing lipid-peroxidation than MitoTEMPOL and decreased oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by menadione. In contrast to MitoTEMPOL, MitoTEMPOL-H has no superoxide dismutase activity and its antioxidant actions are likely to be mediated by hydrogen atom donation. Therefore, even though MitoTEMPOL is rapidly reduced to MitoTEMPOL-H in cells, it remains an effective antioxidant. Furthermore, as TEMPOL is also reduced to a hydroxylamine in vivo, many of its antioxidant effects may also be mediated by its hydroxylamine. PMID:19058062

  7. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO-Ppy/CS and ITO-Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  8. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO-Ppy/CS and ITO-Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs.

  9. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO–Ppy/CS and ITO–Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  10. Phenolic composition, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of interspecific hybrids of grapes growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Samoticha, Justyna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Golis, Tomasz

    2017-01-15

    The study evaluated fruit quality parameters and chemical properties (soluble solids, pH, total acidity and total sugars content, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (ABTS, FRAP and ORAC methods)) of 30 grape cultivars of white, red and pink grape, as 28 interspecific hybrids and 2 Vitis vinifera L. popularly grown in Poland. Some of them were analyzed for the first time. A total of 49 polyphenolic compounds were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL, as 26 anthocyanins, 9 flavonols and flavons, 7 phenolic acids, 6 flavan-3-ols, and 1 stilbene. The content of total polyphenols ranged from 1037.0 (Cascade cv.) to 5759.1mg/100gdm (Roesler cv.). However, the content of stilbene represented by trans resveratrol-3-glucoside was only 18.5-70.5mg/100gdm. Red grape cultivars like Roesler, Rothay and Swenson Red were characterized by the highest content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity (significantly more than 24, 12 and 53mmol TE/100gdm, by ABTS, FRAP and ORAC, respectively). Average total acidity and soluble solids for white (0.95g of tartaric acid in 100gfm and 17.1°Bx, respectively) and for red and pink (0.93g of tartaric acid in 100gfm and 17.4°Bx, respectively) cultivars were not significantly different (p>0.05). PMID:27542475

  11. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  12. Structural analysis, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Chaker, Achraf; Jridi, Mourad; Maalej, Hana; Jellouli, Kemel; Boufi, Sami; Nasri, Moncef

    2016-08-01

    The development and characterization of biodegradable blend films based on chitosan and poly (vinyl alcohol) for possible use in a variety of biological activities are reported. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (Ch/PVA) films showed characteristics peaks shifting to a lower frequency range due to hydrogen bonding between -OH of PVA and -NH2 of chitosan. The chitosan and PVA polymers presented good compatibility. The morphology study of chitosan and composite films showed a compact and homogenous structure. The tensile strength and elongation at break increased with PVA content. In fact, the highest tensile strength and elongation at break (53.58 MPa and 454 %) occurs with pure PVA film. The results showed that PVA incorporation in the blends contributes to increase the intermolecular interactions, thus improving the mechanical properties. In addition, the prepared films demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching activity. Nevertheless, PVA addition reduced antioxidant and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. PMID:27106077

  13. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.

  14. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    bearing significant biochemical properties of a variety of extraction methods. Further studies are currently investigating the effect of specific antioxidants of P. avium on microbial growth in vitro per se. Since many of the aforementioned molecules hold immunobiochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sweet cherries may have putative anti-inflammatory potential in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating/attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro. PMID:23531198

  15. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    bearing significant biochemical properties of a variety of extraction methods. Further studies are currently investigating the effect of specific antioxidants of P. avium on microbial growth in vitro per se. Since many of the aforementioned molecules hold immunobiochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sweet cherries may have putative anti-inflammatory potential in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating/attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of propofol and its nitrosoderivative. comparison with homologue substituted phenols.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, Maria Pia; Stevanato, Roberto; Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Scutari, Guido; Boscolo, Rita; Folda, Alessandra; Bindoli, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), some substituted phenols (2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,6-ditertbutylphenol) and their 4-nitrosoderivatives have been compared for their scavenging ability towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and for their inhibitory action on lipid peroxidation. These products were also compared to the classical antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole. When measuring the reactivity of the various phenolic derivatives with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl the following order of effectiveness was observed: butylated hydroxyanisole > propofol > 2,6-dimethylphenol > 2,6-di-tertbutylphenol > butylated hydroxytoluene. In cumene hydroperoxide-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation, propofol acts as the most effective antioxidant, while butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-di-tertbutylphenol and butylated hydroxytoluene exhibit a rather similar effect, although lower than propofol. In the iron/ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation propofol, at concentrations higher than 10 microM, exhibits antioxidant properties comparable to those of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-Dimethylphenol is scarcely effective in both lipoperoxidative systems. The antioxidant properties of the various molecules depend on their hydrophobic characteristics and on the steric and electronic effects of their substituents. However, the introduction of the nitroso group in the 4-position almost completely removes the antioxidant properties of the examined compounds. The nitrosation of the aromatic ring of antioxidant molecules and the consequent loss of antioxidant capacity can be considered a condition potentially occurring in vivo since nitric oxide and its derivatives are continuously formed in biological systems.

  17. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça

    2013-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline.

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  19. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  20. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  1. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songhai; Li, Feng; Jia, Shaoyi; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Lv, Zesheng; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-15

    Three polysaccharides (ABMP-F, ABMP-V, ABMP-A) were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill via methods such as freeze drying, vacuum drying and air drying, respectively. Their chemical compositions were examined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of assay for hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and assay for Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Results showed that the three ABMPs have different physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Compared with air drying and vacuum drying methods, freeze drying method resulted to ABMP with higher neutral sugar, polysaccharide yield, uronic acid content, and stronger antioxidant abilities of hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating. As a result, Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides are natural antioxidant and freeze drying method serves as a good choice for the preparation of such polysaccharides and should be used to produce antioxidants for food industry.

  2. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    PubMed

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

  3. Antioxidant properties of natural compounds used in popular medicine for gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Repetto, M G; Llesuy, S F

    2002-05-01

    There is evidence concerning the participation of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and physiopathology of human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies, and digestive system disorders such as gastrointestinal inflammation and gastric ulcer. The role of these reactive oxygen species in several diseases and the potential antioxidant protective effect of natural compounds on affected tissues are topics of high current interest. To consider a natural compound or a drug as an antioxidant substance it is necessary to investigate its antioxidant properties in vitro and then to evaluate its antioxidant functions in biological systems. In this review article, we shall consider the role of natural antioxidants derived from popular plants to reduce or prevent the oxidative stress in gastric ulcer induced by ethanol. PMID:12011936

  4. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  5. Optimization, Purification, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Northern Tooth Mushroom, Climacodon septentrionalis (Basidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuewei; Zheng, Kai; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Chunping

    2015-01-01

    The optimization, purification, and characterization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Climacodon septentrionalis were investigated. The results showed that the optimal incubation time was 8 days for EPS production by C. septentrionalis; maltose and soy extract were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. One kind of EPS fraction was purified; it had a molecular weight of about 3.4 × 10(5) Da and mainly comprised glucose (98%). The main structure of EPS is α-glucopyranose. In addition, the EPS showed good antioxidant properties in vitro. The thermal stability of EPS also was investigated, and the results suggest that to maintain its bioactivity the processing temperature of EPS should not be more than 200°C. The structural characteristics of EPS, such as molecular weight, functional groups, monosaccharide constituents, and configuration of the glycosidic bond give EPS great potential for application as a natural antioxidant material in health, food, and therapeutics. PMID:26756298

  6. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of stelladerol, a new antioxidant naphthalene glycoside, and other antioxidant glycosides from edible daylily (hemerocallis) flowers.

    PubMed

    Cichewicz, Robert H; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2002-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) flowers are utilized as an important ingredient in traditional Asian cuisine and are also valued for their reputed medicinal effects. In studies of the bioactive methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of lyophilized Hemerocallis cv. Stella de Oro flowers, kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glycosides (1-9), phenethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), orcinol beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), phloretin 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), phloretin 2'-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), a new naphthalene glycoside, stelladerol (14), and an amino acid (longitubanine A) (15) have been isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities. Stelladerol was found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 94.6% +/- 1.4 at 10 microM in an in vitro assay. Several of the flavonol 3-O-glycoside isolates also demonstrated modest antioxidant activities at 10 microM. None of the isolates inhibited cyclooxygenase activity at 100 microM. PMID:11754548

  8. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion.

  9. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

  10. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). PMID:11052738

  11. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay.

  12. Engineering biodegradable polyester elastomers with antioxidant properties to attenuate oxidative stress in tissues

    PubMed Central

    van Lith, R.; Gregory, E.K.; Yang, J.; Kibbe, M.R.; Ameer, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the limited biological compatibility of many biomaterials due to inflammation, as well as in various pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis as a result of vascular interventions. Engineering antioxidant properties into a material is therefore a potential avenue to improve the biocompatibility of materials, as well as to locally attenuate oxidative stress-related pathologies. Moreover, biodegradable polymers that have antioxidant properties built into their backbone structure have high relative antioxidant content and may provide prolonged, continuous attenuation of oxidative stress while the polymer or its degradation products are present. In this report, we describe the synthesis of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate-co-ascorbate) (POCA), a citric-acid based biodegradable elastomer with native, intrinsic antioxidant properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of POCA as well as its effects on vascular cells in vitro and in vivo were studied. Antioxidant properties investigated included scavenging of free radicals, iron chelation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. POCA reduced reactive oxygen species generation in cells after an oxidative challenge and protected cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Importantly, POCA antioxidant properties remained present upon degradation. Vascular cells cultured on POCA showed high viability, and POCA selectively inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation, while supporting endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, preliminary data on POCA-coated ePTFE grafts showed reduced intimal hyperplasia when compared to standard ePTFE grafts. This biodegradable, intrinsically antioxidant polymer may be useful for tissue engineering application where oxidative stress is a concern. PMID:24976244

  13. Insights on the formulation of herbal beverages with medicinal claims according with their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Morais, Ana L; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2013-01-01

    Several herbal beverages claim medicinal benefits due to their antioxidant properties. However, operational factors such as the extracted herbal component, preparation method or concentration levels, might influence their biological activity. To assess this effect, the antioxidant activity of beverages prepared with Camellia sinensis, Aspalathus linearis or Cochlospermum angolensis, used solely or mixed with different fruit, plant or algae extracts, was studied using different formulations (bags, leaves, roots, granulates, powders, liquids) and different preparation methods (infusion, solubilisation or promptly used). The DF50 (dilution factor responsible for 50% of antioxidant activity) values were calculated to compare their antioxidant activity. A linear discriminant analysis was used to categorize the assayed samples according to their antioxidant activity and bioactive molecules profiles. The results indicated that antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds are significantly affected by formulation and preparation method, but overall the labelled antioxidant benefits were validated. Green tea showed the highest activity, but with different behaviour within each used formulation. The high DF50 values calculated for some products might be used to adjust the dietary dose or formulation, preventing also putative pro-oxidant effects. Hence, the obtained results might be useful to define the formulation of these highly consumed herbal beverages, enhancing their health effects. PMID:23459297

  14. Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Farag, R S; el-Khawas, K H

    1998-03-01

    The antioxidant property of anise, caraway, cumin and fennel essential oils extracted from untreated, gamma-irradiated and microwaved fruits against sunflower oil oxidative rancidity was evaluated. The fruits were exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 KGy and to microwaves at low oven power setting for 1 min. The essential oils were added individually (200 ppm) to sunflower oil and the rate of oil oxidation was followed by determining the peroxide value during storage at room temperature. The irradiated and microwaved essential oils exhibited an antioxidant activity and was superior to that of sunflower oil catalysed by a mixture of BHT + BHA (200 ppm) in most cases. The present data show that gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments did not affect the antioxidant property of the essential oils under study. In addition the essential oils extracted from the gamma-irradiated fruits were more effective as an antioxidant in sunflower oil than those produced from microwaved fruits.

  15. Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin and Glycosides on the Antioxidant Properties in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wuyang; Zhu, Yunming; Li, Chunyang; Sui, Zhongquan; Min, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to survey the antioxidant functional role of the main anthocyanins of blueberries in endothelial cells. Changes on the reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase-1 (XO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells of malvidin and the two glycosides were investigated. The results showed that these anthocyanins decreased the levels of ROS and XO-1 but increased the levels of SOD and HO-1. Glycosides improved the antioxidant capacity of malvidin to a great extent. The changes in the antioxidant properties of malvidin-3-glucoside were more pronounced than malvidin-3-galactoside. Variation in levels of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside had a significant impact on antioxidant properties to different extents. It indicates that blueberries are a good resource of anthocyanins, which can protect cells from oxidative deterioration and use blueberry as a potential functional food to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:27034731

  16. Selection of grapevine leaf varieties for culinary process based on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriano; Bento, Albino; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Grapevine leaves are an abundant sub-product of vineyards which is devalued in many regions. The objective of this work is to study the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of ten grapevine leaf varieties (four red varieties: Tinta Amarela, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, and Touriga Nacional; and six white varieties: Côdega do Larinho, Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, and Viosinho) to select varieties to be used as food ingredients. White grapevine leaves revealed higher antioxidant potential. Malvasia Fina reported better antioxidant properties contrasting with Touriga Franca. Phenolic content varied between 112 and 150mgGAEg(-1) of extract (gallic acid equivalents), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols varied between 76 and 108mgCAEg(-1) of extract (caffeic acid equivalents) and 39 and 54mgQEg(-1) of extract (quercetin equivalents). Malvasia Fina is a good candidate for culinary treatment due to its antioxidant properties and composition in bioactive compounds. PMID:27374535

  17. Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin and Glycosides on the Antioxidant Properties in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wuyang; Zhu, Yunming; Li, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to survey the antioxidant functional role of the main anthocyanins of blueberries in endothelial cells. Changes on the reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase-1 (XO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells of malvidin and the two glycosides were investigated. The results showed that these anthocyanins decreased the levels of ROS and XO-1 but increased the levels of SOD and HO-1. Glycosides improved the antioxidant capacity of malvidin to a great extent. The changes in the antioxidant properties of malvidin-3-glucoside were more pronounced than malvidin-3-galactoside. Variation in levels of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside had a significant impact on antioxidant properties to different extents. It indicates that blueberries are a good resource of anthocyanins, which can protect cells from oxidative deterioration and use blueberry as a potential functional food to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:27034731

  18. Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vanitha P; Urooj, Asna

    2013-02-01

    Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature (100 °C, 15 min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in each assay in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of MDA formation in Linseed oil by EE (47%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than WE (28%) and ME (23%) but less than α- Tocopherol (80%). WE showed maximum stability to high temperature. The antioxidant activity of EE at pH 4 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with WE and ME. At pH 7, the antioxidant activity of all the three extracts remained unchanged. Data indicates that potential exists for the utilization of Aegle marmelos as a natural antioxidant. PMID:24425898

  19. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  20. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of plumbagin and other naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-07-01

    The structure-function relationships of the naphthoquinone phytochemicals, plumbagin, juglone, and menadione, have been studied with regard to antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Antimutagenicity of these compounds was assessed by the Ames test and RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based rifampicin resistance assay. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging assays and reducing power measurement. Protection of cells and DNA against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage was assayed by survival analysis and gel electrophoresis profiling, respectively. On the 1,4-naphthoquinone nucleus, plumbagin possesses 5-hydroxyl and 2-methyl functional groups, whereas juglone has only the 5-hydroxyl and menadione only the 2-methyl group. Plumbagin showed strong antimutagenic (against ultraviolet and ethyl methanesulfonate) and antioxidant activities, whereas juglone displayed only strong antimutagenic, and menadione only strong antioxidant activities. Thus, these two functional groups (5-OH/2-CH3) play important roles in the differential bioactivity of naphthoquinones. Escherichia coli, microarray analysis showed upregulation of the genes rep (replication/repair), ybaK (tRNA editing), speE (spermidine synthesis), and yjfC (glutathionyl spermidine synthesis) by plumbagin or juglone, and sodC (superoxide dismutase), xthA (oxidative repair), hycB (electron carrier between hydrogenase 3 and fumarate dehydrogenase), and ligA (formation of phosphodiester bond in DNA) by plumbagin or menadione. Studies with E. coli single-gene knockouts showed that ybaK and speE, reported to prevent mistranslation, are likely to be involved in the antimutagenicity displayed by juglone, and sodC to be involved in the antioxidant activity of menadione.

  1. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides of Chuanminshen violaceum.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmin; Zhang, Qing; Li, Yu; Li, Lu; Lan, Weijie; He, Jingliu; Li, Huiyan; Xiong, Yabo; Qin, Wen

    2016-05-01

    A single factor experiment and Box-Behnken design were applied to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (CVPs). The CVPs yield was 34.59 ± 0.51%, which was in accordance with the predicted value of 35.54%, under the following optimum conditions: microwave power of 466 W, extraction temperature of 64.5 °C, extraction time of 15 min, and water-raw material ratio of 40 mL/g. Two CVPs fractions (CVPs-I and CVPs-II) were obtained via stepwise ethanol precipitation. CVPs-II was further purified using DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography to obtain the major fraction of CVPs-IIa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and GC-MS analysis revealed that crude CVPs, CVPs-I, and CVPs-II were neutral polysaccharides and were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The molecular weights of CVPs-I and CVPs-IIa were 233.69 and 11.02 kDa, respectively. Furthermore, all samples exhibited certain antioxidant activity or reducing power to scavenge the DPPH and ABTS radicals, among which CVPs-II was the strongest. In conclusion, MAE is an efficient method for extracting CVPs of C. violaceum, and this plant root has the potential to be explored as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:26806648

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-wen; Zhang, Shi-qi; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→]n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2−∙ clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree. PMID:27446223

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Shi-Qi; Kan, Jian-Quan; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→] n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2 (-∙) clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Shi-Qi; Kan, Jian-Quan; Liang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure. The monosaccharide compositions of PST-W were studied and identified as glucan, only containing D-glucoses with the molecular structure of [→6) α-D-Glcp (1 → 6)  α-D-Glcp (1→] n by methylation analysis and NMR. In the determination of total reducing capacity, the reducing abilities of polysaccharide extracts could be listed as vitamin C > PST-W > crude polysaccharides-3 > crude polysaccharides-2 > crude polysaccharides-1. All of PST-W, crude polysaccharides-2, and crude polysaccharides-3 were relatively good scavenger for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radicals with IC50 of 2.81, 4.17, and 3.44 mg/mL, respectively. However, O2 (-∙) clearing abilities of PST-W and crude polysaccharides were obviously weaker. The activities of total crude extract were the worst, indicating that the impurities might negatively affect the antioxidant activity. Thus, the separation and purification of polysaccharides were significant to increase the antioxidant activity in some degree. PMID:27446223

  5. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Carolina V; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:27617993

  6. Bovine serum albumin binding, antioxidant and anticancer properties of an oxidovanadium(IV) complex with luteolin.

    PubMed

    Naso, Luciana G; Lezama, Luis; Valcarcel, María; Salado, Clarisa; Villacé, Patricia; Kortazar, Danel; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy using metal coordination compounds for cancer treatment is the work of the ongoing research. Continuing our research on the improvement of the anticancer activity of natural flavonoids by metal complexation, a coordination compound of the natural antioxidant flavone luteolin (lut) and the oxidovanadium(IV) cation has been synthesized and characterized. Using different physicochemical measurements some structural aspects of [VO(lut)(H2O)2]Na·3H2O (VOlut) were determined. The metal coordinated to two cis-deprotonated oxygen atoms (ArO(-)) of the ligand and two H2O molecules. Magnetic measurements in solid state indicated the presence of an effective exchange pathway between adjacent vanadium ions. VOlut improved the antioxidant capacity of luteolin only against hydroxyl radical. The antitumoral effects were evaluated on MDAMB231 breast cancer and A549 lung cancer cell lines. VOlut exhibited higher viability inhibition (IC50=17 μM) than the ligand on MDAMB231 cells but they have the same behavior on A549 cells (ca. IC50=60 μM). At least oxidative stress processes were active during cancer cell-killing. When metals chelated through the carbonyl group and one adjacent OH group of the flavonoid an effective improvement of the biological properties has been observed. In VOlut the different coordination may be the cause of the small improvement of some of the tested properties of the flavonoid. Luteolin and VOlut could be distributed and transported in vivo. Luteolin interacted in the microenvironment of the tryptophan group of the serum binding protein, BSA, by means of electrostatic forces and its complex bind the protein by H bonding and van der Waals interactions. PMID:26828287

  7. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the submerged fermentation mycelia of Ganoderma capense.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yating; Li, Naisheng; Wan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Dezhi; Yan, Chunyan

    2015-12-10

    A novel heteropolysaccharide (GCPB-2) with a molecular mass of 1.03×10(5)Da was isolated from the submerged fermentation culturing mycelia powder of Lingzhi, Ganoderma capense, by DEAE-52 cellulose, DEAE Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized for the first time. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two antioxidant assay methods. The result of this study introduced G. capense as a possible valuable source that helped to exhibit some antioxidant properties. The homogeneous polysaccharide was composed of xylose and arabinose in the molar ratio of 1:1, and showed a specific optical rotation of [α]D(25)=+161° (c 1.0, H2O). Monosaccharide analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, periodic acid oxidation, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, HMQC and HMBC) were conducted to elucidate its structure. The backbone of GCPB-2 was composed of (1 → 4)-linked-β-D-xylopyranose residues which branched at O-3. The two branches consisted of (1 → 3)-linked-β-L-arabinopyranose terminated with β-D-xylopyranose residues, and (1 → 4)-linked-β-L-arabinopyranose terminated with β-D-arabinopyranose residues. In the in vitro antioxidant assay, GCPB-2 was found to possess 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 0.379 μM. The findings of this study indicated that GCPB-2 possesses the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, which provided an experimental evidence to support the G. capense as functional foods in some Asian countries. To understand better the bioactivity of GCPB-2, the antioxidant activity should be further investigated to find out its mechanism in future work.

  8. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  9. Characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide purified from Rana chensinensis skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentration of 2500 mg/L and 85.1% against chelated ferrous ion at 4000 mg/L. Antioxidant activity assay in vivo further showed that RCSP II increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the levels of malondialodehyde, and enhanced total antioxidant capabilities in livers and sera of d-galactose induced mice. These results suggested that RCSP II could have potential antioxidant applications as medicine or functional food.

  10. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Characterization of Nitraria tangutorum Fruit Extract by Rapid Bioassay-Directed Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jat; Missler, Stephen R; Persons, Kathryn; Han, Johnson; Li, Teric

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the role of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) in human disease has been the subject of considerable study. This has led to research on the potential benefit of natural products as dietary antioxidants to mitigate oxidative stress caused by increased RNOS associated with tissue damage. Five physiologically relevant reactive species include peroxyl radical, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite anion, superoxide radical anion, and singlet oxygen. Excessive amounts of these species can lead to the degradation of important biomolecules in vivo, and dietary antioxidants have been shown to inhibit damage both in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we have discovered that an extract of the fruit from Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. (Tangut white thorn) demonstrates significant antioxidant capacity against all five reactive species. Rapid bioassay-directed fractionation was used to identify antioxidant phytochemicals by collecting fractions from HPLC effluent into 96 well microplates and testing for antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Two different classes of phytochemicals, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were associated with antioxidant activity. Active components were further characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and high-resolution MS.

  11. Contribution of phenolics and essential oils to the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qisi; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Dongzhi; Chunjie, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the characterization of essential oil and phenolic compounds in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and twelve volatile bioactive compounds of D. pernyi were identified. Polyphenols were identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and quantified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). A total of 4 polyphenolic compounds found in extract were identified as rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid. All obtained extracts and the 4 polyphenolic compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the plant.

  12. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry "antioxidant" (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of "antioxidant" in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  13. Physical properties of whey protein coating solutions and films containing antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Krochta, J M

    2007-06-01

    Antioxidants (ascorbyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol) were incorporated into 10% (w/w) whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution containing 6.67% (w/w) glycerol (WPI:glycerol = 6:4). Before incorporation, the antioxidants were mixed using either powder blending (Process 1) or ethanol solvent-mixing (Process 2). After the antioxidant mixtures were incorporated into heat-denatured WPI solution, viscosity and turbidity of the WPI solutions were determined. The WPI solutions were dried on a flat surface to produce WPI films. The WPI films were examined to determine transparency and oxygen-barrier properties (permeability, diffusivity, and solubility). WPI solution containing antioxidants produced by Process 1 and Process 2 did not show any difference in viscosity and turbidity, but viscosity was greater for the WPI solution with rather than without antioxidants. WPI films produced by Process 2 were more transparent than the films produced by Process 1. Oxygen permeability of Process 1 film was lower than Process 2 film. However, both the diffusivity and solubility of oxygen were statistically the same in Process 1 and Process 2 films. Both control WPI films and antioxidant-containing WPI films had very low oxygen solubility, comparable to polyethylene terephthalate films. Permeability of antioxidant-incorporated films was not enhanced compared to control WPI films.

  14. Characterization of Indian beers: chemical composition and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Pai, Tapasya V; Sawant, Siddhi Y; Ghatak, Arindam A; Chaturvedi, Palak A; Gupte, Arpita M; Desai, Neetin S

    2015-03-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and corresponding lipid preoxidation of Indian commercial beers were evaluated. The presence of polyphenolic compounds such as tannic acid, gallic acid, catechol, vanillin, caffeic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid and rutin was quantified using LC-MS while the organic acids including tartaric, malic, acetic, citric and succinic acids were analysed using HPLC. Beer sample B8 had the greatest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid components (0.620 ± 0.084 mg/mL and 0.379 ± 0.020 mg/mL respectively) among the beer samples studied. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in the range of 68.34 ± 0.85 % to 89.90 ± 0.71 % and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity was in the range of 59.75 ± 0.20 % to 76.22 ± 0.50 %. Percent protection in lipid peroxidation was quantified to be maximum (54.45 ± 3.39 %) in sample B5. Total phenolic content positively correlates with antioxidant assays, DPPH and ABTS (r = 0.35 and r = 0.58 respectively) with p < 0.001 and also with lipid peroxidation (r = 0.04) with p < 0.001. Negative correlation was observed between total flavonoid content with ABTS and lipid peroxidation (r = -0.1 and r = -0.05) respectively. The process of brewing warrants additional research to determine how the concentration of selected phenolic compounds can be increased. PMID:25745209

  15. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Hirose, Kanae; Akiyama, Kayo; Taniguchi, Hisaji

    2002-03-27

    Antioxidant activity of 24 ferulic acid related compounds together with 6 gallic acid related compounds was evaluated using several different physical systems as well as their radical scavenging activity. The radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decreased in the order caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > ferulic acid esters > p-coumaric acid. In bulk methyl linoleate, test hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid esters showed antioxidant activity in parallel with their radical scavenging activity. In an ethanol-buffer solution of linoleic acid, the activity of test compounds was not always associated with their radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was most effective among the tested phenolic acids. Esterification of ferulic acid resulted in increasing activity. The activity of alkyl ferulates was somewhat influenced by the chain length of alcohol moiety. When the inhibitory effects of alkyl ferulates against oxidation of liposome induced by AAPH were tested, hexyl, octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl ferulates were more active than the other alkyl ferulates. Furthermore, lauryl gallate is most effective among the tested alkyl gallates. These results indicated that not only the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants, but also their affinity with lipid substrates, might be important factors in their activity.

  16. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  17. Antioxidant properties of melatonin--an emerging mystery.

    PubMed

    Beyer, C E; Steketee, J D; Saphier, D

    1998-11-15

    Over three centuries ago, the French philosopher René Descartes described the pineal gland as "the seat of the soul." However, it was not until the late 1950s that the chemical identity and biosynthesis of melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal body, were revealed. Melatonin, named from the Greek melanos, meaning black, and tonos, meaning color, is a biogenic amine with structural similarities to serotonin. The mechanisms mediating the synthesis of melatonin are transcriptionally regulated by the photoperiodic environment. Once synthesized, the neurohormone is a biologic modulator of mood, sleep, sexual behavior, reproductive alterations, immunologic function, and circadian rhythms. Moreover, melatonin exerts its regulatory roles through high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive, G-protein (or guanine nucleotide binding protein) coupled receptors that reside primarily in the eye, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and brain. Additional evidence also indicates a role for melatonin in aging and age-related diseases, probably related to its efficient free radical scavenger (or antioxidant) activity. The potential clinical benefit of melatonin as an antioxidant is remarkable, suggesting that it may be of use in the treatment of many pathophysiological disease states including various cancers, hypertension, pulmonary diseases, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of melatonin and its many endocrine and physiological functions, including its therapeutic potential in human disease states. Emphasis is placed on the recent speculations indicating that this pineal hormone serves as an endogenous antioxidant agent with proficient free radical scavenging activity.

  18. Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Abdul Karim, Fifilyana; Saib, Syazlina

    2014-01-01

    Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC) and carotenoid (TCC) contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed) and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. PMID:26785068

  19. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774

  20. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Guk; Shin, Young Jee; Lee, Seongeung; Lee, Junsoo; Yoo, Seon Mi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stir-frying, and roasting) and three cooking times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant properties of red pepper. Raw and cooked peppers were measured for proximate composition, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total carotenoid content (TCC), total polyphenol content (TP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Results showed that the proximate composition, AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activities were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the cooking procedure; the loss rate varied among individual compounds. Boiling and steaming significantly reduced AsA content (24.3~66.5%), TP (13.9~ 54.9%), and antioxidant activity (21.7~60.5%) in red pepper, while stir-frying and roasting slightly reduced AsA content (2.7~25.9%), TP (1.8~4.9%), and antioxidant activity (4.9~17.9%). The highest loss was observed after boiling, followed by steaming, roasting, and stir-frying. Stir-frying and roasting better preserved AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, dry-heat cooking methods such as stir-frying and roasting may be preferred to retain the nutrient compositions and antioxidant properties of red pepper. PMID:24471098

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  2. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, M. D.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Bhagwat, Shalini S.; Hegde, Harsha V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS+ antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants. PMID:25878460

  3. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested.

  4. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested. PMID:25514224

  5. Properties of bread dough with added fiber polysaccharides and phenolic antioxidants: a review.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-10-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking.

  6. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  7. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271

  8. Type II collagen and gelatin from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage: isolation, purification, physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-07-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271

  9. Development of polyvinyl alcohol and apple pomace bio-composite film with antioxidant properties for active food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Kirtiraj K; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-03-01

    Active antioxidant food packaging films were developed by incorporation of apple pomace (AP) with 1, 5, 10, and 30 % (w/w) into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization was carried out. The findings of this study showed that the incorporation of AP into PVA films enhanced the total phenolic content and antioxidant properties. As regards the physical properties, higher AP content incorporated into PVA films revealed significantly lower tensile strength, elongation at break and increase in thickness. PVA-AP films exhibited lower transparency value compared to control film. The thermal stability of PVA-AP films was improved and grew with the increasing concentration of AP. FTIR spectra indicated that protein-polyphenol interactions were involved in the PVA-AP films. Rough surface and compact-structure were observed in PVA-AP films. The storage study of soybean oil at 60 °C in PVA-AP pouch showed the antioxidant activity and the effectiveness for delaying its lipid oxidation. PMID:27570286

  10. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-07-01

    The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities.

  11. Development of polyvinyl alcohol and apple pomace bio-composite film with antioxidant properties for active food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Kirtiraj K; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-03-01

    Active antioxidant food packaging films were developed by incorporation of apple pomace (AP) with 1, 5, 10, and 30 % (w/w) into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization was carried out. The findings of this study showed that the incorporation of AP into PVA films enhanced the total phenolic content and antioxidant properties. As regards the physical properties, higher AP content incorporated into PVA films revealed significantly lower tensile strength, elongation at break and increase in thickness. PVA-AP films exhibited lower transparency value compared to control film. The thermal stability of PVA-AP films was improved and grew with the increasing concentration of AP. FTIR spectra indicated that protein-polyphenol interactions were involved in the PVA-AP films. Rough surface and compact-structure were observed in PVA-AP films. The storage study of soybean oil at 60 °C in PVA-AP pouch showed the antioxidant activity and the effectiveness for delaying its lipid oxidation.

  12. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    PubMed

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion.

  13. A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, René; Baratella, Davide; Lima, Giuseppina; Holà, Katerina; Divoky, Clemens; Stollberger, Rudolf; Malina, Ondrej; Aparicio, Claudia; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zbořil, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin possesses wide-ranging anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and its biological activity can be linked to its potent antioxidant capacity. Superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ), called surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) were surface-modified with curcumin molecules, due to the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) atoms on the nanoparticle surface. The so-obtained curcumin-modified SAMNs (SAMN@curcumin) had a mean size of 13±4 nm. SAMN@curcumin was characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, UV/Vis, FTIR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, bulk susceptibility (SQUID), and relaxometry measurements (MRI imaging). The high negative contrast proclivity of SAMN@curcumin to act as potential contrast agent in MRI screenings was also tested. Moreover, the redox properties of bound curcumin were probed by electrochemistry. SAMN@curcumin was studied in the presence of different electroactive molecules, namely hydroquinone, NADH and ferrocyanide, to assess its redox behavior. Finally, SAMN@curcumin was electrochemically probed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, demonstrating the stability and reactivity of bound curcumin.

  14. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. PMID:26952391

  15. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arti R; Vijayakumar, M; Mathela, Chandra S; Rao, Chandana V

    2009-09-01

    The antioxidant potency of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as beta-Carotene bleaching, reducing power, DPPH/superoxide/hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelation and lipid peroxidation. On the basis of in vitro antioxidant properties polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaves (MOEF) was chosen as the potent fraction and used for the DNA nicking and in vivo antioxidant properties. MOEF shows concentration dependent protection of oxidative DNA damage induced by HO() and also found to inhibit the toxicity produced by CCl(4) administration as seen from the decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Among the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were restored to almost normal levels compared to CCl(4) intoxicated rats. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ellagic and ferulic acid) and flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and rutin). Thus, it may be concluded that the MOEF possess high phenolic content and potent antioxidant properties, which may be mediated through direct trapping of the free radicals and also through metal chelation.

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Saliha

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature) were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I). The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III) and blackberry (I), respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts. PMID:26784459

  18. Characterization of polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant capacity in grape pomace of the cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel R; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2015-07-01

    Low molecular weight polyphenols (LMW-PPs) and anthocyanins, along with the antioxidant capacity, were assessed in grape pomace extract (GPE) of red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec. Twenty-six phenolics (13 LMW-PPs and 13 anthocyanins) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-MWD and UPLC-ESI-MS. The maximum concentrations of LMW-PPs corresponded to the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Piceatannol, a stilbene analogue to resveratrol with higher antioxidant activity, was firstly identified and quantified in GPE of the cv. Malbec. The antioxidant activity for Malbec GPE determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was 2,756 μmol TEg(-1) GPE. Therefore, the data reported sustain the use of winemaking by-products as a cheap source of phenolic compounds suitable for biotechnological applications, as a strategy for sustainable oenology.

  19. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  20. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eric W.C.; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Results: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70–81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1–11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Conclusion: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas. PMID:22224051

  1. Antioxidant property of edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Abate, Dawit; Haki, Gulelat D; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-08-15

    Two cultivated (P. ostreatus and L. edodes) and five wild (L. sulphureus, A. campestris, T. clypeatus, T. microcarpus and T. letestui) edible mushrooms were analyzed for their antioxidant activities, total phenolics, total flavonoids, phenolic profile and ergothioneine content. Results showed that A. campestris had the greatest antioxidant activity in all assays with lower EC50 (mg/ml) values of 1.4, 3.6 and 0.035 for scavenging, reducing and chelating activities, respectively. To correlate well with activities, A. campestris also exhibited greater total phenolics and total flavonoids content of 14.6 mg GAE/g and 1.97 mg CE/g, respectively. The maximum concentration (μg/g) of the individual phenolic compounds were 7.80 (P. ostreatus) for caffeic acid, 4.55 (T. letestui) for chlorogenic acid, 15.8 (T. microcarpus) for p-coumaric acid, 20.3 (A. campestris) for ferulic acid, 561.9 (A. campestris) for gallic acid, 38.7 (A. campestris) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 7.08 (A. campestris) for myricetin. All samples tested contained different amounts of ergothioneine ranging from 0.08 (L. sulphureus) to 3.78 (P. ostreatus) mg/g in dry weight.

  2. Oxidative Stress Type Influences the Properties of Antioxidants Containing Polyphenols in RINm5F Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Bietiger, William; Seyfritz, Elodie; Peluso, Jean; Muller, Christian; Zhao, Minjie; Marchioni, Eric; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro methods currently used to screen bioactive compounds focus on the use of a single model of oxidative stress. However, this simplistic view may lead to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two natural extracts (a mix of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) with three models of oxidative stress induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX/XO), or streptozotocin (STZ) in RINm5F beta cells. We employed multiple approaches to validate their potential as therapeutic treatment options, including cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidant enzymes expression. All three oxidative stresses induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, whereas the level of ROS production was variable depending on the type of stress. The highest level of ROS was found for the HX/XO-induced stress, an increase that was reflected by higher expression antioxidant enzymes. Further, both antioxidant compounds presented beneficial effects during oxidative stress, but EGCG appeared to be a more efficient antioxidant. These data indicate that the efficiency of natural antioxidants is dependent on both the nature of the compound and the type of oxidative stress generated. PMID:26508986

  3. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea. PMID:26613545

  4. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  5. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  6. Mathematical model for the characterization and objective comparison of antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2010-02-10

    The available data about the interference of antioxidants in the kinetics of lipid oxidation are abundant, but often they allow only semiquantitative conclusions, not always with sufficient basis. One of the causes of this problem is the absence of formal models able to guide the experimental design and to calculate characterizing parameters. In this regard, the model which we propose allows us to obtain the simultaneous solution of a series of oxidation kinetics in the presence of any number of antioxidant concentrations. It describes satisfactorily simulations in which substrate and antioxidant compete for oxygen in a second order kinetic scheme, as well as experimental results from other authors, in different systems and under different conditions. Its application is simple, it provides parametric estimates which characterize both the oxidative process and the antioxidant activity, and it facilitates rigorous comparisons among the effects of different compounds and experimental approaches. In all experimental data tested, the calculated parameters were always statistically significant (Student's t test, alpha = 0.05), the equations were consistent (Fisher's F-test), and the goodness of fit parameters (adj r(2), adjusted coefficients of multiple determination) were up to 0.97. PMID:20058868

  7. Biochemical characterization and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different Ganoderma collections.

    PubMed

    Saltarelli, Roberta; Ceccaroli, Paola; Buffalini, Michele; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Iotti, Mirco; Badalyan, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular and biochemical characterization and to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of four Ganoderma isolates belonging to Ganoderma lucidum (Gl-4, Gl-5) and Ganoderma resinaceum (F-1, F-2) species. The molecular identification was performed by ITS and IGS sequence analyses and the biochemical characterization by enzymatic and proteomic approaches. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts was compared by three different methods and their flavonoid contents were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antiproliferative effect on U937 cells was determined by MTT assay. The studied mycelia differ both in the enzymatic activities and protein content. The highest content in total phenol and the highest antioxidant activity for DPPH free radical scavenging and chelating activity on Fe(2+) were observed with the Gl-4 isolate of G. lucidum. The presence of quercetin, rutin, myricetin, and morin as major flavonoids with effective antioxidant activity was detected. The ethanolic extracts from mycelia of G. lucidum isolates possess a substantial antiproliferative activity against U937 cells in contrast to G. resinaceum in which the antiproliferative effects were insignificant. This study provides a comparison between G. lucidum and G. resinaceum mycelial strains, and shows that G. resinaceum could be utilized to obtain several bioactive compounds.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nano-encapsulated black pepper oleoresin using hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin for antioxidant and antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bruna N; Ozdemir, Necla; Hill, Laura E; Gomes, Carmen L

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of black pepper oleoresin which is associated to its phenolic compounds and piperine. The ability of cyclodextrins to form an inclusion complex with a guest molecule could improve black pepper oleoresin application, bioavailability, and stability in foods. Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) inclusion complex with black pepper olereosin were synthesized using the kneading method and characterized for its physico-chemical properties and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Inclusion complex size was 103.9 ± 7.6 nm and indicated to be a polydisperse system. The entrapment efficiency was 78.3 ± 3.6%, which suggests that other constituents in black pepper oleoresin have higher affinities for HPBCD than piperine (major compound in black pepper oleoresin). Thermograms showed the disappearance of oxidation peaks of black pepper oleoresin, proving complex formation with HPBCD. Phase solubility results indicated 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex formation and an increase of black pepper oleoresin aqueous solubility with HPBCD concentration. Nano-encapsulation with HPBCD did not affect (P > 0.05) total phenolic content; however, it enhanced (P < 0.05) black pepper oleoresin antioxidant activity. Black pepper oleoresin and its inclusion complex were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Both free and encapsulated black pepper oleoresin effectively inhibited bacterial growth within the concentration range tested. Black pepper oleoresin encapsulated in HPBCD was able to inhibit Salmonella at lower (P < 0.05) concentrations than its corresponding free extract. Therefore, black pepper oleoresin-HPBCD nanocapsules could have important applications in the food industry as antimicrobial and antioxidant system. PMID:24329956

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nano-encapsulated black pepper oleoresin using hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin for antioxidant and antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bruna N; Ozdemir, Necla; Hill, Laura E; Gomes, Carmen L

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of black pepper oleoresin which is associated to its phenolic compounds and piperine. The ability of cyclodextrins to form an inclusion complex with a guest molecule could improve black pepper oleoresin application, bioavailability, and stability in foods. Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) inclusion complex with black pepper olereosin were synthesized using the kneading method and characterized for its physico-chemical properties and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Inclusion complex size was 103.9 ± 7.6 nm and indicated to be a polydisperse system. The entrapment efficiency was 78.3 ± 3.6%, which suggests that other constituents in black pepper oleoresin have higher affinities for HPBCD than piperine (major compound in black pepper oleoresin). Thermograms showed the disappearance of oxidation peaks of black pepper oleoresin, proving complex formation with HPBCD. Phase solubility results indicated 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex formation and an increase of black pepper oleoresin aqueous solubility with HPBCD concentration. Nano-encapsulation with HPBCD did not affect (P > 0.05) total phenolic content; however, it enhanced (P < 0.05) black pepper oleoresin antioxidant activity. Black pepper oleoresin and its inclusion complex were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Both free and encapsulated black pepper oleoresin effectively inhibited bacterial growth within the concentration range tested. Black pepper oleoresin encapsulated in HPBCD was able to inhibit Salmonella at lower (P < 0.05) concentrations than its corresponding free extract. Therefore, black pepper oleoresin-HPBCD nanocapsules could have important applications in the food industry as antimicrobial and antioxidant system.

  10. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Kindl, Marija; Vladić, Jelena; Lower-Nedza, Agnieszka D; Brantner, Adelheid H

    2014-01-09

    The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman's colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC) and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's and other related diseases.

  12. Production of bioactive compounds by actinomycetes and their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D V R; Narasimha, Golla

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as "(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione."

  13. Hydrophilic acrylic biomaterials derived from vitamin E with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, C; Vázquez, B; San Román, J

    1999-06-01

    Hydrogels based on polymeric derivatives of vitamin E for biomedical purposes have been prepared by copolymerization reaction of the alpha-tocopheryl methacrylate (V) with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (H) in a range of composition between 5-20 wt % of V. The swelling behavior of the hydrogels in water, alkaline, and acidic media showed a slight decrease in the equilibrium water content with the content of V in the copolymer although in all cases it was superior to an EWC > 20%. The diffusion mechanism followed a Fickian behavior in all media. The values of the diffusion coefficients were in the range 2.5-1.6 10(-7) cm2/s. The states of water in the hydrogels were determined by DSC. A decrease in the content of freezing water was obtained with the V content for all media, and for all compositions lower values of freezing water were obtained in acidic or basic pHs than in distilled water. The copolymeric xerogels, analyzed by contact angle measurements, deviated from those expected taking into consideration those of the homopolymers and the average fraction of the monomers in the copolymer. The polar contribution dropped with the introduction of a small content (4 wt %) of the vitamin E-containing monomer, and it reached a value similar to that of poly-V for a composition of 49 wt % of V in the copolymer. This behavior is accounted for by the segregation of the macromolecular chains of both kinds of monomers, due mainly to differences in their polarity, molecular weights, and the reactivity of both monomers. Finally, thermogravimetric analysis showed a higher thermal (antioxidant) stability of the poly-V with respect to poly-H, giving rise to a residue of 18 wt %. The V-containing copolymers also showed an improved stability (antioxidant behavior), indicating the possibility of the V unit's interfering with the oxidative process, based on free-radical species, and, therefore, with the aging process at the cellular level.

  14. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, S. A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25-10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5-10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property.

  15. Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...

  16. Evaluation on antioxidant properties of sixteen plant species from Jeju Island in Korea.

    PubMed

    Koa, Eun-Yi; Kim, Daekyung; Roh, Seong Woon; Yoonc, Weon-Jong; Jeon, You-Jin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Kil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of 80 % ethanol extracts of 16 species of plants from Jeju Island in Korea were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including the DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, superoxide scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Among the 16 plant extracts tested, CN-13 showed strong antioxidant properties in the DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging tests. The CN-13 ethanol extract was thus selected to be used for further experiments, and was separated into various fractions using four different organic solvents (n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and butanol). The ethyl acetate fraction of CN-13 extract evidenced strong DPPH radical scavenging properties as compared to the other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction also strongly inhibited DNA-damage induced by hydrogen peroxide-oxidative damage in a mouse lymphoma (L5178Y-R) cell line. Moreover, a correlation between the total phenolic content of the extract, and its antioxidant property was reported. PMID:26417356

  17. Evaluation on antioxidant properties of sixteen plant species from Jeju Island in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koa, Eun-Yi; Kim, Daekyung; Roh, Seong Woon; Yoonc, Weon-Jong; Jeon, You-Jin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Kil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of 80 % ethanol extracts of 16 species of plants from Jeju Island in Korea were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including the DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, superoxide scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Among the 16 plant extracts tested, CN-13 showed strong antioxidant properties in the DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging tests. The CN-13 ethanol extract was thus selected to be used for further experiments, and was separated into various fractions using four different organic solvents (n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and butanol). The ethyl acetate fraction of CN-13 extract evidenced strong DPPH radical scavenging properties as compared to the other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction also strongly inhibited DNA-damage induced by hydrogen peroxide-oxidative damage in a mouse lymphoma (L5178Y-R) cell line. Moreover, a correlation between the total phenolic content of the extract, and its antioxidant property was reported. PMID:26417356

  18. Antioxidant Properties and Flavonoid Profile in Leaves of Calabrian Lavandula multifida L., an Autochthon Plant of Mediterranean Southern Regions.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Fazio, Angela; Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Lavandula multifida is a rare short-lived plant characteristic of Mediterranean basin able to survive in hot and arid climatic conditions on poorly evolved limestone soils. In this work, we characterize the enzymatic antioxidant system and phenolic composition, as well as the antioxidant properties of L. multifida fresh leaves. Enzymatic patterns show high level of peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase activities, when compared with L. angustifolia. The same trend is evident in total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione, and in the total antioxidant capacity assay. Moreover, RP-DAD-HPLC analyses of EtOH extract, obtained from fresh leaves, reveal main components, carvacrol, vitexin, and 7- or 8-glucoside derivatives of hypolaetin, scutellarein, luteolin, isoscutellarein, apigenin, and chrysoeriol. The analysis of this autochthon plant depicted a series of strategies adopted by L. multifida to survive in its stressful natural habitat and richness in health-promoting compounds that can be a resource for the preservation of this variety in dangerous of extinction. PMID:26948403

  19. Antioxidant Properties and Flavonoid Profile in Leaves of Calabrian Lavandula multifida L., an Autochthon Plant of Mediterranean Southern Regions.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Fazio, Angela; Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Lavandula multifida is a rare short-lived plant characteristic of Mediterranean basin able to survive in hot and arid climatic conditions on poorly evolved limestone soils. In this work, we characterize the enzymatic antioxidant system and phenolic composition, as well as the antioxidant properties of L. multifida fresh leaves. Enzymatic patterns show high level of peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase activities, when compared with L. angustifolia. The same trend is evident in total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione, and in the total antioxidant capacity assay. Moreover, RP-DAD-HPLC analyses of EtOH extract, obtained from fresh leaves, reveal main components, carvacrol, vitexin, and 7- or 8-glucoside derivatives of hypolaetin, scutellarein, luteolin, isoscutellarein, apigenin, and chrysoeriol. The analysis of this autochthon plant depicted a series of strategies adopted by L. multifida to survive in its stressful natural habitat and richness in health-promoting compounds that can be a resource for the preservation of this variety in dangerous of extinction.

  20. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  1. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems.

  2. Antioxidant properties of xanthones extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen): A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Quang, Duong Tuan; Bui, Ngoc Hoa Thi; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study on antioxidant properties of fourteen xanthones extracted from the pericarp of G. Mangostana has been performed. Three main reaction mechanisms are investigated: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer-proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters were computed in gas phase and water. The results show that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining antioxidant activity of xanthones in gas phase, whereas the SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically favored in water.

  3. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems. PMID:17705148

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant study of N,N'-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausiah, Syadza; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2015-09-01

    N,N'-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine was synthesized from 2-chlorobenzoylisothiocyanate and hydrazine in acetone. The compound was characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography study showed the molecule adopt trans configuration at both N-N and C-N bonds. The compound showed high antioxidant activity, EC50 of 374.89 µM, compared to ascorbic acid (EC50 of 561.36 µM).

  5. Influence of extraction methods on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Thymua danesis subsp. Lancifolius.

    PubMed

    Tavakolpour, Yousef; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Haghighi-Manesh, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    The essential oil (EO) from dried ground powder leaves and stems of Thymua danesis was extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), ohmic extraction (OE), ultrasound-assisted HD and ultrasound-assisted OE methods. Then, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory properties of the EO were investigated both in vitro and in food systems. Thyme EO extracted by ultrasound-assisted HD method had promising antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and had the best antioxidant properties when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of the EO were needed to exert similar antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Furthermore, thyme EO added yogurt and drink yogurt revealed better sensory properties than the control and fresh samples. Essential oil from Thymua danesis has a good potential to be used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and flavoring agent in food systems and the extraction method effects on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the thyme extract. PMID:27004106

  6. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  7. A comparative study of flavonoid compounds, vitamin C, and antioxidant properties of baby leaf Brassicaceae species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, María I; Ferreres, Federico

    2008-04-01

    A comparative study of antioxidant compounds, flavonoids and vitamin C, and also antioxidant activity was carried out in four species of Brassicaceae vegetables used for salads: watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), mizuna [ Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Haneltand], wild rocket [ Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.], and salad rocket [ Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.]. The characterization of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI in watercress and mizuna completes the polyphenol study previously reported for wild rocket and salad rocket. The qualitative study of flavonoids in watercress leaves showed a characteristic glycosylation pattern with rhamnose at the 7 position. Isorhamnetin 3,7-di- O-glucoside was identified in mizuna leaves and may be considered a chemotaxonomical marker in some B. rapa subspecies. Brassicaceae species showed differences in the quantitative study of flavonoids, and the highest content was detected in watercress leaves. Watercress and wild rocket leaves had the highest content of vitamin C. The antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays) showed a high correlation level with the content of polyphenols and vitamin C. In conclusion, the Brassicaceae leaves studied, watercress, mizuna, wild rocket, and salad rocket, presented a large variability in the composition and content of antioxidant compounds. These baby leaf species are good dietary sources of antioxidants with an important variability of bioactive compounds.

  8. Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds in Renewable Parts of Crataegus pinnatifida inferred from Seasonal Variations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meng; Yang, Xuan; Hu, Jiao-Yang; Jiao, Jiao; Mu, Fan-Song; Song, Zhuo-Yue; Gai, Qing-Yan; Qiao, Qi; Ruan, Xin; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of seasonal variations on Crataegus pinnatifida, changes in antioxidant activity and active components in C. pinnatifida leaves, roots, twigs, and fruits from May to October were investigated. Through correlation analysis of climatic factors and 7 phenolic compounds yield, the phenolic compounds content was positively correlated with temperatures and daytime. The correlation coefficient of temperatures and daytime were 0.912 and 0.829, respectively. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and reducing power tests were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the C. pinnatifida. C. pinnatifida leaves exhibited significant advantages in terms of higher phenolic contents and excellent antioxidant activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 2 main PC characterize the C. pinnatifida phenolic composition (82.1% of all variance). C. pinnatifida leaves in September possessed remarkable antioxidant activity. The results elucidate that C. pinnatifida leaves, as renewable parts, are suitable for application as antioxidant ingredients.

  9. Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds in Renewable Parts of Crataegus pinnatifida inferred from Seasonal Variations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meng; Yang, Xuan; Hu, Jiao-Yang; Jiao, Jiao; Mu, Fan-Song; Song, Zhuo-Yue; Gai, Qing-Yan; Qiao, Qi; Ruan, Xin; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of seasonal variations on Crataegus pinnatifida, changes in antioxidant activity and active components in C. pinnatifida leaves, roots, twigs, and fruits from May to October were investigated. Through correlation analysis of climatic factors and 7 phenolic compounds yield, the phenolic compounds content was positively correlated with temperatures and daytime. The correlation coefficient of temperatures and daytime were 0.912 and 0.829, respectively. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and reducing power tests were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the C. pinnatifida. C. pinnatifida leaves exhibited significant advantages in terms of higher phenolic contents and excellent antioxidant activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 2 main PC characterize the C. pinnatifida phenolic composition (82.1% of all variance). C. pinnatifida leaves in September possessed remarkable antioxidant activity. The results elucidate that C. pinnatifida leaves, as renewable parts, are suitable for application as antioxidant ingredients. PMID:27074499

  10. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2011-06-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells.

  11. Effect of wall material on the antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of Rubus fruticosus juice microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Dafne I; Beristain, Cesar I; Azuara, Ebner; Luna, Guadalupe; Jimenez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice possesses compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be protected by different biopolymers used in the microencapsulation. Therefore, the effects of cell wall material including maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of encapsulated blackberries using a spray-drying technique. Anthocyanin concentration, polymeric colour, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazil radical, reducing power and the stability at different storage conditions were evaluated. GA and MD conferred a similar protection to the antioxidant compounds when the microcapsules were stored at low water activities (aw < 0.515) in contrast to at a high moisture content (aw > 0.902), whereas WPC presented a high protection. Therefore, the selection of the best wall material for blackberry juice encapsulation depends of the conditions of storage of the powder.

  12. The antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters--radical scavengers or metal chelators?

    PubMed

    Miller, N J; Castelluccio, C; Tijburg, L; Rice-Evans, C

    1996-08-19

    The antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters were studied by investigating their abilities to scavenge free radicals in the aqueous and lipophilic phases. The total relative antioxidant activities in the aqueous phase were assessed by measuring their direct ABTS.+ radical scavenging abilities, and by their efficacies in inhibiting the degradation of deoxyribose induced by iron. The propensities for enhancing the resistance of LDL to oxidation mediated by Cu2+ were also measured. The results show that the hierarchy of reactivity of these compounds as antioxidants is: theaflavin digallate > 3'-monogallate = 3-monogallate > theaflavin. Spectroscopic studies show that all the compounds chelate iron and copper; enhanced absorbance in the visible region is observed in the case of the iron-digallate complex, but not with copper.

  13. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  14. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils.

  15. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  16. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  17. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil.

  18. Antioxidant action and potential antidiabetic properties of an isoflavonoid-containing soyabean phytochemical extract (SPE).

    PubMed

    Vedavanam, K; Srijayanta, S; O'Reilly, J; Raman, A; Wiseman, H

    1999-11-01

    The potential role of oestrogenic agents, antioxidants and intestinal glucose-uptake inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes is briefly reviewed. Reports in the literature suggest that oestrogen replacement therapy may favourably modulate glucose homeostasis. A soya phytochemical extract (SPE) containing the isoflavone phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein (mostly in their glycone forms as genistin and daidzin) was investigated as an antioxidant and modulator of intestinal glucose-transport. In the present study, SPE was found to protect against glucose-induced oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) in vitro. Equol (a gut bacterial metabolite of daidzein) was a more effective antioxidant than daidzein or genistein in this system and was of similar antioxidant potency to the dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol and to the endogenous antioxidant 17beta-oestradiol. SPE was found to be an inhibitor of glucose uptake into rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles in vitro, though of weaker potency than the classical sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor, phlorizin. Thus SPE displays a range of properties which may be of benefit in diabetes, namely as an oestrogenic agent, an inhibitor of intestinal glucose-uptake and a preventive agent for glucose-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:10548755

  19. Home-Processed Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Products: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Bioaccessibility

    PubMed Central

    Guldiken, Burcu; Toydemir, Gamze; Nur Memis, Kubra; Okur, Sena; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of home-processing on the antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of red beetroot bioactives were investigated. For this purpose, fresh red beetroot and six different home-processed red beetroot products—including boiled, oven-dried, pickled, pureed, juice-processed, and jam-processed—were analyzed and compared for their total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents, total antioxidant capacities (TAC), and individual anthocyanin contents. In addition, bioaccessibility of red beetroot antioxidants was determined using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method. Dried, pureed, and fresh red beetroot samples had the highest TP, TF, and TAC values, which were 347 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, 289 ± 53 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g, 3889 ± 982 mg trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g, respectively. The in vitro digestion method revealed the highest recovery for TP (16%) and TAC (1.3%) in jam. This study provides comparative data to evaluate the effects of various home-processing techniques on antioxidant potential of red beetroot products. PMID:27258265

  20. The photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone.

    PubMed

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Schempp, Christoph M

    2013-07-01

    Ultraviolet radiation induces DNA damage and oxidative stress which can result in skin inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. The flavonoid luteolin that is present in high amounts in the dyers weld, Reseda luteola, is one of the most potent antioxidative plant metabolites and also has ultraviolet-absorbing properties.The aim of this study was to determine whether tocopherol and ubiquinone add synergistic antioxidative values to luteolin. None of the substances showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The photoprotective and antioxidant effect of equivalent concentrations of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone and their combination in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 were studied in solar simulator irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Luteolin had a half-maximal radical scavenging concentration of 2 µg/mL, whereas tocopherol and ubiquinone were only effective at higher concentrations. None of the substances showed a phototoxic effect, and only luteolin had a moderate photoprotective effect at 2 µg/mL. The combination of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone exerted a synergistic radical scavenging effect already at a concentration of 0.25 µg/mL and a complete photoprotection at 2 µg/mL.In summary, our findings suggest that the potent antioxidant and photoprotective effect of flavonoids like luteolin may be further increased by the addition of low concentrations of other antioxidants such as tocopherol and ubiquinone.

  1. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:26787624

  2. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  3. Home-Processed Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Products: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Burcu; Toydemir, Gamze; Nur Memis, Kubra; Okur, Sena; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of home-processing on the antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of red beetroot bioactives were investigated. For this purpose, fresh red beetroot and six different home-processed red beetroot products-including boiled, oven-dried, pickled, pureed, juice-processed, and jam-processed-were analyzed and compared for their total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents, total antioxidant capacities (TAC), and individual anthocyanin contents. In addition, bioaccessibility of red beetroot antioxidants was determined using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method. Dried, pureed, and fresh red beetroot samples had the highest TP, TF, and TAC values, which were 347 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, 289 ± 53 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g, 3889 ± 982 mg trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g, respectively. The in vitro digestion method revealed the highest recovery for TP (16%) and TAC (1.3%) in jam. This study provides comparative data to evaluate the effects of various home-processing techniques on antioxidant potential of red beetroot products. PMID:27258265

  4. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition.

  5. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  6. Home-Processed Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Products: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Burcu; Toydemir, Gamze; Nur Memis, Kubra; Okur, Sena; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of home-processing on the antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of red beetroot bioactives were investigated. For this purpose, fresh red beetroot and six different home-processed red beetroot products-including boiled, oven-dried, pickled, pureed, juice-processed, and jam-processed-were analyzed and compared for their total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents, total antioxidant capacities (TAC), and individual anthocyanin contents. In addition, bioaccessibility of red beetroot antioxidants was determined using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method. Dried, pureed, and fresh red beetroot samples had the highest TP, TF, and TAC values, which were 347 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, 289 ± 53 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g, 3889 ± 982 mg trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g, respectively. The in vitro digestion method revealed the highest recovery for TP (16%) and TAC (1.3%) in jam. This study provides comparative data to evaluate the effects of various home-processing techniques on antioxidant potential of red beetroot products.

  7. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  8. Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).

    PubMed

    Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection.

  9. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.

  10. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits. PMID:27625770

  11. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morinda lucida stem bark extract in streptozotocin intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Domekouo, Ulrich L F; Longo, Frida; Tarkang, Protus A; Tchinda, Alembert T; Tsabang, Nole; Donfagsiteli, Nehemie T; Tamze, Victorine; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2016-05-01

    The present research evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida stem bark (50 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (25mg/kg, standard drug) in acute (Oral glucose tolerance test) and sub-acute (Streptozotocin 60mg/kg, i.p. diabetic model) administration. A group of healthy rats constituted the normal control. The sub-acute experiment lasted 28 days during which water, food intake and weight gain were measured and biochemical parameters analyzed in both plasma and erythrocytes at the end of the experiment. The chemical substances present in M. lucida bark extract were determined. In the Oral glucose tolerance test, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant for both M. lucida extracts and glibenclamide. However, in the diabetic rats acute administration of 500mg/kg extract had better blood sugar lowering effect than glibenclamide, which was better than 50mg/kg extract. Streptozotocin diabetic animal model was characterized by a decrease in weight gain, erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities and an increase in water and food consumption, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and transaminases activities. M. lucida extract and glibenclamide significantly prevented the alteration of these parameters, thus indicating a corrective effect on diabetes and its complications. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of M. lucida to treat diabetes. Its antioxidant properties may serve to curb oxidative stress and hence prevent the diabetic complications related to oxidative stress. Chemical substances, which may be accountable for the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida were detected in the aqueous extract of M. lucida bark. PMID:27166555

  12. Sulfated polysaccharide fraction from marine algae Solieria filiformis: Structural characterization, gastroprotective and antioxidant effects.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Willer M; Silva, Renan O; Bezerra, Francisco F; Bingana, Rudy D; Barros, Francisco Clark N; Costa, Luís E C; Sombra, Venicios G; Soares, Pedro M G; Feitosa, Judith P A; de Paula, Regina C M; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P

    2016-11-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide (SFP) fraction from the marine alga Solieria filiformis was extracted and submitted to microanalysis, molar mass estimation and spectroscopic analysis. We evaluated its gastroprotective potential in vivo in an ethanol-induced gastric damage model and its in vitro antioxidant properties (DPPH, chelating ferrous ability and total antioxidant capacity). Its chemical composition revealed to be essentially an iota-carrageenan with a molar mass of 210.9kDa and high degree of substitution for sulfate groups (1.08). In vivo, SFP significantly (P<0.05) reduced, in a dose dependent manner, the ethanol-induced gastric damage. SFP prevents glutathione consume and increase of malondialdehyde and hemoglobin levels. SFP presented an IC50 of 1.77mg/mL in scavenging DPPH. The chelating ferrous ability was 38.98%, and the total antioxidant capacity was 2.01mg/mL. Thus, SFP prevents the development of ethanol-induced gastric damage by reducing oxidative stress in vivo and possesses relevant antioxidant activity in vitro.

  13. Sulfated polysaccharide fraction from marine algae Solieria filiformis: Structural characterization, gastroprotective and antioxidant effects.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Willer M; Silva, Renan O; Bezerra, Francisco F; Bingana, Rudy D; Barros, Francisco Clark N; Costa, Luís E C; Sombra, Venicios G; Soares, Pedro M G; Feitosa, Judith P A; de Paula, Regina C M; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P

    2016-11-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide (SFP) fraction from the marine alga Solieria filiformis was extracted and submitted to microanalysis, molar mass estimation and spectroscopic analysis. We evaluated its gastroprotective potential in vivo in an ethanol-induced gastric damage model and its in vitro antioxidant properties (DPPH, chelating ferrous ability and total antioxidant capacity). Its chemical composition revealed to be essentially an iota-carrageenan with a molar mass of 210.9kDa and high degree of substitution for sulfate groups (1.08). In vivo, SFP significantly (P<0.05) reduced, in a dose dependent manner, the ethanol-induced gastric damage. SFP prevents glutathione consume and increase of malondialdehyde and hemoglobin levels. SFP presented an IC50 of 1.77mg/mL in scavenging DPPH. The chelating ferrous ability was 38.98%, and the total antioxidant capacity was 2.01mg/mL. Thus, SFP prevents the development of ethanol-induced gastric damage by reducing oxidative stress in vivo and possesses relevant antioxidant activity in vitro. PMID:27516258

  14. Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uruş, Serhan; Demirtaş, İbrahim; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet

    2011-10-01

    In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL 1 and HL 2) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as Gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated.

  15. Characterization of Aerogel's Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justen, Abigail; Young, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Aerogel is used in the kaon aerogel Cerenkov detector at Jefferson Lab. Kaons are identified by the number of photons created through Cerenkov radiation emitted as the kaon travels through the aerogel. Depending on the refractive index of the aerogel, kaons of different momenta can be detected and distinguished from protons. Therefore, a uniform refractive index in the detector is important to reduce uncertainty in the Cerenkov radiation. We found the refractive index of the aerogel by shining a red construction laser through it and measuring how far the beam refracted. The refractive index of aerogel is also directly related to the density of aerogel. The humidity in the air, if absorbed, could also affect the refractive index. To test the effect of humidity on aerogel we used a humidity controlled environment between 80 and 100 percent on aerogel from Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd, Japan Fine Ceramic Center, and Novosibirsk. Finally, we tested the transmittance of aerogel tiles with a UV/Vis photospectrometer to find the correlation between transmittance and the tile's properties. Tiles with the highest transmittance will allow for the most accurate count of the photons produced through Cerenkov radiation. The results from these experiments will be presented. Supported in Part by NSF Grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  16. Innovative Soaking and Grinding Methods and Cooking Affect the Retention of Isoflavones, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties in Soymilk Prepared from Black Soybean.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yingying; Chang, Sam K C; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    This study's objective was to characterize the effect of traditional and 3 newly devised (soaking+grinding) methods combined with cooking on the content and composition of phenolic substances, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of soymilk prepared from black soybean. Phenolic substances and antioxidant profile were characterized and antiproliferation of prostate cancer DU145 cells was conducted using a cell culture assay. Results indicated Grinding Method 4 produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), and total isoflavone content in both raw and cooked black soymilk as compared to Method 1. Cooking soymilk reduced 23% to 38% of total phenolic substances. Raw black soymilk produced by Method 4 displayed the highest antioxidant capability, which was determined using ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH assays, and a higher antiprostate cell proliferation ability. Cooking only slightly reduced the potency to inhibit DU145 prostate cancer cells as IC50 value was increased from the average of about 4.0 mg/mL of raw soymilk extracts to 5.5 mg/mL of cooked soymilk extracts of all grinding methods. Overall, total isoflavone content was the only component that was negatively correlated with IC50 value (r = -0.93, P < 0.05) which indicates the ability to inhibit prostate cancer cell is associated with the increase in total isoflavone content, not with any other phenolic substances or antioxidant properties. PMID:26954068

  17. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50-1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79-1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  18. Changes in the structure and antioxidant properties of onions by high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Plaza, Lucía; Hernando, Isabel; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Quiles, Amparo; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2013-04-25

    Onions have antioxidant properties and they are an important source of bioactive compounds such as phenols. The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (100-600 MPa/1-3 min/25 °C) on the microstructure and antioxidant properties of onions (cv. Doux) and its relationship with changes in the extractability of potential health-related compounds. Cryo scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure. Vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (DPPH˙, ABTS˙(+), FRAP) were also analyzed. Tonoplast, plasmalemma and cell walls were affected by the HHP treatment and it favored the diffusion of the cellular content to the intercellular spaces. Vitamin C did not show significant changes, whereas the extracted phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased at pressures of 300 or 600 MPa. Therefore, it could be concluded that HHP produced changes in membrane permeability and disruption of cell walls favoring the release of phenolic compounds from tissue and, in consequence, improving their extractability.

  19. Divalent Amino-Acid-Based Amphiphilic Antioxidants: Synthesis, Self-Assembling Properties, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosselin, Marie; Meyer, Grégory; Guillet, Pierre; Cheviet, Thomas; Walther, Guillaume; Meister, Annette; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Durand, Grégory

    2016-03-16

    We report herein the synthesis of a divalent amphiphilic carrier onto which α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) antioxidants were grafted to give the divalent derivative called FATxPBN. The divalent carrier consists of two lysine amino acids as a scaffold upon which the antioxidant moieties are grafted, a perfluorinated chain that supplies hydrophobicity, and a sugar-based polar headgroup that ensures water solubility. For the sake of comparison, a divalent PBN derivative called FADiPBN was also synthesized. The self-aggregation properties of FATxPBN and FADiPBN were studied by means of surface tension, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and showed they form small micelles (i.e., 12 and 6 nm diameter, respectively) at submillimolar concentrations (i.e., 0.01 and 0.05 mM, respectively), in agreement with partition coefficient values. The superior antioxidant properties of FATxPBN over FADiPBN and the parent compounds PBN and Trolox were demonstrated using in vitro ABTS(•+) reduction (98%) and soybean lipoxygenase inhibition (94%) assays. Finally, FATxPBN was found to significantly inhibit hyperglycemia-induced toxicity on an ex-vivo rat model, demonstrating its potency as a bioactive antioxidant against oxidative stress-induced damage. PMID:26850367

  20. Divalent Amino-Acid-Based Amphiphilic Antioxidants: Synthesis, Self-Assembling Properties, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosselin, Marie; Meyer, Grégory; Guillet, Pierre; Cheviet, Thomas; Walther, Guillaume; Meister, Annette; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Durand, Grégory

    2016-03-16

    We report herein the synthesis of a divalent amphiphilic carrier onto which α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) antioxidants were grafted to give the divalent derivative called FATxPBN. The divalent carrier consists of two lysine amino acids as a scaffold upon which the antioxidant moieties are grafted, a perfluorinated chain that supplies hydrophobicity, and a sugar-based polar headgroup that ensures water solubility. For the sake of comparison, a divalent PBN derivative called FADiPBN was also synthesized. The self-aggregation properties of FATxPBN and FADiPBN were studied by means of surface tension, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and showed they form small micelles (i.e., 12 and 6 nm diameter, respectively) at submillimolar concentrations (i.e., 0.01 and 0.05 mM, respectively), in agreement with partition coefficient values. The superior antioxidant properties of FATxPBN over FADiPBN and the parent compounds PBN and Trolox were demonstrated using in vitro ABTS(•+) reduction (98%) and soybean lipoxygenase inhibition (94%) assays. Finally, FATxPBN was found to significantly inhibit hyperglycemia-induced toxicity on an ex-vivo rat model, demonstrating its potency as a bioactive antioxidant against oxidative stress-induced damage.

  1. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties. PMID:26784470

  2. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26396397

  3. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061

  4. PBN derived amphiphilic spin-traps. II/Study of their antioxidant properties in biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Ortial, Stéphanie; Morandat, Sandrine; Bortolato, Muriel; Roux, Bernard; Polidori, Ange; Pucci, Bernard; Durand, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    The work reported herein deals with the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of bitailed amphiphilic α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone derivatives (BPBNs) towards oxidation of an unsaturated lipid, the 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLoPC). Oxidation was induced either by UV light irradiation or radical initiators, i.e. the water soluble AAPH and the Fenton reaction, and the antioxidant evaluation was carried out using two biomimetic systems, namely Langmuir monolayers and large unilamellar vesicles. Measurement of the molecular area and the membrane fluidity of pure nitrone monolayers before and after UV-irradiation demonstrated the better stability and antioxidant properties of B17PBN, the derivative with two C17H35 alkyl chains, compared to its analogue B11PBN with two C11H23 alkyl chains. At only 5% molar ratio of nitrone in mixed DLoPC/nitrone monolayers, a complete inhibition of the molecular area decrease was observed for B17PBN whereas B11PBN showed lower protection. The oxidation of mixed DLoPC/nitrones large unilamellar vesicles in the presence of free radicals arising from AAPH decomposition or Fenton reaction was assessed by measuring lipid conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on the whole series of nitrone, i.e. C11-, C13-, C15- and C17-based compounds. Compared to the saturated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, all bitailed amphiphilic nitrones were able to decrease conjugated dienes and TBARS in both oxidative paradigms, demonstrating therefore antioxidant property. The inhibition of phospholipids oxidation was increased when increasing the concentration of nitrone with the two B11PBN and B13PBN derivatives exhibiting higher potency. This study underlines the importance in the choice of a model membrane system when evaluating the potency of antioxidants against lipid oxidation. PMID:24121081

  5. Analysis method and characterization of the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E-interactive polysulfone hemodialyzers.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Alessandro; Piroddi, Marta; Pilolli, Francesca; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Aritomi, Masaharu; Galli, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E was used as a surface modifier (or coating agent) of hollow-fiber hemodialyzer membranes with the aim of increasing their biocompatibility and preventing oxidative stress, which are the main clinical drawbacks in hemodialysis (HD) therapy. At present, the redox chemistry of vitamin E-modified dialyzers is not well characterized and there is no standard method to assess the antioxidant capacity of these biomembranes under conditions that simulate those observed during HD therapy. With this study, we developed an original online method to determine the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E-modified dialyzer membranes during circulation experiments. This method is based on a spectrophotometric assay known as the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The principle of FRAP and its application to the qualitative and quantitative assessment of miniaturized polysulfone (PS)-based vitamin E-modified dialyzers (PS-VE) were verified by the accurate in vitro analysis of the iron-catalyzed oxidation of vitamin E. The antioxidant capacity of miniaturized PS-VE samples assessed in this study was of 14.5 microM Fe(2+), which corresponded to the transformation of nearly one-third of the vitamin E bound to the hollow-fiber membrane to its oxidation end product alpha-tocopherol quinone. This method shows good reproducibility and intra- and inter-assay precision, and can be easily adapted to determine the redox activity of every type of vitamin E-modified dialyzers during technological investigation, manufacturing control and clinical research. PMID:19442768

  6. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of vanadium encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R S; Reshmi, R; Jomon, S; Antu, K A; Riya, M P; Raghu, K G

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of guar gum macroparticles (GGMs), vanadium oxide sulphate (VS) encapsulated guar gum macroparticles (GVMs), guar gum nanoparticles (GGNs), VS encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles (GVNs) and VS. GGNs and GVNs prepared by nanoprecipitation were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and particle size analysis to confirm the nanostructure of the particles. Particle size analysis revealed that GVNs possess a size of 239 nm, about 148 nm larger than that of GGNs. TEM imaging and EDAX data also confirmed the formation of fine spherical nanoparticles with vanadium incorporation. In addition the larger size of GVNs also confirmed the vanadium incorporation. MTT assay showed that concentrations up to 100 nM of GVNs for 24 h exposure did not induce significant toxicity when VS was toxic (16%) at 100 nM. Various in vitro antioxidant assays (total reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) revealed significantly high antioxidant potential of GVNs compared to GGNs, VS, GGMs and GVMs. The IC50 of GVNs was 23.21 ± 2.1 μg mL(-1), 33.0 ± 2.93 μg mL(-1), 21 ± 1.98 μg mL(-1) and 22.79 ± 2.12 μg mL(-1) for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays respectively. The cell line based assay also proved that the GVN was more effective in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging than VS against tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cell lines. The overall results indicated that vanadium in combination with nano guar gum exhibits significantly high antioxidant potential.

  7. Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2009-02-11

    This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust.

  8. Carboxymethylation of (1 → 6)-β-glucan (lasiodiplodan): Preparation, characterization and antioxidant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kagimura, Francini Y; da Cunha, Mário Antônio A; Theis, Thais V; Malfatti, Carlos R M; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa, Aneli M; Teixeira, Sirlei D; Salomé, Kahlil

    2015-01-01

    D-Glucans possess immunomodulatory activities and potential for the development of new therapeutic agents. Biological activities can be enhanced in these biopolymers through chemical derivatization, e.g., carboxymethylation. This work presents the carboxymethylation, characterization and the evaluation of antioxidant activities of the exocellular (1 → 6)-β-D-glucan produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI. Thermal analysis indicated that the native and carboxymethylated polysaccharides presented four stages of mass-loss. The first stage occurred at 125°C (loss of water) with two consecutive events of mass loss (200-400°C) attributed to polymer degradation and the fourth stage between 425 and 620°C (final decomposition). Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the gross morphological features of lasiodiplodan were ruptured following carboxymethylation. X-ray diffractometry analysis demonstrated that the native and carboxymethylated polysaccharides presented a non-crystalline structure. Carboxymethylation contributed to improving the polysaccharide's water solubility and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25965498

  9. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Elham; Andalib, Sasan; Abed, Alireza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Results: Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties. Conclusions: Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders. PMID:25767752

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant versus Metal Ion Chelating Properties of Flavonoids: A Structure-Activity Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Cherrak, Sabri Ahmed; Mokhtari-Soulimane, Nassima; Berroukeche, Farid; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherbonnel, Angéline; Merzouk, Hafida; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Natural flavonoids such as quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin as well as four methoxylated derivatives of quercetin used as models were investigated to elucidate their impact on the oxidant and antioxidant status of human red blood cells (RBCs). The impact of these compounds against metal toxicity was studied as well as their antiradical activities with DPPH assay. Antihemolytic experiments were conducted on quercetin, (+)catechin and rutin with excess of Fe, Cu and Zn (400 μM), and the oxidant (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins) and antioxidant (reduced glutathione, catalase activity) markers were evaluated. The results showed that Fe and Zn have the highest prooxidant effect (37 and 33% of hemolysis, respectively). Quercetin, rutin and (+)catechin exhibited strong antioxidant properties toward Fe, but this effect was decreased with respect to Zn ions. However, the Cu showed a weak antioxidant effect at the highest flavonoid concentration (200 μM), while a prooxidant effect was observed at the lowest flavonoid concentration (100 μM). These results are in agreement with the physico-chemical and antiradical data which demonstrated that binding of the metal ions (for FeNTA: (+)Catechin, KLFeNTA = 1.6(1) × 106 M-1 > Rutin, KLFeNTA = 2.0(9) × 105 M-1 > Quercetin, KLFeNTA = 1.0(7) × 105 M-1 > Q35OH, KLFeNTA = 6.3(8.7) × 104 M-1 > Quercetin3’4’OH and Quercetin 3OH, KLFeNTA ~ 2 × 104 M-1) reflects the (anti)oxidant status of the RBCs. This study reveals that flavonoids have both prooxidant and antioxidant activity depending on the nature and concentration of the flavonoids and metal ions. PMID:27788249

  11. Antioxidant properties of cerium oxide nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Soo; Song, Wensi; Cho, Minjung; Puppala, Hema L; Nguyen, Phuc; Zhu, Huiguang; Segatori, Laura; Colvin, Vicki L

    2013-11-26

    This work examines the effect of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating on the reactivity of cerium oxide nanocrystals with H2O2 both in chemical solutions and in cells. Monodisperse nanocrystals were formed in organic solvents from the decomposition of cerium precursors, and subsequently phase transferred into water using amphiphiles as nanoparticle coatings. Quantitative analysis of the antioxidant capacity of CeO2-x using gas chromatography and a luminol test revealed that 2 mol of H2O2 reacted with every mole of cerium(III), suggesting that the reaction proceeds via a Fenton-type mechanism. Smaller diameter nanocrystals containing more cerium(III) were found to be more reactive toward H2O2. Additionally, the presence of a surface coating did not preclude the reaction between the nanocrystal surface cerium(III) and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, the most reactive nanoparticles were the smallest (e.g., 3.8 nm diameter) with the thinnest surface coating (e.g., oleic acid). Moreover, a benchmark test of their antioxidant capacity revealed these materials were 9 times more reactive than commercial antioxidants such as Trolox. A unique feature of these antioxidant nanocrystals is that they can be applied multiple times: over weeks, cerium(IV) rich particles slowly return to their starting cerium(III) content. In nearly all cases, the particles remain colloidally stable (e.g., nonaggregated) and could be applied multiple times as antioxidants. These chemical properties were also observed in cell culture, where the materials were able to reduce oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2 with efficiency comparable to their solution phase reactivity. These data suggest that organic coatings on cerium oxide nanocrystals do not limit the antioxidant behavior of the nanocrystals, and that their redox cycling behavior can be preserved even when stabilized. PMID:24079896

  12. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-07-15

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  13. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  14. Molecular characterization and its antioxidant activity of a newly isolated Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 from mangrove soil

    PubMed Central

    Raghava Rao, Kothagorla Venkata; Raghava Rao, Tamanam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the biologically active strain of Streptomyces species from mangrove soil of Visakhapatnam region. Materials and methods Actinomycetes are isolated by using starch casein agar media and four potential strains were selected to evaluate the antioxidant activity by using the standard methods DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity. Further, significant antioxidant activity strain characterized by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Results 20 actinomycetes strains were isolated, among them four active isolates designated as BC 01, BC 02, BC 03 and BC 04 were studied for antioxidant activities. Of these four isolates, BC 01 showed a potent antioxidant activity when compared with other isolates. The morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the active isolate BC 01 belongs to the genus Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and nucleotide blast in search indicated that the strain is 99.7% similarity with Streptomyces coelicoflavus. Conclusion The results of the present investigation proven that actinomycetes isolated from mangroves are potent source of antioxidants. The strain BC 01 exhibited a potential in vitro antioxidant activity; studies of actinomycetes from mangrove soil can be useful in discovery of novel species to get novel drugs. PMID:24563589

  15. Isolation, purification and characterization of antioxidant peptidic fractions from a bovine liver sarcoplasmic protein thermolysin hydrolyzate.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardini, Roberta; Rai, Dilip K; Bolton, Declan; Kerry, Joseph; O'Neill, Eileen; Mullen, Anne Maria; Harnedy, Pádraigín; Hayes, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Sarcoplasmic proteins isolated from bovine livers were hydrolyzed using the enzyme thermolysin at 37°C for 2h. The hydrolyzates were filtered through molecular weight cut off membranes (MWCO) and filtrates were obtained. The water activity (a(w)) of unhydrolysed sarcoplasmic protein, full hydrolyzates, 10-kDa and 3-kDa filtrates were below the limit necessary for microbial growth. The antioxidant activities of both filtrates and fractions were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay, the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the Fe(2+) chelating ability assay. RP-HPLC was used for purification of the full hydrolyzates, the 10-kDa and the 3-kDa filtrates. The peptidic content of the full hydrolyzates, the 10-kDa and the 3-kDa filtrates were assessed using the Dumas method and peptide contents of each fraction were characterized using electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry with the resultant spectrum analysed using the software programmes Protein Lynx Global Server 2.4. and TurboSEQUEST. Similarities between the amino acid composition of characterized peptides from each fraction and previously reported antioxidant peptides were found. This study demonstrates that meat by-product such as liver can be utilised as raw material for the generation of bioactive peptides with demonstrated antioxidant activities in vitro using the enzyme thermolysin. It is significant as it presents a potential opportunity for meat processors to use their waste streams for the generation of bioactive peptides for potential functional food use. PMID:21129427

  16. A novel compound VSC2 has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in microglia and in Parkinson's disease animal model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Ae; Kim, Ji Hyun; Woo, Seo Yeon; Son, Hyo Jin; Han, Se Hee; Jang, Bo Ko; Choi, Ji Won; Kim, Dong Jin; Park, Ki Duk; Hwang, Onyou

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neuroinflammation through microglial activation is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), a major neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra. We examined our novel synthetic compound VSC2 for its anti-inflammatory properties towards development of a PD therapy. Experimental Approach We tested the effects of VSC2 on production of various NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory molecules and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes in BV-2 microglia and in vivo. Key Results The vinyl sulfone compound, VSC2, most effectively suppressed the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia. It also down-regulated expression of inducible NOS (iNOS), COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α and inhibited nuclear translocalization and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. VSC2 increased total and nuclear Nrf2 levels, induced Nrf2 transcriptional activity and was bound to Keap1 with high affinity. Expression of the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreducase-1 (NQO-1), haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL) were up-regulated by VSC2. In the MPTP mouse model of PD, oral administration of VSC2 decreased the number of activated microglia in the substantia nigra, lowered the levels of iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1β, and protected the dopaminergic neurons. VSC2 also elevated the levels of NQO1, HO-1, GCL and Nrf2 in the nigrostriatal area. Conclusions and Implications VSC2 has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and prevented neuroinflammation in microglia and in an animal model of PD. This suggests VSC2 as a potential candidate for PD therapy. PMID:25297649

  17. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  18. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB. PMID:26471674

  19. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration.

  20. Antioxidative Properties and Effect of Quercetin and Its Glycosylated Form (Rutin) on Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities.

    PubMed

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Bello, Fatai; Ayeni, Peluola O

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidative properties of quercetin and its glycosylated conjugate, rutin. The in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities, inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain homogenates, radicals scavenging, and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities of the flavonoids were investigated in vitro with concentrations of the samples ranging from 0.06 to 0.6 mM. Quercetin had significantly higher AChE and BChE inhibitory abilities than rutin. Quercetin also had stronger inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain homogenates. Similarly, quercetin had higher radical scavenging abilities than rutin. Quercetin also had stronger Fe(2+)-chelating ability than rutin. The inhibition of cholinesterases and antioxidative properties are possible mechanisms by which the flavonoids can be used in the management of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

  1. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.

  2. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.

    PubMed

    Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

    2010-03-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.

  3. Antioxidant properties of selected 4-phenyl hydroxycoumarins: Integrated in vitro and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Jovana B; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Vitnik, Željko J; Vitnik, Vesna D; Nikolić, Goran M

    2014-05-01

    A study on the structure-activity relationship of three hydroxy 4-phenyl coumarins, carried out by employing a series of different chemical cell-free tests is presented. Different assays involving one redox reaction with the oxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) were employed. Further, the measurement of inhibition of oxidative degradation, such as lipid peroxidation, was used to define compound antioxidant activity. Our results confirm the good antioxidant activity of the 7,8-dihydroxy-4-phenyl coumarin and moderate antioxidant activity of 5,7-dihydroxy-4-phenyl coumarin. In this work, quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory have been employed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory to study the influence of number and position of hydroxyl groups in coumarin molecules on antioxidant activity. Calculated values for HOMO and LUMO energies, energy gap, stabilization energies and spin density distribution confirmed experimental results and were used for SAR definition. For determination of reaction mechanism in gas phase and selected solvents bond dissociation enthalpy, adiabatic ionization potential, proton dissociation enthalpy, proton affinity, electron transfer enthalpy and gas phase acidity have been calculated. Hydrogen Atom Transfer mechanism in vacuum and Single-Electron Transfer followed by the Proton Transfer mechanism in other studied systems are most probable free radical scavenging pathways. On the basis of these findings, these hydroxy 4-phenyl coumarins may be considered as potential therapeutic candidates for pathological conditions characterized by free radical overproduction.

  4. Antioxidant properties of selected 4-phenyl hydroxycoumarins: Integrated in vitro and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Jovana B; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Vitnik, Željko J; Vitnik, Vesna D; Nikolić, Goran M

    2014-05-01

    A study on the structure-activity relationship of three hydroxy 4-phenyl coumarins, carried out by employing a series of different chemical cell-free tests is presented. Different assays involving one redox reaction with the oxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) were employed. Further, the measurement of inhibition of oxidative degradation, such as lipid peroxidation, was used to define compound antioxidant activity. Our results confirm the good antioxidant activity of the 7,8-dihydroxy-4-phenyl coumarin and moderate antioxidant activity of 5,7-dihydroxy-4-phenyl coumarin. In this work, quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory have been employed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory to study the influence of number and position of hydroxyl groups in coumarin molecules on antioxidant activity. Calculated values for HOMO and LUMO energies, energy gap, stabilization energies and spin density distribution confirmed experimental results and were used for SAR definition. For determination of reaction mechanism in gas phase and selected solvents bond dissociation enthalpy, adiabatic ionization potential, proton dissociation enthalpy, proton affinity, electron transfer enthalpy and gas phase acidity have been calculated. Hydrogen Atom Transfer mechanism in vacuum and Single-Electron Transfer followed by the Proton Transfer mechanism in other studied systems are most probable free radical scavenging pathways. On the basis of these findings, these hydroxy 4-phenyl coumarins may be considered as potential therapeutic candidates for pathological conditions characterized by free radical overproduction. PMID:24602768

  5. Effect of γ-irradiation on antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of oat β-glucan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F. A.; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine effect of γ-rays on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of β-glucan isolated from oats. Irradiation doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy were given to extracted β-glucan. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gel permeation chromatography and quantitative estimation by (1-3) (1-4) β-D-Glucan assay kit (Megazyme). The average molecular weight of non-irradiated β-glucan was 199 kDa that decreased to 70 kDa at 10 kGy. Both FT-IR spectrum and chemical analysis revealed that the extracted β-glucan was pure having minor impurities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating ability and oxidative DNA damage assays. Results revealed increased antioxidant activity of β-glucan with the increase in irradiation dose. Irradiated β-glucan also exhibited dose dependent cancer cell growth inhibition with irradiation doses. The study revealed that the low molecular weight β-glucan with increased antioxidant and antiproliferative activities can be produced by irradiation treatment.

  6. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  7. Identification of phenolic compounds in polyphenols-rich extract of Malaysian cocoa powder using the HPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS and probing their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Faisal; Ranneh, Yazan; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant components of cocoa powder, which is rich in polyphenols, were isolated using column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenolic compounds were then characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/Ultraviolet and electronspray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-/ESI-MS-MS). As a result, five phenolic compounds were detected. In this study we also investigated scavenging or the total antioxidant capacity (%) of cocoa polyphenol (CP) fractionated from cocoa powder extract. 114.0 mg/g of gallic acid -equivalent phenolics and 94.3 mg/g catechin- equivalent flavonoids were quantified in this extract. Their free radical-scavenging activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, β-carotene bleaching test, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (OX). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was further assessed against the myoglobin-induced oxidation of 6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (ABTS) and expressed as Trolox equivalent. A high correlation between TAC and phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds from cocoa were a major contributor of antioxidant activity (0.967 ≤ r ≤ 1.00). CP extract had significantly (P < 0.05) potential antioxidant activities with various concentrations. These results suggest that Polyphenols-rich cocoa extract possess prominent medical properties and can be exploited as natural drug to treat free radical associated diseases. PMID:25829590

  8. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  9. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  10. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  11. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  12. Determination of antioxidant properties of aromatic herbs, olives and fresh fruit using an enzymatic sensor.

    PubMed

    Campanella, L; Bonanni, A; Favero, G; Tomassetti, M

    2003-04-01

    The aim was to experimentally evaluate the antioxidant capacity of different fresh aromatic herbs (field balm, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, sage, sweet basil), several varieties of olives from Central Italy ('Carboncello', 'Rosciolo', 'Olivastro', 'Coratello', 'Leccino', 'Frantoio') and several types of fresh fruit (apple, apricot, banana, cherry, fig, grape, medlar, melon, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, water melon, yellow plum) using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) biosensor developed by the present authors. Measurements were carried out by comparing the biosensor response to the concentration of superoxide radical produced in solution using a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system in the presence and absence of the antioxidant sample considered. Tests carried out on different samples of fruit and aromatic herbs showed that the homogenised samples had better antioxidant properties than the centrifuged ones (obtained by centrifuging the homogenate), which sometimes gave extremely low antioxidant capacity values. The reliability of the proposed method was checked by comparing the trend of some experimental results found using the SOD biosensor with those reported in the literature obtained using the classic (ORAC) method. The precision of this method of analysis was found to be good for samples of aromatic herbs (RSD%

  13. A Member of Complementary Medicinal Food: Anatolian Royal Jellies, Their Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Malkoc, Meltem; Asadov, Alsever

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated various chemical and antioxidant properties of Anatolian royal jelly samples. Moisture, pH, total protein, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and sugars were analyzed from 18 samples. Total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. 10-HDA contents and total protein content of fresh weight ranged between 1.0% and 3.9%, and 11.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The main sugars detected were glucose and fructose. Maltose, trehalose, and melibiose were detected at less than 1.0% in all samples. Lactose, a milk sugar, was detected in only 3 samples, at values between 0.8% and 1.4%. Total henolic content ranged from 91.0 to 301.0 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg fresh weight. Antioxidant activity is due to both to the total phenolic content, proteins and fatty acids of royal jelly. Anatolian royal jelly samples were not different from other royal jelly samples from across the world. PMID:26620573

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    The tree Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica, namely Bene, is widely distributed in Iranian mountains. Recent studies revealed that the oil of Bene was stable, even more stable than sesame oil, with antioxidant properties. This can give versatile applications for the oil. The volatile composition of this oil has not chemically been investigated so far. In this study, sixty three compounds were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Bene hull. The major components were determined to be α-pinene (20.8 %), camphene (8.4 %), β-myrcene (8.2 %) and limonene (8 %). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Bene hull were evaluated by using 2,2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching test, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and Rancimat assays. The Bene essential oil exhibited significant antioxidant activities in FRAP and TBARS assays as compared with positive controls. In addition, the oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. It showed significant antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 6 and 12.5 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26396430

  15. Antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. in relation to the degree of roasting.

    PubMed

    Yen, G C; Chuang, D Y

    2000-07-01

    The antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) prepared under different degrees of roasting were investigated. The water extracts of unroasted C. tora L. (WEUCT) showed 94% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid at a dose of 0.2 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (82%). Water extracts prepared from C. tora L. roasted at 175 degrees C for 5 min and at 200 degrees C for 5 min exhibited 83% and 82%, respectively, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. This result indicated that the antioxidant activities of WECT decreased with longer roasting time or higher roasting temperature. The IC(50) of WEUCT in liposome oxidation induced by the Fenton reaction was 0.41 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL). WEUCT also exhibited good antioxidant activity in enzymatic and nonenzymatic microsome oxidative systems. The water extracts of roasted C. tora L. increased in the degree of browning and produced chemiluminescence when compared with the unroasted sample. However, the total polyphenolic compounds of WECT decreased after the roasting process finished. In conclusion, the decrease in the antioxidant activity of water extracts from roasted C. tora L. might have been due to the degradation of Maillard reaction products and the decrease of polyphenolic compounds.

  16. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2008-09-24

    Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p < 0.001) and Genovese ( p < 0.001) basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.

  17. Antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of liquid and solid state fermented lentils.

    PubMed

    Torino, Maria Inés; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Mäkinen, Sari; Pihlanto, Anne; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción; Frias, Juana

    2013-01-15

    The effect of liquid (LSF) and solid state fermentation (SSF) of lentils for production of water-soluble fractions with antioxidant and antihypertensive properties was studied. LSF was performed either spontaneously (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) while SSF was performed by Bacillus subtilis (BS). Native lactic flora in NF adapted better than L. plantarum to fermentative broth and BS counts increased 4.0 logCFU/g up to 48 h of SSF. LSF water-soluble fractions had higher (P ≤ 0.05) free amino groups, GABA content, antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activities than SSF. In addition, GABA and ACEI activity of LSF increased in a time-dependent manner. Proteolysis by BS was limited, with slight changes in free amino groups, while GABA, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity increased throughout fermentation. Higher antihypertensive potential was observed in NF (96 h) characterised by the highest GABA content (10.42 mg/g extract), ACE-inhibitory potency (expressed as IC(50)) of 0.18 mg protein/ml and antioxidant capacity of 0.26 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract. Therefore, water-soluble fermented lentil extracts obtained by LSF are particularly promising as functional ingredients in preventing hypertension.

  18. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  19. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content. PMID:24106692

  20. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mui-Hung; Lim, Li-Fang; Ahmad, Fasihuddin bin; Assim, Zaini bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods In vitro method-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11% and 66.85% respectively. Conclusions Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica. PMID:25182724

  2. A Member of Complementary Medicinal Food: Anatolian Royal Jellies, Their Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Malkoc, Meltem; Asadov, Alsever

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated various chemical and antioxidant properties of Anatolian royal jelly samples. Moisture, pH, total protein, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and sugars were analyzed from 18 samples. Total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. 10-HDA contents and total protein content of fresh weight ranged between 1.0% and 3.9%, and 11.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The main sugars detected were glucose and fructose. Maltose, trehalose, and melibiose were detected at less than 1.0% in all samples. Lactose, a milk sugar, was detected in only 3 samples, at values between 0.8% and 1.4%. Total henolic content ranged from 91.0 to 301.0 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg fresh weight. Antioxidant activity is due to both to the total phenolic content, proteins and fatty acids of royal jelly. Anatolian royal jelly samples were not different from other royal jelly samples from across the world.

  3. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  4. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    PubMed Central

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  5. Antioxidant properties of thio-caffeine derivatives: Identification of the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine as antioxidant and highly potent cytoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Wandyszewska, Natalia; Warżajtis, Beata; Rychlewska, Urszula; Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2016-08-15

    A series of nine thio-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterised by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of four of them were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The antioxidant properties of all compounds, at concentration ranges from 0.025 to 0.1mg/mL, were evaluated by various chemical- and cell-based antioxidant assays. Human erythrocytes were used to examine in vitro haemolytic activity of all compounds and their protective effect against oxidative haemolysis induced by AAPH, one of the commonly used free radical generator. All compounds studied showed no effect on the human erythrocytes membrane structure and permeability with the exception of 8-(phenylsulfanyl)caffeine. Among the nine caffeine thio-analogues tested, the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine possessed exceptionally high antioxidant properties. Moreover, it protects human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced oxidative damage as efficiently as the standard antioxidant Trolox. Therefore, 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine may have a significant cytoprotective potential caused by its antioxidant activity. PMID:27400888

  6. Antioxidant properties of thio-caffeine derivatives: Identification of the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine as antioxidant and highly potent cytoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Wandyszewska, Natalia; Warżajtis, Beata; Rychlewska, Urszula; Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2016-08-15

    A series of nine thio-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterised by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of four of them were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The antioxidant properties of all compounds, at concentration ranges from 0.025 to 0.1mg/mL, were evaluated by various chemical- and cell-based antioxidant assays. Human erythrocytes were used to examine in vitro haemolytic activity of all compounds and their protective effect against oxidative haemolysis induced by AAPH, one of the commonly used free radical generator. All compounds studied showed no effect on the human erythrocytes membrane structure and permeability with the exception of 8-(phenylsulfanyl)caffeine. Among the nine caffeine thio-analogues tested, the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine possessed exceptionally high antioxidant properties. Moreover, it protects human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced oxidative damage as efficiently as the standard antioxidant Trolox. Therefore, 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine may have a significant cytoprotective potential caused by its antioxidant activity.

  7. Copper complexes bearing 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives as potential antioxidant: Synthesis, characterization.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J; Janaki, G Boomadevi

    2016-09-01

    Novel copper complexes of Schiff base ligands of 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were synthesized by the condensation of Knoevenagel condensate of acetoacetanilide (obtained from substituted benzaldehydes and acetoacetanilide) and 2-aminobenzothiazole. They were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electrochemical studies. Based on the magnetic moment and electronic spectral data, square planar geometry has been suggested for all the complexes. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of the ligands and their complexes reveal that all the complexes show higher activities than the ligands. The binding behaviour of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation binding mode. Superoxide dismutase and antioxidant activities of the copper complexes have also been studied. The antioxidant activities of the complexes showed higher activities. Thermal denaturation studies suggested the nature binding affinity of copper complexes with CT-DNA. All complexes exhibit suitable Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox potential to act as antioxidant enzymes mimic. Further, the copper complexes also showed catalase activity. It is hope that copper complexes were capable of decrease ROS levels or reduce oxidative stress in Alzheimer's patients. PMID:27344637

  8. Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The root of Brassica rapa L. has been traditionally used as a Uyghur folk medicine to cure cough and asthma by Uyghur nationality in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In the present study, therefore, extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from the root of B. rapa L. (BRP) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.48 ± 0.41% for crude BRP were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 93°C, extraction time 4.3h and ratio of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 75 mL/g. The crude BRP was purified by chromatographic columns of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, affording three purified fractions of BRP-1-1, BRP-2-1 and BRP-2-2 with average molecular weight of 1510, 1110 and 838 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that BRP-1-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, BRP-2-1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, and BRP-2-2 was composed of rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 1.27: 54.92. Furthermore, the crude BRP exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in vitro than purified fractions; hence, it could be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines.

  9. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Mingxia; Xie, Minhao; Dai, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHMPs) were investigated. As results, the optimal parameters for extraction of PHMPs were obtained by a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extracting time 190 min and ratio of water to material 43 mL/g. The analysis of monosaccharide composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that PHMPs was composed of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in molar ratio of 46.07:0.59:2.25:1.29:1.42:18.82:26.17:1.13:2.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PHMPs had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mice, as evident by higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and level of total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower levels of malondialdehyde in serums and livers compared to the d-galactose-treated group. These results suggested that PHMPs could be explored as promising natural antioxidant. PMID:26686161

  10. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:25200788

  11. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant study of N,N’-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Firdausiah, Syadza; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2015-09-25

    N,N’-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine was synthesized from 2-chlorobenzoylisothiocyanate and hydrazine in acetone. The compound was characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography study showed the molecule adopt trans configuration at both N-N and C-N bonds. The compound showed high antioxidant activity, EC{sub 50} of 374.89 µM, compared to ascorbic acid (EC{sub 50} of 561.36 µM)

  13. Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity of phenolic acids grafted carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Tang, Ying-qing; Jin, Chang-hai

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three phenolic acids including gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were grafted onto N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) by a free radical mediated grafting method. The grafted copolymers obtained were all water-soluble samples. UV-vis absorption peaks of the grafted copolymers shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers exhibited additional phenolic characteristics of the aromatic ring CC stretching within 1450-1650 cm(-1). NMR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers showed new peaks at 6.2-7.6 ppm assigned to the phenyl protons of phenolic acids. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of three phenolic acids to NOCC. The conjugation probably occurred at amine of NOCC and carboxyl groups of phenolic acids. The grafted copolymers exhibited decreased crystallinity as compared to NOCC and chitosan. Moreover, antioxidant activity in vitro assays showed that the antioxidant property decreased in the order of GA-g-NOCC>CA-g-NOCC>FA-g-NOCC>NOCC>chitosan. Our results suggested the potential of phenolic acids grafted NOCC for the development of effective antioxidant agents.

  14. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yu-Mei; Chi, Chang-Feng; Luo, Hong-Yu; Deng, Shang-Gui; Ma, Jian-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage. PMID:24284428

  16. DNA profiling, telomere analysis and antioxidant properties as tools for monitoring ex situ seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Donà, M.; Balestrazzi, A.; Mondoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Ventura, L.; Buttafava, A.; Macovei, A.; Sabatini, M. E.; Valassi, A.; Carbonera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Methods Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. Key Results The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Conclusions Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide

  17. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Gi; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Cherkas, Andriy; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Ku, Yang-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant, binding, and anti-proliferative properties of red sweet paprika growing under artificial light. The amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in red paprika (RP), cultivated in Korea, before and after light treatments under high pressure sodium (HPS) and lighting emitting plasma (LEP) lamps (RPControl, RPHPS, RPLEP), were analyzed in water (W) and ethanolic extracts (Et). Spectroscopic, radical scavenging assays, fluorescence and cytotoxicity measurements were applied. The results of this study showed that total chlorophyll and carotenes were the highest in RPHPS (10.50 ± 1.02 and 33.90 ± 3.26 μg/g dry weight (DW)). The strongest antioxidant capacity (μM TE/g DW) in a 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+)) assay was in RPControlEt (24.34 ± 2.36), in a ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in RPHPSW (27.08 ± 2.4) and in a cupric reducing antioxidant (CUPRAC) in RPLEPW (70.99 ± 7.11). The paprika ethanolic extracts showed lower values in their bioactivity than the water ones. The binding and cytotoxicity abilities of extracted polyphenols correlated with their amounts. LEP treatment is better for plant growth characteristics than other conventional treatments. The investigated paprika samples can be used as a source of antioxidants.

  18. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V.; Chalmers, Anita C.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  19. Elucidating the structure-activity relationships of the vasorelaxation and antioxidation properties of thionicotinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Wongsawatkul, Orapin; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2010-01-06

    Nicotinic acid, known as vitamin B(3), is an effective lipid lowering drug and intense cutaneous vasodilator. This study reports the effect of 2-(1-adamantylthio)nicotinic acid (6) and its amide 7 and nitrile analog 8 on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as antioxidative activity. It was found that the tested thionicotinic acid analogs 6-8 exerted maximal vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects were less than acetylcholine (ACh)-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. The vasorelaxations were reduced, apparently, in both N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). Synergistic effects were observed in the presence of L-NAME plus INDO, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both the ACh and the tested nicotinic acids. Complete loss of the vasorelaxation was noted under removal of endothelial cells. This infers that the vasorelaxations are mediated partially by endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin. The thionicotinic acid analogs all exhibited antioxidant properties in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays. Significantly, the thionicotinic acid 6 is the most potent vasorelaxant with ED(50) of 21.3 nM and is the most potent antioxidant (as discerned from DPPH assay). Molecular modeling was also used to provide mechanistic insights into the vasorelaxant and antioxidative activities. The findings reveal that the thionicotinic acid analogs are a novel class of vasorelaxant and antioxidant compounds which have potential to be further developed as promising therapeutics.

  20. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Gi; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Cherkas, Andriy; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Ku, Yang-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant, binding, and anti-proliferative properties of red sweet paprika growing under artificial light. The amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in red paprika (RP), cultivated in Korea, before and after light treatments under high pressure sodium (HPS) and lighting emitting plasma (LEP) lamps (RPControl, RPHPS, RPLEP), were analyzed in water (W) and ethanolic extracts (Et). Spectroscopic, radical scavenging assays, fluorescence and cytotoxicity measurements were applied. The results of this study showed that total chlorophyll and carotenes were the highest in RPHPS (10.50 ± 1.02 and 33.90 ± 3.26 μg/g dry weight (DW)). The strongest antioxidant capacity (μM TE/g DW) in a 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+)) assay was in RPControlEt (24.34 ± 2.36), in a ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in RPHPSW (27.08 ± 2.4) and in a cupric reducing antioxidant (CUPRAC) in RPLEPW (70.99 ± 7.11). The paprika ethanolic extracts showed lower values in their bioactivity than the water ones. The binding and cytotoxicity abilities of extracted polyphenols correlated with their amounts. LEP treatment is better for plant growth characteristics than other conventional treatments. The investigated paprika samples can be used as a source of antioxidants. PMID:27184000

  1. Saponin-Based Nanoemulsification Improves the Antioxidant Properties of Vitamin A and E in AML-12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Qaisra Naheed; Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Tae Gyun; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Sung Jin; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Our work aimed to investigate the protective effects of saponin-based nanoemulsions of vitamin A and E against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage in AML-12 cells. Saponin nanoemulsions of vitamin A (SAN) and vitamin E (SEN) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. SEN and SAN protect AML-12 cells against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage more efficiently via scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reducing DNA damage, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. These results provide valuable information for the development of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that would improve the antioxidant properties of vitamin A and E. PMID:27571071

  2. Saponin-Based Nanoemulsification Improves the Antioxidant Properties of Vitamin A and E in AML-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Qaisra Naheed; Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Tae Gyun; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Sung Jin; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Our work aimed to investigate the protective effects of saponin-based nanoemulsions of vitamin A and E against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage in AML-12 cells. Saponin nanoemulsions of vitamin A (SAN) and vitamin E (SEN) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. SEN and SAN protect AML-12 cells against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage more efficiently via scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reducing DNA damage, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. These results provide valuable information for the development of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that would improve the antioxidant properties of vitamin A and E. PMID:27571071

  3. Effect of Supplementation with Wheat Bran Aqueous Extracts Obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Technologies on the Sensory Properties and the Antioxidant Activity of Dry Pasta.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Delvecchio, Laura Nunzia; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Laddomada, Barbara; Urso, Valeria; Mazzaglia, Agata; Ruisi, Paolo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties and activate endogenous detoxification defense systems able to scavenge the reactive species of oxygen. The external layers of wheat caryopsis, largely constituting by-products of the milling industry such as bran and various middlings, contain relevant amounts of phenolic compounds. The aim of the research has been to evaluate the effect of supplementation with wheat bran aqueous extracts, obtained by ultrasound-assisted technologies, on the sensory properties and antioxidant activity of dry pasta. The HPLC-DAD characterization of the extract evidenced the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids. The supplemented pasta showed significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the control, coupled to good overall sensory judgment. In addition, two different pasta drying diagrams were adopted, and the comparison of the corresponding end-products allowed it to be pointed out that the processing technology has to be carefully set up to prevent possible detrimental effects on the antioxidant activity. The proposed utilization of bran might add value to a milling by-product that, otherwise, is mostly employed in animal feeding.

  4. Effect of Supplementation with Wheat Bran Aqueous Extracts Obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Technologies on the Sensory Properties and the Antioxidant Activity of Dry Pasta.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Delvecchio, Laura Nunzia; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Laddomada, Barbara; Urso, Valeria; Mazzaglia, Agata; Ruisi, Paolo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties and activate endogenous detoxification defense systems able to scavenge the reactive species of oxygen. The external layers of wheat caryopsis, largely constituting by-products of the milling industry such as bran and various middlings, contain relevant amounts of phenolic compounds. The aim of the research has been to evaluate the effect of supplementation with wheat bran aqueous extracts, obtained by ultrasound-assisted technologies, on the sensory properties and antioxidant activity of dry pasta. The HPLC-DAD characterization of the extract evidenced the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids. The supplemented pasta showed significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the control, coupled to good overall sensory judgment. In addition, two different pasta drying diagrams were adopted, and the comparison of the corresponding end-products allowed it to be pointed out that the processing technology has to be carefully set up to prevent possible detrimental effects on the antioxidant activity. The proposed utilization of bran might add value to a milling by-product that, otherwise, is mostly employed in animal feeding. PMID:26669115

  5. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Lin, Lihua; Xie, Jianhua; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Hui; Dong, Yujia; Shen, Mingyue; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-20

    The effects of ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus leaves were investigated. The physicochemical properties were detected by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) as well. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by the assay of DPPH, hydroxyl free radical, β-carotene-linoleic acid, respectfully. Results showed that no considerable change was observed on the structure between the polysaccharide of Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) and the ultrasonic polysaccharide of Cyclocarya paliurus (UCP) by FT-IR, and no apparent differences were found on the content of sugar, uronic acid and protein after the ultrasonic treatment, but difference appeared in the ratio of monosaccharide composition of CP (1.0:4.6:3.5:4.5) and UCP (1.0:5.9:3.9:4.4), and the antioxidant activities of CP were promoted after ultrasonic treatment. PMID:27474571

  6. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  7. Anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Geetha, S; Sai Ram, M; Singh, V; Ilavazhagan, G; Sawhney, R C

    2002-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) using lymphocytes as a model system. Chromium(VI) as potassium dichromate was used to induce oxidative damage. The production of free radicals by chromium and the ability of alcoholic leaf and fruit extracts of seabuckthorn to inhibit the oxidative damage induced by chromium was investigated. Addition of chromium (10 microg/ml) to the cells resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, free radical production and decreased glutathione (reduced) levels. Chromium also caused a significant inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation induced by both lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A. Alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of seabuckthorn at a concentration of 500 microg/ml were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and restored the anti-oxidant status to that of control cells. In addition, these extracts also were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. These observations suggest that the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of seabuckthorn have marked cytoprotective properties, which could be attributed to the anti-oxidant activity. PMID:11849845

  8. Melatonin and male reproductive health: relevance of darkness and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C S; Rato, L; Martins, A D; Alves, M G; Oliveira, P F

    2015-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin controls several physiological functions that reach far beyond the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Moreover, it can be produced in extra-pineal organs such as reproductive organs. The role of melatonin in the mammalian seasonal and circadian rhythm is well known. Nevertheless, its overall effect in male reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. Melatonin is a very powerful endogenous antioxidant that can also be exogenously taken safely. Interestingly, its antioxidant properties have been consistently reported to improve the male reproductive dysfunctions associated with pathological conditions and also with the exposure to toxicants. Nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its action in the male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Herein, we propose to present an up-to-date overview of the melatonin effects in the male reproductive health and debate future directions to disclose possible sites of melatonin action in male reproductive system. We will discuss not only the role of melatonin during darkness and sleep but also the importance of the antioxidant properties of this hormone to male fertility. Since melatonin readily crosses the physiological barriers, such as the blood-testis barrier, and has a very low toxicity, it appears as an excellent candidate in the prevention and/or treatment of the multiple male reproductive dysfunctions associated with various pathologies.

  9. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 ± 0.36 μg mL(-1) to 0.23 ± 0.67 μg mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 μL cm(-2) and 0.26 μL cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide.

  10. Effects of different inotropes with antioxidant properties on acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Rump, A F; Schüssler, M; Acar, D; Cordes, A; Ratke, R; Theisohn, M; Rösen, R; Klaus, W; Fricke, U

    1995-05-01

    1. The antiischemic properties of the flavonoids acetylvitexin-rhamnoside (AVR) and luteolin-7-glucoside-(LUT), combining phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibitory and antioxidant properties, were studied in comparison to amrinone (AMR) or superoxide dismutase (SOD). The effects of the new dihydropyridine-type calcium-agonist Bay T 5006 were studied in comparison to Bay K 8644. 2. In isolated Langendorff-rabbit hearts perfused at constant pressure, acute regional ischemia (MI) was induced by coronary artery occlusion (CAO) and quantitated from epicardial NADH-fluorescence photography. Drugs were applied either before or after CAO (pre-treatment or treatment) to permit distinguishing the influence of functional and direct cytoprotective actions in the poorly collateralized rabbit hearts. 3. SOD did not affect left ventricular pressure (LVP) or coronary flow (CF) and reduced MI only if applied before CAO. LVP and CF were enhanced by LUT or AMR but not by AVR. MI was reduced to a similar extent in hearts treated with either drug. Cardioprotection by LUT was not improved by starting drug application before CAO. 4. Bay K 8644 reduced LVP and particularly CF, whereas Bay T 5006 did not affect functional parameters. MI was enlarged by Bay K 8644 and remained unaffected by treatment or pretreatment with Bay T 5006. 5. AMR, LUT and AVR possess antiischemic properties related to an improvement of myocardial perfusion. Although oxygen free radicals contribute to ischemic tissue injury, as shown by the cardioprotective effectiveness of SOD, antioxidant properties of the flavonoids LUT and AVR do not seem to be relevant for the antiischemic effects. Our findings also give no evidence for antioxidant properties of dihydropyridines relevant for cardioprotection. PMID:7789735

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Algerian Thymelaea microphylla Coss. and Dur. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Dehimi, Khadidja; Speciale, Antonio; Saija, Antonina; Dahamna, Saliha; Raciti, Roberto; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur. (Thymelaeaceae) (TM) is a rare medicinal plant endemic to Algeria. Leaves decoction is used in folk medicine for anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. Objective: Herein, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts from leaves and flowers of Algerian TM were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out by in vitro cell-free assays (antioxidant/radical properties), ex vivo experiments (inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release in human whole blood) and in vitro experiments on cell systems (cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and protective effects on human vein endothelial cells exposed to TNF-α). Results: The acetone TM extract showed significant antioxidant properties and excellent anti-inflammatory and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity, together with lack of toxicity on normal human blood cells; furthermore, it was able to protect endothelial cells against dysfunction induced by TNF-α, as shown by decrease in cell death, e-selectin expression and leukocyte adhesion. Conclusion: On these bases, TM leaves and flowers appear to be a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory capability, and potentially effective in prevention and treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress and inflammation, such as endothelial dysfunction. SUMMARY Thymelaea microphylla leaves and flowers are a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant/free radical scavenger and antiinflammatory activity.The acetone extract from leaves and flowers of Algerian Thymelaea microphylla possesses excellent cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity.This extract is able to protect against endothelial dysfunction, an early event in development of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. Abbreviations used: TM: Thymelaea microphylla; BCB: Beta-carotene bleaching; AcE: Acetone extract; PGE2

  12. Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying its Anti-amnesic Activity in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Umukoro, Solomon; Ugbomah, Adaeze; Aderibigbe, Adegbuyi; Omogbiya, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Amnesia or loss of memory is the cardinal hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with ageing process. Although, AD had been discovered over a century ago, drugs which could cure or halt the progression of the disease are yet to see the light of the day. However, there has been a growing interest in the use of phytomedicines with multipronged mechanisms of action that could target various aspects of the pathologies of AD. Jobelyn (JB) is a potent antioxidant African polyherbal formulation with active components that have been acclaimed to show neuroprotection. This investigation was carried out to evaluate whether JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant activities. Methods The alteration of alternation behavior in the Y-maze paradigm was utilized as the test for memory function in mice. The effect of JB on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed in rats as means of providing insight into the mechanism underlying its anti-amnesic activity. The animals were given JB (1, 2.5 or 5mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 7 days before the biochemical assays or test for memory functions were carried out. Results JB was found to produce a significant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a significant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property. In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it significantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect against AChE activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats in comparison

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Algerian Thymelaea microphylla Coss. and Dur. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Dehimi, Khadidja; Speciale, Antonio; Saija, Antonina; Dahamna, Saliha; Raciti, Roberto; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur. (Thymelaeaceae) (TM) is a rare medicinal plant endemic to Algeria. Leaves decoction is used in folk medicine for anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. Objective: Herein, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts from leaves and flowers of Algerian TM were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out by in vitro cell-free assays (antioxidant/radical properties), ex vivo experiments (inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release in human whole blood) and in vitro experiments on cell systems (cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and protective effects on human vein endothelial cells exposed to TNF-α). Results: The acetone TM extract showed significant antioxidant properties and excellent anti-inflammatory and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity, together with lack of toxicity on normal human blood cells; furthermore, it was able to protect endothelial cells against dysfunction induced by TNF-α, as shown by decrease in cell death, e-selectin expression and leukocyte adhesion. Conclusion: On these bases, TM leaves and flowers appear to be a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory capability, and potentially effective in prevention and treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress and inflammation, such as endothelial dysfunction. SUMMARY Thymelaea microphylla leaves and flowers are a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant/free radical scavenger and antiinflammatory activity.The acetone extract from leaves and flowers of Algerian Thymelaea microphylla possesses excellent cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity.This extract is able to protect against endothelial dysfunction, an early event in development of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. Abbreviations used: TM: Thymelaea microphylla; BCB: Beta-carotene bleaching; AcE: Acetone extract; PGE2

  14. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22583648

  15. Physical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films Containing Carvacrol and Pomegranate Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Lv, Hua; Yang, Bingjie; Chen, Xiaoe; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-based active films were developed by incorporation of carvacrol (10 g/L), pomegranate peel extract (PPE, 10 g/L) and carvacrol + PPE (10 g/L of each) and their physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Incorporation of carvacrol and carvacrol + PPE into the films significantly decreased the water vapor permeability, tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break. Incorporation of carvacrol, PPE and carvacrol + PPE into the films decreased the transparency, but significantly increased the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. All the films, with the exception of PPE-incorporated film, exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the film incorporated with carvacrol + PPE was moderately higher than that incorporated with carvacrol or PPE alone, suggesting a synergistic action between carvacrol and PPE. PMID:26083037

  16. Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts from the leaves of Paullinia pinnata.

    PubMed

    Jimoh, F O; Sofidiya, M O; Afolayan, A J

    2007-12-01

    Paullinia pinnata is an African woody vine widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. In order to throw more light into its mechanisms of pharmacological actions, the in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of its leaves were evaluated using different testing systems. Its scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals as well as its ferric ion reducing power were assessed. The results showed that P. pinnata possessed strong scavenging activity and moderate reducing power. The total phenol, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were very close to those reported for most medicinal plants and showed good correlation with its antioxidant activities. These properties are probably part of the reasons why P. pinnata is effective in folk medicine.

  17. Antioxidant Properties of the Extracts of Talinum Triangulare and its Effect on Antioxidant enzymes in Tissue Homogenate of Swiss Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Oloyede, Omotade Ibidun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to put into consideration both the in vitro and in vivo investigations on Talinum triangulare (Tt), an herbaceous perennial plant that is a native of tropical America and one of the most important vegetables in Nigeria. Methods: Total phenolic contents in (mg GAE/100 g), flavonoid contents, the ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability (OH-) and iron chelating ability were carried out in vivo using standard described methods while GSH, GPx, catalase and SOD were determined in vivo using standard described methods. Results: In the three different solvents extraction of T. triangulare that were studied in vitro, it was noted that ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of T. triangulare showed potent antioxidant activity against DPPH and iron chelating property with high phenolic content except Hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability that showed highest value in the aqueous extract, while the Reduced GSH indicated the highest in the parameter determined in vivo. Conclusion: The antioxidant properties showed in this solvent extractable component probably could have been the basis for the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes at very lower dose in the examined tissue homogenates. Therefore, T. triangulare can thereby serve as a means of Preventing some of major degenerative diseases challenging Humans PMID:25948971

  18. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants

  19. Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356

  20. Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M Z; Thomas, M; Prasad, N

    2013-05-01

    The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356

  1. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of −13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning” flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  2. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of an Aqueous Cyanophyta Extract Derived from Arthrospira Platensis: Contribution to Bioactivities by the Non-Phycocyanin Aqueous Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S.; Attridge, Victoria L.; Beaman, Joni L.; Guthrie, Jesse; Ehmann, Axel; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this work was to characterize basic biological properties of a novel Arthrospira platensis-based aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), enriched in the known anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor phycocyanin (PC), but also containing a high level of non-PC bioactive compounds. Antioxidant properties were tested in parallel in the Folin–Ciocalteu assay (chemical antioxidant capacity) and in the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay, where both the PC and the non-PC fractions contributed to the antioxidant capacity and CAP of ACE. In contrast to the COX-2 inhibition seen in the presence of PC, the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the inflammatory mediator Lipoxygenase was associated specifically with the non-PC fraction of ACE. Inhibition of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using polymorphonuclear cells from healthy human donors. The inhibition of ROS formation was seen for both the PC and non-PC fractions, with ACE showing the most robust effect. The effects of PC, non-PC, and ACE on clotting and clot lysing was tested using a modified Euglobulin fibrinolytic assay in vitro. In the presence of PC, non-PC, and ACE, the time for clot formation and lysis was not affected; however, the clots were significantly more robust. This effect was statistically significant (p<.05) at doses between 125–500 μg/mL, and returned to baseline at lower doses. Both PC and the non-PC fraction contributed to the antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory effects, without a negative impact on blood clotting in vitro. This suggests a potential benefit for the consumable ACE extract in assisting the reduction of inflammatory conditions. PMID:25764268

  3. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis: contribution to bioactivities by the non-phycocyanin aqueous fraction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Attridge, Victoria L; Beaman, Joni L; Guthrie, Jesse; Ehmann, Axel; Benson, Kathleen F

    2015-05-01

    The goal for this work was to characterize basic biological properties of a novel Arthrospira platensis-based aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), enriched in the known anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor phycocyanin (PC), but also containing a high level of non-PC bioactive compounds. Antioxidant properties were tested in parallel in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (chemical antioxidant capacity) and in the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay, where both the PC and the non-PC fractions contributed to the antioxidant capacity and CAP of ACE. In contrast to the COX-2 inhibition seen in the presence of PC, the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the inflammatory mediator Lipoxygenase was associated specifically with the non-PC fraction of ACE. Inhibition of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using polymorphonuclear cells from healthy human donors. The inhibition of ROS formation was seen for both the PC and non-PC fractions, with ACE showing the most robust effect. The effects of PC, non-PC, and ACE on clotting and clot lysing was tested using a modified Euglobulin fibrinolytic assay in vitro. In the presence of PC, non-PC, and ACE, the time for clot formation and lysis was not affected; however, the clots were significantly more robust. This effect was statistically significant (p<.05) at doses between 125-500 μg/mL, and returned to baseline at lower doses. Both PC and the non-PC fraction contributed to the antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory effects, without a negative impact on blood clotting in vitro. This suggests a potential benefit for the consumable ACE extract in assisting the reduction of inflammatory conditions. PMID:25764268

  4. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-07-07

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  5. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:24274540

  6. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  7. The Effect of the Molecular Architecture on the Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Gallate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunhua; Wang, Liping; Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yaqin; Chen, Shiguo; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the structure–antioxidant activity relationships of chitosan gallate (CG), a series of CG derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS’s) and molecular weights (MWs) were synthesized from chitosan (CS) and gallic acid (GA) via a free radical graft reaction. A higher MW led to a lower DS of CG. The structures of CG were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR, and results showed that GA was mainly conjugated to the C-2 and C-6 positions of the CS chain. The antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power) were enhanced with an increased DS and a decreased MW of CG. A correlation between antioxidant activities and the DS and MW of CG was also established. In addition, a suitable concentration (0~250 μg/mL) of CG with different MWs (32.78~489.32 kDa) and DS’s (0~92.89 mg·GAE/g CG) has no cytotoxicity. These results should provide a guideline to the application of CG derivatives in food or pharmacology industries. PMID:27187421

  8. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  9. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-Eantioxidant activities. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction yield of PCP-M by implementing the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimized conditions, the PCP-M yield was 9.95%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. Overall, the microwave-assisted extraction was an effective and mild method for obtaining antioxidant polysaccharides from P. cocos Wolf.

  10. Preparation and antioxidative properties of a rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) protein hydrolysate and three peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaohui; Yu, Wancong; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Moucheng; Kou, Xiaohong; Wang, Jiehua

    2009-06-24

    This study investigated the possibility of converting the insoluble rapeseed meal protein into functionally active ingredients for food applications. The rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) meal protein isolates were first digested by Alcalase and Flavourzyme, and the resultant rapeseed crude hydrolysate (RSCH) exhibited a dose-dependent reducing antioxidant power and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. RSCH could also inhibit the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) generation by 50% in blood serum at 150 mg/mL. RSCH was further separated into three fractions (RSP1, RSP2, and RSP3) by Sephadex gel filtration according to their different molecular weights. The amino acid compositions and antioxidant potentials were assessed for RSP1-3 fractions. All three fractions showed inhibiting effects on superoxide anion generation to various extents. They could also inhibit the autohemolysis of rat red blood cells and MDA formation in rat liver tissue homogenate. The results suggested that rapeseed peptide hydrolysate may be useful as a human food addition as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant properties.

  11. Polyphenol oxidase activity and antioxidant properties of Yomra apple (Malus communis L.) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Dincer, Barbaros; Sahin, Huseyin; Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, firstly, antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) properties of Yomra apple were investigated. Seventeen phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities were performed to measure antioxidant capacity. Some kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), and inhibition behaviors against five different substrates were measured in the crude extract. Catechin and chlorogenic acid were found as the major components in the methanolic extract, while ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were small quantities. Km values ranged from 0.70 to 10.10 mM in the substrates, and also 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) and L-DOPA showed the highest affinity. The inhibition constant of Ki were ranged from 0.05 to 14.90 mM against sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid, sodium azide and benzoic acid, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite were the best inhibitors.

  12. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of wild growing and cultivated Allium species.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Igić, R; Popović, B M; Malencić, Dj

    2008-01-01

    Allium species are cultivated for the edible bulb, which is used mainly as flavoring in foods. Besides that, they could prevent tumor promotion and some processes that are associated with free radicals, such as cardiovascular diseases and aging. Therefore, different Allium species, both cultivated (Allium nutans L., A. fistulosum L., A. vineale L., A. pskemense B. Fedtsch, A. schoenoprasum L., A. cepa L. and A. sativum L.) and wild (A. flavum L., A. sphaerocephalum L., A. atroviolaceum Boiss, A. vineale L., A. ursinum L., A. scorodoprasum L., A. roseum L. and A. subhirsutum L.), were investigated in order to evaluate the antioxidant properties of their bulbs. This study reports on the results obtained for the bulb antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), the quantities of non-enzymatic plant antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total flavonoids), the contents of soluble proteins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, as well as for the quantities of malonyldialdehyde and .OH and O2.- radicals. PMID:17726730

  13. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  14. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes in emulsion system.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiang; Li, Mei; Ma, Huijie; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-09-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin is the most highly phosphorylated protein found in the nature. The physicochemical properties of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes and their synergistic antioxidant activities in microemulsions were investigated. The particle diameters of microemulsions containing 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% phosvitin were 2.660, 0.501 and 0.414μm, respectively. The emulsifying activity index increased largely from 3.72 to 21.5m(2)/g with increasing phosvitin concentration from 0.5% to 2.0%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analyses indicated that the microemulsions underwent a conformational change during homogenization. Antioxidant assays showed that phosvitin-resveratrol microemulsions exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than that of phosvitin-resveratrol primary emulsions. The MTT assay indicated that HepG2 cell viability remained higher than 80% at phosvitin concentration below 1.0mg/ml. This suggested that phosvitin, when coupled with polyphenol, can effectively inhibit lipid oxidation in food emulsions, which provided valuable insights into deep processing and application of egg proteins in food industry. PMID:27041304

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of Indian Sunderban mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L. leave

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Tapas Kumar; Hazra, Avijit; Hazra, Alok Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L. (family Rhizophoraceae) is a true mangrove habitat in Indian Sunderban and traditionally uses for liver disorders. Objectives: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of leave extract of B. gymnorrhiza L. Materials and Methods: Hydro-methanolic extract of mangrove leaves (BR) was standardized using spectrophotometric and high-performance thin layer chromatography methods. Radical scavenging activities were assessed in different in vitro methods, like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid +, superoxides, nitric oxides and hydroxyl radicals. Hepatoprotective efficacy of BR (125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, p.o) was measured in D-galactosamine (GalN) induced (200 mg/kg, i.p) hepatitis in Wistar rats. Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o) was used as known hepatoprotective agent. Results: Polyphenols such as gallic acid, quercetin, and coumarin obtained from BR exhibited powerful antioxidant properties. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent protection against GalN induced hepatitis in rats. It significantly reduced GalN induced elevation of enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) in serum and resist oxidative stress marked by lipid peroxides, glutathione, and catalase in hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Polyphenols rich B. gymnorrhiza L. leaves ameliorate hepatic tissue injury through its antioxidant effects. PMID:27330259

  16. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  17. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ∼60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 μmol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 μmol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227

  18. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of citrus phenolics limonene and naringin.

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, Merve; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic compounds not only contribute to the sensory qualities of fruits and vegetables but also exhibit several health protective properties. Limonene and naringin are the most popular phenolics found in Citrus plants. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacities of limonene and naringin by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79) cells. The genotoxic potentials of limonene and naringin were evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and alkaline COMET assays in human lymphocytes and V79 cells. Limonene and naringin, were found to have antioxidant activities at concentrations of 2-2000 µM and 5-2000 µM respectively. IC50 values of limonene and naringin were found to be 1265 µM and 9026 µM, respectively. Limonene at the concentrations below 10,000 µM and naringin at the all concentrations studied, have not exerted genotoxic effects in lymphocytes and in V79 cells. Limonene and naringin at all concentrations revealed a reduction in the frequency of MN and DNA damage induced by H2O2.

  19. Cultivar variations in antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of pomelo pulp (Citrus grandis [L.] Osbeck) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mäkynen, Kittana; Jitsaardkul, Sritanaporn; Tachasamran, Pansiree; Sakai, Nathaporn; Puranachoti, Supitcha; Nirojsinlapachai, Natthapat; Chattapat, Vipaporn; Caengprasath, Natarin; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-08-15

    Pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) is a native fruit of great economic importance in Southeast Asia. To provide experimental evidence for the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of pomelo, 6 cultivars, including Kao-Yai (KY), Thong-dee (TD), Kao-Tangkwa (KT), Kao-Numpueng (KN), Ta-Koi (TK), and Tubtim Siam (TS) were evaluated. KY had the highest phenolic content, and the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. From the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, naringin and naringenin were the major flavonoids in the KT and TK cultivars. Six pomelo cultivars had antihyperlipidemic activities including the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase, as well as cholesterol micelle formation and bile acid binding. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the 6 cultivars were separated into 2 classifications. In addition, the total phenolics of the pomelo cultivars were significantly correlated with ferric reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that pomelo provides significant health benefits and may be used for developing functional foods.

  20. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  1. Petit suisse from black soybean: bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties during development process.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Filho, Marsilvio Lima; Hirozawa, Sabrina Satie; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Ida, Elza Iouko; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties, bioactive compounds and other physico-chemical parameters from black soybean and its derivatives over 30 days under refrigeration at 4 °C and develop a probiotic petit suisse produced from black soybean. The soymilk showed the highest levels of isoflavones (109 mg/100 g), total phenolics (600 mg/100 g) and total anthocyanins (388 mg/100 g) with the highest response in the tests with DPPH• and ABTS+• on a dry basis. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in antioxidant activity during storage due to the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in soymilk sample, having a strong linear correlation between the concentration of isoflavone aglycones and the antioxidant activity for ABTS+• (R = 0.9437, 0.9624 and 0.9992) and DPPH• (R = 0.9865, 0.9978 and 0.9911), respectively, for soymilk, quark and petit suisse. The conversion of isoflavone was influenced directly by the characteristics of each sample, inhibiting or promoting the action of the enzyme. The petit suisse developed is an alternative for consumers, providing isoflavones and anthocyanins, possessing probiotic average counts (10⁸ CFU g⁻¹) during storage.

  2. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-07-27

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species.

  3. Processed tomato products as a source of dietary lycopene: bioavailability and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, A Venket

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major contributors to increased risk of chronic diseases. A diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has been found to protect against these chronic diseases by mitigating oxidative damage. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a long-term tomato-rich diet, consisting of various processed tomato products, on bioavailability and antioxidant properties of lycopene. Seventeen healthy human subjects (ten men, seven non-pregnant women) participated in the study. Following a two-week washout period during which subjects avoided foods containing lycopene, all subjects consumed test tomato products including tomato juice, tomato sauce, tomato paste, ketchup, spaghetti sauce, and ready-to-serve tomato soup providing 30 mg of lycopene a day for four weeks. At the end of treatment, serum lycopene level increased significantly (p <0.05), from 181.79 +/- 31.25 to 684.7 +/- 113.91 nmol/L. Similarly, total antioxidant potential increased significantly (p <0.05), from 2.26 +/- 0.015 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 mmol/L Trolox equivalent. Lipid and protein oxidation was reduced significantly (p <0.05). The results suggest that a tomato-rich diet containing different sources of lycopene can increase serum lycopene levels and reduce oxidative stress effectively. PMID:15596034

  4. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  5. Chemical and cellular antioxidative properties of threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) surimi byproduct hydrolysates fractionated by ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Wiriyaphan, Chompoonuch; Xiao, Hang; Decker, Eric A; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-01-15

    Protein hydrolysate from frame, bone and skin (FBSH) of threadfin bream was prepared using Virgibacillus sp. SK33 proteinase and fractionated using sequential ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of 30, 5 and 1 kDa, respectively. Four fractions, namely FBSH-I (>30 kDa), FBSH-II (5-30 kDa), FBSH-III (1-5 kDa), and FBSH-IV (<1 kDa), were obtained. All fractions were rich in Lys, Glu/Gln, Gly, Pro, Ala, Asp/Asn, and Arg. FBSH-III and FBSH-IV showed the highest surface hydrophobicity measured by 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) probe (p<0.05). FBSH-III showed the highest antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced cytotoxicity of Caco-2 cells. In addition, FBSH-III inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and intracellular reactive species (ROS) production in a dose-dependent manner. FBSH-III retained antioxidant activity and cytoprotective capacity after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These results suggested that FBSH-III might potentially be nutraceutical peptides with antioxidative properties. PMID:25148952

  6. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  7. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products.

  8. Adipocyte reporter assays: Application for identification of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of mangostin xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiwen; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Thomas, Jaisa L.; Gushchina, Liubov V.; DiSilvestro, David; Failla, Mark L.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2013-01-01

    Scope Three fluorescence biosensors were developed based on a 3T3-L1 preadipocyte line that stably expressed Nfkb-RE/GFP, Fabp4-P/CFP, and Nrf2-P/YFP fluorescent reporters. We hypothesized that nutraceuticals’ inflammatory, adipogenic, and antioxidant status will be identified based on the change in fluorescence in reporter adipocytes. We validated these assays with activators of NFκB, FABP4-regulating PPARγ, NFR2 and, thereafter, tested known and unknown properties of mangosteens (MG), the xanthone metabolites in mangosteen fruit. Methods and results We validated inflammatory and adipogenic properties of α-MG using a Nfkb-RE/GFP biosensor assay. Next, we identified unique properties of γ-MG, a minor mangosteen xanthone. γ-MG suppressed adipogenesis and adiponectin, but inhibited the Nfkb-RE/GFP reporter and secretion of inflammatory MCP-1 as compared to the control adipocytes. We found that the inhibition of adipogenesis and Nfkb-mediated inflammation depends on a dose-dependent reduction of Nrf2 promoter activity by α-MG. The Nrf2 inhibition resulted in the reduced Pparg expression. α-MG did not directly influence Pparg activity in Fabp4-P/CFP adipocytes. Conclusion α-MG-mediated antioxidant response via Nrf2 is a mechanism preventing adipogenesis and inflammation in adipocytes. Combined application of high-throughput biosensors could provide an effective platform for the identification of nutraceuticals and the mechanism of their actions in adipocytes and, potentially, in obese patients. PMID:24039005

  9. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels.

    PubMed

    Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Chaari, Fatma; Maktouf, Sameh; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouz

    2016-08-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from potato peel waste (PPW). The structure of the polysaccharides from PPW (PPPW) was examined by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the extracted polysaccharides form a semi-crystalline polymer constituted essentially of the functional groups CO, CH and OH. Acid hydrolysis of this polymer yielded glucose (76.25%) as the dominant sugar functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) of this polymer were studied. The PPPW showed interesting water-holding and fat-binding capacities which were 4.097 ± 0.537 g/g and 4.398 ± 0.04 g/g, respectively. In addition, it presented good foaming and emulsion properties. The antioxidant activity of this polymer was also studied and revealed that the polysaccharides showed interesting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 PPPW=11.578 mg/mL), reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activities, and also a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 PPPW=2mg/mL). Overall, the results suggest that the polysaccharide is a promising source of natural antioxidants and can be used as additive in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:27006219

  10. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties. PMID:27132817

  11. Development of naturally activated edible films with antioxidant properties prepared from red seaweed Porphyra columbina biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Salgado, Pablo R; Drago, Silvina R; González, Rolando J; Mauri, Adriana N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of phycobiliproteins-phycocolloids-based films, obtained from mixtures of two aqueous fractions extracted from Porphyra columbina red seaweed, one enriched in phycocolloids (PcF) and the other in phycobiliproteins (PF). Films with different ratios of PF:PcF (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% [w/w]) and without plasticizer addition were prepared by casting. PcF films had excellent mechanical properties (tensile strength ∼50MPa, elongation at break ∼3% and an elastic modulus ∼17.5MPa). The addition of PF to formulations exerted a plasticizing effect on the PcF matrix, which was manifested in moisture content, water solubility and mechanical properties of the resulting films but not in its water vapour permeability. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the PcF films was significantly increased by the addition of PF and a direct relationship between TEAC and the total phenolic compounds (r(2)=0.9998) and R-phycoerythrin (r(2)=0.9942) was observed.

  12. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Rahul; Nivedhini, V.; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2013-01-01

    The leaf of C. dipsaceus was evaluated for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. From the present investigation, significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals were quantified. Low levels of trypsin inhibitory units, phenolics, and tannins content were found as antinutritional content. Further, hot water extract of C. dipsaceus showed good activity especially in ABTS+, metal chelating, nitric oxide, and DPPH assays. Hence, the results conclude that C. dipsaceus could be a valuable nutraceutical supplement to the human diet. PMID:24288509

  13. Characterization of Intrinsic Properties of Promoters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accurate characterization of promoter behavior is essential for the rational design of functional synthetic transcription networks such as logic gates and oscillators. However, transcription rates observed from promoters can vary significantly depending on the growth rate of host cells and the experimental and genetic contexts of the measurement. Furthermore, in vivo measurement methods must accommodate variation in translation, protein folding, and maturation rates of reporter proteins, as well as metabolic load. The external factors affecting transcription activity may be considered to be extrinsic, and the goal of characterization should be to obtain quantitative measures of the intrinsic characteristics of promoters. We have developed a promoter characterization method that is based on a mathematical model for cell growth and reporter gene expression and exploits multiple in vivo measurements to compensate for variation due to extrinsic factors. First, we used optical density and fluorescent reporter gene measurements to account for the effect of differing cell growth rates. Second, we compared the output of reporter genes to that of a control promoter using concurrent dual-channel fluorescence measurements. This allowed us to derive a quantitative promoter characteristic (ρ) that provides a robust measure of the intrinsic properties of a promoter, relative to the control. We imposed different extrinsic factors on growing cells, altering carbon source and adding bacteriostatic agents, and demonstrated that the use of ρ values reduced the fraction of variance due to extrinsic factors from 78% to less than 4%. This is a simple and reliable method to quantitatively describe promoter properties. PMID:26436725

  14. NMR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. Philip Chang; Changho Choi; Jeromy T. Hollenshead; Rudi Michalak; Jack Phan; Ramon Saavedra; John C. Slattery; Jinsoo Uh; Randi Valestrand; A. Ted Watson; Song Xue

    2005-01-01

    A critical and long-standing need within the petroleum industry is the specification of suitable petrophysical properties for mathematical simulation of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterization). The development of accurate reservoir characterizations is extremely challenging. Property variations may be described on many scales, and the information available from measurements reflect different scales. In fact, experiments on laboratory core samples, well-log data, well-test data, and reservoir-production data all represent information potentially valuable to reservoir characterization, yet they all reflect information about spatial variations of properties at different scales. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) provide enormous potential for developing new descriptions and understandings of heterogeneous media. NMR has the rare capability to probe permeable media non-invasively, with spatial resolution, and it provides unique information about molecular motions and interactions that are sensitive to morphology. NMR well-logging provides the best opportunity ever to resolve permeability distributions within petroleum reservoirs. We develop MRI methods to determine, for the first time, spatially resolved distributions of porosity and permeability within permeable media samples that approach the intrinsic scale: the finest resolution of these macroscopic properties possible. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the permeability is actually resolved at a scale smaller than the sample. In order to do this, we have developed a robust method to determine of relaxation distributions from NMR experiments and a novel implementation and analysis of MRI experiments to determine the amount of fluid corresponding to imaging regions, which are in turn used to determine porosity and saturation distributions. We have developed a novel MRI experiment to determine velocity distributions within flowing experiments, and

  15. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  16. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. PMID:26005139

  17. Characterization of pressurized hot water extracts of grape pomace: chemical and biological antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Salinas, J R; Vergara, Mauricio; Altamirano, Claudia; Gonzalez, Álvaro; Pérez-Correa, J R

    2015-03-15

    Pressurized hot water extracts obtained at different temperatures possess different compositions and antioxidant activities and, consequently, different bioactivities. We characterized two pressurized hot water extracts from grape pomace obtained at 100°C (GPE100) and 200°C (GPE200) in terms of antioxidant activity and composition, as well as protective effect on cell growth and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in a HL-60 cell culture under oxidative conditions. GPE100 extracts were richer in polyphenols and poorer in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) than were GPE200 extracts. Moreover, hydroxymethylfurfural was detected only in GPE200. Both extracts exhibited similar protective effects on cell growth (comparable to the effect of trolox). In addition, GPE100 strongly decreased the Δψm loss, reaching values even lower than those of the control culture. This protective effect may be related to its high polyphenols content. At the highest concentration assessed, both extracts showed strong cytotoxicity, especially GPE200. This cytotoxicity could be related to their MRPs content.

  18. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Li, Haibing; Li, Xiaoyue; Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Wenbo

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a fraction (AAP-2A) of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus (AAP) were investigated. Characteriztion assay showed that AAP-2A had molecular weight (Mw), root-mean square (RMS) radius and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of 2.252 × 10(3)kDa, 28.4 nm and 1.038, respectively. There were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in FT-IR spectroscopy. AAP-2A was composed of rhamnose (Rha), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara) and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 1:2.13:3.22:6.18 in GC analysis. Methylation analysis combined with NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that a preliminary structure of AAP-2A was proposed as follows: 1,3-linked Rhap, 1,3-linked Galp, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp and 1,4,6-linked Glcp interspersed with terminal Glcp. AAP-2A exhibited a surface with a sheet-like appearance in scanning electron microscope and stronger antioxidant capacity compared with AAP.

  19. Characterization and antioxidant activities of degraded polysaccharides from Poria cocos sclerotium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin; Nie, Jing; Li, Danping; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Ma, Fang; Sun, Qiao; Song, Jia; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2014-05-25

    Poria cocos F.A.Wolf is a Chinese traditional medicine used to treat chronic gastritis, edema, nephrosis, gastric atony, and acute gastroenteric catarrh. Polysaccharides are the main active component of P. cocos. We obtained polysaccharides PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 from the degradation of P. cocos polysaccharides (PCP) with different concentrations of H2O2 solution. Molecular weights were determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. HPLC analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 are heteropolysaccharides composed of glucose and arabinose. IR spectra indicated obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. The antioxidant activities of these polysaccharides were evaluated by established in vitro systems, including scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, ABTS radicals, and ferrous ions. The degradation polysaccharides exhibited obvious and concentration-dependent antioxidant properties. In addition, DNA binding analysis showed that PCP-1 had a stronger capacity than other polysaccharides to interact with DNA. However, each polysaccharide had a certain capacity for DNA damage protection.

  20. Ovarian tissue characterization using bulk optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-03-01

    Ovarian cancer, the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers, is not often found in its early stages due to few symptoms and no reliable screening test. Optical imaging has a great potential to improve the ovarian cancer detection and diagnosis. In this study we have characterized the bulk optical properties of 26 ex-vivo human ovaries using a Diffuse Optical Tomography system. The quantitative values indicated that, in the postmenopausal group, malignant ovaries showed significantly lower scattering coefficient than normal ones. The scattering parameter is largely related to the collagen content that has shown a strong correlation with the cancer development.

  1. Growth, characterization, and properties of nanographene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; He, Congli; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Yi; Shi, Zhiwen; Cheng, Meng; Xie, Guibai; Wang, Duoming; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2012-05-01

    A systematic study on nanographene grown directly on silicon dioxide substrates is reported. The growth is carried out in a remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system at a low temperature of around 550 °C with methane gas as the carbon source. Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize the nanographene morphology, and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy are exploited to identify the in-plane sp(2) bonding structures of nanographene samples. Electrical transport properties are measured at various temperatures down to 4 K. Tunneling effects, minimal conductance at the charge-neutral point, sheet resistances, and Dirac point position at different channel lengths are investigated. In addition, nanographene film possesses high transmittance properties, as indicated by transmittance spectra. Nanographene devices are fabricated from rippled structures, and show great promise for strain-gauge sensor applications. PMID:22378609

  2. Comparative study on the chemical composition, antioxidant properties and hypoglycaemic activities of two Capsicum annuum L. cultivars (Acuminatum small and Cerasiferum).

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; De Luca, Damiano; de Cindio, Bruno; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate for the first time the phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content and the antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum small and C. annuum var. cerasiferum air-dried fruits. The ethanol extract of C. annuum var. acuminatum small, characterized by the major content of total poliphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and capsaicinoids, showed the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) of 152.9 μg/ml). On the contrary, C. annuum var. cerasiferum showed a significant antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC(50) of 3.1 μg/ml). The lipophilic fraction of both C. annuum var. acuminatum and C. annuum var. cerasiferum exhibited an interesting and selective inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC(50) of 6.9 and 20.1 μg/ml, respectively).

  3. Structural, thermal, functional, antioxidant & antimicrobial properties of β-d-glucan extracted from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cereviseae)-Effect of γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asma Ashraf; Gani, Adil; Masoodi, F A; Amin, Furheen; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2016-04-20

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of γ-irradiation (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 & 50kGy) on the structural, functional, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of yeast β-d-glucan. The samples were characterized by ATR-FTIR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the thermal properties were studied using DSC. There was a decrease in the average molecular weight of β-d-glucan as the irradiation dose increased. The functional properties of irradiated yeast β-d-glucan were largely influenced by the action of gamma radiation like swelling power and viscosity decreases with increase in the irradiation dose while as fat binding capacity, emulsifying properties, foaming properties and bile acid binding capacity shows an increasing trend. All the antioxidant properties carried out using six different assays increased significantly (p≤0.05) in a dose dependent manner. The antibacterial activity of yeast β-d-glucan also showed an increasing trend with increase in the irradiation dose from 5 to 50kDa. PMID:26876872

  4. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

    2014-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  5. Haematopoietic, Antioxidant and Membrane Stabilizing Property of Diallyl Disulphide in Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tenkanidiyoor, Yogish Somayaji; Vasudeva, Vidya; Rao, Shama; Gowda, Damodara; Rao, Chandrika; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diallyl disulphide is an organo-sulphur compound which is present in garlic and responsible for the characteristic odor of garlic. It is known for its anticancer and invitro membrane stabilizing properties. Aim The main aim was to evaluate the haematopoietic, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing property of diallyl disulfide in irradiated mice. Materials and Methods Mice were grouped into 6 groups as control, drug control, radiation control and drug pre-treatment groups (i.e. drug administration + radiation group) The mice were fed orally for 15 consecutive days and on the 15th day, one hour after drug administration, the mice were irradiated with 6Gy electron beam radiation. The changes in blood cell count, total antioxidant levels, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels were determined. The immunomodulatory response of DADS to the radiological effects was determined by the estimation of IL-6 levels. Results A significant improvement in pre-drug treatment group when compared to control groups in the haemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haematocrit and platelet counts was observed. There is an increased level of interleukin-6 in the drug treated groups compared to the radiation control. An increase in the malondialdehyde levels and decrease in the glutathione levels in the irradiated group indicate increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, whereas, there is a significant reduction in the malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in the drug pre-treatment groups showing membrane stabilization. Conclusion Thus DADS proves to be an effective haematopoietic and antioxidative agent to counter radiation induced haematopoietic suppression and oxidative stress. PMID:27042448

  6. Purification and Characterization of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Correlation between Their Structure and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Lina; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Jingfang

    2014-01-01

    Nine flavonoids were isolated and characterized from the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques as quercetin (1), afzelin (2), quercitrin (3), trifolin (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (5), isorhamnetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (6), hyperoside (7), vitexin (8) and rutin (9). All compounds were isolated from the leaves of Z. bungeanum for the first time. Five compounds (2, 4, 5, 6 and 8) were found for the first time in the genus Zanthoxylum. To learn the mechanisms underlying its health benefits, in vitro (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) and in vivo (protective effect on Escherichia coli under peroxide stress) antioxidant activities of the nine flavonoids were measured. Quercetin and quercetin glycosides (compounds 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) showed the highest antioxidant activity. Structure-activity relationships indicated that the -OH in 4′ position on the B ring and the -OH in 7 position on the A ring possessed high antioxidant activity; B ring and/or A ring with adjacent -OH groups could greatly increase their antioxidant ability. Also, due to the different structures of various flavonoids, they will certainly exhibit different antioxidant capacity when the reactions occur in solution or in oil-in-water emulsion. These findings suggest that Z. bungeanum leaves may have health benefits when consumed. It could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products and functional food ingredients in both nutraceutical and food industries as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25157400

  7. Synthesis of Cr(III)-morin complex: characterization and antioxidant study.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qadeer K; Memon, Shahabuddin

    2014-01-01

    The complex formation between Cr(III) and morin was carried out in methanol and confirmed by analytical characterization using UV-Vis, IR, (1)H NMR, and TG-DTA. UV-Vis shows significant bathochromic shift in benzoyl upon coordination as well as IR well illustrates the peak shift of C=O group and formation of a O-Cr(III) bond. Likewise, (1)H NMR studies clarify that Cr(III) metal ion replaces the 5OH proton hence; 5-hydroxy-4-keto site is employed by morin in chelation to form six-membered stable ring system out of three available chelating sites. In addition, TG-DTA denotes the presence of coordinated and crystalline water molecules. The melting point of the complex was found to be 389 °C by DSC. In addition, Cr(III)-morin complex was found to be a more potent antioxidant than morin as evaluated by DPPH• and FRAP methods.

  8. Single-step green synthesis and characterization of gold-conjugated polyphenol nanoparticles with antioxidant and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Dessì, Giuseppina; Manconi, Paola; Mariani, Alberto; Dedola, Sonia; Rassu, Mauro; Crosio, Claudia; Iaccarino, Ciro; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are likely to provide an attractive platform for combining a variety of biophysicochemical properties into a unified nanodevice with great therapeutic potential. In this study we investigated the capabilities of three different natural polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol (RSV), and fisetin (FS), to allow synergistic chemical reduction of gold salts to GNPs and stabilization in a single-step green process. Moreover, antioxidant properties of the nanosystems, as well as preliminary antiproliferative activity and apoptotic process investigation of model EGCG-GNPs on stable clones of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing CFP-DEVD-YFP reporter, were examined. Methods The GNPs were characterized by physicochemical techniques, polyphenol content, and in vitro stability. The antioxidant activity of the GNPs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation (ABTS) radical-scavenging assays. Stable clones of neuronal SH-SY5Y-CFP-DEVD-YFP were generated and characterized, and cell viability after treatment with EGCG-GNPs was assessed after 72 hours through a 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. Activation of the apoptotic pathways was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Results With a diameter in the size range of 10–25 nm, the obtained nanoparticles (NPs) were found to contain 2.71%, 3.23%, and 5.47% of EGCG, RSV, and FS, respectively. Nanoprototypes exhibited remarkable in vitro stability in various media, suggesting that NP surface coating with phytochemicals prevents aggregation in different simulated physiological conditions. The scavenging activities for DPPH and ABTS were highly correlated with EGCG, RSV, and FS content. Moreover, high correlation coefficients between the ABTS and DPPH values were found for the prepared nanosystems. EGCG-GNPs induce a dose

  9. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-12-11

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source.

  10. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source. PMID:26690454

  11. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source. PMID:26690454

  12. Antioxidant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Braid, M.

    1980-08-12

    Compositions having highly effective antioxidant characteristics are provided comprising organic media, normally susceptible to oxidation, such as oils of lubricating viscosity, containing a minor amount sufficient to impart antioxidant properties thereto of the reaction product of a polysulfide and a hydrocarbylmagnesium halide or a grignard reagent.

  13. Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on Vitamin C and Its Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S.; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong; Xiong, Xia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments and their effects on the structure of vitamin C (VIT-C) were estimated by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the relative content of VIT-C was measured by HPLC and the antioxidant properties of treated VIT-C by DPPH radical scavenging as well as reducing power tests. The fluorescence intensity of treated VIT-C increased slightly compared to the untreated VIT-C. Moreover, the effect of PEF on the structure of VIT-C was observed using the FT-IR spectra. These phenomena indicated that the PEF affected the conformation of VIT-C, which promoted the VIT-C isomer transformed enol-form into keto-form. In addition, the PEF treatments did not suffer the damage to VIT-C and could slow down the oxidation process in involving of experimental conditions by HPLC. The antioxidant properties of the treated VIT-C were enhanced, which was proved by radical scavenging and also the reducing power tests. PMID:26473846

  14. Use of food and packaging model matrices to investigate the antioxidant properties of biorefinery grass lignins.

    PubMed

    Aguié-Béghin, Véronique; Foulon, Laurence; Soto, Paola; Crônier, David; Corti, Elena; Legée, Frédéric; Cézard, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Baumberger, Stéphanie

    2015-11-18

    The antioxidant properties of grass lignins recovered from an alkaline industrial process and from different ethanol organosolv pretreatment processes were compared using two types of tests: (i) classical radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging tests in dioxane/water or ethanol and (ii) tests involving multiphasic systems (lipid dispersion in water or cellulose film suspended in ethanol). These multiphasic systems were representative of food and packaging matrices in view of high-value applications. All lignins, in solution or in the film, effectively scavenged radicals. Moreover, they were competitive with a food commercial rosemary extract to protect linoleic acid against oxidation. Whereas the DPPH(•) test in dioxane was not discriminant, differences appeared between lignins when the test was performed in ethanol or with the multiphasic systems. Moreover, radical scavenging activity was preserved in the film even after its immersion in ethanol. Structural analysis of lignins revealed that low-molar-mass phenolics, namely p-hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin depolymerization products, governed lignin antioxidant properties in the multiphasic systems.

  15. Optimization and prediction of antioxidant properties of a tea-ginger extract

    PubMed Central

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Sanni, David Morakinyo

    2015-01-01

    A response surface approach was used to investigate the effects of temperature, concentration, and time on the antioxidant properties (total flavonoid (TF), total phenol (TP), peroxide scavenging activity (PS), iron chelating activity (IC), DPPH radical-scavenging ability (DPPH), ABTS assay (ABTS)) of aqueous extract of tea-ginger (2:1) powder. Color indices, pH, and redox potential of the tea-ginger powder were also measured and used as independent variables for the prediction of antioxidant properties of the extract using ordinary least square (OLSR), principal component (PCR), and partial least square (PLSR) regression. The R2 values for TP, TF, ABTS, and PS response surface models were 0.8873, 0.9639, 0.6485, and 0.5721, respectively. The OLSR, PCR, and PLSR were able to provide predictive models for DPPH, TP, and TF of the tea-ginger extract (P < 0.05). The PLSR gave the most parsimonious model with an R2 of 0.851, 0.736, and 0.905 for DPPH, TP, and TF, respectively. PMID:26405530

  16. Citrullus colocynthis failed to combat against renal derangements, in spite of its strong antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Mir Azam; Asif, Afzal Haq; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    Gentamicin is a potent antibiotic, effective against Gram negative bacteria. The most common adverse effect of gentamicin is nephrotoxicity. Present study was aimed to explore the protective potentials of Citrullus colocynthis against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity due to its strong antioxidant properties. Toxic doses of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/day, i.m.) were administered alone and as co-therapy with the extract of C. colocynthis (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Physiological, biochemical and histological examinations were performed to compare the experimental and toxic groups (n = 6) with control group animals. Co-therapy of C. colocynthis with gentamicin protected changes in the body weight, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, proteins and lactate dehydrogenase excretions. However, a significant rise in serum creatinine and serum uric acid with fall in serum calcium and serum potassium was observed, which were significantly different from control group animals. Necrotic and ruptured tubules were also found abundantly. This study revealed that co-theapy of C. colocynthis with gentamicin for twenty one days, failed to protect renal injury associated by gentamicin in spite of its strong antioxidant properties.

  17. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile. PMID:21699688

  18. Antioxidant properties, autooxidation, and mutagenic activity of echinochrome a compared with its etherified derivative.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, A V; Levitskaya, E L; Tikhonova, E V; Ivanova, M V

    2001-08-01

    Antioxidant properties of 2,3,5,7,8-pentahydroxy-6-ethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (echinochrome A) were linked with the scavenging of peroxy radicals in liposomes, trapping of superoxide anion radicals, and binding of ferrous ions to inactive complexes in the aqueous phase. The antioxidant property of 6-ethyl-2,3,7-trimethoxy-5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (trimethoxyechinochrome A) was negligible. Autooxidation of echinochrome A was increased in basic media according to the degree of its dissociation. Autooxidation of polyvalent anions in basic media was accompanied by generation of naphthosemiquinone and superoxide anion radicals as free radical intermediates. An increased rate of echinochrome A autooxidation was noted in the presence of calcium ions. This was explained by a shift of pK of Ca2+-echinochrome A complexes toward acidic pH comparably with echinochrome A. Echinochrome A possessed pronounced mutagenic activity, while trimethoxyechinochrome A was inactive in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome reverse mutation assay (Ames test) for all examined cells (TA98, TA100, TA1537). Comparison of the chemical and biological activity of echinochrome A and trimethoxyechinochrome A demonstrated the key role of the beta-hydroxyl groups in the 2nd, 3rd, and 7th naphthol cycle positions. The O2-* and naphthosemiquinone radicals generated in the redox transition of 2,3-oxygroups may be the reason for the strongly pronounced mutagenicity of echinochrome A. PMID:11566058

  19. In vitro antioxidant properties of chicken skin enzymatic protein hydrolysates and membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E; Aliani, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Chicken thigh and breast skin proteins were hydrolysed using alcalase or a combination of pepsin and pancreatin (PP), each at concentrations of 1-4%. The chicken skin protein hydrolysates (CSPHs) were then fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration into different molecular weight peptides (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10kDa) and analysed for antioxidant properties. Results showed that the CSPHs had a significantly (p<0.05) lower scavenging activity against DPPH radicals when compared to reduced glutathione. The chicken breast skin hydrolysates had significantly higher DPPH scavenging activity than the chicken thigh skin hydrolysates. DPPH scavenging and metal ion chelation increased significantly (p<0.05) from 29-40% to 86-89%, respectively with increasing proteolytic enzyme concentration. In contrast, the antioxidant properties decreased as peptide size increased. We conclude that CSPHs and their peptide fractions may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the control and management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  20. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    PubMed

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs.

  1. The effect of cupric and ferric ions on antioxidant properties of human serum albumi.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Behbehani, Gholamreza; Gonbadi, Katayon; Eslami, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of both ferric (Fe³⁺) and cupric (Cu²⁺) ions with human serum albumin (HSA) was assayed at a temperature of 27°C in aqueous solution using isothermal titration calorimetry. The association equilibrium constant and the molar enthalpy for one binding is 1.7 × 10⁵ M-1 and -31.37 kJ • M⁻¹, respectively. To obtain the binding parameters of metal ion-protein interaction over the whole range of Fe³⁺ concentrations, the extended solvation model was applied. The solvation parameters obtained from this model were attributed to the structural change of HSA. The binding parameters obtained from the extended solvation model indicate that the stability of HSA was decreased as a result of its binding with ferric ions, which cause dampening the antioxidant property of HSA. Cuperic ion increases the stability of HSA considerably, indicating that the antioxidant property of human serum albumin are increased as a result of its interaction with cupric ion.

  2. Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on Vitamin C and Its Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong; Xiong, Xia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments and their effects on the structure of vitamin C (VIT-C) were estimated by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the relative content of VIT-C was measured by HPLC and the antioxidant properties of treated VIT-C by DPPH radical scavenging as well as reducing power tests. The fluorescence intensity of treated VIT-C increased slightly compared to the untreated VIT-C. Moreover, the effect of PEF on the structure of VIT-C was observed using the FT-IR spectra. These phenomena indicated that the PEF affected the conformation of VIT-C, which promoted the VIT-C isomer transformed enol-form into keto-form. In addition, the PEF treatments did not suffer the damage to VIT-C and could slow down the oxidation process in involving of experimental conditions by HPLC. The antioxidant properties of the treated VIT-C were enhanced, which was proved by radical scavenging and also the reducing power tests.

  3. Purification of Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) and Evaluation of its Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Bhargavi, Sd; Praveen, Vk; Marium, Salah; Sreepriya, M; Savitha, J

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and thus one of the leading causes of mortality in women. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug has previously been reported to exert antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsorption chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties with a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cells were investigated by determining its influence on cell numbers, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant properties in terms of hydroxy radical scavenging effects as well as levels of total reduced glutathione. Cell cycle analysis by ow cytometry (propidium iodide staining) confirmed induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The results of the study give leads for the anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential usefulness in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer. PMID:27644619

  4. Influence of growing season on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of grape berries from vines grown in subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Zhang, Yali; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Yu; Lu, Jiang

    2011-02-23

    The influence of growing season (winter vs summer) on the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties was studied in five grape cultivars for three consecutive years. Four phenolic compound parameters (total phenols, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) and three antioxidant property parameters [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulfonic acid) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] were investigated. Results showed that both phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in the seed and skin of winter berries were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of summer berries for all of the cultivars investigated. The anthocyanin profiles of berry skins appeared to be extremely consistent in different years for the same crop, whereas they varied greatly between the two crops within the same year (winter vs summer). Winter berries contained richer glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, and malvidin than summer berries. These seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties on grape berries were largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, and hydrothermic coefficient between different growing seasons.

  5. Extremophilic polysaccharide nanoparticles for cancer nanotherapy and evaluation of antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sreejith; Palaninathan, Vivekanandan; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Fukuda, Takahiro; Iwai, Seiki; Higashi, Toshiaki; Mizuki, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Mohanan, P V; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2015-05-01

    Polysaccharides that show finest bioactivities and physicochemical properties are always promising for bionanoscience applications. Mauran is such a macromolecule extracted from halophilic bacterium, Halomonas maura for biotechnology and nanoscience applications. Antioxidant properties of MR/CH nanoparticles were studied using biochemical assays to prove the versatility of these test nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Here, we demonstrate the prospects of extremophilic polysaccharide, mauran based nanoparticles for scavenging reactive oxygen species in both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. 5-fluorouracil loaded MR/CH nanoparticles were tested for anticancer proliferation and compared their therapeutic efficiency using breast adenocarcinoma and glioma cells. Fluorescently labeled nanoparticles were employed to show the cellular uptake of these nanocarriers using confocal microscopic imaging and flow cytometry.

  6. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices.

  7. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24250519

  8. Characterization of a cadmium resistance Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain by antioxidant assays and proteome profiles methods.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yao; Yang, Xuan; Lian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination poses a major threat to the environment and human health for their potential toxicity and non-biodegradable properties. At present, some probiotics bacteria are reported to have great potential to eliminate heavy metals from food and water. In this study, resistance properties of a newly isolated Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis for cadmium were studied by antioxidant assays and proteomics analysis. Antioxidant capacity of this strain was significantly activated under cadmium stress indicated by Fenton reaction, DPPH assay, SOD assay and GSH assay. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase were suggested to play vital roles in the activated antioxidant capacity. The up-regulated cadA was associated with the activated P-type ATPases that plays an important role in cadmium resistance. Proteomics analysis identified 12 over-expressed proteins under 50mg/L cadmium stress and these proteins are abundant in oxidative stress response and energy metabolism regulation, which were considered as consequences as cadmium resistance of the strain. Thus, the probiotics Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis may resist cadmium stress through antioxidant approach and enhanced energy metabolism. The food grade lactis strain may be applied in metal decontamination in environment and food/feed. PMID:27522548

  9. Characterization of a cadmium resistance Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain by antioxidant assays and proteome profiles methods.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yao; Yang, Xuan; Lian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination poses a major threat to the environment and human health for their potential toxicity and non-biodegradable properties. At present, some probiotics bacteria are reported to have great potential to eliminate heavy metals from food and water. In this study, resistance properties of a newly isolated Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis for cadmium were studied by antioxidant assays and proteomics analysis. Antioxidant capacity of this strain was significantly activated under cadmium stress indicated by Fenton reaction, DPPH assay, SOD assay and GSH assay. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase were suggested to play vital roles in the activated antioxidant capacity. The up-regulated cadA was associated with the activated P-type ATPases that plays an important role in cadmium resistance. Proteomics analysis identified 12 over-expressed proteins under 50mg/L cadmium stress and these proteins are abundant in oxidative stress response and energy metabolism regulation, which were considered as consequences as cadmium resistance of the strain. Thus, the probiotics Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis may resist cadmium stress through antioxidant approach and enhanced energy metabolism. The food grade lactis strain may be applied in metal decontamination in environment and food/feed.

  10. Mechanical Properties Characterization at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Hanson; Sopp, Jeffery; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2001-05-01

    Nanoindentation is an unique technique that characterizes mechanical properties of materials down to the nanometer scale. With a force range from nanoNewtons to milliNewtons, unique properties of surface structures and thin films in the mesoscale can be routinely quantifieds. With technology continually pushing toward smaller feature size in electronic and mechanical devices as well as biomaterials applications, nanoindentation has become an invaluable method to measure these characteristic features. Here, we report its application in the study the biological hard tissues. For example, using engineered metallic indentation tips, the elastic properties of the 20 nm protein layer in the biocomposite of the abalone shell was measured. The elastic modulus was found to be exceptionally high compared to most synthetic polymers. With the combination of AFM imaging nanoindentation, we were able to measure the difference in deformation behavior at the mesoscale between normal and genetically altered mouse enamel. These measurements were complementary in determining the growth defects resulting from genetically modified enamel proteins. Details of these results and future prospects will be discussed.

  11. Characterization of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE): A xenobiotic responsive element controlling expression of the rat glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene by phenolic antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Rushmore, T.H.; Pickett, C.B. )

    1991-03-11

    The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) is responsible for part of the basal level expression of the Ya subunit gene and for the induction by phenolic antioxidants and metabolites of planar aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). As an initial step in the characterization of the mechanism(s) by which phenolic antioxidants and metabolites of PAH activate transcription via the ARE, the authors prepared 5{prime} and 3{prime}-deletions and point mutants of the 41 bp ARE, transfected them into HepG2 cells and monitored the basal and {beta}-NF inducible activities. Deletion analysis permitted separation of the basal and {beta}-NF inducible components of the ARE. The minimum sequence required for {beta}-NF inducible expression was PuGTGACAAAGCAPu, nucleotides {minus}697 to {minus}687. Point mutations at nucleotides {minus}696, {minus}695, {minus}694, {minus}693, {minus}689 or {minus}688 abolished the {beta}-NF inducible expression. Mutations at the other positions had little or no effect on {beta}-NF inducible expression. Gel shift assays suggest that at least 2 proteins bind to regions within the ARE shown to be important for basal and {beta}-NF inducible expression.

  12. Antioxidants and its Properties as Affected by Extrusion Process: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sajad A; Kumar, Pradyuman

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are important for plant and animal's life or health. These are the substances that protect them from the damage produced by unstable molecules called as free radicals. There are various types of antioxidants to be reported both natural as well as synthetic such as melatonin, Vitamin C, glutathione, tocopherols and tocotrienols, BHA and BHT, etc. A new antioxidant 5-O-[6˝-(3- hydroxy-3methyl glutarate) β-D-glucodise was found while studying bioactive antioxidants from plant foods for nutraceutical product development. Antioxidants have been used for increasing shelf life of various food products including extruded product. Antioxidants, their beneficial advantages and the effect of extrusion on antioxidants were reviewed and found to be effective in increasing the shelf life. This review article discusses recent patents, presents importance of antioxidant, phytochemicals and effect of process of extrusion on antioxidants.

  13. Antioxidants and its Properties as Affected by Extrusion Process: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sajad A; Kumar, Pradyuman

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are important for plant and animal's life or health. These are the substances that protect them from the damage produced by unstable molecules called as free radicals. There are various types of antioxidants to be reported both natural as well as synthetic such as melatonin, Vitamin C, glutathione, tocopherols and tocotrienols, BHA and BHT, etc. A new antioxidant 5-O-[6˝-(3- hydroxy-3methyl glutarate) β-D-glucodise was found while studying bioactive antioxidants from plant foods for nutraceutical product development. Antioxidants have been used for increasing shelf life of various food products including extruded product. Antioxidants, their beneficial advantages and the effect of extrusion on antioxidants were reviewed and found to be effective in increasing the shelf life. This review article discusses recent patents, presents importance of antioxidant, phytochemicals and effect of process of extrusion on antioxidants. PMID:26152136

  14. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p < 0.05) water holding capacity (4.96 and 4.31 g water/g sample, respectively), however oil holding capacity was low (1.59-1.85 g oil/g sample) for the three matrices studied. Regarding the phenolic content, values ranged from 3.78 to 4.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, with MAC showing the highest content. Through high performance liquid chromatography analysis, six compounds were identified and quantified (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, and mangiferin) in the fruit co-products. As observed for the phenolic content, the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) was found in MAC when measured by both DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products.

  15. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p < 0.05) water holding capacity (4.96 and 4.31 g water/g sample, respectively), however oil holding capacity was low (1.59-1.85 g oil/g sample) for the three matrices studied. Regarding the phenolic content, values ranged from 3.78 to 4.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, with MAC showing the highest content. Through high performance liquid chromatography analysis, six compounds were identified and quantified (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, and mangiferin) in the fruit co-products. As observed for the phenolic content, the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) was found in MAC when measured by both DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products. PMID:26984339

  16. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05) during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%). Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05) decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  17. Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México.

    PubMed

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 μg mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  18. Redox properties of the nitronyl nitroxide antioxidants studied via their reactions with nitroxyl and ferrocyanide.

    PubMed

    Bobko, A A; Khramtsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Nitronyl nitroxides (NNs) are the paramagnetic probes that are capable of scavenging physiologically relevant reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, namely superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), and nitroxyl (HNO). NNs are increasingly considered as potent antioxidants and potential therapeutic agents. Understanding redox chemistry of the NNs is important for their use as antioxidants and as paramagnetic probes for discriminative detection of NO and HNO by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Here we investigated the redox properties of the two most commonly used NNs, including determination of the equilibrium and rate constants of their reduction by HNO and ferrocyanide, and reduction potential of the couple NN/hydroxylamine of nitronyl nitroxide (hNN). The rate constants of the reaction of the NNs with HNO were found to be equal to (1-2) × 10(4) M(-1)s(- 1) being close to the rate constants of scavenging superoxide and NO by NNs. The reduction potential of the NNs and iminonitroxides (INs, product of NNs reaction with NO) were calculated based on their reaction constants with ferrocyanide. The obtained values of the reduction potential for NN/hNN (E'0 ≈ 285 mV) and IN/hIN (E' ≈ 495 mV) are close to the corresponding values for vitamin C and vitamin E, correspondingly. The "balanced" scavenging rates of the NNs towards superoxide, NO, and HNO, and their low reduction potential being thermodynamically close to the bottom of the pecking order of oxidizing radicals, might be important factors contributing into their antioxidant activity.

  19. Redox properties of the nitronyl nitroxide antioxidants studied via their reactions with nitroxyl (HNO) and ferrocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Bobko, Andrey A.; Khramtsov, Valery V.

    2016-01-01

    Nitronyl nitroxides (NNs) are the paramagnetic probes that capable of scavenging physiologically relevant reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, namely superoxide, nitric oxide (NO) and nitroxyl (HNO). NNs are increasingly considered as potent antioxidants and potential therapeutic agents. Understanding redox chemistry of the NNs is important for their use as antioxidants and as paramagnetic probes for discriminative detection of NO and HNO by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Here we investigated the redox properties of the two most commonly used NNs, including determination of the equilibrium and rate constants of their reduction by HNO and ferrocyanide, and reduction potential of the couple NN/hydroxylamine of NN (hNN). The rate constants of the reaction of the NNs with HNO were found to be equal to (1-2)×104 M-1s-1 being close to the rate constants of scavenging superoxide and NO by NNs. The reduction potential of the NNs and iminonitroxides (INs, product of NNs reaction with NO) were calculated based on their reaction constants with ferrocyanide. The obtained values of the reduction potential for NN/hNN ( E0′≈285mV) and IN/hIN ( E0′≈495mV) are close to the corresponding values for vitamin c and vitamin e, correspondingly. The “balanced” scavenging rates of the NNs towards superoxide, NO and HNO, and their low reduction potential being thermodynamically close to the bottom of the pecking order of oxidizing radicals, might be important factors contributing into their antioxidant activity. PMID:25789760

  20. Nutrient Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Harungana madagascariensis Stembark Extracts.

    PubMed

    Antia, Bassey Sunday; Ita, Basil Nse; Udo, Uwemedimo Emmanuel

    2015-05-01

    The stembarks of Harungana madagascariensis were analyzed for their content of chemical constituents, antinutrients, vitamin levels, and in vitro antioxidant properties in two solvent systems. Phytochemical screening revealed higher levels of alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids in the methanolic (MHM) extract than in the dichloromethane (DCM) extract. The methanolic extract had higher contents of minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients except K, vitamin B1, and phytic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potentials of the stembark extracts were assessed by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and ferric reducing power. The methanolic extract showed a better antioxidant activity (IC50=87.66±0.97 μg/mL) in the DPPH system. The metal chelating activity was higher in the methanolic extract (92.4% at 20 mg/mL), but lower than the control ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The methanolic extract also showed greater ferric reducing power and was richer in phenolics (132.24±0.61 mgGAE/g) and flavonoids (259.05±2.85 mgQE/g). Antinutrient analysis of the extracts indicated low levels of phytic acid, oxalates, and hydrocyanides below the lethal doses. The LD50 (i.p. mice) of the extracts showed relatively low toxicity in the range 1000-1414 mg/kg. These results support the ethnomedicinal uses of this plant in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress and suggest that consumption of H. madagascariensis is not harmful nutritively.

  1. Nutrient Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Harungana madagascariensis Stembark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Antia, Bassey Sunday; Ita, Basil Nse; Udo, Uwemedimo Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The stembarks of Harungana madagascariensis were analyzed for their content of chemical constituents, antinutrients, vitamin levels, and in vitro antioxidant properties in two solvent systems. Phytochemical screening revealed higher levels of alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids in the methanolic (MHM) extract than in the dichloromethane (DCM) extract. The methanolic extract had higher contents of minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients except K, vitamin B1, and phytic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potentials of the stembark extracts were assessed by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and ferric reducing power. The methanolic extract showed a better antioxidant activity (IC50=87.66±0.97 μg/mL) in the DPPH system. The metal chelating activity was higher in the methanolic extract (92.4% at 20 mg/mL), but lower than the control ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The methanolic extract also showed greater ferric reducing power and was richer in phenolics (132.24±0.61 mgGAE/g) and flavonoids (259.05±2.85 mgQE/g). Antinutrient analysis of the extracts indicated low levels of phytic acid, oxalates, and hydrocyanides below the lethal doses. The LD50 (i.p. mice) of the extracts showed relatively low toxicity in the range 1000–1414 mg/kg. These results support the ethnomedicinal uses of this plant in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress and suggest that consumption of H. madagascariensis is not harmful nutritively. PMID:25785542

  2. Nutrient Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Harungana madagascariensis Stembark Extracts.

    PubMed

    Antia, Bassey Sunday; Ita, Basil Nse; Udo, Uwemedimo Emmanuel

    2015-05-01

    The stembarks of Harungana madagascariensis were analyzed for their content of chemical constituents, antinutrients, vitamin levels, and in vitro antioxidant properties in two solvent systems. Phytochemical screening revealed higher levels of alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids in the methanolic (MHM) extract than in the dichloromethane (DCM) extract. The methanolic extract had higher contents of minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients except K, vitamin B1, and phytic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potentials of the stembark extracts were assessed by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and ferric reducing power. The methanolic extract showed a better antioxidant activity (IC50=87.66±0.97 μg/mL) in the DPPH system. The metal chelating activity was higher in the methanolic extract (92.4% at 20 mg/mL), but lower than the control ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The methanolic extract also showed greater ferric reducing power and was richer in phenolics (132.24±0.61 mgGAE/g) and flavonoids (259.05±2.85 mgQE/g). Antinutrient analysis of the extracts indicated low levels of phytic acid, oxalates, and hydrocyanides below the lethal doses. The LD50 (i.p. mice) of the extracts showed relatively low toxicity in the range 1000-1414 mg/kg. These results support the ethnomedicinal uses of this plant in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress and suggest that consumption of H. madagascariensis is not harmful nutritively. PMID:25785542

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  4. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r (2) = 0.7665-0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Mushroom Mycelia Obtained by Batch Cultivation and Tocopherol Content Affected by Extraction Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r2 = 0.7665–0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products. PMID:25110715

  6. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  7. Effect of roasting on physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Gani, Adil; Tariq, Aanisa; Sharma, Paras; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Haroon Maqbool

    2016-04-15

    Arrowhead tubers with protein, lipid and ash content of 4.60%, 2.27% and 6.15%, respectively were subjected to pan and microwave roasting, converted to flour and studied for physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties. The lightness 'L' of flour decreased significantly (p⩽0.05) from 83.01 to 72.21 while significant increase in 'a' and 'b' color values was observed from -0.27 to 2.49 and 15.49 to 25.35 on roasting. Light transmittance decreased significantly upon roasting and the lowest value (0.80) was showed by pan roasted sample. Significant decrease in pasting properties like peak (963.0-147.7 cP), setback (172.0-97.67 cP) and final viscosity (861.67-202.66 cP) was also recorded on roasting. However, roasting led to increase in pasting temperature from 78.53 to 95.23°C. The water (1.49-2.03 g/g) and oil (1.65-1.85 g/g) absorption capacity increased, while significant decrease was observed in foaming and emulsion properties upon roasting. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and reducing power enhanced upon pan and microwave roasting from 1.02 to 2.42 mg/g (GAE); 44.30% to 46.61%; 74.59% to 76.23%, respectively. Thermal parameters like onset temperature (To) and ΔH decreased while peak temperature (Tp) increased on roasting. PMID:26616959

  8. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  9. Antioxidant and signal modulation properties of plant polyphenols in controlling vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Vladimir A; Potapovich, Alla I; Suhan, Tatyana O; de Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2011-05-11

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) play a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signaling. In the present work we investigated the role of antioxidant and signal modulation properties of plant polyphenols in controlling vascular inflammation. Significant decrease in intracellular NO level and superoxide overproduction was found in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with oxLDL, but not with LDL. The redox imbalance was prevented by the addition of quercetin or resveratrol. Expression analysis of 14 genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation revealed oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of genes specifically involved in leukocyte recruitment and adhesion. This up-regulation could be partially avoided by the addition of verbascoside or resveratrol, while treatment with quercetin resulted in a further increase in the expression of these genes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HUVEC were also used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potency of plant polyphenols. Significant differences between HUVEC treaded with oxLDL and LPS were found in both the expression pattern of inflammation-related genes and the effects of plant polyphenols on cellular responses. The present data indicate that plant polyphenols may affect vascular inflammation not only as antioxidants but also as modulators of inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  10. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  11. A Study of the Preparation and Properties of Antioxidative Copper Inks with High Electrical Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Yang; Chang, Wei-Chen; Chen, Guan-Lin; Chung, Cheng-Huan; Liang, Jun-Xiang; Ma, Wei-Yang; Yang, Tsun-Neng

    2015-12-01

    Conductive ink using copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention in the printed electronics industry because of its low cost and high electrical conductivity. However, the problem of easy oxidation under heat and humidity conditions for copper material limits the wide applications. In this study, antioxidative copper inks were prepared by dispersing the nanoparticles in the solution, and then conductive copper films can be obtained after calcining the copper ink at 250 °C in nitrogen atmosphere for 30 min. A low sheet resistance of 47.6 mΩ/□ for the copper film was measured by using the four-point probe method. Importantly, we experimentally demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of copper films can be improved by increasing the calcination temperature. In addition, these highly conductive copper films can be placed in an atmospheric environment for more than 6 months without the oxidation phenomenon, which was verified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). These observations strongly show that our conductive copper ink features high antioxidant properties and long-term stability and has a great potential for many printed electronics applications, such as flexible display systems, sensors, photovoltaic cells, and radio frequency identification. PMID:26370132

  12. Conformational, electronic and antioxidant properties of lucidone, linderone and methyllinderone: DFT, QTAIM and NBO studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanda, Mwadham M.; Tan Tran, Van; Seema, Kamogelo M.; Serobatse, Kemoabetswe R. N.; Tsiepe, Tshepiso J.; Tran, Quoc Tri; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical studies on lucidone, linderone and methyllinderone were performed to investigate factors that contribute to structural stability and to elucidate the antioxidant properties and mechanisms. The study was performed in different media utilising the density functional theory with different functionals and the 6-311+ G(d,p) basis set. The antioxidant activity has been considered through the electron transfer and metal chelation mechanisms. The results show that the stability of the tautomers and conformers is due to the presence of several intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The ionisation potential values suggest that the antiradical activity increases with the increase in the number of OCH3 groups substituted on the cyclopentene-1,3-dione ring. In vacuo, the spin density of the Fe(II) cation upon ligand coordination decreases to 3.0-3.5, whereas the ligand spin density approaches 1, indicating that it is oxidised to a radical cation. The metal ion affinity (MIA) is influenced by the position and number of OCH3 substituted on the acylcyclopentene-1,3-dione ring. A very favourable MIA, in vacuo, is obtained when Fe(II) is chelated between the sp2 O and sp3 O atoms. An estimation of MIA in an aqueous solution shows a remarkable decrease with respect to the results in vacuo.

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of phenolic rich fraction of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yogendra Kumar, M S; Tirpude, R J; Maheshwari, D T; Bansal, Anju; Misra, Ksipra

    2013-12-15

    Phenolic rich fraction (PRF) from Seabuckthorn leaves was prepared by sequential fractionation. Total phenolic content of PRF estimated as gallic acid equivalent was found to be 319.33±7.02 mg/g of PRF. Its major constituents gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, were found in the range of 1.551-196.89 mg/g of PRF as determined by RP-HPLC. Antioxidant activity of PRF evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging assays. Reducing power of PRF increased with increasing amount of PRF; the equation of reducing power (y) and amount of PRF (x) was y=8.004x (r(2)=0.99), indicating that reducing ability correlated well with amount of PRF. Antibacterial activity of PRF, tested against certain medically important bacterial species showed growth inhibiting effect against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, PRF has potent antioxidant and broad spectrum antibacterial properties. PMID:23993505

  14. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C.

  15. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity.

  16. Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of the sim fruit (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Lai, Thi Ngoc Ha; André, Christelle; Rogez, Hervé; Mignolet, Eric; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thuy; Larondelle, Yvan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, detailed chemical properties of sim (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk.) fruit including nutritional composition, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined for the first time. A 150g serving of sim fruit contained high levels of dietary fibre (69.94-87.43% of Recommended Daily Intake (RDI)), α-tocopherol (38.90-51.87% RDI), manganese (>100% RDI), and copper (44.44% RDI) but low levels of protein (2.63% RDI), lipid (1.59-3.5% RDI), and sugars (5.65% RDI). The predominant fatty acid in the sim fruit sample was linoleic acid (75.36% of total fatty acids). Interestingly, total phenolics (49.21±0.35mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW)) were particularly high and resulted in a high antioxidant capacity (431.17±14.56μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g DW). These results, together with our recent discovery of high amount of piceatannol, a stilbene with potent biological activities, highlight the potential of sim, an under-utilised plant species from South-East Asia, as a new source of health-promoting compounds including dietary fibres, essential fatty acids, and phenolic compounds.

  17. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C. PMID:27478231

  18. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors.

  19. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of phenolic fractions from Andean purple corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2006-06-28

    The antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of various phenolic fractions obtained from Andean purple corn were examined by the Ames test and the DPPH antiradical assay. An anthocyanin-rich water fraction (WF) and an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed a dose-dependent antimutagenic behavior against the food mutagen Trp-P-1 with IC50 values of 321.7 +/- 21.36 and 95.2 +/- 10.95 microg of chlorogenic acid equiv/plate, respectively, indicating that EAF was a more potent antimutagen. The antioxidant activities for WF and EAF were 1.019 +/- 0.05 and 0.838 +/- 0.11 microg of Trolox equiv/mug of phenolics, respectively. Further fractionation of WF and EAF revealed an ethyl acetate subfraction, EA-IV, with high antimutagen potency that contained a quercetin derivative. The mechanism of antimutagenic action of the WF is predominantly a blocking effect on the S-9 Mix activation system of the mutagen, whereas for the EAF, it is a dual mechanism involving blocking of the S-9 Mix and a scavenging action on Trp-P-1 electrophiles. PMID:16786998

  20. Antioxidant versus anti-diabetic properties of leaves from Vernonia amygdalina Del. growing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Atangwho, Item J; Egbung, Godwin E; Ahmad, Mariam; Yam, Mun F; Asmawi, Mohd Z

    2013-12-15

    The antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of the sequential extracts of Vernonia amygdalina based on the chemical composition of the most effective anti-diabetic extract were studied. Using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging as well as FRAP assays, the extracts showed a consistent dose-dependent trend of potent antioxidant activity in the following solvents: water extract>methanol extract>chloroform extract>and petroleum ether extracts. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the chloroform extract exerted the highest response (33.3%), similar to metformin (27.2%), after 2h compared to the control (50.8%, P<0.05). After a 14-day administration in diabetic rats, the chloroform extract recorded the highest blood (23.5%) and serum (21.4%) glucose-lowering effects (P<0.05). GC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract revealed high levels of linoleic acid (4.72%), α-linolenic acid (10.8%) and phytols (12.0%), as well as other compounds. PMID:23993503

  1. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemoprotective Properties of Acacia catechu Heartwood Extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu heartwood are rich source of catechin and epicatechin (gallic acid derivatives), with smaller amounts of flavonoids. Extracts have also been prepared with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol, and the properties of these extracts have been studied and are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This antioxidant activity is believed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory, tissue protectant, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities that have been demonstrated and clearly established in animal and cell culture systems. Furthermore, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. No adverse effects have been observed in animal or human studies or in cell culture systems. In spite of the fact that Acacia products have been used for many years and the general safety of catechins and epicatechins is well documented, few human studies have ever been conducted on the efficacy or safety of A. catechu heartwood extracts. Several studies have shown that a two-ingredient combination product containing A. catechu extract exhibited no adverse effects when administered daily for up to 12 weeks while exhibiting significant anti-inflammatory activity in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a need for additional human clinical studies with regard to efficacy and safety.

  2. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Roll, Mariana Matos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Salgado, Hugo Leonardo Crisóstomo; Santos, Alberdan Silva; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-05-13

    Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997). GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Tests in vitro showed that oil sample 3 from southwestern of Brazilian Amazon had a high antioxidant capacity that may protect biological systems from oxidative stress, although this activity remains to be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27192128

  3. Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

  4. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Roll, Mariana Matos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Salgado, Hugo Leonardo Crisóstomo; Santos, Alberdan Silva; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997). GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effect