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Sample records for characterize early life

  1. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and the environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We describe the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell, Ptychobranchus jonesi, and compare methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on conglutinate-producing mussel species. Both the glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on the 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate < 1%. We characterize P. jonesi as a host fish specialist that fractionally releases conglutinates from late January to early June. Intact P. jonesi conglutinate resemble a simuliid fly larva attached to an egg, but the majority of conglutinates were released as segments representing separate egg-- or larva--mimics. Viability of glochidia encased within a conglutinate was > 90% for at least 5 days. Directly feeding conglutinates to fishes allowed us to estimate natural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts using an inoculation bath. Each method for measuring fecundity produced similar estimates but the regression, which estimated fecundity based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment, was most practical. The distribution information, coupled with early life history description and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials, may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi, specifically during recovery

  2. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  3. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  4. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi) with host-fish determination and fecundity estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We described the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi and compared methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on this conglutinate-producing mussel species. Glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate <1%. We characterize P. jonesi as a host-fish specialist that fractionally releases conglutinates from late January to early June. Intact P. jonesi conglutinates resemble simuliid fly larvae attached to an egg-like structure, but most conglutinates were released as segments representing separate egg or larva mimics. Viability of glochidia encased within a conglutinate was >90% for ≥5 d. Feeding conglutinates directly to fishes allowed us to estimate seminatural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts in an inoculation bath. Regressions based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment were the most practical method used to estimate fecundity. Species distribution information, early life-history description, and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  5. Life-threatening methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency with extremely early onset: characterization of two novel mutations in compound heterozygous patients.

    PubMed

    Forges, Thierry; Chery, Céline; Audonnet, Sandra; Feillet, François; Gueant, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzymatic component of the folate cycle, converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate into 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for remethylation of homocysteine into methionine. Severe MTHFR deficiency is a rare recessive disease leading to major hyperhomocysteinemia, homocystinuria, and progressive neurological distress within the two first decades of life. More than 50 mutations have been reported so far in affected patients but only a few cases with very early onset of symptoms during the first weeks have been described, most of them showing a particular severe clinical course. We detected two novel mutations by direct sequencing of MTHFR in compound heterozygous patients with extremely low or undetectable enzyme activity; one of them had clinical onset during the first week of life and fatal issue at the age of six weeks. Prenatal diagnosis of his sibling allowed for early treatment with B vitamins and betaine and a favorable outcome. One of these mutations (c.523G>A) led to an Ala>Thr transition in the catalytic domain of the enzyme, the other (c.1166G>A) induced alternative splicing of exon 7 at the junction of the catalytic and regulatory domains. Both parents carried only one of these mutations and presented with moderate and intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia, respectively, without neurological symptoms. Severe MTHFR deficiency thus has to be taken into consideration when investigating neurological distress even in the newborn, regarding the need for an earliest possible treatment. Characterization of the relatives further allows for preventive measure to limit the risks of chronic hyperhomocysteinemia.

  6. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  7. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  8. Early life origins of obesity.

    PubMed

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  9. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality.

  10. Early Life Bereavement and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hong; Olsen, Jørn; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingus, Sven; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to examine whether early life bereavement, as indicator of severe stress, was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life. Based on population registers, we established a cohort of all children born in Denmark (N = 1 686 416) and Sweden (N = 2 563 659) from 1973 to 1997. Children were categorized as exposed if they lost a first-degree relative during the first 18 years of life. Outcome is the first diagnosis of schizophrenia as either inpatient or outpatient. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). A total of 188,850 children (4.6%) experienced death of a first-degree relative from birth to 18 years of age. Compared with unexposed children, those exposed had overall a 39% higher risk of schizophrenia (= 1.39, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.32–1.47). The IRR was particularly high if the family member committed suicide (aIRR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.90–2.34) or died due to an injury or accident (aIRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27–1.63). The IRR of schizophrenia decreased with increasing child's age at bereavement (P < 0.0001). Children who experienced >1 death during the first 18 years of life (aIRR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.46–2.19) had a higher risk than those with a single death (aIRR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.30–1.45). The study suggested that exposure to death of a first-degree relative before 18 years was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in later life. The complex mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated. PMID:26817875

  11. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  12. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  13. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  14. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  15. Development of immunity in early life.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Anu; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2015-06-01

    The immune system in early life goes through rapid and radical changes. Early life is also the period with the highest risk of infections. The foetal immune system is programmed to coexist with foreign antigenic influences in utero, and postnatally to rapidly develop a functional system capable of distinguishing helpful microbes from harmful pathogens. Both host genetics and environmental influences shape this dramatic transition and direct the trajectory of the developing immune system into early childhood and beyond. Given the malleability of the immune system in early life, interventions aimed at modulating this trajectory thus have the potential to translate into considerable reductions in infectious disease burden with immediate as well as long-lasting benefit. However, an improved understanding of the underlying molecular drivers of early life immunity is prerequisite to optimise such interventions and transform the window of early life vulnerability into one of opportunity. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  17. The Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  18. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  19. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  20. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  1. Micro- to nano-scale mapping and characterization of low-temperature metamorphism in Archean subseafloor metabasalts with implications for early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Eugene; McLoughlin, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    In modern oceanic environments, the low-temperature alteration of subseafloor basaltic glass provides potential chemical energy argued to sustain deep microbial ecosystems. By analogy, it has been argued that early Archean subseafloor pillow lava sequences may provide an environment in which to seek evidence for the earliest traces of microbial life on Earth, and possibly on Mars. Microtextures in metavolcanic pillow lavas from the ca. 3.55 - 3.10 billion-year-old Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa have been argued to represent the remains of microbes that tunneled into Archean subseafloor volcanic glass [1]. The filamentous titanite microtextures occurring in a quartz-chlorite-epidote matrix have been argued to represent Earth's oldest trace fossil. However, distinguishing abiotic hydrothermal processes from candidate geochemical and micro-textural biosignatures preserved in early Archean rocks has proven to be a major scientific challenge. Also, very few PT-constraints on ocean-floor metamorphism are available in this greenstone belt. This quest for the earliest traces of life relies upon the ongoing development of in-situ analytical techniques in terms of instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here we employ a wide-range of novel petrological tools and metamorphic thermodynamic modelling techniques to test the biogenicity of microtextures, provide the first constraints on metamorphic conditions on the host metabasalts, and contribute to the search for robust traces of life in the early Archean. This includes in-situ mapping of the microtextures by laser Raman confocal spectroscopy, high-spatial-resolution elemental (C, N, P) mapping and in-situ isotopic measurements by NanoSIMS (nanoscale secondary ion microprobe) to evaluate the candidate biosignatures [2]. We have also developed and applied a new quantitative microscale mapping technique combined with thermodynamic modelling to map out metamorphic conditions surrounding the candidate

  2. Early life events in asthma--diet.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham

    2007-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the recent increase in the prevalence of asthma may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. There is now increasing interest in the possibility that childhood asthma may be influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and/or diet during early childhood. A number of observational studies and a childhood fish oil supplementation study provide little support for the notion that early childhood intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the development of childhood asthma. Recent work however, suggests that supplementation of maternal diet with fish oil is associated with altered neonatal immune responses to allergens. Further work is required to establish whether this immunological observation is translated into clinical outcomes. Two birth cohorts have now reported reduced maternal intake of vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D during pregnancy to be associated with increased asthma and wheezing outcomes in children up to the age of 5 years. Early life diet could modulate the likelihood of childhood asthma by affecting fetal airway development and/or influencing the initial early life interactions between allergens and the immune system. In animal models, vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D have been shown to modify fetal lung development and vitamin E, zinc, vitamin D and PUFA can modulate T-cell responses. Further research, particularly, early life intervention studies need to be carried out to establish whether early life dietary intervention can be used as a public health measure to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma.

  3. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  4. Antibiotics in early life and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition and consequently its metabolic activity, can influence body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth, which is consistent with effects of the microbiota on development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early-life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repressed or promoted growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending its susceptibility to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases, such as obesity and types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25488483

  5. Antibiotics in early life and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cox, Laura M; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition, and consequently the metabolic activity of the microbiota, can affect the body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth. These effects are consistent with the role of the microbiota during development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repression and promotion of growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending the susceptibility of the microbiota to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Early evolution without a tree of life.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F

    2011-06-30

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause.

  7. Early Life Stress, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariful A; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2017-02-01

    Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective. Early life stress presents a complex dynamic featuring a wide spectrum of physiologic alterations: from epigenetic alterations, inflammatory changes, to dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and has further added to the challenge of identifying biomarkers associated with psychiatric disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health's proposed Research Domain Criteria initiative incorporates a dimensional approach to assess discrete domains and constructs of behavioral function that are subserved by identifiable neural circuits. The current neurobiology of early life stress is reviewed in accordance with dimensional organization of Research Domain Criteria matrix and how the findings as a whole fit within the Research Domain Criteria frameworks.

  8. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  9. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  10. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  11. The habitat and nature of early life.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, E G; Sleep, N H

    2001-02-22

    Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope.

  12. Early evolution without a tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942

  13. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  14. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  15. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  16. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  17. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, B R; Summons, R E; Jahnke, L L

    1998-10-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  18. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  19. Early life recorded in archean pillow lavas.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Harald; Banerjee, Neil R; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Staudigel, Hubert; de Wit, Maarten

    2004-04-23

    Pillow lava rims from the Mesoarchean Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa contain micrometer-scale mineralized tubes that provide evidence of submarine microbial activity during the early history of Earth. The tubes formed during microbial etching of glass along fractures, as seen in pillow lavas from recent oceanic crust. The margins of the tubes contain organic carbon, and many of the pillow rims exhibit isotopically light bulk-rock carbonate delta13C values, supporting their biogenic origin. Overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates from the pillow lavas suggest that microbial life colonized these subaqueous volcanic rocks soon after their eruption almost 3.5 billion years ago.

  20. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  1. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  2. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  3. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Culley, Fiona J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines

  5. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M; Openshaw, Peter J M; Culley, Fiona J

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines.

  6. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: Early life conditions and later-life mortality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Norton, Maria C.; Hollingshaus, Michael S.; Mineau, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child’s, adolescent’s, or even young adult’s life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring’s marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent’s remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages. PMID:24530028

  7. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  9. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  10. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  11. Life history and the early origins of health differentials.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Kuzara, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Current epidemiologic models concerning the fetal origins of later health risk are evaluated from the perspectives of evolutionary and developmental biology. Claims of adaptive value for and biological status of fetal programming are critically examined. Life history theory is applied to identify key trade-offs in adaptive strategies that constrain developmental design to use information from the environment to guide ontogeny and establish cost-benefit trade-offs that weigh early survival advantage against remote or unlikely future costs. Expectable environments of evolutionary adaptedness, particularly of gestation, are characterized and their impact on human adaptive design discussed. The roles of neuroendocrine mechanisms in scaffolding life course development, negotiating ongoing cost-benefit trade-offs, and mediating their long-term impacts on function and health are reviewed in detail. Overviews of gestational biology and the postnatal physiologic, cognitive-affective, and behavioral effects of gestational stress identify a shared central role for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Rather than merely mediating stress responses, the axis emerges an agent of resource allocation that draws a common thread among conditions of gestation, postnatal environments, and functional and health-related outcomes. The preponderance of evolutionary and developmental analysis identifies environments as agents on both sides of the health risk equation, by influencing vulnerabilities and capacities established in early and later life course development, and determining exposures and demands encountered over the life course. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Early-life factors and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study early-life factors in relation to endometriosis risk in adulthood. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study was conducted among female enrollees ages 18-49 years of a large, integrated healthcare system in western Washington State. Patients Cases (n=310) were women diagnosed for the first time with endometriosis between years 1996-2001 and controls (n=727) were women without a diagnosis of endometriosis randomly selected from the healthcare system population. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between intrauterine diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, maternal smoking, mother’s age at delivery, firstborn status, birth weight, fetal number, prematurity, and regular soy formula feeding during infancy and endometriosis were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching and confounding variables. Information on early-life factors was ascertained retrospectively by in-person interview, with information on maternal DES use and regular soy formula feeding directly gathered from the participant’s mother or other family member. Results We observed that women who were regularly fed soy formula as infants had over twice the risk of endometriosis compared to unexposed women (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9). Our data also suggested increased endometriosis risk with prematurity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and maternal use of DES (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-4.9, adjusting only for frequency matching variables), although these confidence intervals included the null. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that disruption of development during fetal and infant periods may increase the risk of endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:26211883

  13. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3-specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background-face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors.

  14. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  15. Characterizing the Early Impact Bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    The early bombardment revealed in the larger impact craters and basins on the moon was a major planetary process that affected all bodies in the inner solar system, including the Earth and Mars. Understanding the nature and timing of this bombardment is a fundamental planetary problem. The surface density of lunar impact craters within a given size range on a given lunar surface is a measure of the age of that surface relative to other lunar surfaces. When crater densities are combined with absolute radiometric ages determined on lunar rocks returned to Earth, the flux of large lunar impactors through time can be estimated. These studies suggest that the flux of impactors producing craters greater than 1 km in diameter has been approximately constant over the past approx. 3 Gyr. However, prior to 3.0 - 3.5 Gyr the impactor flux was much larger and defines an early bombardment period. Unfortunately, no lunar surface feature older than approx. 4 Gyr is accurately dated, and the surface density of craters are saturated in most of the lunar highlands. This means that such data cannot define the impactor flux between lunar formation and approx. 4 Gyr ago.

  16. Cortical Reorganization following Injury Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Artzi, Moran; Shiran, Shelly Irene; Weinstein, Maya; Myers, Vicki; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Schertz, Mitchell; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Miller, Elka; Gordon, Andrew M.; Green, Dido; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2016-01-01

    The brain has a remarkable capacity for reorganization following injury, especially during the first years of life. Knowledge of structural reorganization and its consequences following perinatal injury is sparse. Here we studied changes in brain tissue volume, morphology, perfusion, and integrity in children with hemiplegia compared to typically developing children, using MRI. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated reduced total cerebral volume, with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and reduced total white matter volumes, with no differences in total gray matter volume, compared to typically developing children. An increase in cortical thickness at the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion (CLH) was detected in motor and language areas, which may reflect compensation for the gray matter loss in the lesion area or retention of ipsilateral pathways. In addition, reduced cortical thickness, perfusion, and surface area were detected in limbic areas. Increased CSF volume and precentral cortical thickness and reduced white matter volume were correlated with worse motor performance. Brain reorganization of the gray matter within the CLH, while not necessarily indicating better outcome, is suggested as a response to neuronal deficits following injury early in life. PMID:27298741

  17. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  18. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Early environmental origins of neurodegenerative disease in later life.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Butler, Robert N; Trasande, Leonardo; Callan, Richard; Droller, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), the two most common neurodegenerative disorders in American adults, are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors. In this article we hypothesize that environmental exposures in early life may be of particular etiologic importance and review evidence for the early environmental origins of neurodegeneration. For PD the first recognized environmental cause, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), was identified in epidemiologic studies of drug abusers. Chemicals experimentally linked to PD include the insecticide rotenone and the herbicides paraquat and maneb; interaction has been observed between paraquat and maneb. In epidemiologic studies, manganese has been linked to parkinsonism. In dementia, lead is associated with increased risk in chronically exposed workers. Exposures of children in early life to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury have been followed by persistent decrements in intelligence that may presage dementia. To discover new environmental causes of AD and PD, and to characterize relevant gene-environment interactions, we recommend that a large, prospective genetic and epidemiologic study be undertaken that will follow thousands of children from conception (or before) to old age. Additional approaches to etiologic discovery include establishing incidence registries for AD and PD, conducting targeted investigations in high-risk populations, and improving testing of the potential neurologic toxicity of chemicals.

  20. Early Environmental Origins of Neurodegenerative Disease in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Butler, Robert N.; Trasande, Leonardo; Callan, Richard; Droller, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), the two most common neurodegenerative disorders in American adults, are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors. In this article we hypothesize that environmental exposures in early life may be of particular etiologic importance and review evidence for the early environmental origins of neurodegeneration. For PD the first recognized environmental cause, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), was identified in epidemiologic studies of drug abusers. Chemicals experimentally linked to PD include the insecticide rotenone and the herbicides paraquat and maneb; interaction has been observed between paraquat and maneb. In epidemiologic studies, manganese has been linked to parkinsonism. In dementia, lead is associated with increased risk in chronically exposed workers. Exposures of children in early life to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury have been followed by persistent decrements in intelligence that may presage dementia. To discover new environmental causes of AD and PD, and to characterize relevant gene–environment interactions, we recommend that a large, prospective genetic and epidemiologic study be undertaken that will follow thousands of children from conception (or before) to old age. Additional approaches to etiologic discovery include establishing incidence registries for AD and PD, conducting targeted investigations in high-risk populations, and improving testing of the potential neurologic toxicity of chemicals. PMID:16140633

  1. Altered GABA Signaling in Early Life Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of seizures is particularly high in the early ages of life. The immaturity of inhibitory systems, such as GABA, during normal brain development and its further dysregulation under pathological conditions that predispose to seizures have been speculated to play a major role in facilitating seizures. Seizures can further impair or disrupt GABAA signaling by reshuffling the subunit composition of its receptors or causing aberrant reappearance of depolarizing or hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor currents. Such effects may not result in epileptogenesis as frequently as they do in adults. Given the central role of GABAA signaling in brain function and development, perturbation of its physiological role may interfere with neuronal morphology, differentiation, and connectivity, manifesting as cognitive or neurodevelopmental deficits. The current GABAergic antiepileptic drugs, while often effective for adults, are not always capable of stopping seizures and preventing their sequelae in neonates. Recent studies have explored the therapeutic potential of chloride cotransporter inhibitors, such as bumetanide, as adjunctive therapies of neonatal seizures. However, more needs to be known so as to develop therapies capable of stopping seizures while preserving the age- and sex-appropriate development of the brain. PMID:21826277

  2. The lifespan consequences of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri

    2012-07-16

    Early life stress (ELS), an experience of severe stress due for example to parental loss, abuse or neglect during the childhood years, may have profound long-term effects on the individual's physiology and psychology. Here we review the findings of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-44 (n=13,345), of whom approximately 14% were temporarily separated from both their parents due to child evacuations in World War II. The children were evacuated from Finland, unaccompanied by their parents, to other countries in Scandinavia (Sweden and Denmark) at the average age of 4.7 years (SD=2.4 years) and for an average period of 1.7 years (SD=1.0 years). Information on these separations for each member of the HBCS was derived from the Finnish National Archives. We found significant effects of ELS on psychiatric morbidity and mortality, intellectual ability, stress reactivity, reproductive history, and inter-generational social mobility. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Early Earth: Lava Floods and Life Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    At the earliest stages of the Earth development, in Archean, a large part of the Earth was molten due to active volcanism and intense meteorite bombardment that ended about 4.0 GA. Stopping or weakening of the cosmic bombardment has allowed the planet to cool and form a solid crust. It is from this time geologically documented history of the Earth begins. Accordingly, the earliest Earth rocks are igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks were formed later (the oldest metasedimentary rocks - 3.7-3.85 GA). Therefore, the question of microorganism colonization of lava at the earliest stages of life evolution on the Earth is of paramount importance. A few model objects were chosen for investigation of microbial colonization of getting cold lava floods. Among them Early Protherozoic pillow-lavas of Karelia (2.41 and 2.2 GA) and South Africa (2.22 GA). Modern volcanic glasses of pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge were used as comparative material.

  4. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  5. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  6. PARAOXONASE-1 AND EARLY LIFE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute and chronic exposures to widely used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are common. Children’s detoxification mechanisms are not well developed until several years after birth. The increased cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, together with their increased susceptibility to OP neurotoxicity cannot be explained by genetic factors alone but could be related to gene-environment interactions. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that can detoxify OPs but its catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to certain OPs is modulated by the Q192R polymorphism. Findings Studies in animals have provided important information on the role of PON1 in protecting against gestational and postnatal toxicity to OPs. The PON1Q192 allele is less efficient hydrolyzing certain OPs than the PON1R192 allele. Maternal PON1 status (PON1 activity levels, the most important measurement, and functional Q192R phenotype) modulates the detrimental effects of exposure to the OP chlorpyrifos oxon on fetal brain gene expression and biomarkers of exposure. Epidemiological studies suggest that children from mothers with lower PON1 status that were in contact with OPs during pregnancy tend to show smaller head circumference at birth and adverse effects in cognitive function during childhood. Conclusion Infants and children are vulnerable to OP toxicity. The detrimental consequences of OPs on neurodevelopment can lead to future generations with permanent cognitive problems and susceptibility to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Improved methods using mass spectrometry to monitor OP-adducted biomarker proteins are needed and will be extremely helpful in early life biomonitoring, while measurement of PON1 status as a biomarker of susceptibility will help identify mothers and children highly sensitive to OPs. The use of adductomics instead of enzymatic activity assays for biomonitoring OP exposures have proved to provide several advantages, including the use of dried blood spots

  7. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  8. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Krugers, Harm J; Arp, J Marit; Xiong, Hui; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Korosi, Aniko; Joels, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life -at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  9. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    PubMed Central

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  10. The early evolution of life: solution to Darwin's dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of Precambrian fossils indicate that life on Earth originated earlier than assumed, microscopic life was prevalent in the Precambrian Eon, the tempo and mode of evolution during the Precambrian period were different from other periods, and that only the Precambrian fossil record can be used as evidence of early life. Implications for future research include directing the search for the origin of life away from the geological record, modification of hypotheses about molecular change, use of Precambrian microfossils in dating younger geological units, and progress in defining the nature of major events in early evolution.

  11. The early evolution of life: solution to Darwin's dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of Precambrian fossils indicate that life on Earth originated earlier than assumed, microscopic life was prevalent in the Precambrian Eon, the tempo and mode of evolution during the Precambrian period were different from other periods, and that only the Precambrian fossil record can be used as evidence of early life. Implications for future research include directing the search for the origin of life away from the geological record, modification of hypotheses about molecular change, use of Precambrian microfossils in dating younger geological units, and progress in defining the nature of major events in early evolution.

  12. Nanosystem Characterization Tools in the Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first dedicated, all-encompassing text characterizes nanomaterials intended for biological or physiological environments and biomedical applications, in particular for medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. It finally fills the gap for a concise overview of a wide range of different characterization techniques and how to best employ them in the context of nanoscale life science research. It thus serves as a single source of information gathering up the knowledge otherwise spread over many journal articles, and provides an overall picture to members of all the disciplines involved. This handy volume covers all important probing techniques, including nuclear and electron spin resonance, light scattering, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic resonance, tomography, x-ray techniques, and microbalance measurement of antibody binding. Biochemists, biologists, chemists, materials scientists, and materials engineers as well as all others working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries or at related research institutions will here a book of great value and importance.

  13. Early-life risk factors for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Copenhaver, Cathleen I; Mortimer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Research findings obtained over the past 20 years suggest that Alzheimer disease (AD) may have its origins in early life. In this review, we consider the evidence for early-life risk factors for this illness. We propose that risk factors that predict neuropathology are largely distinct from those related to the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. Early-life risk factors for pathology include genes, chromosomal abnormalities, head injury, insulin resistance, and inflammation. With regard to risk factors for clinical expression of Alzheimer disease, six general groups of childhood exposures are reviewed: (1) perinatal conditions, (2) early-life brain development, (3) early-life body growth, (4) early-life socioeconomic conditions, (5) environmental enrichment, and (6) cognitive reserve. The literature reviewed suggests that risk of Alzheimer disease is probably not determined in any single time period but results from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental exposures throughout the life course. Enhancement or preservation of brain or cognitive reserve could delay the onset of Alzheimer disease and in some cases prevent the disease from occurring altogether.

  14. The influence of living conditions in early life on life satisfaction in old age.

    PubMed

    Deindl, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This article examines the influence of living conditions in early life on life satisfaction in old age in eleven Western European countries. It combines the influence of individual conditions, for example housing and family background, with country characteristics in the decade of birth. Using pooled data from the second and third wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, multilevel models show that early life living conditions have an influence on life satisfaction in old age. Furthermore, interaction effects between current and past living conditions show that adverse living conditions strengthen the effect of early life on life satisfaction in later life and therefore are an indication of cumulative inequality over the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact Craters as Habitats for Life on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; Banerjee, N. R.; Cockell, C. S.; Flemming, R.; Izawa, M. R. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Pontefract, A.; Parnell, J.; Sapers, H.; Southam, G.

    2012-05-01

    In this contribution we present a case that impact craters on Early Mars would have represented prime habitats for life, and potentially for its origin, and that impact craters, therefore, should be prime exploration targets for future missions.

  16. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health.

    PubMed

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2009-12-01

    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  17. Brain 'Rewires' to Work Around Early-Life Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_164230.html Brain 'Rewires' to Work Around Early-Life Blindness These differences appear to ... areas implicated in memory, language processing and sensory motor functions," added Bauer. Learning more about these connections ...

  18. Imprinting: When Early Life Memories Make Food Smell Bad.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; Alkema, Mark J

    2016-05-09

    A recent study has found that pathogen exposure early in the life of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans leads to a long-lasting aversion that requires distinct sets of neurons for the formation and retrieval of the imprinted memory.

  19. Conway's Game of Life: Early Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Robert

    When the October 1970 issue of Scientific American arrived, I had no idea the extent to which Martin Gardner's article in that issue would affect my life. As long as I can remember, my custom would be to seek out the Mathematical Games column in search for Gardner's latest topic with the usual reader challenges. My first reaction to that particular article introducing a new pastime titled "The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game 'life''' was only mildly interesting. A couple of days later, still curious about the outcome of random patterns, I located an old checkerboard and a small jarful of pennies to investigate this new game.

  20. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. PMID:26385447

  1. Understanding personality traits from early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Fujihara, Shigeki

    2003-06-01

    The contribution of early experiences towards the onset of personality disorder has often been stressed. However, the contribution to trait personality has received less attention. To examine the impact of early experiences on the development of personality, two subscale scores of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ): neuroticism (N) and extroversion (E), were used to assess a total of 220 residents of a rural city of Japan (aged > or =18 years). After controlling for age and social desirability response bias, the N score of men could be predicted by the experience of relocation; the E score of men by high parental care and low parental overprotection; and the E score of women by the experience of death of a sibling. Personality traits in a non-patient population may be explained by early experiences.

  2. Early life perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) exposure impairs zebrafish organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Tal, Tamara L.; Bai, Chenglian; Tilton, Susan C.; Jin, Daqing; Yang, Dongren; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    As a persistent organic contaminant, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The present study revealed that zebrafish embryos exposed to 16 µM PFOS during a sensitive window of 48–96 hour post-fertilization (hpf) disrupted larval morphology at 120 hpf. Malformed zebrafish larvae were characterized by uninflated swim bladder, less developed gut, and curved spine. Histological and ultrastructural examination of PFOS-exposed larvae showed structural alterations in swim bladder and gut. Whole genome microarray was used to identify the early transcripts dysregulated following exposure to 16 µM PFOS at 96 hpf. In total, 1,278 transcripts were significantly misexpressed (p < 0.05) and 211 genes were changed at least two-fold upon PFOS exposure in comparison to the vehicle exposed control group. A PFOS-induced network of perturbed transcripts relating to swim bladder and gut development revealed that misexpression of genes were involved in organogenesis. Taken together, early life stage exposure to PFOS perturbs various molecular pathways potentially resulting in observed defects in swim bladder and gut development. PMID:24667235

  3. Life course influences on quality of life in early old age.

    PubMed

    Blane, D; Higgs, P; Hyde, M; Wiggins, R D

    2004-06-01

    A growing literature demonstrates life course influences on health in early old age. The present paper is the first to examine whether similar processes also influence quality of life in early old age. The question is theorised in terms of structured dependency and third age, and the life course pathways by which people arrive at these destinations in later life. The issues are investigated in a unique data set that contains health and life course information on some 300 individuals mostly aged 65-75 years, enhanced in 2000 by postal survey data on quality of life. Several types of life course effect are identified at conventional levels of statistical significance. Long-term influences on quality of life, however, are less marked than those on health. Quality of life in early old age appears to be influenced primarily by current contextual factors such as material circumstances and serious health problems, with the influence of the life course limited mostly to its shaping of an individual's circumstances in later life. The implication for policy is that disadvantage during childhood and adulthood does not preclude good quality of life in early old age.

  4. Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited.

  5. Early life residence, fish consumption and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsdottir, Alfheidur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Aspelund, Thor; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Torfadottir, Johanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer. Methods We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908–1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the AGES-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882). Results During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study. An inverse association of breast cancer was observed among women who lived through the puberty period in coastal villages, compared with women residing in the capital area (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99). In the subgroup analysis of this Icelandic population, generally characterized by high fish intake, we found an indication of lower risk of breast cancer among women with high fish consumption (more than 4 portions per week) in adolescence (HR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.44, 1.13) and midlife (HR 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22, 0.97), compared with low consumers (2 portions per week or less). No association was found for fish liver oil consumption in any time period which could be due to lack of a reference group with low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the study group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that very high fish consumption in early to midlife may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Impact Very high fish consumption in early adulthood to midlife may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27765796

  6. Lovaas Institute for Early Intervention (LIFE)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    For many years, O. Ivar Lovaas ran a small clinic for children with autism through the department of psychology at UCLA, with undergraduate students providing most of the direct instruction. Throughout the 1970s, the clinic enrolled just a few children in treatment at a time. By the early 1980s, the active caseload had increased to about 5–10 children, and this number rose slowly over the next few years. However, after the publication of Lovaas's landmark study of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in 1987, followed by an extraordinary firsthand account of one family's experience with the intervention (Maurice, 1993), Lovaas began receiving more requests for treatment in a single day than he had previously received over an entire year. PMID:27999637

  7. Lovaas Institute for Early Intervention (LIFE).

    PubMed

    Smith, Tristram

    2013-01-01

    For many years, O. Ivar Lovaas ran a small clinic for children with autism through the department of psychology at UCLA, with undergraduate students providing most of the direct instruction. Throughout the 1970s, the clinic enrolled just a few children in treatment at a time. By the early 1980s, the active caseload had increased to about 5-10 children, and this number rose slowly over the next few years. However, after the publication of Lovaas's landmark study of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in 1987, followed by an extraordinary firsthand account of one family's experience with the intervention (Maurice, 1993), Lovaas began receiving more requests for treatment in a single day than he had previously received over an entire year.

  8. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2006-02-08

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  9. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    ScienceCinema

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  10. Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular clock studies date the origin of Metazoa to 750–800 million years ago (Ma), roughly coinciding with evidence from geochemical proxies that oxygen levels rose from less than 0.1% present atmospheric level (PAL) to perhaps 1–3% PAL O2. A younger origin of Metazoa would require greatly increased substitution rates across many clades and many genes; while not impossible, this is less parsimonious. Yet the first fossil evidence for metazoans (the Doushantuo embryos) about 600 Ma is followed by the Ediacaran fossils after 580 Ma, the earliest undisputed bilaterians at 555 Ma, and an increase in the size and morphologic complexity of bilaterians around 542 Ma. This temporal framework suggests a missing 150–200 Myr of early metazoan history that encompasses many apparent novelties in the early evolution of the nervous system. This span includes two major glaciations, and complex marine geochemical changes including major changes in redox and other environmental changes. One possible resolution is that animals of these still unknown Cryogenian and early Ediacaran ecosystems were relatively simple, with highly conserved developmental genes involved in cell-type specification and simple patterning. In this model, complex nervous systems are a convergent phenomenon in bilaterian clades which occurred close to the time that larger metazoans appeared in the fossil record. PMID:26554036

  11. Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2015-12-19

    Recent molecular clock studies date the origin of Metazoa to 750-800 million years ago (Ma), roughly coinciding with evidence from geochemical proxies that oxygen levels rose from less than 0.1% present atmospheric level (PAL) to perhaps 1-3% PAL O2. A younger origin of Metazoa would require greatly increased substitution rates across many clades and many genes; while not impossible, this is less parsimonious. Yet the first fossil evidence for metazoans (the Doushantuo embryos) about 600 Ma is followed by the Ediacaran fossils after 580 Ma, the earliest undisputed bilaterians at 555 Ma, and an increase in the size and morphologic complexity of bilaterians around 542 Ma. This temporal framework suggests a missing 150-200 Myr of early metazoan history that encompasses many apparent novelties in the early evolution of the nervous system. This span includes two major glaciations, and complex marine geochemical changes including major changes in redox and other environmental changes. One possible resolution is that animals of these still unknown Cryogenian and early Ediacaran ecosystems were relatively simple, with highly conserved developmental genes involved in cell-type specification and simple patterning. In this model, complex nervous systems are a convergent phenomenon in bilaterian clades which occurred close to the time that larger metazoans appeared in the fossil record.

  12. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  13. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  14. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  15. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  16. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  17. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  18. The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3 years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

  19. Paleolakes and life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. A.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct directions have begun to elucidate key parameters in the search for extinct life on Mars. Carbonate sediments, deposited about 10,000 years ago in association with biological activity, have been sampled from the paleolake beds of Lake Vanda and Meirs in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. These samples are being analyzed for simple biological signatures that remain in cold and dry paleolake sediments, namely microfossils, percent carbonate, and total organic carbon. Our second initiative is the study of Colour Lake, in the Canadian Arctic, that periodically maintains a perennial ice cover. Physical measurements started this year will be used to determine one end point for ice covered lake environments and will be compared to continuous measurements from Antarctic lakes started in November 1985. Interestingly, Colour Lake also supports benthic mat communities, but the low pH precludes carbonate deposition. This research will broaden our knowledge base for what conditions are necessary for ice covered lake formation and what biological signatures will remain in paleolake deposits.

  20. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Methylxanthines during pregnancy and early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict

  2. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  3. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  4. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-09-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change.

  5. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Life Development in a Multiethnic Sample and the Relation to Late Life Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J.; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; Farias, Sarah T.; Mungas, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline. Method. This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. Results. Growth was positively related to higher childhood SES. Higher childhood SES was associated with better semantic memory. Both low growth and low SES were associated with increased rate of cognitive decline. Discussion. These findings demonstrate that early life experiences influence the trajectory of cognitive aging. Early life development and experience appears to provide a distal basis upon which additional risk and protective factors interact in the development of dementia. PMID:24389122

  7. Early life development in a multiethnic sample and the relation to late life cognition.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; Farias, Sarah T; Mungas, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline. This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. Growth was positively related to higher childhood SES. Higher childhood SES was associated with better semantic memory. Both low growth and low SES were associated with increased rate of cognitive decline. These findings demonstrate that early life experiences influence the trajectory of cognitive aging. Early life development and experience appears to provide a distal basis upon which additional risk and protective factors interact in the development of dementia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  8. Does early life trauma affect how depression is experienced by Holocaust survivors in late life?

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-02-06

    Existing research indicates that early life trauma increases the likelihood of depression in later life. This includes children who survived the Nazi Holocaust living in Israel today. For this study, we set out to examine whether early life trauma affects both levels of depression symptomatology and the relative prominence of certain facets of depression as compared to other older adults in Israel and Canada. For this study we recruited 295 Holocaust survivors (HS), 205 other Israelis and 335 older Canadians each of whom completed Radloff's (1977) Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). The CES-D measures four distinct factors: Depressive affect, absence of well-being, somatic symptoms, and interpersonal rejection. Israeli and Canadian comparison participants were screened to ensure they had not experienced early life trauma. As anticipated, levels of depressive symptoms reported by HS were significantly greater than other Israelis and older Canadians. Moreover, the latent structure of depression as measured by the CES-D differs for HS. Depressive affect and the absence of well-being appear to distinguish depression among HS. Somatic symptoms do not differ, however, and interpersonal rejection seems less germane to depression as experienced by HS compared to both comparison samples. Findings support our assertion that early life trauma affects not only levels of depressive symptoms but also that these survivors of genocide experience depression differently than other Israelis and older Canadians. We discuss the implications of early life trauma for mental health in later life.

  9. DNA methylation, ageing and the influence of early life nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Hoile, Samuel P; Grenfell, Leonie; Burdge, Graham C

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that genotype plays an important role in the ageing process. However, recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may also influence the onset of ageing-associated diseases and longevity. Epigenetics is defined as processes that induce heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence. The major epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA. Such processes are involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression, cell differentiation and genomic imprinting. However, epigenetic dysregulation is frequently seen with ageing. Relatively little is known about the factors that initiate such changes. However, there is emerging evidence that the early life environment, in particular nutrition, in early life can induce long-term changes in DNA methylation resulting in an altered susceptibility to a range of ageing-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on the changes in DNA methylation that occur during ageing; their role in the ageing process and how early life nutrition can modulate DNA methylation and influence longevity. Understanding the mechanisms by which diet in early life can influence the epigenome will be crucial for the development of preventative and intervention strategies to increase well-being in later life.

  10. Early life influences on cognitive impairment among oldest old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on the risk of cognitive impairment among oldest old persons in China. We also examine whether adult socioeconomic status mediates the association between early life socioeconomic status and cognitive impairment in old age. Data derived from two waves (1998-2000) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. We estimated logistic and multinomial regression models of cognitive impairment for a nationwide sample of people aged 80 to 105 (N = 8,444). Among both men and women, urban residence in early life as well as education was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment at baseline. We found modest support for a protective effect of advantaged childhood background on the odds of cognitive impairment onset during the 2-year follow-up, especially among women. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic environment throughout the life course, early life in particular, can influence the risk of cognitive impairment in old age. Not only can public policy that targets illiteracy, hunger, and poverty improve the lives of tens of thousands of children, but ultimately such investments will pay significant dividends many decades later in enhancing the cognitive well-being of older persons.

  11. Early-life course socioeconomic factors and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Patrick D; Shoham, David A; Charlton, Jennifer R; Carmody, J Bryan; Reidy, Kimberly J; Harshman, Lyndsay; Segar, Jeffrey; Askenazi, David

    2015-01-01

    Kidney failure or ESRD affects approximately 650,000 Americans, whereas the number with earlier stages of CKD is much higher. Although CKD and ESRD are usually associated with adulthood, it is likely that the initial stages of CKD begin early in life. Many of these pathways are associated with low birth weight and disadvantaged socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood, translating childhood risk into later-life CKD and kidney failure. Social factors are thought to be fundamental causes of disease. Although the relationship between adult SES and CKD has been well established, the role of early childhood SES for CKD risk remains obscure. This review provides a rationale for examining the association between early-life SES and CKD. By collecting data on early-life SES and CKD, the interaction with other periods in the life course could also be studied, allowing for examination of whether SES trajectories (eg, poverty followed by affluence) or cumulative burden (eg, poverty at multiple time points) are more relevant to lifetime CKD risk.

  12. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  13. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  14. Shifts in the life history of parasitic wasps correlate with pronounced alterations in early development.

    PubMed

    Grbić, M; Strand, M R

    1998-02-03

    Developmental processes have been traditionally viewed to be invariant within higher taxa. However, examples are known whereby closely related species exhibit alterations in early embryogenesis yet appear very similar as adults. Such developmental changes are thought to occur in response to shifts in life history. In insects, the regulation of embryonic development has been intensively studied in model species like Drosophila melanogaster. Previous comparative studies suggest that the developmental processes documented in Drosophila well describe embryogenesis of advanced, holometabolous, insects generally. There have been few attempts, however, to take into account how life history has influenced early development of insects or to characterize early development of species with life histories fundamentally different from flies. Here we compared early development of two species from the same family of parasitic wasps that exhibit very different life histories. Bracon hebetor is an ectoparasite that lays large, yolky eggs on the integument of its host that develop much like the free-living honeybee and Drosophila. In contrast, Aphidius ervi is an endoparasite that lays small and apparently yolk-free eggs that develop in the hemocoel of the host. This wasp exhibits a radically different mode of early development at both the cellular and molecular level from B. hebetor. The developmental changes in A. ervi reflect functional adaptations for its derived life history and argue that departures from the fly paradigm may occur commonly among insects whose eggs develop under conditions different from typical terrestrial species.

  15. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses. PMID:22110940

  16. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  17. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  18. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  19. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  20. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  1. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  2. Precedents of perceived social support: personality and early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Kijima, N; Watanabe, K; Takezaki, Y; Tanaka, E

    1999-12-01

    In order to examine the effects of personality and early life experiences on perceived social support, a total of 97 young Japanese women were investigated. Current interpersonal relationships were measured by an interview modified from Henderson et al.'s Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Personality was measured by Cloninger et al.'s Temperament and Character Inventory. Early life experiences at home and outside of home were also identified in the interview. The number of sources of perceived support was correlated with self-directness, while satisfaction with perceived support was correlated with novelty seeking and with low harm avoidance. No early life experiences--early loss of a parent, perceived parenting, childhood abuse experiences, experiences of being bullied and/or other life events--showed significant correlations with the number or satisfaction of supportive people. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their link to personality, and perceived social support may, to some extent, be explainable in terms of personality.

  3. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  4. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  5. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  6. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  7. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  8. New insights into a hot environment for early life.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianghong

    2017-06-01

    Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, the author attempted to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology - cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe - to the field. For this purpose, the author revisited a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB. In vivo, the formation process of the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars on the peptidoglycan of prokaryotic cell wall is parallel to in vitro processes, suggesting that the 1,6-anhydro bond is an ideal CMB-like analogue that suggests a hot setting for early life. The CMB-like 1,6-anhydro bond is involved in the life cycle of viruses and the metabolism of eukaryotes, underlying this notion. From a novel perspective, the application of the concept of the CMB to microbial ecology may give new insights into a hot environment, such as hydrothermal vents, supporting early life and providing hypotheses to test in molecular palaeontology. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease.

  10. Early life factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Winsloe, Chivon; Earl, Susie; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2009-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health burden through associated fragility fractures. Bone mass, a composite of bone size and volumetric density, increases through early life and childhood to a peak in early adulthood. The peak bone mass attained is a strong predictor of future risk of osteoporosis. Evidence is accruing that environmental factors in utero and in early infancy may permanently modify the postnatal pattern of skeletal growth to peak and thus influence risk of osteoporosis in later life. This article describes the latest data in this exciting area of research, including novel epigenetic and translation work, which should help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and give rise to potential public health interventions to reduce the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations.

  11. Early life environment and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Abra Y; Stevens, Betsy W; Wilson, Robin G; Russell, Caitlin N; Cohen, Melissa A; Sturgeon, Holly C; Thornton, Anna; Giallourakis, Cosmas; Khalili, Hamed; Nguyen, Deanna D; Sauk, Jenny; Yajnik, Vijay; Xavier, Ramnik J; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2014-12-16

    Early life exposures may modify risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)). However, the relationship between early life exposures and natural history of IBD has not been previously examined. This single center study included patients with CD or UC recruited in a prospective IBD registry. Enrolled patients completed a detailed environmental questionnaire that assessed various early life environmental exposures. Our primary outcome was requirement for disease-related surgery in CD and UC. Logistic regression models defined independent effect of early life exposures, adjusting for potential confounders. Our study included 333 CD and 270 UC patients. Just over half were female with a median age at diagnosis of 25 years. One-third of the cohort had history of bowel surgery (31%) and nearly half had used at least one biologic agent (47%). Among those with CD, being breastfed was associated with reduced risk of CD-related surgery (34% vs. 55%), while childhood cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased risk. On multivariate analysis, history of being breastfed (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.46) and cigarette smoke exposure as a child (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-4.29) remained independently associated with surgery. None of the early life variables influenced disease phenotype or outcome in UC. A history of being breastfed was associated with a decreased risk while childhood cigarette smoke exposure was associated with an increased risk of surgery in patients with CD. Further investigation to examine biological mechanisms is warranted.

  12. Early life stress and blood pressure levels in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, H; Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2013-02-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term consequences on adult physiological functions. We studied the long-term effects of separation on blood pressure levels in non-obese subjects who were separated temporarily in childhood from their parents during World War II (WWII). The original clinical study cohort consists of people born during 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland. This substudy includes 1361 non-obese subjects (body mass index <30 kg m(-2)). Of these, 192 (14.1%) had been evacuated abroad during WWII. The remaining subjects served as controls. Blood pressure levels and use of blood pressure medication were studied. The separated subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure values than the non-separated (148.6+21.5 vs 142.2+19.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) in adult life. Those subjects separated in early childhood had markedly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in adult life compared with the non-separated (154.6 vs 142.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-14.7; P<0.005 and 90.8 vs 87.7 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.0-7.3; P<0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was also higher in the group separated for a duration of <1 year (151.7 vs 142.2 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.0-12.4; P<0.05) compared with the non-separated. Besides being separated, age at separation and duration of separation also influenced blood pressure levels in adult life. This could be due to early hormonal and metabolic programming, during plastic periods in early life, influencing blood pressure levels in adult life.

  13. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  14. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  15. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  16. DNA methylation, early life environment, and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Schneper, Lisa M.; Notterman, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics, and especially DNA methylation, have recently become provocative biological explanations for early-life environmental effects on later health. Despite the large increase in papers on the topic over the last few years, many questions remain with regards to the biological feasibility of this mechanism and the strength of the evidence to date. In this review, we examine the literature on early-life effects on epigenetic patterns, with special emphasis on social environmental influences. First, we review the basic biology of epigenetic modification of DNA and debate the role of early-life stressful, protective, and positive environments on gene-specific, system-specific, and whole-genome epigenetic patterns later in life. Second, we compare the epigenetic literatures of both humans and other animals and review the research linking epigenetic patterns to health in order to complete the mechanistic pathway. Third, we discuss physical environmental and social environmental effects, which have to date, generally not been jointly considered. Finally, we close with a discussion of the current state of the area’s research, its future direction, and its potential use in pediatric health. PMID:26466079

  17. Familial susceptibility to severe respiratory infection in early life.

    PubMed

    Goetghebuer, Tessa; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Thomson, Anne; Hull, Jeremy

    2004-10-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are common in the first year of life and are mostly caused by viruses. Severity of LRTI in infants is associated with early-life environmental factors. Genetic association studies also suggest a role of heredity in susceptibility to acute bronchiolitis. We designed a case control study to further investigate relative importance of familial influences in risk of LRTI in early childhood compared to environmental factors. From a hospital database, we selected 1,308 children (436 cases; 872 controls) living in Oxfordshire. Cases were children under age 5 years admitted to hospital with LRTI. Parental history and other exposures were recorded in cases and controls by postal questionnaire. Maternal history of asthma increased the risk of severe LRTI in the first year of life, independent of subsequent asthma in a child. History of maternal bronchiolitis also increased the risk of infant LRTI. These results further support the possibility that genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to severe viral respiratory infections in early life, and suggest that this effect may be independent of subsequent childhood asthma.

  18. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function. PMID:21697884

  19. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life.

    PubMed

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-10-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  20. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early life conditions, rapid demographic changes and older adult health in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    McEniry, Mary; McDermott, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The demographic transition of the 1930s–1960s dramatically improved life expectancy in some developing countries. Cohorts born during this time are increasingly characterized by their survivorship of poor early life conditions, such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases. As a result, they are potentially more susceptible to the effects of these conditions at older ages. This study examines this conjecture by comparing obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in older adults born in the beginning portion of the 1930s–1960s across different mortality regimes using a subset of harmonized cross national data from seven low and middle income countries (RELATE, n=16,836). Using birthplace and height as indicators of early life conditions, results show (1) higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher likelihood of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in middle income countries but, (2) no convincing evidence to indicate stronger effects of early life conditions on health in these countries. However, shorter adults living in urban areas were more likely to be obese indicating the overall importance of early life conditions and the potential negative impact of urban exposures during adulthood. Obesity results may foreshadow the health of future cohorts born in the later portion of the 1930s–1960s as they reach older ages (60+). PMID:26266970

  2. Product life trade-offs: what if products fail early?

    PubMed

    Skelton, Alexandra C H; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-02-05

    Increasing product life allows the embodied emissions in products to be spread across a longer period but can mean that opportunities to improve use-phase efficiency are foregone. In this paper, a model that evaluates this trade-off is presented and used to estimate the optimal product life for a range of metal-intensive products. Two strategies that have potential to save emissions are explored: (1) adding extra embodied emissions to make products more sturdy, increasing product life, and (2) increasing frequency of use, causing early product failure to take advantage of improvements in use-phase efficiency. These strategies are evaluated for two specific case studies (long-life washing machines and more frequent use of vehicles through car clubs) and for a range of embodied and use-phase intensive products under different use-phase improvement rate assumptions. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that products often fail neither at their design life nor at their optimal life. Policy recommendations are then made regarding the targeting of these strategies according to product characteristics and the timing of typical product failure relative to optimal product life.

  3. The origin and early evolution of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Oró, J; Miller, S L; Lazcano, A

    1990-01-01

    We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our planet and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites. This is followed by a discussion on the environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean Earth, as well as on the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. We then consider the processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells, and how these processes may have affected the early steps of biological evolution. Finally, the significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the Universe is discussed.

  4. Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    It has been >20 y since epidemiologic studies showed a relation between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted. However, the mechanisms by which a phenomenon that occurs in early life can have long-term effects on the function of a cell and therefore on the metabolism of an organism many years later are only starting to emerge. These mechanisms include 1) permanent structural changes in an organ resulting from suboptimal concentrations of an important factor during a critical period of development, eg, the permanent reduction in β cell mass in the endocrine pancreas; 2) persistent alterations in epigenetic modifications (eg, DNA methylation and histone modifications) that lead to changes in gene expression (eg, several transcription factors are susceptible to programmed changes in gene expression through such mechanisms); and 3) permanent effects on the regulation of cellular aging (eg, increases in oxidative stress that lead to macromolecular damage, including that to DNA and specifically to telomeres, can contribute to such effects). Further understanding of such processes will enable the development of preventive and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  6. Searching for Life on Early Mars: Lessons from the Pilbara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.

  7. Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development.

  8. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-09-22

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, and similar number of food caches available at one year of age as late breeders. Nevertheless, we found evidence of survival costs of early primiparity. Early breeders had a lower survival between one and two years of age than late breeders and a lower lifespan. Our study points out that two reproductive tactics co-occurred in this population: a tactic based on early maturity at the cost of a lower survival versus a tactic based on delayed maturity and long lifespan. High quality individuals express the most profitable tactic by breeding early whereas low quality individuals do the best of a bad job by delaying their first reproduction.

  9. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, and similar number of food caches available at one year of age as late breeders. Nevertheless, we found evidence of survival costs of early primiparity. Early breeders had a lower survival between one and two years of age than late breeders and a lower lifespan. Our study points out that two reproductive tactics co-occurred in this population: a tactic based on early maturity at the cost of a lower survival versus a tactic based on delayed maturity and long lifespan. High quality individuals express the most profitable tactic by breeding early whereas low quality individuals do the best of a bad job by delaying their first reproduction. PMID:16928640

  10. Early life socioeconomic factors and genomic DNA methylation in mid-life.

    PubMed

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Wu, Hui-Chen; Fan, Xiaozhou; Flom, Julie D; Ferris, Jennifer S; Cho, Yoon Hee; Gonzalez, Karina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications may be one mechanism linking early life factors, including parental socioeconomic status (SES), to adult onset disease risk. However, SES influences on DNA methylation patterns remain largely unknown. In a US birth cohort of women, we examined whether indicators of early life and adult SES were associated with white blood cell methylation of repetitive elements (Sat2, Alu and LINE-1) in adulthood. Low family income at birth was associated with higher Sat2 methylation (β = 19.7, 95% CI: 0.4, 39.0 for lowest vs. highest income quartile) and single parent family was associated with higher Alu methylation (β = 23.5, 95% CI: 2.6, 44.4), after adjusting for other early life factors. Lower adult education was associated with lower Sat2 methylation (β = -16.7, 95% CI: -29.0, -4.5). There were no associations between early life SES and LINE-1 methylation. Overall, our preliminary results suggest possible influences of SES across the life-course on genomic DNA methylation in adult women. However, these preliminary associations need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  11. Transcriptomic changes in relation to early-life events in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, E; Tsalafouta, A; Sundaram, A Y M; Gilfillan, G D; Kotoulas, G; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

    2016-07-26

    Teleosts are exposed to a broad range of external stimuli, which may be either of acute or chronic nature. The larval phase of certain fish species offer a unique opportunity to study the interactions between genes and environmental factors during early life. The present study investigates the effects of early-life events, applied at different time points of early ontogeny (first feeding, flexion and development of all fins; Phase 1) as well as on the subsequent juvenile stage after the application of an additional acute stressor (Phase 2) in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a commercially important European aquaculture species. Animal performance, the cortisol response and gene expression patterns during early development as well as on the subsequent phases (juveniles) after the application of additional acute stressors were investigated. Significant differences on fish performance were found only for juveniles exposed to early-life events at the phase of the formation of all fins. On the transcriptome level distinct expression patterns were obtained for larvae as well as for juveniles with the most divergent expression pattern found to be again at the phase of the development of all fins, which showed to have also an impact later on in the acute stress response of juveniles. The present study showed that applying an early-life protocol, characterized by the unpredictable, variable and moderate intensity of the applied stimuli provides a relative realistic model to evaluate the impact of daily aquaculture practices on fish performance. In addition, the power of investigating global gene expression patterns is shown, providing significant insights regarding the response of early-life events during development and as juveniles after the application of extra acute stressors.

  12. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  13. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  14. Determinants of early life immune responses to RSV infection.

    PubMed

    Ruckwardt, Tracy J; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Graham, Barney S

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus causes significant morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries, and a vaccine that adequately protects from severe disease remains an important unmet need. RSV disease has an inordinate impact on the very young, and the physical and immunological immaturity of early life complicates vaccine design. Defining and targeting the functional capacities of early life immune responses and controlling responses during primary antigen exposure with selected vaccine delivery approaches will be important for protecting infants by active immunization. Alternatively, vaccination of older children and pregnant mothers may ameliorate disease burden indirectly until infants reach about six months of age, when they can generate more effective anti-RSV immune responses.

  15. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at age 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children. PMID:25388499

  16. Declines in late-life disability: the role of early- and mid-life factors

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Vicki A.; Martin, Linda G; Schoeni, Robert F; Cornman, Jennifer C

    2008-01-01

    Investigations into the causes of declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks of disability onset or recovery. Drawing on five waves from 1995 to 2004 of the US Health and Retirement Study, we found for the 75 and older population in the United States that the prevalence of difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) declined from 30.2% in 1995 to 26.0% in 2004, whereas the trend in difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was flat. Onset of ADL limitations also was reduced during this period while recovery increased. Changes in the educational composition of the older population were linked to declines in the prevalence of ADL limitations, but there were also modest contributions of changes in mother's education, self-rated childhood health, and lifetime occupation. Declines in late-life vision impairments and increases in wealth also contributed substantially to the downward trend, and had chronic conditions not increased, it would have been even larger. Reductions in the onset of ADL limitations were partly driven by changes in educational attainment of respondents and their mothers and, in late-life, better vision and wealth. In contrast, the recovery trend was not accounted for by changes in early- or mid-life factors. We conclude that early- and mid-life factors have contributed along with late-life factors to U.S. late-life disability trends mainly through their influence on the onset of, rather than recovery from, limitations. PMID:18222580

  17. DNA methylation as a risk factor in the effects of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Kinnally, Erin L; Feinberg, Caroline; Kim, David; Ferguson, Kerel; Leibel, Rudolph; Coplan, Jeremy D; John Mann, J

    2011-11-01

    Epigenetic marks (e.g., DNA 5-methylcytosine [5mC] content or CpG methylation) within specific gene regulatory regions have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in stress adaptation and resulting health trajectories following early adversity. Yet the developmental programming of the vast majority of the epigenome has not yet been characterized, and its role in the impact of early stress largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among early life stress, whole-epigenome and candidate stress pathway gene (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT) methylation patterns, and adult behavioral stress adaptation in a non-human primate model. Early in life, experimental variable foraging demand (VFD) stress or control conditions were administered to two groups each of 10 female bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) and their mothers. As adults (3-13 years of age), these females were assessed for behavioral adaptation to stress across four conditions of increasing intensity. Blood DNA 5-HTT 5mC status was determined using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and total 5mC content was determined using ELISA. Neither stress reactivity nor DNA methylation differed based on early life stress. However, we found that both greater 5-HTT and whole-genome 5mC was associated with enhanced behavioral stress reactivity following early life stress, but not control conditions. Therefore, regardless of developmental origin, greater DNA methylation conferred a genomic background of "risk" in the context of early stress. We suggest that this may arise from constrained plasticity in gene expression needed for stress adaptation early in development. This risk may have wider implications for psychological and physical stress adaptation and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  19. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity.

  20. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. PMID:28367067

  1. Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Willinger, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop entitled “Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood: New Opportunities.” Its objective was to advance efforts to understand and ultimately prevent sudden deaths in early life, by considering their pathogenesis as a potential continuum with some commonalities in biological origins or pathways. A second objective of this meeting was to highlight current issues surrounding the classification of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and the implications of variations in the use of the term “SIDS” in forensic practice, and pediatric care and research. The proceedings reflected the most current knowledge and understanding of the origins and biology of vulnerability to sudden unexpected death, and its environmental triggers. Participants were encouraged to consider the application of new technologies and “omics” approaches to accelerate research. The major advances in delineating the intrinsic vulnerabilities to sudden death in early life have come from epidemiologic, neural, cardiac, metabolic, genetic, and physiologic research, with some commonalities among cases of unexplained stillbirth, SIDS, and sudden unexplained death in childhood observed. It was emphasized that investigations of sudden unexpected death are inconsistent, varying by jurisdiction, as are the education, certification practices, and experience of death certifiers. In addition, there is no practical consensus on the use of “SIDS” as a determination in cause of death. Major clinical, forensic, and scientific areas are identified for future research. PMID:27230764

  2. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  3. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  4. Life Stress Impairs Self-Control in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Kim, Betty; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The importance of self-control to a wide range of developmental outcomes prompted the current investigation of negative life events and self-control in early adolescence. In three prospective, longitudinal studies, negative life events reported by the mother (in Study 1) or child (in Studies 2 and 3) predicted rank-order decreases in self-control over time. In all studies, self-control was measured at two different time points using questionnaires completed by three separate raters, including a classroom teacher who knew the child well and two other raters (parents, caregivers, and/or the child himself/herself). Psychological distress measured in Studies 2 and 3 mediated the deleterious effects of negative life events on self-control. These findings extend prior experimental laboratory research documenting the acute effects of stress on self-control. PMID:23443890

  5. Early Life Cycle Cost Trade Study By Parametric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehm, Roy; Patrakis, Stan

    1982-06-01

    Unit production cost and life cycle cost tradestudy considerations are basic to the affordability of a new product. A major portion of the life cycle cost of a product, including production cost, are found to result from decisions made early in the planning phases of a program. Computerized parametric cost modeling generates cost estimates using the information that is available before the developing of engineering detail. The RCA PRICE program, available to all potential users, is used to illustrate the input requirements and steps necessary for parametric estimating of costs for development, production and support in the life cycle of a product. A laser rangefinder equipment is used as a product example to show the utility of this analysis.

  6. Early-life origin of intestinal inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Ley, Delphine; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Mischke, Mona; Knol, Jan; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Epidemiological studies have highlighted the link between perinatal factors, such as breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, and antibiotic use, and an increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease and/or celiac disease. These links are consistent with the concept of perinatal programming of intestinal inflammatory disorders. Animal models have shown that the early-life environment affects the development of the gastrointestinal tract, but further experimental studies are needed to confirm the long-term effects of the perinatal environment on susceptibility to chronic intestinal disorders later in life. Changes in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota as well as epigenetic changes are emerging as key mechanisms through which the perinatal environment determines susceptibility to intestinal inflammatory disorders. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

  8. African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Tsai, H.-J.; Hong, X.; Gignoux, C.; Pearson, C.; Ortiz, K.; Fu, M.; Pongracic, J. A.; Burchard, E. G.; Bauchner, H.; Wang, X.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Racial disparities persist in early childhood wheezing and cannot be completely explained by known risk factors. Objective To evaluate the associations of genetic ancestry and self-identified race with early childhood recurrent wheezing, accounting for socio-economic status (SES) and early life exposures. Methods We studied 1034 children in an urban, multi-racial, prospective birth cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of genetic ancestry as opposed to self-identified race with recurrent wheezing (>3 episodes). Sequential models accounted for demographic, socio-economic factors and early life risk factors. Genetic ancestry, estimated using 150 ancestry informative markers, was expressed in deciles. Results Approximately 6.1% of subjects (mean age 3.1 years) experienced recurrent wheezing. After accounting for SES and demographic factors, African ancestry (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.31) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing. By self-reported race, hispanic subjects had a borderline decrease in risk of wheeze compared with African Americans (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.19–1.00), whereas white subjects (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–1.57) did not have. After further adjustment for known confounders and early life exposures, both African (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.34) and European ancestry (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74–0.94) retained a significant association with recurrent wheezing, as compared with self-identified race (ORwhites: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09–1.14; ORhispanic: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.20–1.08). There were no significant interactions between ancestry and early life factors on recurrent wheezing. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance In contrast to self-identified race, African ancestry remained a significant, independent predictor of early childhood wheezing after accounting for early life and other known risk factors associated with lung function changes and asthma. Genetic ancestry may be a powerful way to

  9. African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Tsai, H-J; Hong, X; Gignoux, C; Pearson, C; Ortiz, K; Fu, M; Pongracic, J A; Burchard, E G; Bauchner, H; Wang, X

    2012-02-01

    Racial disparities persist in early childhood wheezing and cannot be completely explained by known risk factors. To evaluate the associations of genetic ancestry and self-identified race with early childhood recurrent wheezing, accounting for socio-economic status (SES) and early life exposures. We studied 1034 children in an urban, multi-racial, prospective birth cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of genetic ancestry as opposed to self-identified race with recurrent wheezing (>3 episodes). Sequential models accounted for demographic, socio-economic factors and early life risk factors. Genetic ancestry, estimated using 150 ancestry informative markers, was expressed in deciles. Approximately 6.1% of subjects (mean age 3.1 years) experienced recurrent wheezing. After accounting for SES and demographic factors, African ancestry (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.31) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing. By self-reported race, hispanic subjects had a borderline decrease in risk of wheeze compared with African Americans (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.19-1.00), whereas white subjects (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-1.57) did not have. After further adjustment for known confounders and early life exposures, both African (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.34) and European ancestry (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.94) retained a significant association with recurrent wheezing, as compared with self-identified race (OR(whites) : 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09-1.14; OR(hispanic) : 0.47, 95% CI: 0.20-1.08). There were no significant interactions between ancestry and early life factors on recurrent wheezing. In contrast to self-identified race, African ancestry remained a significant, independent predictor of early childhood wheezing after accounting for early life and other known risk factors associated with lung function changes and asthma. Genetic ancestry may be a powerful way to evaluate wheezing disparities and a proxy for differentially distributed genetic and

  10. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  11. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  12. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  13. The Early Earth vs. the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.; Amend, J. P.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    Irrefutable evidence on how life originated does not exist. Hypotheses regarding its origin, however, are plentiful. Those that have prevailed for most of this century require an atmosphere dominated by ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4), organic synthesis driven by energy sources that are external to the hydrosphere/lithosphere, and a first organism that makes its living by consuming the resulting supply of organic compounds. Diverse lines of evidence have been amassed over the last several decades that refute these particular origin of life hypotheses. For example, geologic evidence, atmospheric photochemistry, and current constraints on the formation of terrestrial planets indicate that a plausible early atmosphere was not dominated by NH3 and CH4, but rather by nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, the location, duration, and quantity of external energy sources are not particularly predictable or reliable, and are not generally effective in driving the reduction reactions required to make organic compounds from N2 and CO2. Finally, revolutions in molecular biology have led to the observation that organisms that synthesize biomass from inorganic starting materials like CO2 populate the deepest and shortest branches on the universal phylogenetic tree of life on Earth. These fundamental developments have permitted new and more geologically consistent ideas about the emergence of life. We argue that plausible hypotheses of the emergence of life on Earth call for a network of energetically favorable gradual synthesis processes in response to normal geologic forces. Inescapable chemical disequilibrium states, established and at least partially maintained in the hydrosphere at or near the dynamic surface of early Earth, can provide the energy for organic and biomolecule synthesis from inorganic source materials. Geologic conditions conducive to the formation of aqueous organic compounds, including precursors to complex biopolymers such as nucleic acids and

  14. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevicˇiene˙, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P

  15. Early-Life Experience, Epigenetics, and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent–offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent–offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  16. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-11-01

    Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Enzymatic and Metabolic Capabilities of Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Aaron David; Baross, John A.; Samudrala, Ram

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of metaconsensus and employ it to make high confidence predictions of early enzyme functions and the metabolic properties that they may have produced. Several independent studies have used comparative bioinformatics methods to identify taxonomically broad features of genomic sequence data, protein structure data, and metabolic pathway data in order to predict physiological features that were present in early, ancestral life forms. But all such methods carry with them some level of technical bias. Here, we cross-reference the results of these previous studies to determine enzyme functions predicted to be ancient by multiple methods. We survey modern metabolic pathways to identify those that maintain the highest frequency of metaconsensus enzymes. Using the full set of modern reactions catalyzed by these metaconsensus enzyme functions, we reconstruct a representative metabolic network that may reflect the core metabolism of early life forms. Our results show that ten enzyme functions, four hydrolases, three transferases, one oxidoreductase, one lyase, and one ligase, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks within central metabolic processes related to sugar and starch metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis, have high frequencies of these enzyme functions. We demonstrate that a large metabolic network can be generated from this small number of enzyme functions. PMID:22970111

  18. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Kober, Olivia I.; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  19. [Early-life stress and vulnerability for disease in later life].

    PubMed

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Heim, Christine

    2016-10-01

    The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress. Biological mechanisms that mediate disease risk after early life stress are discussed. The possibility of transgenerational transmission of effects of childhood trauma in exposed women to their children and potential mechanisms of this transmission are also presented. A substantial number of studies show associations between early life stress and risk for mental and somatic diseases in later life. The underlying mechanisms are currently being studied at the molecular and epigenetic level. Potentially, these findings will allow unprecedented opportunities to improve the precision of current clinical diagnostic tools and the success of interventions. However, there is currently a lack of translation of research findings related to developmental programming to clinical applications.

  20. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  1. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  2. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  3. Is early-life iron exposure critical in neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; Arora, Manish; Jenkins, Nicole L; Finkelstein, David I; Doble, Philip A; Bush, Ashley I

    2015-09-01

    The effects of iron deficiency are well documented, but relatively little is known about the long-term implications of iron overload during development. High levels of redox-active iron in the brain have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Parkinson disease, yet a gradual increase in brain iron seems to be a feature of normal ageing. Increased brain iron levels might result from intake of infant formula that is excessively fortified with iron, thereby altering the trajectory of brain iron uptake and amplifying the risk of iron-associated neurodegeneration in later life. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the potential long-term implications of excessive iron intake in early life, propose the analysis of iron deposits in teeth as a method for retrospective determination of iron exposure during critical developmental windows, and call for evidence-based optimization of the chemical composition of infant dietary supplements.

  4. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  5. Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  6. Planetary Perspective on Life on Early Mars and the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Zahnle, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of early life on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.

  7. Planetary Perspective on Life on Early Mars and the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Zahnle, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of early life on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.

  8. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

    2007-08-14

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today.

  9. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  10. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Seico; Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2015-01-01

    Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED), and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior. PMID:25873851

  11. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  12. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  13. Food-Related Symptoms and Food Allergy in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Vetander, Mirja; Kull, Inger; Hedlin, Gunilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Bergström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for persistence of food-related symptoms (FRS) and food allergy (FA) from early life to adolescence are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for FRS and FA in adolescence amongst children with FRS or FA in the first four years of life (early life). In children enrolled in a Swedish birth cohort and followed to 16 years (n = 2572), we defined children with early life FRS in the absence of FA, and FA. Corresponding phenotypes were defined at 16 years. Associations between potential risk factors at 4 years and FRS and FA at 16 years were investigated using logistic regression. Early life FRS and FA prevalences were 12.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Amongst children with early life FRS, 35.7% had FRS or FA at 16 years, whereas 74.3% of the children with early life FA had FA at 16 years. For each of the early life phenotypes, parental allergy, early life allergic multimorbidity, early life reactions to peanuts/tree nuts and IgE reactivity at 4 years were statistically significantly associated with FRS or FA at 16 years. In contrast, male sex was associated with an increased risk of FA at 16 years among children with early life FA only. In early life, food-related symptoms are twice as common as food allergy. Unlike food allergy, food-related symptoms often remit by adolescence. Yet, these phenotypes have many common risk factors for persistence to adolescence.

  14. Lifetime fitness consequences of early-life ecological hardship in a wild mammal population.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Harry H; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Mwanguhya, Francis; Businge, Robert; Kyabulima, Solomon; Hares, Michelle C; Inzani, Emma; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Mwesige, Kenneth; Nichols, Hazel J; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Thompson, Faye J; Cant, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Early-life ecological conditions have major effects on survival and reproduction. Numerous studies in wild systems show fitness benefits of good quality early-life ecological conditions ("silver-spoon" effects). Recently, however, some studies have reported that poor-quality early-life ecological conditions are associated with later-life fitness advantages and that the effect of early-life conditions can be sex-specific. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of the variability of early-life ecological conditions on later-life fitness. Here, we test how the mean and variability of early-life ecological conditions affect the longevity and reproduction of males and females using 14 years of data on wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo). Males that experienced highly variable ecological conditions during development lived longer and had greater lifetime fitness, while those that experienced poor early-life conditions lived longer but at a cost of reduced fertility. In females, there were no such effects. Our study suggests that exposure to more variable environments in early life can result in lifetime fitness benefits, whereas differences in the mean early-life conditions experienced mediate a life-history trade-off between survival and reproduction. It also demonstrates how early-life ecological conditions can produce different selection pressures on males and females.

  15. The early environment and its evolution on Mars - Implications for life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1989-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the early climate of Mars was very different from the inhospitable conditions there today. This early climate was characterized by liquid water on the surface and a dense atmosphere composed predominantly of CO2. The duration of these warm initial conditions on the surface of Mars is uncertain, but theoretical models suggest that they could have persisted for hundreds of millions up to a billion years. From studies of the earth's earliest biosphere, it is known that, by 3.5 Gyr ago, life had originated on earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally. Since over two thirds of the Martian surface is more than 3.5 Gyr old, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life, even though there may be no life there today.

  16. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

    2012-01-01

    Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent. PMID:22819985

  18. Early life mortality and height in Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  19. Early childhood health promotion and its life course health consequences.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Bernard; Ma, Sai; Grason, Holly; Frick, Kevin D; Perry, Deborah F; Sharkey, Alyssa; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether health promotion efforts targeted at preschool-age children can improve health across the life span and improve future economic returns to society. We selected 4 health topics to review-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-because they are clinically and epidemiologically significant, and represent the complex nature of health problems in this early period of life. The peer-reviewed literature was searched to assess the level of evidence for short- and long-term health impacts of health promotion and disease prevention interventions for children from before birth to age 5. This review sought to document the monetary burden of poor child health, the cost implications of preventing and treating child health problems, and the net benefit of the interventions. The evidence is compelling that these 4 topics-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-constitute a significant burden on the health of children and are the early antecedents of significant health problems across the life span. The evidence for the cost consequences of these problems is strong, although more uneven than the epidemiological data. The available evidence for the effectiveness of interventions in this age group was strongest in the case of preventing tobacco exposure and injuries, was limited to smaller-scale clinical interventions in the case of mental health, and was least available for efforts to prevent obesity among preschoolers. Currently available research justifies the implementation of health interventions in the prenatal to preschool period-especially to reduce tobacco exposure and prevent injuries. There is an urgent need for carefully targeted, rigorous research to examine the longitudinal causal relationships and provide stronger economic data to help policy makers make the case that the entire society will benefit from wise investment in improving the health of preschool-age children and their families.

  20. Early life precursors, epigenetics, and the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-09-01

    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA.

  1. Cytokine response after severe RSV bronchiolitis in early life

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mario; Schweiger, Toni; Yin-DeClue, Huiquing; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor P; Christie, Chandrika; Zheng, Jie; Cohen, Rebecca; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Strunk, Robert; Bacharier, Leonard B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Immune response following viral infection usually involves Th1-mediated response; however, severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection appears to be associated with the development of asthma, a Th2-predominant phenotype. Objective To understand the early and subsequent immunologic response to a serious RSV infection in children over time. Methods 206 previously healthy infants hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis were enrolled in a prospective cohort called the RSV Bronchiolitis in Early Life (RBEL) study. Peripheral blood T cells were obtained immediately following RSV infection and at 2, 4 and 6 years of age, stimulated with PMA and ionomycin, and analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, -4, and - 13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) by flow cytometry and real time PCR. Results 48% (n=97) of the children developed asthma (physician-diagnosed) and 48% (n=97) had eczema by age 6. 32% (n=48 of 150) developed allergic sensitization by 3 yrs of age. Children with asthma had lower IL-13 expression at 6 yrs of age than those without (p=0.001). IFN-γ, IL-2 and -4 levels did not differ by asthma or eczema status during follow-up (all p>0.05). Allergic sensitization was not associated with differences in cytokine levels during follow-up (all p>0.05). Conclusion Severe RSV infection early in life is associated with a high incidence of asthma and eczema. Contrary to expectations, subsequent immunologic development in those who developed asthma, eczema or allergic sensitization was not associated with a Th2 phenotype in the peripheral blood. PMID:18760461

  2. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  3. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  4. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  5. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  6. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  7. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  8. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that ‘stout’ body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

  9. Babies of the War: The Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Maarten; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we investigate whether less extreme situations during World War II also affected later-life mortality for cohorts born in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Norway. We argue that these occupied countries experienced a considerable deterioration in daily life situations and show that this resulted in strongly increased mortality rates and lower probabilities of survival until age 55 among civilian populations who had been prenatally exposed to wartime circumstances. However, this mortality effect among the prenatally exposed is entirely concentrated in the first years of life, particularly infanthood. Once we condition on having survived the first years of life, those who had been prenatally exposed do not have higher mortality rates. This suggests that "culling" is important and that effects found in earlier studies may have been biased downward substantially.

  10. How Early Is Too Early To Begin Life Career Planning? The Importance of the Elementary School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Carolyn S.; Starr, Marion F.

    2000-01-01

    States that life/career planning is a lifelong, spiraling process that should begin early. Describes child development theories of Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky and career development theories of Super, Gottfredson, and Zunker. Relates theories to elementary/early childhood life/career planning. (SK)

  11. Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei

    2017-07-21

    Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), Ptrend <0.001 and 0.72 (0.64-0.80), Ptrend <0.001, respectively). The majority of the women (~85%) did not change body size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (Ptrend = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data

  12. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentially absent on DIV 2 and developed rapidly between DIV 5 and 12. Spiking activity was primarily sporadic and unorganized at early DIV, and became progressively more organized with time in culture, with bursting parameters, synchrony and network bursting increasing between DIV 5 and 12. We selected 12 features to describe network activity and principal components analysis using these features demonstrated a general segregation of data by age at both the well and plate levels. Using a combination of random forest classifiers and Support Vector Machines, we demonstrated that 4 features (CV of within burst ISI, CV of IBI, network spike rate and burst rate) were sufficient to predict the age (either DIV 5, 7, 9 or 12) of each well recording with >65% accuracy. When restricting the classification problem to a binary decision, we found that classification improved dramatically, e.g. 95% accuracy for discriminating DIV 5 vs DIV 12 wells. Further, we present a novel resampling approach to determine the number of wells that might be needed for conducting comparisons of different treatments using mwMEA plates. Overall, these results demonstrate that network development on mwMEA plates is similar to

  13. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Austin T; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation.

  14. Development of food intake controls: neuroendocrine and environmental regulation of food intake during early life.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Erica J; Unkefer, Margaret K

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The development of neuroendocrine regulation of food intake during early life has been shaped by natural selection to allow for optimal growth and development rates needed for survival. In vertebrates, neonates or early larval forms typically exhibit "feeding drive," characterized by a developmental delay in 1) responsiveness of the hypothalamus to satiety signals (e.g., leptin, melanocortins) and 2) sensitivity to environmental cues that suppress food intake. Homeostatic regulation of food intake develops once offspring transition to later life history stages when growth is slower, neuroendocrine systems are more mature, and appetite becomes more sensitive to environmental or social cues. Across vertebrate groups, there is a tremendous amount of developmental plasticity in both food intake regulation and stress responsiveness depending on the environmental conditions experienced during early life history stages or by pregnant/brooding mothers. This plasticity is mediated through the organizing effects of hormones acting on the food intake centers of the hypothalamus during development, which alter epigenetic expression of genes associated with ingestive behaviors. Research is still needed to reveal the mechanisms through which environmental conditions during development generate and maintain these epigenetic modifications within the lifespan or across generations. Furthermore, more research is needed to determine whether observed patterns of plasticity are adaptive or pathological. It is clear, however, that developmental programming of food intake has important effects on fitness, and therefore, has ecological and evolutionary implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory.

  16. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696

  17. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-09-21

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  18. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  19. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  20. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-03

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.

  2. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  3. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure.

  4. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  5. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  6. Early-Life Stress and Neurometabolites of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) – an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity – using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N = 10) or control rearing conditions (N = 9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

  7. Pulmonary immunity during respiratory infections in early life and the development of severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Hansbro, Philip M; Starkey, Malcolm R; Mattes, Joerg; Horvat, Jay C

    2014-12-01

    Asthma affects 10% of the population in Westernized countries, being most common in children. It is a heterogeneous condition characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to normally innocuous antigens. Combination therapies with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators effectively manage mild to moderate asthma, but there are no cures, and patients with severe asthma do not respond to these treatments. The inception of asthma is linked to respiratory viral (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus) and bacterial (Chlamydia, Mycoplasma) infections. The examination of mouse models of early-life infections and allergic airway disease (AAD) provides valuable insights into the mechanisms of disease inception that may lead to the development of more effective therapeutics. For example, early-life, but not adult, Chlamydia respiratory infections in mice permanently modify immunity and lung physiology. This increases the severity of AAD by promoting IL-13 expression, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. We have identified novel roles for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and IL-13 in promoting infection-induced pathology in early life and subsequent chronic lung disease. Genetic deletion of TRAIL or IL-13 variously protected against neonatal infection-induced inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, altered lung structure, AHR, and impaired lung function. Therapeutic neutralization of these factors prevented infection-induced severe AAD. Other novel mechanisms and avenues for intervention are also being explored. Such studies indicate the immunological mechanisms that may underpin the association between early-life respiratory infections and the development of more severe asthma and may facilitate the development of tailored preventions and treatments.

  8. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  9. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Yoo, S B; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Kim, B T; Park, K; Jahng, J W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS. Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levels of the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggest that neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increased expressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  10. Life's utilization of B vitamins on early Earth.

    PubMed

    Monteverde, D R; Gómez-Consarnau, L; Suffridge, C; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S A

    2017-01-01

    Coenzymes are essential across all domains of life. B vitamins (B1 -thiamin, B2 -riboflavin, B3 -niacin, B5 -pantothenate, B6 -pyridoxine, B7 -biotin, and B12 -cobalamin) represent the largest class of coenzymes, which participate in a diverse set of reactions including C1 -rearrangements, DNA repair, electron transfer, and fatty acid synthesis. B vitamin structures range from simple to complex heterocycles, yet, despite this complexity, multiple lines of evidence exist for their ancient origins including abiotic synthesis under putative early Earth conditions and/or meteorite transport. Thus, some of these critical coenzymes likely preceded life on Earth. Some modern organisms can synthesize their own B vitamins de novo while others must either scavenge them from the environment or establish a symbiotic relationship with a B vitamin producer. B vitamin requirements are widespread in some of the most ancient metabolisms including all six carbon fixation pathways, sulfate reduction, sulfur disproportionation, methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and photosynthesis. Understanding modern metabolic B vitamin requirements is critical for understanding the evolutionary conditions of ancient metabolisms as well as the biogeochemical cycling of critical elements such as S, C, and O. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  12. CHILDHOOD TO EARLY MID-LIFE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE TRAJECTORIES: EARLY LIFE PREDICTORS, EFFECT MODIFIERS, AND ADULT CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modelled an “average” population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors and early midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32 and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify four distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: ‘normal’ (21.8%), ‘high-normal’ (43.3%), ‘prehypertensive’ (31.6%), and ‘hypertensive’ (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at age 7 and most recently measured at age 38. Family history of high blood pressure (OR=43.23, 95% CI 5.27, 354.65), male gender (OR=109.48, 95% CI=26.82, 446.96), being first born (OR=2.5 95% CI=1.00, 8.69) and low birthweight (OR=2.79, 95% CI 2.49, 3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared to the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection, subsequent targeted prevention and/or intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure. PMID:26558818

  13. Thyroid Function during Early Life and Dental Development.

    PubMed

    Vucic, S; Korevaar, T I M; Dhamo, B; Jaddoe, V W V; Peeters, R P; Wolvius, E B; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-08-01

    the early stages of life onward.

  14. The Human Microbiome. Early Life Determinant of Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of new technologies to isolate and identify microbial genomes has markedly increased our understanding of the role of microbiomes in health and disease. The idea, first proposed as part of the hygiene hypothesis, that environmental microbes influence the developmental trajectories of the immune system in early life, has now been considerably extended and refined. The abundant microbiota present in mucosal surfaces, especially the gut, is actively selected by the host through complex receptor systems that respond differentially depending on the molecular patterns presented to mucosal cells. Germ-free mice are more likely to develop allergic airway inflammation and show alterations in normal motor control and anxiety. These effects can be reversed by neonatal microbial recolonization but remain unchanged if recolonization occurs in adults. What emerges from these recent studies is the discovery of a complex, major early environmental determinant of lifetime human phenotypes. To change the natural course of asthma, obesity, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, active manipulation of the extensive bacterial, phage, and fungal metagenomes present in mucosal surfaces may be required, specifically during the developing years. Domesticating the human microbiome and adapting it to our health needs may be a challenge akin to, but far more complex than, the one faced by humanity when a few dozen species of plants and animals were domesticated during the transition between hunter-gatherer and sedentary societies after the end of the Pleistocene era. PMID:24437411

  15. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  16. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  17. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  18. The effect of early-life education on later-life mortality.

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Taylor, Lowell J

    2015-12-01

    Many studies link cross-state variation in compulsory schooling laws to early-life educational attainment, thereby providing a plausible way to investigate the causal impact of education on various lifetime outcomes. We use this strategy to estimate the effect of education on older-age mortality of individuals born in the early twentieth century U.S. Our key innovation is to combine U.S. Census data and the complete Vital Statistics records to form precise mortality estimates by sex, birth cohort, and birth state. In turn we find that virtually all of the variation in these mortality rates is captured by cohort effects and state effects alone, making it impossible to reliably tease out any additional impact due to changing educational attainment induced by state-level changes in compulsory schooling.

  19. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  20. Live fast die young life history in females: evolutionary trade-off between early life mating and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Laura M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental to life history theory. Sexual selection is expected to favour a ‘live fast die young’ life history pattern in males due to increased risk of extrinsic mortality associated with obtaining mates. Sexual conflict may also drive a genetic trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in females. We found significant additive genetic variance in longevity independent of lifetime mating frequency, and in early life mating frequency. There was significant negative genetic covariance between these traits indicating that females from families characterized by high levels of multiple mating early in life die sooner than females that engage in less intense early life mating. Thus, despite heritable variation in both traits, their independent evolution is constrained by an evolutionary trade-off. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known male-driven direct costs of mating on female lifespan (mediated by male harassment and harmful effects of seminal fluids), females with a genetic propensity to mate multiply live shorter lives. We discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in driving the evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in Drosophila. More generally, our data show that, like males, females can exhibit a live fast die young life history strategy. PMID:26482533

  1. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  2. Early-Life Antibiotic Exposure, Gut Microbiota Development, and Predisposition to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Azad, Meghan B; Moossavi, Shirin; Owora, Arthur; Sepehri, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved. Obesity is a complex and multifactorial condition; thus, a multipronged prevention strategy will be required to curb the current obesity epidemic. Evidence to date suggests this strategy should include the judicious use of antibiotics, especially in early life when the developing gut microbiota is particularly susceptible to perturbations with long-lasting implications for metabolic programming and obesity risk. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Models of progressive neurological dysfunction originating early in life.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Amber L; Rojas-Mancilla, Edgardo; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Tasker, R Andrew

    2015-10-17

    It is now well established that many of society's most devastating and costly neurological diseases and disorders arise from trauma at, or shortly after birth. In some cases deficits are seen in childhood and in others they are substantially delayed; arising in adolescence or young adulthood. In either case the initial insult initiates a metabolic and/or neurodegenerative cascade that proceeds, often undetected, for a considerable period of time before diagnosable symptoms appear. This affords a potential for detecting and slowing or arresting degenerative and/or malfunctioning processes prior to the appearance of symptoms, but requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the progressive dysfunction that characterizes the disease progression process. While numerous preclinical models of end-stage symptoms of neurological disease are established, animal models of progressive neurological dysfunction have received comparatively less attention. This review attempts to introduce the concept of modelling progressive dysfunction in animals and provides descriptions of the current status of several representative examples of models that have been developed and partially characterized for understanding diseases of the brain that arise either at or near the time of birth in rodents. It is our belief that such models are essential to understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for progressive neurological dysfunction and hold the potential for identifying targets for early detection and presymptomatic therapy of these conditions.

  4. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9–11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28–73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further. PMID:26811913

  5. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    PubMed

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  6. Inflammation and Early-Life Abuse in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse in childhood and adolescence may affect risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Although mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear, chronic stress may lead to dysregulation of immune function and chronic inflammation. Purpose To evaluate associations between early-life physical and sexual abuse and blood levels of inflammatory markers in adulthood among 702 members of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Methods Abuse in childhood (before age 11 years) and adolescence (ages 11–17 years) was self-reported in 2001. Plasma samples collected in 1996–1999 were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP); interleukin (IL)-6; and the soluble fraction of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 in 2001, 2009 and 2010. Results Mean age at blood collection was 43.9 years. Moderate or severe physical abuse was reported by 35.3% of participants; 22.7% reported unwanted sexual touching and 9.8% reported forced sex. Plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 were higher in women reporting sexual abuse in adolescence compared to those reporting no abuse (p=0.04 and 0.03, respectively) in analyses adjusted for confounders including age and childhood adiposity. Inflammatory marker levels were similarly elevated in women reporting sexual abuse during childhood, but results were not significant. Relationships largely persisted after further adjustment for potential mediators such as adult BMI and smoking. Physical abuse during childhood and/or adolescence was not consistently associated with inflammatory marker levels. Conclusions Chronic inflammation may be one mechanism through which sexual abuse may affect future risk of physical and psychological disorders. PMID:23159256

  7. Early Life Socioeconomic Circumstance and Late Life Brain Hyperintensities – A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alison D.; McNeil, Christopher J.; Salarirad, Sima; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Staff, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    Context There have been many reports confirming the association between lower childhood socioeconomic circumstance and cardiovascular disease but evidence for links with cerebrovascular disease is contradictory. Hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging are associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia and death. However, the relationship between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and these lesions is unclear. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood socioeconomic circumstance is associated with late life hyperintensity burden and that neither adult socioeconomic circumstance nor change in socioeconomic circumstance during life influence this effect. Design Cohort study Setting Community Participants 227 community dwelling members of the 1936 Aberdeen Birth Cohort aged 68 years, who were free from dementia. Main Outcome Measures Relationship between early life socioeconomic circumstance (paternal occupation) and abundance of late life brain hyperintensities. Results We find significant negative correlations between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and white matter hyperintensities (ρ = −0.18, P<0.01), and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = −0.15, P<0.05), between educational attainment and white matter hyperintensities (ρ = −0.15, P<0.05) and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = −0.17, P<0.05), and between childhood intelligence and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = −0.14, P<0.05). The relationship is strongest for childhood socioeconomic circumstance and regional white matter hyperintensities, where there is a step change in increased burden from paternal occupation grades equivalent to a shift from “white collar” to “blue collar” paternal occupation. Significant correlations were also found between hypertension and hyperintensity burden in all brain regions (ρ = 0.15–0.24, P<0.05). In models that include hypertension, the magnitude of the effect of childhood

  8. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  9. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-03-01

    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  10. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution.

    PubMed

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-10-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow's milk allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow's milk allergy. We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3 to 16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3 to 6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = .047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η(2) = 0.43; ANOVA P = .034). Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    PubMed

    Koe, Amelia S; Jones, Nigel C; Salzberg, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative - or complementary - perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  12. Autoimmune manifestations in aged mice arise from early-life immune dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Tamer I.; Wang, Jingya; Karnell, Jodi L.; Wang, Qiming; Wang, Shu; Naiman, Brian; Gross, Phillip; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Chris; Aoyama, Jordan; Wasserfall, Clive; Carter, Laura; Atkinson, Mark A.; Serreze, David V.; Braley-Mullen, Helen; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Autoantibodies can be present years to decades prior to the onset of disease manifestations in autoimmunity. This suggests that the initial autoimmune trigger involves a peripheral lymphoid component, which ultimately drives disease pathology in local tissues later in life. Here we show Sjögren’s Syndrome manifestations that develop in aged NOD.H-2h4 mice were driven by and dependent on peripheral dysregulation that arose in early life. Specifically, elimination of spontaneous germinal centers in spleens of young NOD.H-2h4 mice by transient blockade of CD40 ligand (CD40L) or splenectomy abolished Sjögren’s pathology of aged mice. Strikingly, a single injection of anti-CD40L at 4 weeks-of-age prevented tertiary follicle neogenesis and greatly blunted the formation of key autoantibodies implicated in glandular pathology, including anti-muscarinic receptor antibodies. Microarray profiling of the salivary gland characterized the expression pattern of genes that increased with disease progression and showed early anti-CD40L greatly repressed B cell function, while having a broader effect on multiple biological pathways including IL-12 and interferon signaling. Importantly, a single, prophylactic treatment with anti-CD40L also inhibited the development of autoimmune thyroiditis and diabetes in NOD.H-2h4 and NOD mice, respectively, supporting a key role for CD40L in the pathophysiology of several autoimmune models. These results strongly suggest early peripheral immune dysregulation gives rise to autoimmune manifestations later in life and for diseases pre-dated by autoantibodies, early prophylactic intervention with biologics may prove efficacious. PMID:27798262

  13. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Efrem S.; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K.; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I. Malick; Warner, Barbara B.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R.

    2016-01-01

    The early years of life are important for immune development and influences health in adulthood. While it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or, virome), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome are more similar between co-twins than between non-related infants. From birth to two years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophage with age. PMID:26366711

  14. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants.

    PubMed

    Lim, Efrem S; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I Malick; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R

    2015-10-01

    The early years of life are important for immune development and influence health in adulthood. Although it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or 'virome'), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome were more similar between co-twins than between unrelated infants. From birth to 2 years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophages with age.

  15. Early life and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: what can we learn from animal models?

    PubMed

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria Grazia; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex pathology characterized by the occurrence of a variety of symptoms classified as positive, negative and cognitive. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of this disorder has not been unraveled yet, many theories have been endorsed during the last years. Among these, the neurochemical theories have been the most suited, considering the dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysfunctions to be mainly responsible for psychotic symptoms. However, the lack of efficacy of the available drugs, namely antipsychotics, toward negative and cognitive symptoms led to hypothesize alternative approaches. In this regard, the neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia has emerged, proposing the association between the occurrence of environmental risk factors in early-life and the development of psychosis in late-life. In particular, exposure to early life stressing situations, such as pre- and peri-natal stress, has been suggested as a risk factor to d evelop psychopathologies in adulthood in people genetically predisposed. A crucial support in favor of this hypothesis came from neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia, such as maternal malnutrition, maternal deprivation, maternal infections as well as post-weaning social isolation rearing. Moreover, data from these models, corroborated by clinical findings, indicate that oxidative and nitrosative stress play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present work, we reviewed the recent progress in literature regarding data available from animal models linking oxidative and nitrosative stress to psychiatric disorders in order to evaluate novel biomarkers of pathology as well as novel therapeutical targets.

  16. Food-Related Symptoms and Food Allergy in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Protudjer, Jennifer L. P.; Vetander, Mirja; Kull, Inger; Hedlin, Gunilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Bergström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk factors for persistence of food-related symptoms (FRS) and food allergy (FA) from early life to adolescence are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for FRS and FA in adolescence amongst children with FRS or FA in the first four years of life (early life). Methods In children enrolled in a Swedish birth cohort and followed to 16 years (n = 2572), we defined children with early life FRS in the absence of FA, and FA. Corresponding phenotypes were defined at 16 years. Associations between potential risk factors at 4 years and FRS and FA at 16 years were investigated using logistic regression. Results Early life FRS and FA prevalences were 12.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Amongst children with early life FRS, 35.7% had FRS or FA at 16 years, whereas 74.3% of the children with early life FA had FA at 16 years. For each of the early life phenotypes, parental allergy, early life allergic multimorbidity, early life reactions to peanuts/tree nuts and IgE reactivity at 4 years were statistically significantly associated with FRS or FA at 16 years. In contrast, male sex was associated with an increased risk of FA at 16 years among children with early life FA only. Conclusions In early life, food-related symptoms are twice as common as food allergy. Unlike food allergy, food-related symptoms often remit by adolescence. Yet, these phenotypes have many common risk factors for persistence to adolescence. PMID:27846286

  17. The Role of Early-Life Socioeconomic Status in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Unraveling Life Course Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examine (1) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES), and (2) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. Methods We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Results Higher levels of mothers’ education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers’ education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers’ education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. Discussion This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival. PMID:21956096

  18. The role of early-life socioeconomic status in breast cancer incidence and mortality: unraveling life course mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta

    2012-03-01

    We examine (a) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES) and (b) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Higher levels of mothers' education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers' education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers' education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival.

  19. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  20. Nutrition in early life and age-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of age-associated disease is increasing at a striking rate globally. It is known that a strong association exists between a suboptimal maternal and/or early-life environment and increased propensity of developing age-associated disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dissection of underlying molecular mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, which is known as 'developmental programming' is still emerging; however three common mechanisms have emerged in many models of developmental programming. These mechanisms are (a) changes in tissue structure, (b) epigenetic regulation and (c) accelerated cellular ageing. This review will examine the epidemiological evidence and the animal models of suboptimal maternal environments, focusing upon these molecular mechanisms and will discuss the progress being made in the development of safe and effective intervention strategies which ultimately could target those 'programmed' individuals who are known to be at-risk of age-associated disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  2. Life satisfaction and maladaptive behaviors in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic field strength, water and life on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The early geomagnetic field shielded Earth from intense solar winds from the rapidly rotating young Sun. Therefore, the onset and strength of the earliest field are of prime interest for understanding evolution of the planet. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of Archean single silicate crystals hosting minute magnetic inclusions from the Kaapvaal craton, using highly sensitive SQUID magnetometers and CO2 laser demagnetization, have allowed definition of geomagnetic field intensities at 3.2, 3.4 and 3.45 Ga. Here we extend this time line to 3.47 Ga through the study of single silicate crystals from granitic rocks that are subvolcanic feeders to the Duffer Formation of the Pilbara craton. Preliminary paleointensity data are consistent with the presence of a geomagnetic field, supporting prior paleointensity results from the Kaapvaal craton that indicate a protective magnetic field was present when some of the first physical evidence for life has been reported. However, the new measured field intensities are only 25% of the modern value. These magnetic paleofield results suggest that the magnetopause was much closer to Earth during Paleoarchean times. The decreased standoff of the solar wind, together with the higher frequency of coronal mass ejections, would have promoted loss of volatiles and water from the atmosphere. Efforts to further extend observations through the paleomagnetic study of Hadean minerals will be discussed.

  4. Nephron number and its determinants in early life: a primer.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Jennifer R; Springsteen, Caleb H; Carmody, J Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Although there is wide variation, humans possess on average 900,000 nephrons per kidney. So far as is known, nephrons cannot regenerate; therefore, an individual's nephron endowment has profound implications in determining his or her long-term risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Most of the variability in human nephron number is determined early in life. Nephrogenesis is a complex and carefully orchestrated process that occurs during a narrow time window until 36 weeks gestation in humans, and disruption of any part of this sequence may lead to reduced nephron number. In utero, genetic abnormalities, toxic insults, and nutritional deficiencies can each alter final nephron number. Infants born prematurely must continue nephrogenesis in an ex utero environment where there may be multiple threats to successful nephrogenesis. Once the nephron endowment is determined, postnatal factors (such as acute kidney injury or chronic illnesses) can only decrease nephron number. Current techniques for estimating nephron number require an invasive procedure or complete destruction of the tissue, making noninvasive means for counting nephron surgently needed. A better understanding of nephron number and its determinants, particularly during growth and maturation, could allow the development of therapies to support, prolong, or resume nephrogenesis.

  5. Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

  6. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  7. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be

  9. Early-Life Exposures and Early-Onset Uterine Leiomyomata in Black Women in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Donna D.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are hormonally responsive tumors, but little is known about risk factors. Early-life exposures may influence uterine development and subsequent response to hormones in adulthood. An earlier analysis of non-Hispanic white women who participated in the Sister Study found associations between several early-life factors and early-onset fibroids. Objectives: We evaluated associations of early-life and childhood exposures with early-onset fibroids among black women and compared the results with those found among white women. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 3,534 black women, 35–59 years of age, in the Sister Study (a nationwide cohort of women who had a sister diagnosed with breast cancer) who self-reported information on early-life and childhood exposures. Early-onset fibroids were assessed based on self-report of a physician diagnosis of fibroids by the age of 30 years (n = 561). We estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression models. Results: Factors most strongly associated with early-onset fibroids were in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES; RR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.18), maternal prepregnancy diabetes or gestational diabetes (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.95, 2.49), and monozygotic multiple birth (RR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.99). We also found positive associations with having been taller or thinner than peers at the age of 10 years and with early-life factors that included being the firstborn child of a teenage mother, maternal hypertensive disorder, preterm birth, and having been fed soy formula. Conclusions: With the exception of monozygotic multiple birth and maternal hypertensive disorder, early-life risk factors for early-onset fibroids for black women were similar to those found for white women. However, in contrast to whites, childhood height and weight, but not low socioeconomic status indicators, were associated with early-onset fibroids in blacks. The general consistency

  10. Life as an early career researcher: interview with Catherine Martel

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Catherine Martel speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Commissioning Editor: Catherine Martel obtained her PhD from the Université de Montréal and pursued a postdoctoral fellowship first at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York (NY, USA), then at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA), and obtained the Junior Investigator Award for Women from the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology council of the American Heart Association. Her postdoctoral work is certainly groundbreaking and brings forward new considerations in the field: she discovered that the lymphatic vessel route, the network that runs in parallel with the blood vessels, is critical for removing cholesterol from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. In 2013, she joined the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Early Career Committee, eager to bring a Canadian perspective to the group and get involved in council activities. Since 2014, she is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Medicine at the Université de Montréal, and a research scientist at the Montreal Heart Institute. Her research program now focuses on characterizing the physiopathologic role of the lymphatics in the initiation, progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Basic and translational research will allow her team to identify the causes of lymphatic dysfunction, and eventually target potential therapeutic strategies aiming at improving lymphatic function at the different levels of the atherothrombotic disease. You can follow her laboratory at @LaboMartel_ICM. PMID:28031952

  11. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  12. Early life exposure to air pollution induces adult cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gorr, Matthew W.; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D.; Youtz, Dane J.; Sun, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether early life exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 μg/m3 from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 μl FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 μl PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 μl/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (−9,203 ± 235 μl/s FA, −7,045 ± 189 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (τ, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to β-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of early life exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular

  13. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  14. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  15. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  16. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  17. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  18. Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

  19. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  20. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  1. Tooth loss early in life accelerates age-related bone deterioration in mice.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Chen, Huayue; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Both osteoporosis and tooth loss are health concerns that affect many older people. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease of the elderly, characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue. Chronic mild stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many studies showed that tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone, in mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tooth loss early in life may accelerate age-related bone deterioration using a mouse model. Male senescence-accelerated mouse strain P8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly divided into control and toothless groups. Removal of the upper molar teeth was performed at one month of age. Bone response was evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 months of age. Tooth loss early in life caused a significant increase in circulating corticosterone level with age. Osteoblast bone formation was suppressed and osteoclast bone resorption was activated in the toothless mice. Trabecular bone volume fraction of the vertebra and femur was decreased in the toothless mice with age. The bone quality was reduced in the toothless mice at 5 and 9 months of age, compared with the age-matched control mice. These findings indicate that tooth loss early in life impairs the dynamic homeostasis of the bone formation and bone resorption, leading to reduced bone strength with age. Long-term tooth loss may have a cumulative detrimental effect on bone health. It is important to take appropriate measures to treat tooth loss in older people for preventing and/or treating senile osteoporosis.

  2. Early life trauma and directional brain connectivity within major depression.

    PubMed

    Grant, Merida M; White, David; Hadley, Jennifer; Hutcheson, Nathan; Shelton, Richard; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2014-09-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) is a significant risk factor for the onset of depression. Emerging findings indicate ELT is associated with enhanced amygdala reactivity to aversive stimuli in never-depressed healthy controls as well as those with acute depression but may be absent in non-ELT exposed depressed. The precise mechanism mediating these differences in amygdala reactivity remains unclear. The authors used Granger causality methods to evaluate task-based directional connectivity between medial or lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala in 20 unmedicated patients with current major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19 healthy matched controls while participants engaged in an affective variant of the flanker task comparing response to sad and neutral faces. These data were correlated with childhood trauma history. Exposure to ELT was associated with failure of inhibition within the MDD group based on medial PFC-amygdala connectivity. In contrast, non-ELT exposed MDD was associated with a negative causal pathway from medial prefrontal cortex to amygdala, despite reduced dorsolateral PFC input in comparison to healthy controls. Neither MDD group demonstrated significant lateral PFC-amygdala connectivity in comparison to healthy controls. Failure of the circuit implicated in emotion regulation was associated with a significant history of ELT but not with MDD more broadly. Non-ELT related depression was associated with intact regulation of emotion despite the absence of difference in severity of illness. These findings indicate opposing system-level differences within depression relative to ELT are expressed as differential amygdala reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Early Quality of Life in Patients with Localized Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Eton, David T.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men with localized prostate carcinoma are faced with important treatment decisions, and quality of life (QoL) information has become a crucial element of decision making. The first objective of this study was to compare the early, health-related QoL (HRQoL) of men with localized prostate carcinoma who were treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or brachytherapy. A second objective was to identify demographic and psychosocial variables that predict HRQoL. METHODS Two-hundred fifty-six men with localized prostate carcinoma were interviewed within 7 weeks of treatment initiation. The interview included measures of prostate-specific HRQoL (the University of California—Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index), general HRQoL (the SF-36), and psychosocial variables. RESULTS After adjusting for covariates, treatment group differences were found for both prostate specific HRQoL and general HRQoL. Men who underwent prostatectomy reported more urinary and sexual problems and more general physical dysfunction compared with men who were treated with either form of radiation therapy. Men who were treated with brachytherapy reported the fewest problems in sexual function and the least general physical dysfunction. Few treatment group differences were found in mental functioning. Both demographic factors and psychosocial factors predicted HRQoL. Older men and African-American men reported more physical problems than younger men and Caucasian men, respectively. A supportive social environment, high self-efficacy, and high self-esteem were predictive of better HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS Shortly after undergoing treatment for localized prostate carcinoma, men who underwent radical prostatectomy, older men, and African-American men are at heightened risk for experiencing prostate-specific and general deficits in HRQoL. Having psychosocial resources from which to draw may enhance HRQoL. PMID:11745222

  4. Immune response parameters during labor and early neonatal life.

    PubMed

    Protonotariou, Efthimia; Chrelias, Charalampos; Kassanos, Demetrios; Kapsambeli, Helen; Trakakis, Eftihios; Sarandakou, Angeliki

    2010-01-01

    Selected cytokines, associated with Th1 and Th2 immune response and inflammation, were studied in order to evaluate the relation between their release into maternal and neonatal circulation, during labour, and after birth, in comparison with those in adults. Cytokine concentrations were determined by very sensitive immunoassays, in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC), neonatal serum, the 1st (1N) and 5th (5N) day postpartum and in adult controls. Both IL-2 and IL-4 cytokine concentrations in UC were markedly elevated, compared to adult and MS ones. IL-2 decreased significantly in 5N, while IL-4 remained unchanged. IFN-gamma UC values were significantly lower than those in adults and MS, increasing significantly in 5N. Neonatal serum sIL-2R and sIL-4R were markedly higher than those in adults and MS. IL-1beta, IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNFRI and sTNFRII concentrations in MS and all with TNF-alpha in neonatal serum were significantly higher than in adults. IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-4R concentrations in MS, 1N and 5N were dependent on the mode of delivery. The results of this comparative study are indicative for a meaningful role for the studied cytokines and their receptors in: i) the development of neonatal immune system, ii) the regulation of immune response during labour and early life, and iii) the initiation of the processes of labour.

  5. Nitrogen, redox and life on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    In climate evolution studies, nitrogen once had the reputation of being a rather dull gas, thanks to its chemical stability and lack of direct greenhouse effects. This reputation has been decisively broken over the last few years by studies suggesting that its long-term cycling on Earth may have been significant and that via interaction with other gases it can strongly affect a planet's radiative balance. Nitrogen plays an additional key role in Earth's climate stability because it cold-traps water vapor in the troposphere. When nitrogen levels are low enough, the upper atmosphere becomes water-rich, leading to H2O photolysis, enhanced hydrogen escape to space and eventually catastrophic water loss and planetary oxidation. Previously, we have shown that this could lead to buildup of abiotic oxygen-dominated atmospheres on exoplanets in some cases. Very recently, two new papers have suggested that Earth's upper atmosphere was oxidised and surface atmospheric pressure was low in the late Archean. It has been suggested that these results might be explained in terms of water loss occurring due to a weakened cold trap in a lower-N2 atmosphere. Here, I discuss new theoretical results designed to investigate the viability of this explanation. I present iterative line-by-line radiative-convective calculations designed to estimate cold-trap temperatures (and hence stratospheric H2O content) for a range of atmospheric compositions on Earth 2.7 Ga. Particular attention is paid to the importance of stratospheric warming by biogenic methane and of atmospheric mixing rates to the results. I also speculate on what role, if any, life could have played in the early evolution of the nitrogen cycle.

  6. Disparities in the Context of Opportunities for Cancer Prevention in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Massetti, Greta M.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; Ragan, Kathleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent health disparities are a major contributor to disproportionate burden of cancer for some populations. Health disparities in cancer incidence and mortality may reflect differences in exposures to risk factors early in life. Understanding the distribution of exposures to early life risk and protective factors for cancer across different populations can shed light on opportunities to promote health equity at earlier developmental stages. Disparities may differentially influence risk for cancer during early life and create opportunities to promote health equity. Potential risk and protective factors for cancer in early life reveal patterns of disparities in their exposure. These disparities in exposures can manifest in downstream disparities in risk for cancer. These risk and protective factors include adverse childhood experiences; maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy; childhood obesity; high or low birth weight; benzene exposure; use of assisted reproductive technologies; pesticide and insecticide exposure; isolated cryptorchidism; early pubertal timing; exposure to radiation; exposure to tobacco in utero and in early life; allergies, asthma, and atopy; and early exposure to infection. Disparities on the basis of racial and ethnic minority status, economic disadvantage, disability status, sex, geography, and nation of origin can occur in these risk and protective factors. Vulnerable populations experience disproportionally greater exposure to risk factors in early life. Addressing disparities in risk factors in early life can advance opportunities for prevention, promote health equity, and possibly reduce risk for subsequent development of cancer. PMID:27940979

  7. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    DeGraff, Deborah S; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-04-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth.

  8. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DeGraff, Deborah S.; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth. PMID:25170434

  9. The relative effects of shocks in early- and later-life conditions on mortality.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance of cohorts' early-life conditions, compared to later period conditions, on adult and old-age mortality is not known. This article studies how cohort-level mortality depends on shocks in cohorts' early- and later-life (period) conditions. I use cohorts' own mortality as a proxy for the early-life conditions, and define shocks as deviations from trend. Using historical data for five European Countries i find that shocks in early-life conditions are only weakly associated with cohorts' later mortality. This may be because individual-level health is robust to early-life conditions, or because at the cohort level scarring, selection, and immunity cancel each other. Shocks in period conditions, measured as deviations from trend in period child mortality, are strongly and positively correlated with mortality at all older ages. The results suggest that at the cohort level changing period conditions drive mortality variation and change.

  10. The influence of early-life conditions on cardiovascular disease later in life among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Rimke; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The reasons for the high prevalence of CVD in ethnic minority groups are not fully understood. Recently, the importance of early-life developmental factors and their impact on CVDs in adulthood is increasingly being recognised, but little is known about this among ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the current paper aimed to fill this knowledge gap by reviewing the available literature to assess the influence of early-life conditions on CVDs and its risk factors in ethnic minority populations residing in Western countries. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE between 1989 and 2014. In total, 1418 studies were identified of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies investigated the relationship between early-life anthropometrics and CVD risk factors of which all except one found significant associations between the assessed anthropometric measures and CVD risk factors. Seven studies evaluated the influence of childhood socio-economic status (SES) on CVD and risk factors of which five found significant associations between childhood SES measures and CVD risk factors. Five studies investigated the relationship between other early-life conditions including early-life nutrition, physical development, and childhood psychosocial conditions, and CVD risk factors. Four of these studies found significant associations between the assessed childhood conditions and CVD risk factors. This review reinforces the importance of early-life conditions on adult CVD in ethnic minority groups. Improvement of early-life conditions among ethnic minority groups may contribute to reducing CVD risk in these populations.

  11. Joint effects of pregnancy, sociocultural, and environmental factors on early life gut microbiome structure and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Albert M.; Sitarik, Alexandra R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Fujimura, Kei E.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Kim, Haejin; Zoratti, Edward M.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Boushey, Homer A.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Lynch, Susan V.; Johnson, Christine C.

    2016-01-01

    The joint impact of pregnancy, environmental, and sociocultural exposures on early life gut microbiome is not yet well-characterized, especially in racially and socioeconomically diverse populations. Gut microbiota of 298 children from a Detroit-based birth cohort were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing: 130 neonates (median age = 1.2 months) and 168 infants (median age = 6.6 months). Multiple factors were associated with neonatal gut microbiome composition in both single- and multi-factor models, with independent contributions of maternal race-ethnicity, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, marital status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and indoor pets. These findings were consistent in the infants, and networks demonstrating the shared impact of factors on gut microbial composition also showed notable topological similarity between neonates and infants. Further, latent groups defined by these factors explained additional variation, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects. Our findings also have implications for studies investigating the impact of the early life gut microbiota on disease. PMID:27558272

  12. Young and turbulent: the early life of massive galaxy progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Madau, Piero; Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Haardt, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    We present results from the 'Ponos' simulation suite on the early evolution of a massive, Mvir(z = 0) = 1.2 × 1013 M⊙ galaxy. At z ≳ 6, before feedback from a central supermassive black hole becomes dominant, the main galaxy has a stellar mass ˜2 × 109 M⊙ and a star formation rate ˜20 M⊙ yr-1. The galaxy sits near the expected main sequence of star-forming galaxies at those redshifts, and resembles moderately star-forming systems observed at z > 5. The high specific star formation rate results in vigorous heating and stirring of the gas by supernovae feedback, and the galaxy develops a thick and turbulent disc, with gas velocity dispersion ˜40 km s-1, rotation to dispersion ratio ˜2, and with a significant amount of gas at ˜105 K. The Toomre parameter always exceeds the critical value for gravito-turbulence, Q ˜ 1.5-2, mainly due to the contribution of warm/hot gas inside the disc. Without feedback, a nearly gravito-turbulent regime establishes with similar gas velocity dispersion and lower Q. We propose that the 'hot and turbulent' disc regime seen in our simulations, unlike the 'cold and turbulent' gravito-turbulent regime of massive clumpy disc galaxies at z ˜ 1-2, is a fundamental characterization of the main-sequence galaxies at z ≳ 6, as they can sustain star formation rates comparable to those of low-mass starbursts at z = 0. This results in no sustained coherent gas inflows through the disc, and in fluctuating and anisotropic mass transport, possibly postponing the assembly of the bulge and causing the initial feeding of the central black hole to be highly intermittent.

  13. Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections.

    PubMed

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-10-29

    This review attempts to situate the emergence of life on the early Earth within the scientific issues of the operational and mechanistic description of life, the conditions and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, together with bottom-up molecular fabrication and biomolecular nanofabrication and top-down miniaturization approaches to the origin of terrestrial life.

  14. Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections

    PubMed Central

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This review attempts to situate the emergence of life on the early Earth within the scientific issues of the operational and mechanistic description of life, the conditions and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, together with bottom-up molecular fabrication and biomolecular nanofabrication and top-down miniaturization approaches to the origin of terrestrial life. PMID:17008225

  15. Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Hornung, M.W.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    TCDD and related compounds cause toxicity in fish early life stages, characterized by edema, regional ischemia, craniofacial malformations, growth retardation and mortality. Determining the mechanism of these effects requires understanding normal early life stage development, which has been studied extensively in the zebrafish. Establishing zebrafish as a model for TCDD developmental toxicity requires demonstration that TCDD adversely affects zebrafish early life stages. Toxicity of TCDD to zebrafish early life stages was characterized by exposing newly fertilized eggs for 1 hr to water containing acetone or graded concentrations of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD and observed for signs of toxicity at 12 hr intervals for 240 hr post fertilization (hpf). TCDD did not increase embryo mortality during the egg stage (0--48 hpf) nor did it affect the time to hatching (48--96 hpf). At the highest TCDD egg doses (4.5--6.5 ng/g) the earliest sign of toxicity was pericardial edema (72 hpf) followed by the onset of yolk sac edema (96 hpf) onset of mortality (132 hpf). At lower egg doses the same effects were seen but after a longer delay period. Other signs of toxicity included craniofacial malformations, cranial edema and loss of swimming activity prior to death. To determine the dose-response relationship for pericardial and yolk sac edema and larval mortality the cumulative incidence of each effect was determined at 240 hpf. The ED{sub 50}s (95% fiducial limits) for pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were 2.1 6 (1.82--2.48) and 2.43 (2.12--2.72) ng TCDD/g egg, respectively. The LD{sub 50} was 2.45 (1.94--2.89) ng TCDD/g egg. In conclusion, the signs of TCDD early life stage toxicity in zebrafish are essentially identical to those in other fish species, however, larger egg doses of TCDD are required to elicit the effects.

  16. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Early exposure to agricultural soil accelerates the maturation of the early-life pig gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nguyen; Tsai, Tsung Cheng; Maxwell, Charles; Carbonero, Franck

    2017-02-27

    potentially harmful taxa, as well as improved growth performance between weaning and the end of nursery phase. Our findings suggest that early exposure to soil strongly influences the maturation of the early-life piglets, probably allows for a better adaptation to the plant-based diet, and possibly improves overall health.

  18. Inhibitory bacteria reduce fungi on early life stages of endangered Colorado boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    PubMed Central

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Woodhams, Douglas C; Van Treuren, Will; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, host-associated microbiota are recognized to mediate pathogen establishment, providing new ecological perspectives on health and disease. Amphibian skin-associated microbiota interact with the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but little is known about microbial turnover during host development and associations with host immune function. We surveyed skin microbiota of Colorado's endangered boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas), sampling 181 toads across four life stages (tadpoles, metamorphs, subadults and adults). Our goals were to (1) understand variation in microbial community structure among individuals and sites, (2) characterize shifts in communities during development and (3) examine the prevalence and abundance of known Bd-inhibitory bacteria. We used high-throughput 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to characterize bacteria and microeukaryotes, respectively. Life stage had the largest effect on the toad skin microbial community, and site and Bd presence also contributed. Proteobacteria dominated tadpole microbial communities, but were later replaced by Actinobacteria. Microeukaryotes on tadpoles were dominated by the classes Alveolata and Stramenopiles, while fungal groups replaced these groups after metamorphosis. Using a novel database of Bd-inhibitory bacteria, we found fewer Bd-inhibitory bacteria in post-metamorphic stages correlated with increased skin fungi, suggesting that bacteria have a strong role in early developmental stages and reduce skin-associated fungi. PMID:26565725

  19. Resilience Factors in Women with Severe Early-Life Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Karen; Neukel, Corinne; Hagemann, Dirk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    Early-life maltreatment (ELM) has long-lasting negative consequences and is the most important general risk factor for mental disorders. Nevertheless, a number of maltreated children grow up to become healthy adults and have therefore been called 'resilient'. The aim of the current study is to investigate 'resilience factors' in the context of severe ELM. The study was part of the large multicenter project Understanding and Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse (UBICA). A total of 89 women were examined, 33 with ELM and at least one lifetime mental disorder (nonresilient), 19 with ELM but without lifetime mental disorders (resilient), and 37 without ELM and without lifetime mental disorders (controls). ELM and other circumstances before the age of 18 years were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview. Additional relevant person and situation factors were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders (SCID-I), International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Multiple-Choice Vocabulary Intelligence Test (MWT-B). Factor analyses and paired t tests were performed to identify those variables which differentiate best between the three groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis was conducted to detect the accuracy of assigning women to their specific group. The factor analyses revealed 10 resilience factors based on which we could correctly assign 80% of the women to their group in the discriminant analysis. t tests of factor scores showed that resilient and nonresilient maltreated women mainly differed in current individual attributes (e.g. impulsivity, attachment style), while resilient and nonresilient maltreated women differed from controls in both their current individual attributes and their view of their situation as a

  20. Longitudinal phenotypes for alcoholism: Heterogeneity of course, early identifiers, and life course correlates.

    PubMed

    Jester, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-11-01

    Alcoholism is a heterogeneous disorder; however, characterization of life-course variations in symptomatology is almost nonexistent, and developmentally early predictors of variations are very poorly characterized. In this study, the course of alcoholic symptomatology over 32 years is differentiated, and predictors and covariates of trajectory class membership are identified. A community sample of alcoholic and neighborhood matched control families, 332 men and 336 women, was recruited based on alcoholism in the men. Symptoms were assessed retrospectively at baseline (mean age = 32) back to age 15 and prospectively from baseline every 3 years for 15 years. Trajectory classes were established using growth mixture modeling. Men and women had very similarly shaped trajectory classes: developmentally limited (men: 29%, women: 42%), developmentally cumulative (men: 26%, women: 38%), young adult onset (men: 31%, women: 21%), and early onset severe (men: 13%). Three factors at age 15 predicted class membership: family history of alcoholism, age 15 symptoms, and level of childhood antisocial behavior. Numerous measures of drinking and other psychopathology were also associated with class membership. The findings suggest that clinical assessments can be crafted where the profile of current and historical information can predict not only severity of prognosis but also future moderation of symptoms and/or remission over intervals as long as decades.

  1. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  2. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Ellen A.; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F.; Slade, Martin D.; Cullen, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. Methods. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. Results. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Conclusions. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes. PMID:26066927

  3. Life History Plasticity of a Tropical Seabird in Response to El Niño Anomalies during Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Sergio; Drummond, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability) in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life. PMID:24023760

  4. Life history plasticity of a tropical seabird in response to El Niño anomalies during early life.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Sergio; Drummond, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability) in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life.

  5. Early-life origins of the race gap in men's mortality.

    PubMed

    Warner, David F; Hayward, Mark D

    2006-09-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life socioeconomic conditions, particularly parental occupation and family structure, explain part of the race gap in mortality. Black men's higher rates of death are associated with lower socioeconomic standing in early life and living in homes lacking both biological parents. However these effects operate indirectly through adult socioeconomic achievement processes, as education, family income, wealth, and occupational complexity statistically account for the race gap in men's mortality. Our findings suggest that policy interventions to eliminate race disparities in mortality and health should address both childhood and adult socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Early origins of chronic obstructive lung diseases across the life course.

    PubMed

    Duijts, Liesbeth; Reiss, Irwin K; Brusselle, Guy; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive lung diseases, like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have high prevalences and are a major public health concern. Chronic obstructive lung diseases have at least part of their origins in early life. Exposure to an adverse environment during critical periods in early life might lead to permanent developmental adaptations which results in impaired lung growth with smaller airways and lower lung volume, altered immunological responses and related inflammation, and subsequently to increased risks of chronic obstructive lung diseases throughout the life course. Various pathways leading from early life factors to respiratory health outcomes in later life have been studied, including fetal and early infant growth patterns, preterm birth, maternal obesity, diet and smoking, children's diet, allergen exposure and respiratory tract infections, and genetic susceptibility. Data on potential adverse factors in the embryonic and preconception period and respiratory health outcomes are scarce. Also, the underlying mechanisms how specific adverse exposures in the fetal and early postnatal period lead to chronic obstructive lung diseases in later life are not yet fully understood. Current studies suggest that interactions between early environmental exposures and genetic factors such as changes in DNA-methylation and RNA expression patterns may explain the early development of chronic obstructive lung diseases. New well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to identify specific critical periods and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic obstructive lung disease throughout the life course.

  7. Programming the brain and behaviour by early-life stress: a focus on neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Brunton, P J

    2015-06-01

    Animal studies have amply demonstrated that stress exposure during pregnancy or in early postnatal life can adversely influence brain development and have long-term 'programming' effects on future brain function and behaviour. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence from human studies supports the hypothesis that some psychiatric disorders may have developmental origins. Here, the focus is on three adverse consequences of early-life stress: dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, heightened anxiety behaviour and cognitive impairments, with review of what is known about the underlying central mechanisms. Neuroactive steroids modulate neuronal activity and play a key role in neurodevelopment. Moreover they can negatively modulate activity of the HPA axis, exert anxiolytic actions and influence cognitive performance. Thus, neuroactive steroids may provide a link between early-life stress and the resultant adverse effects on the brain and behaviour. Here, a role for neuroactive steroids, in particular the 5α-reduced/3α-hydroxylated metabolites of progesterone, testosterone and deoxycorticosterone, is discussed in the context of early-life stress. Furthermore, the impact of early-life stress on the brain's capacity to generate neurosteroids is considered and the evidence for an ability of neuroactive steroids to over-write the negative effects of early-life stress on the brain and behaviour is examined. An enhanced understanding of the influence of early-life stress on brain neurosteroid systems could aid the identification of new targets for developing treatments for stress-related conditions in humans.

  8. Effects of early-life adversity on cognitive decline in older African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Wilson, Robert S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Hayward, Mark D; Evans, Denis A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2012-12-11

    Early-life adversity is related to adult health in old age but little is known about its relation with cognitive decline. Participants included more than 6,100 older residents (mean age = 74.9 [7.1] years; 61.8% African American) enrolled in the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a geographically defined, population-based study of risk factors for Alzheimer disease. Participants were interviewed at approximately 3-year intervals for up to 16 years. The interview included a baseline evaluation of early-life adversity, and administration of 4 brief cognitive function tests to assess change in cognitive function. We estimated the relation of early-life adversity to rate of cognitive decline in a series of mixed-effects models. In models stratified by race, and adjusted for age and sex, early-life adversity was differentially related to decline in African Americans and whites. Whereas no measure of early-life adversity related to cognitive decline in whites, both food deprivation and being thinner than average in early life were associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline in African Americans. The relations were not mediated by years of education and persisted after adjustment for cardiovascular factors. Markers of early-life adversity had an unexpected protective effect on cognitive decline in African Americans.

  9. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  10. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  11. Endocrine Disruptors and the Breast: Early Life Effects and Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Macon, Madisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5–27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future. PMID:23417729

  12. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  13. Early life family conflict, Social interactions and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    John-Henderson, Neha A.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean Intima-Media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Methods Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean age: 42.8 years [SD=7.3]). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Results Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β=0.08, t(447)=2.13, p=0.034, R2=0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and EMA reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001, 95% CI, 0.0001–0.0014 and β=0.001, 95% CI, 0.0002–0.0015, respectively). Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions. PMID:26809109

  14. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  15. Nutrition in early life, immune-programming and allergies: the role of epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Amarasekera, Manori; Prescott, Susan L; Palmer, Debra J

    2013-09-01

    Early life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. The associated parallel rise in metabolic diseases including obesity, childhood type 2-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease highlights the interplay between modern dietary patterns and increasing abnormalities of both immune and metabolic health. The low-grade inflammation that characterize these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) suggests a central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programing is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect the fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients such as folic acid levels, which have clear epigenetic effects on programming. Here we examine the current knowledge of the nutritional-programming of immune health and how research into nutritional-epigenetics in the context of allergic disease as one of the earliest onset NCDs can expand our knowledge to discover the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures in early life to prevent later disease risk.

  16. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    PubMed Central

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  17. PROSTATE CANCER: IS IT TIME TO EXPAND THE RESEARCH FOCUS TO EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURES?

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Although the contribution of lifestyle and environment (non-genetic factors) to prostate carcinogenesis is indicated by international variation in prostate cancer occurrence and migration studies, no conclusive modifiable risk factors have been identified to date. One possible reason for this may be the dearth of epidemiological research on exposures experienced early-in-life when the immature prostate may be more susceptible to carcinogenic exposures. Herein, we motivate the study of early-life exposures, describe the small body of early-life research and its associated challenges, and point towards solutions for future research. PMID:23363989

  18. Hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early-life stress: Functional and molecular aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fenoglio, Kristina A.; Brunson, Kristen L.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas genetic factors contribute crucially to brain function, early-life events, including stress, exert long-lasting influence on neuronal function. Here, we focus on the hippocampus as the target of these early-life events because of its crucial role in learning and memory. Using a novel immature-rodent model, we describe the deleterious consequences of chronic early-life ‘psychological’ stress on hippocampus-dependent cognitive tasks. We review the cellular mechanisms involved and discuss the roles of stress-mediating molecules, including corticotropin releasing hormone, in the process by which stress impacts the structure and function of hippocampal neurons. PMID:16603235

  19. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  20. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-15 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. PMID:27451336

  1. Competency, Coping, and Contributory Life Skills Development of Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffrey P.; Bowen, Blannie E.

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 709 Ohio eighth graders indicated that self-esteem and self-perceived development of competence, coping, and contributory life skills are complementary. Participation in 4-H and other clubs positively influences perceived development. (SK)

  2. Searching for Life: Early Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.

  3. Searching for Life: Early Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.

  4. Early life history pelagic exposure profiles of selected commercially important fish species in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.

    2016-10-01

    A synthesis of nearly four decades of ichthyoplankton survey data from the Gulf of Alaska was undertaken to provide the most comprehensive information available on the early life history ecology of five focal species: Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus), Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), and Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias). This analysis of historical data, along with information from published studies, is presented here in the form of ecological reviews of the species during their planktonic phase. The reviews include descriptions of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to the environment, and interpretation regarding associated sensitivities to environmental forcing. On a temporal scale, patterns in abundance of eggs and larvae are synthesized that characterize seasonal exposure to the pelagic environment, and interannual variation that is presumed to incorporate responses to long-term environmental forcing. Spatial patterns are synthesized to identify horizontal and vertical extent of egg and larval distributions, delineate areas of primary larval habitat, and illuminate egg and larval drift pathways. The observed patterns are discussed with respect to characterizing species early life history strategies, identifying long-term adaptations to the Gulf of Alaska environment, and associated resilience and vulnerability factors that may modulate early life responses to environmental forcing in this region. For each species, gaps in knowledge are identified and are concerned primarily with the period of transition between the larval and juvenile stage, and feeding habits and ecology across seasons, habitats and sub-intervals of early ontogeny. These early life history reviews advance our ecological understanding of the pelagic phase, and fine-tune our focus for the investigation of potential response mechanisms to environmental forcing at appropriate, species-specific temporal

  5. Early-life farm exposures and adult asthma and atopy in the Agricultural Lung Health Study.

    PubMed

    House, John S; Wyss, Annah B; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Long, Stuart; Umbach, David M; Henneberger, Paul K; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P; Long O'Connell, Elizabeth; Barker-Cummings, Christie; London, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies, mostly from Europe, suggest that early-life farming exposures protect against childhood asthma and allergy; few data exist on asthma and allergy in adults. We sought to examine associations between early-life farming exposures and current asthma and atopy in an older adult US farming population. We analyzed data from 1746 farmers and 1555 spouses (mean age, 63) from a case-control study nested within the Agricultural Health Study. Current asthma and early-life farming exposures were assessed via questionnaires. We defined atopy based on specific IgE > 0.70 IU/mL to at least 1 of 10 allergens measured in blood. We used logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, state (Iowa or North Carolina), and smoking (pack years), to estimate associations between early-life exposures and asthma (1198 cases and 2031 noncases) or atopy (578 cases and 2526 noncases). Exposure to the farming environment in utero and in early childhood had little or no association with asthma but was associated with reduced odds of atopy. The strongest association was seen for having a mother who performed farm activities while pregnant (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.74) and remained significant in models with correlated early-life exposures including early childhood farm animal contact and raw milk consumption. In a large US farming population, early-life farm exposures, particularly maternal farming activities while pregnant, were strongly associated with reduced risk of atopy in adults. These results extend previous work done primarily on childhood outcomes and suggest that protective associations of early-life farming exposures on atopy endure across the life course. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Early-life Origins of Lifecycle Well-being: Research and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the lifecycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the lifecycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socio-economic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the U.S. are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

  7. The role of early life stress as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2011-03-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcohol and drug dependence are equally important. Exposure to early life stress, that is unfortunately common in the general population, has been shown to predict a wide range of psychopathology, including addiction. This review will look at the characteristics of early life stress that may be specific predictors for adolescent and adult alcohol and drug dependence and will focus on studies in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Experiencing maltreatment and cumulative stressful life events prior to puberty and particularly in the first few years of life is associated with early onset of problem drinking in adolescence and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Early life stress can result in permanent neurohormonal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes, morphological changes in the brain, and gene expression changes in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, all of which are implicated in the development of addiction. However, a large proportion of children who have experienced even severe early life stress do not develop psychopathology indicating that mediating factors such as gene-environment interactions and family and peer relationships are important for resilience. There appears to be a direct pathway from chronic stress exposure in pre-pubertal children via adolescent problem drinking to alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. However, this route can be moderated by genetic and environmental factors. The role that gene-environment interactions play in the risk-resilience balance is being increasingly recognized.

  8. The Role of Early Life Stress as a Predictor for Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcohol and drug dependence are equally important. Exposure to early life stress, that is unfortunately common in the general population, has been shown to predict a wide range of psychopathology, including addiction. Objective This review will look at the characteristics of early life stress that may be specific predictors for adolescent and adult alcohol and drug dependence and will focus on studies in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Results Experiencing maltreatment and cumulative stressful life events prior to puberty and particularly in the first few years of life is associated with early onset of problem drinking in adolescence and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Early life stress can result in permanent neurohormonal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes, morphological changes in the brain and gene expression changes in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, all of which are implicated in the development of addiction. However, a large proportion of children who have experienced even severe early life stress do not develop psychopathology indicating that mediating factors such as gene-environment interactions and family and peer relationships are important for resilience. Conclusions There appears to be a direct pathway from chronic stress exposure in pre-pubertal children via adolescent problem drinking to alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. However, this route can be moderated by genetic and environmental factors. The role that gene-environment interactions play in the risk-resilience balance is being increasingly recognized. PMID:20596857

  9. Characterizing Early Maternal Style in a Population of Guide Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Emily E.; Sammel, Mary D.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Serpell, James A.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    In both humans and non-humans, differences in maternal style during the first few weeks of life can be reliably characterized, and these differences affect offspring's temperament and cognition in later life. Drawing on the breeding population of dogs at The Seeing Eye, a guide dog school in Morristown, New Jersey, we conducted videotaped focal follows on 21 mothers and their litters (n = 138 puppies) over the first 3 weeks of the puppies' lives in an effort to characterize maternal style. We found that a mother's attitude and actions toward her offspring varied naturally between individuals, and that these variations could be summarized by a single principal component, which we described as Maternal behavior. This component was stable across weeks, associated with breed, litter size, and parity, but not redundant with these attributes. Furthermore, this component was significantly associated with an independent experimental measure of maternal behavior, and with maternal stress as measured by salivary cortisol. In summary, Maternal behavior captured a significant proportion of the variation in maternal style; was stable over time; and had both discriminant and predictive validity. PMID:28239365

  10. Characterizing Early Maternal Style in a Population of Guide Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Cheney, Dorothy L; Serpell, James A; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    In both humans and non-humans, differences in maternal style during the first few weeks of life can be reliably characterized, and these differences affect offspring's temperament and cognition in later life. Drawing on the breeding population of dogs at The Seeing Eye, a guide dog school in Morristown, New Jersey, we conducted videotaped focal follows on 21 mothers and their litters (n = 138 puppies) over the first 3 weeks of the puppies' lives in an effort to characterize maternal style. We found that a mother's attitude and actions toward her offspring varied naturally between individuals, and that these variations could be summarized by a single principal component, which we described as Maternal behavior. This component was stable across weeks, associated with breed, litter size, and parity, but not redundant with these attributes. Furthermore, this component was significantly associated with an independent experimental measure of maternal behavior, and with maternal stress as measured by salivary cortisol. In summary, Maternal behavior captured a significant proportion of the variation in maternal style; was stable over time; and had both discriminant and predictive validity.

  11. Low early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid and increased proinflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Fok, Alexandra K; Walker, Hope; Lim, Alvin; Nicholls, Erin F; Cole, Steve; Kobor, Michael S

    2009-08-25

    Children reared in unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances show increased susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging when they reach the fifth and sixth decades of life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life programs biological systems in a manner that persists across decades and thereby accentuates vulnerability to disease. Here we examine the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing genome-wide transcriptional profiling in healthy adults who were either low or high in socioeconomic status (SES) in early life. Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. Subjects from low-SES backgrounds also showed increased output of cortisol in daily life, heightened expression of transcripts bearing response elements for NF-kappaB, and greater stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. These disparities were independent of subjects' current SES, lifestyle practices, and perceived stress. Collectively, these data suggest that low early-life SES programs a defensive phenotype characterized by resistance to glucocorticoid signaling, which in turn facilitates exaggerated adrenocortical and inflammatory responses. Although these response patterns could serve adaptive functions during acute threats to well-being, over the long term they might exact an allostatic toll on the body that ultimately contributes to the chronic diseases of aging.

  12. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  13. Examination of age-related epigenetic changes following early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown that transient early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...

  14. Correlation between early-life regulation of the immune system by microbiota and allergy development.

    PubMed

    Gensollen, Thomas; Blumberg, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Early postnatal life is a key time for development of the immune system and colonization of the host by microbiota. Recent studies have shown that specific limbs of the immune system can be regulated by microbiota in a time-restricted period during early life. Studies in mouse models have shown that perturbations of the microbiota during early life can cause immune effects that can persist into adulthood and create increased host susceptibility to certain diseases. Here we discuss the role of early-life regulation of the immune system by the microbiota and how it can be related to allergy development. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  16. Examination of age-related epigenetic changes following early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown that transient early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...

  17. Nonmarine stromatolites and the search for early life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awramik, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    The available evidence permits one to conclude that streams flowed and lakes developed on Mars sometime in the remote past. The lessons learned from the Earth's earliest fossil record suggest that stromatolites might have formed on Mars, speculating that: (1) biopoesis occurred on Mars during its earliest history; (2) life evolved and diversified; (3) life inhabited aqueous environments; and (4) sunlight was an important environmental resource. The most likely place to find stromatolites and possibly microbial fossils on Mars would be in ancient lake and stream deposits. If thermal spring deposits can be identified, then they too are sites for biogeological investigations. Other aspects of this study are presented.

  18. Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Dafne M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Zorrilla Zubilete, María A

    2016-07-01

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress during the first years of life has been shown to have profound effects on the growth and development of an adult individual. There are evidences demonstrating that stressful experiences during gestation or in early life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental disorders. Early-life stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and the associated neurochemical reactions following glucocorticoid release are accompanied by a rapid physiological response. An excessive response may affect the developing brain resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. This article reviews the data from experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming. We think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders.

  19. Lung surfactant metabolism: early in life, early in disease and target in cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Mucci, Adele; Lachmann, Nico; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins lining the alveolar epithelium. At the air-liquid interface, surfactant lowers surface tension, avoiding alveolar collapse and reducing the work of breathing. The essential role of lung surfactant in breathing and therefore in life, is highlighted by surfactant deficiency in premature neonates, which causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and results in early death after birth. In addition, defects in surfactant metabolism alter lung homeostasis and lead to disease. Special attention should be paid to two important key cells responsible for surfactant metabolism: alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2C) and alveolar macrophages (AM). On the one hand, surfactant deficiency coming from abnormal AE2C function results in high surface tension, promoting alveolar collapse and mechanical stress in the epithelium. This epithelial injury contributes to tissue remodeling and lung fibrosis. On the other hand, impaired surfactant catabolism by AM leads to accumulation of surfactant in air spaces and the associated altered lung function in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). We review here two recent cell therapies that aim to recover the activity of AE2C or AM, respectively, therefore targeting the restoring of surfactant metabolism and lung homeostasis. Applied therapies successfully show either transplantation of healthy AE2C in fibrotic lungs, to replace injured AE2C cells and surfactant, or transplantation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to counteract accumulation of surfactant lipid and proteinaceous material in the alveolar spaces leading to PAP. These therapies introduce an alternative treatment with great potential for patients suffering from lung diseases.

  20. Statistical characterization of life drivers for a probabilistic design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Eric P.; Safie, Fayssal

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of statistical characterization of life drivers for a probabilistic design analysis (PDA) approach to support the conventional deterministic structural design methods that are currently used. The probabilistic approach takes into consideration the modeling inadequacies and uncertainties in many design variables such as loads, environments, and material properties. The importance of the distributional assumption is motivated by illustrating an example where the results differ substantially due to the distribution selected. Different types of distributions are discussed and techniques for estimating the parameters are given. Given this information, procedures are outlined for selecting the appropriate distribution based on the particular type of variable (i.e., dimensional, performance) as well as the information that is available (i.e., test data, engineering analysis). Finally, techniques are given for generating random numbers from these selected distributions within the PDA process.

  1. Characterization of Early Partial Seizure Onset: Frequency, Complexity and Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Methods Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from forty-five patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). Results GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Conclusions Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Significance Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. PMID:21872526

  2. Characterization of early partial seizure onset: frequency, complexity and entropy.

    PubMed

    Jouny, Christophe C; Bergey, Gregory K

    2012-04-01

    A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300 Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from 45 patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal and early life stress effects on immune function: relevance to immunotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Denise L; Lubahn, Cheri; Lorton, Dianne

    2008-10-01

    Stress is triggered by a variety of unexpected environmental stimuli, such as aggressive behavior, fear, forced physical activity, sudden environmental changes, social isolation or pathological conditions. Stressful experiences during very early life (particularly, maternal stress during fetal ontogeny) can permanently alter the responsiveness of the nervous system, an effect called programming or imprinting. Programming affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, brain neurotransmitter systems, sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the cognitive abilities of the offspring, which can alter neural regulation of immune function. Prenatal or early life stress may contribute to the maladaptive immune responses to stress that occur later in life. This review focuses on the effect of maternal and early life stress on immune function in the offspring across life span. It highlights potential mechanisms by which prenatal stress impacts immune functions over life span. The literature discussed in this review suggests that psychosocial stress during pre- and early postnatal life may increase the vulnerability of infants to the effects of immunotoxicants or immune-mediated diseases, with long-term consequences. Neural-immune interactions may provide an indirect route through which immunotoxicants affect the developing immune system. A developmental approach to understanding how immunotoxicants interact with maternal and early life stress-induced changes in immunity is needed, because as the body changes physiologically across life span so do the effects of stress and immunotoxicants. In early and late life, the immune system is more vulnerable to the effects of stress. Stress can mimic the effects of aging and exacerbate age-related changes in immune function. This is important because immune dysregulation in the elderly is more frequently and seriously associated with clinical impairment and death. Aging, exposure to teratogens, and psychological stress

  4. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-05-11

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health.

  5. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  6. Mother-Stranger Discrimination in the Early Weeks of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Genevieve C.

    A report is presented which relates to a general hypothesis suggested by previous data on visual response to faces that in the first weeks of life infants develop expectations regarding the human face. Three predictions were made: (1) Silent human faces would elicit less direct regard than faces accompanied by voices; (2) A familiar face would…

  7. Life Satisfaction and Maladaptive Behaviors in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael D.; Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 ("n" = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2…

  8. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages.

  9. Key science questions from the second conference on early Mars: geologic, hydrologic, and climatic evolution and the implications for life.

    PubMed

    Beaty, David W; Clifford, Stephen M; Borg, Lars E; Catling, David C; Craddock, Robert A; Des Marais, David J; Farmer, Jack D; Frey, Herbert V; Haberle, Robert M; McKay, Christopher P; Newsom, Horton E; Parker, Timothy J; Segura, Teresa; Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-12-01

    In October 2004, more than 130 terrestrial and planetary scientists met in Jackson Hole, WY, to discuss early Mars. The first billion years of martian geologic history is of particular interest because it is a period during which the planet was most active, after which a less dynamic period ensued that extends to the present day. The early activity left a fascinating geological record, which we are only beginning to unravel through direct observation and modeling. In considering this time period, questions outnumber answers, and one of the purposes of the meeting was to gather some of the best experts in the field to consider the current state of knowledge, ascertain which questions remain to be addressed, and identify the most promising approaches to addressing those questions. The purpose of this report is to document that discussion. Throughout the planet's first billion years, planetary-scale processes-including differentiation, hydrodynamic escape, volcanism, large impacts, erosion, and sedimentation-rapidly modified the atmosphere and crust. How did these processes operate, and what were their rates and interdependencies? The early environment was also characterized by both abundant liquid water and plentiful sources of energy, two of the most important conditions considered necessary for the origin of life. Where and when did the most habitable environments occur? Did life actually occupy them, and if so, has life persisted on Mars to the present? Our understanding of early Mars is critical to understanding how the planet we see today came to be.

  10. Metabolic programming of long-term outcomes due to fatty acid nutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    Innis, Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Understanding of the importance of dietary fatty acids has grown beyond a simple source of energy to complex roles in regulating gene expression and cell and intracellular communication. This is important because the metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus and infant plays a key role in guiding the set point of neural receptors that regulate energy homeostasis and expression of genes that control energy storage and oxidation. Early deviations in these pathways have the potential to lead to lasting adaptations, termed metabolic programming, which may combine to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in later life. The quality of fatty acids in human diets has undergone major changes in the last 50 years, characterized by an increase in ω-6 and decrease in ω-3 fatty acids. Evidence is accumulating to support the concept that the maternal intake of ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids in gestation and lactation, possibly involving both excess ω-6 and inadequate ω-3 fatty acids, can impact the developing infant tissue lipids and neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways relevant to metabolic programming. Further work is needed to understand the needs for different ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids during fetal and infant life, and their roles with respect to development of energy homeostasis and metabolism.

  11. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns.

  12. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing—the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories—and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. PMID:25833848

  13. Predicting negative life outcomes from early aggressive-disruptive behavior trajectories: gender differences in maladaptation across life domains.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to determine whether different trajectories of aggressive and disruptive behavior problems were associated with a range of negative life outcomes in young adulthood. General growth mixture modeling was used to classify the youths' patterns of aggressive-disruptive behavior across elementary school. These trajectories were then used to predict early sexual activity, early pregnancy, school dropout, unemployment, and drug abuse in young adulthood. The trajectories predicted the number but not type of negative life outcomes experienced. Girls with the chronic high aggression-disruption (CHAD) pattern experienced more negative outcomes than girls with consistently moderate levels, who were at greater risk than nonaggressive-nondisruptive girls. Boys with CHAD and boys with an increasing pattern had equal levels of risk for experiencing negative outcomes. The findings are consistent with transactional models of development and have implications for preventive interventions.

  14. Ankyrin-3 as a molecular marker of early-life stress and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Luoni, A; Massart, R; Nieratschker, V; Nemoda, Z; Blasi, G; Gilles, M; Witt, S H; Suderman, M J; Suomi, S J; Porcelli, A; Rizzo, G; Fazio, L; Torretta, S; Rampino, A; Berry, A; Gass, P; Cirulli, F; Rietschel, M; Bertolino, A; Deuschle, M; Szyf, M; Riva, M A

    2016-11-08

    Exposure to early-life stress (ELS) may heighten the risk for psychopathology at adulthood. Here, in order to identify common genes that may keep the memory of ELS through changes in their methylation status, we intersected methylome analyses performed in different tissues and time points in rats, non-human primates and humans, all characterized by ELS. We identified Ankyrin-3 (Ank3), a scaffolding protein with a strong genetic association for psychiatric disorders, as a gene persistently affected by stress exposure. In rats, Ank3 methylation and mRNA changes displayed a specific temporal profile during the postnatal development. Moreover, exposure to prenatal stress altered the interaction of ankyrin-G, the protein encoded by Ank3 enriched in the post-synaptic compartment, with PSD95. Notably, to model in humans a gene by early stress interplay on brain phenotypes during cognitive performance, we demonstrated an interaction between functional variation in Ank3 gene and obstetric complications on working memory in healthy adult subjects. Our data suggest that alterations of Ank3 expression and function may contribute to the effects of ELS on the development of psychiatric disorders.

  15. Ankyrin-3 as a molecular marker of early-life stress and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Luoni, A; Massart, R; Nieratschker, V; Nemoda, Z; Blasi, G; Gilles, M; Witt, S H; Suderman, M J; Suomi, S J; Porcelli, A; Rizzo, G; Fazio, L; Torretta, S; Rampino, A; Berry, A; Gass, P; Cirulli, F; Rietschel, M; Bertolino, A; Deuschle, M; Szyf, M; Riva, M A

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to early-life stress (ELS) may heighten the risk for psychopathology at adulthood. Here, in order to identify common genes that may keep the memory of ELS through changes in their methylation status, we intersected methylome analyses performed in different tissues and time points in rats, non-human primates and humans, all characterized by ELS. We identified Ankyrin-3 (Ank3), a scaffolding protein with a strong genetic association for psychiatric disorders, as a gene persistently affected by stress exposure. In rats, Ank3 methylation and mRNA changes displayed a specific temporal profile during the postnatal development. Moreover, exposure to prenatal stress altered the interaction of ankyrin-G, the protein encoded by Ank3 enriched in the post-synaptic compartment, with PSD95. Notably, to model in humans a gene by early stress interplay on brain phenotypes during cognitive performance, we demonstrated an interaction between functional variation in Ank3 gene and obstetric complications on working memory in healthy adult subjects. Our data suggest that alterations of Ank3 expression and function may contribute to the effects of ELS on the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:27824361

  16. Investigating the genetic underpinnings of early-life irritability.

    PubMed

    Riglin, L; Eyre, O; Cooper, M; Collishaw, S; Martin, J; Langley, K; Leibenluft, E; Stringaris, A; Thapar, A K; Maughan, B; O'Donovan, M C; Thapar, A

    2017-09-26

    Severe irritability is one of the commonest reasons prompting referral to mental health services. It is frequently seen in neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest early in development, especially attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, irritability can also be conceptualized as a mood problem because of its links with anxiety/depressive disorders; notably DSM-5 currently classifies severe, childhood-onset irritability as a mood disorder. Investigations into the genetic nature of irritability are lacking although twin studies suggest it shares genetic risks with both ADHD and depression. We investigated the genetic underpinnings of irritability using a molecular genetic approach, testing the hypothesis that early irritability (in childhood/adolescence) is associated with genetic risk for ADHD, as indexed by polygenic risk scores (PRS). As a secondary aim we investigated associations between irritability and PRS for major depressive disorder (MDD). Three UK samples were utilized: two longitudinal population-based cohorts with irritability data from childhood (7 years) to adolescence (15-16 years), and one ADHD patient sample (6-18 years). Irritability was defined using parent reports. PRS were derived from large genome-wide association meta-analyses. We observed associations between ADHD PRS and early irritability in our clinical ADHD sample and one of the population samples. This suggests that early irritability traits share genetic risk with ADHD in the general population and are a marker of higher genetic loading in individuals with an ADHD diagnosis. Associations with MDD PRS were not observed. This suggests that early-onset irritability could be conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental difficulty, behaving more like disorders such as ADHD than mood disorders.

  17. Applying epigenetics to Alzheimer's disease via the latent early-life associated regulation (LEARn) model.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Bryan; Sambamurti, Kumar; Zawia, Nasser; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of aging related dementia and has been extensively studied by several groups around the world. A general consensus, based on neuropathology, genetics and cellular and animal models, is that the 4 kDa amyloid β protein (Aβ) triggers a toxic cascade that induces microtubule-associated protein τ (MAPT) hyperphosphorylation and deposition. Together, these lesions lead to neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, modeled in animals, that ultimately causes dementia. Genetic studies show that a simple duplication of the Aβ precursor (APP) gene, as occurs in Down syndrome (trisomy 21), with a 1.5-fold increase in expression, can cause dementia with the complete AD associated neuropathology. The most fully characterized form of AD is early onset familial AD (FAD). Unfortunately, by far the most common form of AD is late onset AD (LOAD). FAD has well-identified autosomally dominant genetic causes, absent in LOAD. It is reasonable to hypothesize that environmental influences play a much stronger role in etiology of LOAD than of FAD. Since AD pathology in LOAD closely resembles FAD with accumulation of both Aβ and MAPT, it is likely that the environmental factors foster accumulation of these proteins in a manner similar to FAD mutations. Therefore, it is important to identify environmentally driven changes that "phenocopy" FAD in order to find ways to prevent LOAD. Epigenetic changes in expression are complex but stable determinants of many complex traits. Some aspects are regulated by prenatal and early post-natal development, others punctuate specific periods of maturation, and still others occur throughout life, mediating predictable changes that take place during various developmental stages. Environmental agents such as mercury, lead, and pesticides can disrupt the natural epigenetic program and lead to developmental deficits, mental retardation, feminization, and other complex syndromes. In this review we discuss latent

  18. The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachments on Life Satisfaction in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Nagle, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred and three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered "People in My Life," a measure of attachment relationships, and the…

  19. Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    1994-01-01

    Presents a lesson based on the village life of the Plains Indians during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and suggested student assignments. Provides two maps, two student readings, and five illustrations of American Indian village life. (CFR)

  20. Early Adolescents' Conceptions of the Good Life and the Good Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five (N = 25) early adolescents were asked to describe their conceptions of the good life and a good person. Analysis of their responses revealed that sixth and ninth graders see care and support from friends and family as requisite components of the good life. Having material comforts, being happy, and achieving personal goals were also…

  1. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  2. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  3. Associations between gut microbial colonization in early life and respiratory outcomes in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoen, Anne G.; Li, Jing; Moulton, Lisa A.; O’Toole, George A.; Housman, Molly L.; Koestler, Devin C.; Guill, Margaret F.; Moore, Jason H.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Madan, Juliette C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of microbial colonization of the respiratory and intestinal tracts in early life in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their associations with breastfeeding and clinical outcomes. Study design A comprehensive, prospective longitudinal analysis of the upper respiratory and intestinal microbiota in a cohort of infants and young children with CF followed from birth was performed. Genus-level microbial community composition was characterized using 16S-targeted pyrosequencing, and relationships with exposures and outcomes were assessed using linear mixed-effects models, time-to-event analysis and principal components analysis. Results Sequencing of 120 samples from 13 subjects collected from birth to 34 months revealed relationships between breastfeeding, microbial diversity in the respiratory and intestinal tracts and the timing of onset of respiratory complications, including exacerbations and colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluctuations in the abundance of specific bacterial taxa preceeded clinical outcomes, including a significant decrease in bacteria of the genus Parabacteroides within the intestinal tract prior to the onset of chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Specific assemblages of bacteria in intestinal samples, but not respiratory samples, were associated with CF exacerbation in early life, indicating that the intestinal microbiome may play a role in lung health. Conclusion Our findings relating breastfeeding to respiratory outcomes, gut diversity to prolonged periods of health, and specific bacterial communities in the gut prior to respiratory complications in CF highlight a connection between the intestinal microbiome and health and point to potential opportunities for antibiotic or probiotic interventions. Further studies in larger cohorts validating these findings are needed. PMID:25818499

  4. Female Early Adolescent Sex Role Attitude and Behavior Development: A Life Span, Ecosystem Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christine Seipke; Keith, Joanne

    Theory and research related to early adolescent sex role development needs to be addressed from both a life-span and an ecological perspective. A study was conducted to examine the development of female early adolescent sex role attitudes and behaviors in an ecological context as defined by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a…

  5. Art Improves the Quality of Life: A Look at Art in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvino, Frances J.

    Noting that the preschool years provide an optimal time for developing fundamental skills with lifelong implications, this paper examines the role of art in early childhood education, arguing that art improves the quality of life for young children. The paper maintains that art is the basis of early learning and that allowing children to…

  6. Adult Role Transitions: Some Antecedents and Outcomes Early in the Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern…

  7. Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

  8. Teaching with Historic Places: Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    1992-01-01

    Presents a history lesson plan on village life among two groups of Plains Indians in the early nineteenth century. Includes student handouts of contemporary writings by Euro-Americans, maps of the area, and early American paintings of the villages. Describes and structures teaching activities, vocabulary, and additional reading. (DK)

  9. Environmental control on early life stages of flatfishes in the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2009-06-01

    Several flatfishes spawn in oceanic waters and pelagic larvae are transported inshore to settle in the nursery areas, usually estuaries, where they remain during their juvenile life. Nursery areas appear as extremely important habitats, not only for juveniles but also for the earlier planktonic larval fish. Yet, the majority of nursery studies tend to focus only on one development stage, missing an integrative approach of the entire early life that fishes spent within a nursery ground. Thus, the present study assessed the influence of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the larval and juvenile flatfishes, throughout their nursery life in the Lima Estuary. Between April 2002 and April 2004, fortnightly subsurface ichthyoplankton samples were collected and juveniles were collected from October 2003 until September 2005. Larval assemblages comprised nine flatfish species, while only six were observed among the juvenile assemblages. Solea senegalensis and Platichthys flesus were the most abundant species of both fractions of the Lima Estuary flatfishes. Larval flatfish assemblages varied seasonally, without relevant differences between lower and middle estuary. Platichthys flesus dominated the spring samples and summer and autumn periods were characterized by an increase of overall abundance and diversity of larval flatfishes, mainly S. senegalensis, associated with temperature increase and reduced river flow. On the contrary, during the winter abundance sharply decreased, as a consequence of higher river run-off that might compromised the immigration of incompetent marine larvae. Juvenile flatfishes were more abundant in the middle and upper areas of the estuary, but the species richness was higher near the river mouth. Sediment type, distance from the river mouth, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were identified as the main environmental factors structuring the juvenile flatfish assemblages. Juveniles were spatially discrete, with the most abundant

  10. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO2 as well as N2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’ ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.

  11. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO2 as well as N2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’ ocean. Wemore » used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  12. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  13. Early-life factors associated with pediatric functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Turco, Rossella; Miele, Erasmo; Russo, Marina; Mastroianni, Rossella; Lavorgna, Alessandra; Paludetto, Roberto; Pensabene, Licia; Greco, Luigi; Campanozzi, Angelo; Borrelli, Osvaldo; Romano, Claudio; Chiaro, Andrea; Guariso, Graziella; Staiano, Annamaria

    2014-03-01

    This multicenter prospective study aimed to establish possible risk factors for functional constipation (FC) in the first year of life. At the infant's age of 3, 6, and 12 months, parents of all included infants completed 2 questionnaires: one about the presence of FC and the other screened the possible risk factors for FC. Parents of 465 infants completed the questionnaires at 3 and 6 months and of 402 infants at 12 months of life. According to the Rome III criteria, FC was found in 11.6% of the infants at 3 months, in 13.7% at 6 months, and in 10.7% at 12 months after birth. Family history of atopy was present in 38.8% and 45.3% of infants with constipation at 3 and 6 months (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively), but no significant association was found at 12 months (P = 0.80). Breast-feeding was significantly related to a normal evacuation pattern at 3 months (P = 0.05), but not at 6 and 12 months (P = 0.12 and P = 0.9, respectively). Acetaminophen and female sex appeared to be risk factors for FC at 12 months. After the adjustment for all analyzed variables, FC in infants was significantly associated with the use of acetaminophen (odds ratio 6.98, 95% confidence interval 0.82-13.50). Our results confirmed that breast-feeding is a protective factor for FC in the first 3 months of life and that the female sex is at risk to have FC. We found that the use of acetaminophen was associated with a higher incidence of FC in the first year of life.

  14. Pricing life insurance contracts with early exercise features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinello, Anna Rita; Biffis, Enrico; Millossovich, Pietro

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm based on the Least Squares Monte Carlo method to price life insurance contracts embedding American options. We focus on equity-linked contracts with surrender options and terminal guarantees on benefits payable upon death, survival and surrender. The framework allows for randomness in mortality as well as stochastic volatility and jumps in financial risk factors. We provide numerical experiments demonstrating the performance of the algorithm in the context of multiple risk factors and exercise dates.

  15. A bug's life: change and transformation in early modern China.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carla

    2007-12-01

    Chanting wasps and shape-shifting worms were all in a day's work for sixteenth-century Chinese naturalists such as Li Shizhen (1518-1593). In an effort to understand the metamorphoses of both nature and the human body, he and other early modern Chinese scholars looked towards tiny creatures like roundworms, lice and demon bugs. For them, such animals could reveal the most intimate secrets of the universe.

  16. Nutrition in early life: somatic growth and serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Boulton, T John; Garnett, Sarah P; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A; Magarey, Anthea M; Landers, Margot C G

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions of whether early nutritional experience affects later somatic growth, the growth of the adipose tissue, or the levels of scrum lipids among well-nourished children. The analyses are based on data from three prospective studies. Postnatal nutrition and growth: there were differences in growth between breast-fed and formula-fed children. There was no association between linear growth and differences in food energy or macronutrient intake. Birth size and postnatal growth: there was no association between ponderal index (PI) at birth and body mass index (BMI) in the second year. For boys, the PI at 3 and 6 months of age was significantly positively correlated with BMI at the ages of 8 and 15 years, but not for girls. Childhood growth and lipids: there was no association between lipids at the age of 8 years and either birth weight or length, but children who had had a low PI at birth had higher lipid levels at the age 8 years. A positive association was found between serum lipids and abdominal fat and BMI. We conclude that, although early diet may influence growth rate beyond infancy, the evidence for fat patterning resulting from differences in fetal or early postnatal nutrition is still open to question.

  17. Early life stress is associated with default system integrity and emotionality during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alice M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Fisher, Philip A.; Carpenter, Samuel; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extensive animal research has demonstrated the vulnerability of the brain to early life stress (ELS) with consequences for emotional development and mental health. However, the influence of moderate and common forms of stress on early human brain development is less well understood and precisely characterized. To date, most work has focused on severe forms of stress, and/or on brain functioning years after stress exposure. Methods In this report we focused on conflict between parents (interparental conflict), a common and relatively moderate form of ELS that is highly relevant for children's mental health outcomes. We used resting state functional connectivity MRI to examine the coordinated functioning of the infant brain (N=23; 6–12-months-of-age) in the context of interparental conflict. We focused on the default mode network (DMN) due to its well characterized developmental trajectory and implications for mental health. We further examined DMN strength as a mediator between conflict and infants’ negative emotionality. Results Higher interparental conflict since birth was associated with infants showing stronger connectivity between two core DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC). PCC to amygdala connectivity was also increased. Stronger PCC-aMPFC connectivity mediated between higher conflict and higher negative infant emotionality. Conclusions The developing DMN may be an important marker for effects of ELS with relevance for emotional development and subsequent mental health. Increasing understanding of the associations between common forms of family stress and emerging functional brain networks has potential to inform intervention efforts to improve mental health outcomes. PMID:25809052

  18. Early life stress is associated with default system integrity and emotionality during infancy.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Fisher, Philip A; Carpenter, Samuel; Fair, Damien A

    2015-11-01

    Extensive animal research has demonstrated the vulnerability of the brain to early life stress (ELS) with consequences for emotional development and mental health. However, the influence of moderate and common forms of stress on early human brain development is less well-understood and precisely characterized. To date, most work has focused on severe forms of stress, and/or on brain functioning years after stress exposure. In this report we focused on conflict between parents (interparental conflict), a common and relatively moderate form of ELS that is highly relevant for children's mental health outcomes. We used resting state functional connectivity MRI to examine the coordinated functioning of the infant brain (N = 23; 6-12-months-of-age) in the context of interparental conflict. We focused on the default mode network (DMN) due to its well-characterized developmental trajectory and implications for mental health. We further examined DMN strength as a mediator between conflict and infants' negative emotionality. Higher interparental conflict since birth was associated with infants showing stronger connectivity between two core DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC). PCC to amygdala connectivity was also increased. Stronger PCC-aMPFC connectivity mediated between higher conflict and higher negative infant emotionality. The developing DMN may be an important marker for effects of ELS with relevance for emotional development and subsequent mental health. Increasing understanding of the associations between common forms of family stress and emerging functional brain networks has potential to inform intervention efforts to improve mental health outcomes. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance thresholds of early life stages of corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, E. S.; Keith, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Schmidt-Roach, S.; Baird, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Organisms living in habitats characterized by a marked seasonal temperature variation often have a greater thermal tolerance than those living in more stable habitats. To determine the extent to which this hypothesis applies to reef corals, we compared thermal tolerance of the early life stages of five scleractinian species from three locations spanning 17° of latitude along the east coast of Australia. Embryos were exposed to an 8 °C temperature range around the local ambient temperature at the time of spawning. Upper thermal thresholds, defined as the temperature treatment at which the proportion of abnormal embryos or median life span was significantly different to ambient controls, varied predictably among locations. At Lizard Island, the northern-most site with the least annual variation in temperature, the proportion of abnormal embryos increased and life span decreased 2 °C above ambient in the two species tested. At two southern sites, One Tree Island and Lord Howe Island, where annual temperature variation was greater, upper temperature thresholds were generally 4 °C or greater above ambient for both variables in the four species tested. The absolute upper thermal threshold temperature also varied among locations: 30 °C at Lizard Island; 28 °C at One Tree Island; 26 °C at Lord Howe Island. These results support previous work on adult corals demonstrating predictable differences in upper thermal thresholds with latitude. With projected ocean warming, these temperature thresholds will be exceeded in northern locations in the near future, adding to a growing body of evidence indicating that climate change is likely to be more detrimental to low latitude than high latitude corals.

  20. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  1. Life satisfaction in early adolescence: personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2011-07-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.

  2. Early Life Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s Disease – A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Seifan, Alon; Schelke, Matthew; Obeng-Aduasare, Yaa; Isaacson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background As adult brain structure is primarily established in early life, genetic and environmental exposures in infancy and childhood influence risk for Alzheimer Disease (AD). In this systematic review, we identify several early life risk factors and discuss the evidence and underlying mechanism for each. Summary Early risk factors for AD may alter brain anatomy, causing vulnerability to AD-related dementia later in life. In the perinatal period, both genes and learning disabilities have been associated with the development of distinct AD phenotypes. During early childhood, education and intellect as well as body growth may predispose to AD through alterations in cognitive and brain reserve, though the specific mediators of neural injury are disputed. Childhood socioeconomic status may predispose to AD by influencing adult socioeconomic status and cognition. Association of these risk factors with underlying AD pathology (rather than just clinical diagnosis) has not been sufficiently examined. Key messages Factors that impede or alter brain growth during early life could render certain brain regions or networks selectively vulnerable to the onset accumulation or spread of AD-related pathology during late-life. Careful life-course epidemiology could provide clues as to why the brain systematically degenerates during AD. PMID:26501691

  3. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-02-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called "developmental programming" or "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease.

  4. The Nun study: clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life.

    PubMed

    Iacono, D; Markesbery, W R; Gross, M; Pletnikova, O; Rudow, G; Zandi, P; Troncoso, J C

    2009-09-01

    It is common to find substantial Alzheimer disease (AD) lesions, i.e., neuritic beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, in the autopsied brains of elderly subjects with normal cognition assessed shortly before death. We have termed this status asymptomatic AD (ASYMAD). We assessed the morphologic substrate of ASYMAD compared to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in subjects from the Nun Study. In addition, possible correlations between linguistic abilities in early life and the presence of AD pathology with and without clinical manifestations in late life were considered. Design-based stereology was used to measure the volumes of neuronal cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli in the CA1 region of hippocampus (CA1). Four groups of subjects were compared: ASYMAD (n = 10), MCI (n = 5), AD (n = 10), and age-matched controls (n = 13). Linguistic ability assessed in early life was compared among all groups. A significant hypertrophy of the cell bodies (+44.9%), nuclei (+59.7%), and nucleoli (+80.2%) in the CA1 neurons was found in ASYMAD compared with MCI. Similar differences were observed with controls. Furthermore, significant higher idea density scores in early life were observed in controls and ASYMAD group compared to MCI and AD groups. 1) Neuronal hypertrophy may constitute an early cellular response to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology or reflect compensatory mechanisms that prevent cognitive impairment despite substantial AD lesions; 2) higher idea density scores in early life are associated with intact cognition in late life despite the presence of AD lesions.

  5. Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging?

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity of the trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J.; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J.; Lousberg, Richel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0–11 years) and adolescence (12–17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability. Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies. PMID:27684800

  7. Regulation of nucleus accumbens transcript levels in mice by early-life social stress and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Luisa; Valzania, Alessandro; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Felsani, Armando; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Carola, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Much interest has been piqued regarding the quality of one's environment at early ages in modulating the susceptibility to drug addiction in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms that are engaged during early trauma and mediate the risk for drug addiction are poorly understood. In rodents, exposure to early-life stress alters the rewarding effects of cocaine, amphetamine, and morphine in adulthood. Recently, we demonstrated that the exposure of juvenile mice to social threat (Social Stress, S-S) promoted cocaine-seeking behavior and relapse of cocaine-seeking after periods of withdrawal, compared with unhandled controls (UN) and with juvenile mice that experienced only daily isolation in a novel environment (no social stress, NS-S). Interestingly, while the exposure to NS-S slightly increased cocaine-seeking behavior compared with UN, the same was not sufficient to promote cocaine reinstatement. In this study, we examined the long-term transcriptional changes that are induced by S-S compared to NS-S and linked the increased susceptibility of S-S mice to cocaine reinstatement. To this end, we performed genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), which revealed that 89 transcripts were differentially expressed between S-S and NS-S mice. By Gene Ontology classification, these hits were enriched in genes that mediate cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neuron/forebrain development. Eleven of these genes have been reported to be involved in substance use disorders, and the remaining genes are novel candidates in this area. We characterized 4 candidates with regard to their significant neurobiological relevance (ZIC1, ZIC2, FABP7, and PRDM12) and measured their expression in the NAC by immunohistochemistry. These findings provide insights into novel molecular mechanisms in NAC that might be associated with the risk of relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution. PMID:24196527

  9. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

    2013-11-01

    In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution.

  10. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Chung, Jennifer; Battaglia, Thomas; Henderson, Nora; Jay, Melanie; Li, Huilin; D Lieber, Arnon; Wu, Fen; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Chen, Yu; Schweizer, William; Zheng, Xuhui; Contreras, Monica; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2016-06-15

    Early childhood is a critical stage for the foundation and development of both the microbiome and host. Early-life antibiotic exposures, cesarean section, and formula feeding could disrupt microbiome establishment and adversely affect health later in life. We profiled microbial development during the first 2 years of life in a cohort of 43 U.S. infants and identified multiple disturbances associated with antibiotic exposures, cesarean section, and formula feeding. These exposures contributed to altered establishment of maternal bacteria, delayed microbiome development, and altered α-diversity. These findings illustrate the complexity of early-life microbiome development and its sensitivity to perturbation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. An examination of sex differences in the effects of early-life opiate and alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Laurne S.; Gomez, Julie; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life exposure to drugs and alcohol is one of the most preventable causes of developmental, behavioural and learning disorders in children. Thus a significant amount of basic, animal and human research has focused on understanding the behavioural consequences and the associated neural effects of exposure to drugs and alcohol during early brain development. Despite this, much of the previous research that has been done on this topic has used predominantly male subjects or rodents. While many of the findings from these male-specific studies may ultimately apply to females, the purpose of this review is to highlight the research that has also examined sex as a factor and found striking differences between the sexes in their response to early-life opiate and alcohol exposure. Finally, we will also provide a framework for scientists interested in examining sex as a factor in future experiments that specifically examine the consequences of early-life drug and alcohol exposure. PMID:26833841

  12. An examination of sex differences in the effects of early-life opiate and alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Laurne S; Gomez, Julie; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-19

    Early-life exposure to drugs and alcohol is one of the most preventable causes of developmental, behavioural and learning disorders in children. Thus a significant amount of basic, animal and human research has focused on understanding the behavioural consequences and the associated neural effects of exposure to drugs and alcohol during early brain development. Despite this, much of the previous research that has been done on this topic has used predominantly male subjects or rodents. While many of the findings from these male-specific studies may ultimately apply to females, the purpose of this review is to highlight the research that has also examined sex as a factor and found striking differences between the sexes in their response to early-life opiate and alcohol exposure. Finally, we will also provide a framework for scientists interested in examining sex as a factor in future experiments that specifically examine the consequences of early-life drug and alcohol exposure.

  13. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  14. The possible long-term effects of early-life circadian rhythm disturbance on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in early life with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to early life sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years.

  15. Early-Life Conditions And Mechanisms Of Population Health Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Furumoto-Dawson, Alice; Gehlert, Sarah; Sohmer, Dana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Sacks, Tina

    2008-01-01

    The social status of groups is key to determining health vulnerability at the population level. The impact of material and psychological stresses imposed by social inequities and marginalization is felt most intensely during perinatal/early childhood and puberty/adolescent periods, when developmental genes are expressed and interact with social-physical environments. The influence of chronic psychosocial stresses on gene expression via neuroendocrine regulatory dysfunction is crucial to understanding the biological bases of adult health vulnerability. Studying childhood biology vulnerabilities to neighborhood environments will aid the crafting of multifaceted, multilevel public policy interventions providing immediate benefits and compounded long-term population health yields. PMID:17848432

  16. Toxicogenomic and Phenotypic Analyses of Bisphenol-A Early-Life Exposure Toxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Siew Hong; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chuan; Duan, Zhenghua; Zhu, Lin; Ung, Choong Yong; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ong, Choon Nam; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol-A is an important environmental contaminant due to the increased early-life exposure that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. This study aimed to use zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to capture transcriptomic and phenotypic changes for inference of signaling pathways, biological processes, physiological systems and identify potential biomarker genes that are affected by early-life exposure to bisphenol-A. Phenotypic analysis using wild-type zebrafish larvae revealed BPA early-life exposure toxicity caused cardiac edema, cranio-facial abnormality, failure of swimbladder inflation and poor tactile response. Fluorescent imaging analysis using three transgenic lines revealed suppressed neuron branching from the spinal cord, abnormal development of neuromast cells, and suppressed vascularization in the abdominal region. Using knowledge-based data mining algorithms, transcriptome analysis suggests that several signaling pathways involving ephrin receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, synaptic long-term potentiation, axonal guidance, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and tight junction were deregulated. Physiological systems with related disorders associated with the nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular, blood and reproductive systems were implicated, hence corroborated with the phenotypic analysis. Further analysis identified a common set of BPA-targeted genes and revealed a plausible mechanism involving disruption of endocrine-regulated genes and processes in known susceptible tissue-organs. The expression of 28 genes were validated in a separate experiment using quantitative real-time PCR and 6 genes, ncl1, apoeb, mdm1, mycl1b, sp4, U1SNRNPBP homolog, were found to be sensitive and robust biomarkers for BPA early-life exposure toxicity. The susceptibility of sp4 to BPA perturbation suggests its role in altering brain development, function and subsequently behavior observed in laboratory animals exposed

  17. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    PubMed

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  18. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Chen, Yu

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may

  19. Characterizing the Evolutionary Path(s) to Early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.; Ackermann, Rebecca R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change. PMID:25470780

  20. Depression is an independent determinant of life satisfaction early after stroke.

    PubMed

    Oosterveer, Daniëlla M; Mishre, Radha Rambaran; van Oort, Andrea; Bodde, Karin; Aerden, Leo A M

    2017-03-06

    Life satisfaction is reduced in stroke patients. However, as a rule, rehabilitation goals are not aimed at life satisfaction, but at activities and participation. In order to optimize life satisfaction in stroke patients, rehabilitation should take into account the determinants of life satisfaction. The aim of this study was therefore to determine what factors are independent determinants of life satisfaction in a large group of patients early after stroke. Stroke-surviving patients were examined by a specialized nurse 6 weeks after discharge from hospital or rehabilitation setting. A standardized history and several screening lists, including the Lisat-9, were completed. Step-wise regression was used to identify independent determinants of life satisfaction. A total of 284 stroke-surviving patients were included in the study. Of these, 117 answered all of the Lisat-9 questions. Most patients (66.5%) rated their life as a whole as "satisfying" or "very satisfying". More depressive symptoms were independently associated with lower life satisfaction (p < 0.001). Most stroke-surviving patients are satisfied with their life early after a stroke. The score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression items is independently associated with life satisfaction. Physicians should therefore pay close attention to the mood of these patients.

  1. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex. PMID:26804633

  2. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-25

    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex.

  3. Association between the gut microbiota and diet: Fetal life, early childhood, and further life.

    PubMed

    Kashtanova, Daria A; Popenko, Anna S; Tkacheva, Olga N; Tyakht, Alexander B; Alexeev, Dimitry G; Boytsov, Sergey A

    2016-06-01

    Gut microbiota establishment and further microbiota shifts are very important for maintaining host health throughout life. There are some factors, including genetics, the mother's health and diet, delivery mode, breast or formula feeding, that may influence the gut microbiota. By the end of approximately the first 3 y of life, the gut microbiota becomes an adult-like stable system. Once established, 60 to 70% of the microbiota composition remains stable throughout life, but 30 to 40% can be altered by changes in the diet and other factors such as physical activity, lifestyle, bacterial infections, and antibiotic or surgical treatment. Diet-related factors that influence the gut microbiota in people of all ages are of great interest. Nutrition may have therapeutic success in gut microbiota correction. This review describes current evidence concerning the links between gut microbiota composition and dietary patterns throughout life.

  4. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  5. Propagandizing the Healthy, Bolshevik Life in the Early USSR.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tricia A

    2017-09-21

    This essay outlines the problems facing Soviet health authorities at the inception of the People's Commissariat of Public Health in 1918 and the innovative methods employed in sanitary enlightenment propaganda in Russia throughout the 1920s. Beset by funding issues and supply problems, the emissaries of health chose the cheapest means of health improvement (propaganda) with the most cost-effective method (prevention), and crowed of great successes even as large portions of the nation still suffered from lack of contact with sanitary authorities. Targeting Soviet citizens at every stage and space of life, the envoys of public health spread the message of prophylaxis. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 21, 2017; e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.304049).

  6. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  7. Archean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kazmierczak, Józef

    2003-11-01

    The oldest fossils found thus far on Earth are c. 3.49- and 3.46-billion-year-old filamentous and coccoidal microbial remains in rocks of the Pilbara craton, Western Australia, and c. 3.4-billion-year-old rocks from the Barberton region, South Africa. Their biogenicity was recently questioned and they were reinterpreted as contaminants, mineral artefacts or inorganic carbon aggregates. Morphological, geochemical and isotopic data imply, however, that life was relatively widespread and advanced in the Archean, between 3.5 and 2.5 billion years ago, with metabolic pathways analogous to those of recent prokaryotic organisms, including cyanobacteria, and probably even eukaryotes at the terminal Archean.

  8. Early life growth trajectories and future risk for overweight

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, J C; Neufeld, L M; Laraia, B; Ramakrishnan, U; Garcia-Guerra, A; Fernald, L C H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard approaches have found that rapid growth during the first 2 years of life is a risk factor for overweight in later childhood. Our objective was to test whether growth velocity, independent of concurrent size, was associated with overweight using a nonlinear random-effects model that allows for enhanced specifications and estimations. Methods: Longitudinal data from a birth cohort in Mexico (n=586) were used to estimate growth trajectories over 0–24 months for body mass index (BMI), length and weight using the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) models. The SITAR models use a nonlinear random-effects model to estimate an average growth curve for BMI, length and weight and each participant's deviation from this curve on three dimensions—size, velocity and timing of peak velocity. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between overweight status at 7–9 years and size, velocity and timing of BMI, length and weight trajectories during 0–24 months. We tested whether any association between velocity and overweight varied by relative size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Results: SITAR models explained the majority of the variance in BMI (73%), height (86%) and weight (85%) between 0–24 months. When analyzed individually, relative BMI/length/weight (size) and BMI/length/weight velocity during 0–24 months were each associated with increased odds of overweight in late childhood. Associations for timing of peak velocity varied by anthropometric measure. However, in the mutually adjusted models, only relative BMI/length/weight (size) remained statistically significant. We found no evidence that any association between velocity and overweight varied by size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Conclusions: After mutual adjustment, size during 0–24 months of life (as opposed to birth size), but not velocity or timing of peak velocity, was most consistently associated with overweight in later childhood. PMID

  9. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  10. Crystals, colloids, or molecules?: Early controversies about the origin of life and synthetic life.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Crystals, colloids, and (macro-)molecules have played major roles in theoretical concepts and experimental approaches concerning the generation of life from the mid-19th century on. The notion of the crystallization of life out of a nonliving fluid, a special case of the doctrine of spontaneous generation, was most prominently incorporated into Schleiden's and Schwann's version of cell theory. Refutation at the end of the 19th century of spontaneous generation of life and cells, in particular by Pasteur, Remak, and Virchow, not only gave rise to the flourishing fields of microbiology and cytology, but it also opened up research on synthetic life. These approaches focused on growth and form and colloidal chemistry on the one hand, and on the specificity of organisms' macromolecules and chemical reactions on the other. This article analyzes the contribution of these approaches to synthetic life research and argues that researchers' philosophical predilections and basic beliefs have played important roles in the choice of experimental and theoretical approaches towards synthetic life.

  11. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage.

  12. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  13. The neonatal immune system: immunomodulation of infections in early life.

    PubMed

    Futata, Eliana Akemi; Fusaro, Ana Elisa; de Brito, Cyro Alves; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2012-03-01

    The innate and adaptive immune responses in neonates are usually functionally impaired when compared with their adult counterparts. The qualitative and quantitative differences in the neonatal immune response put them at risk for the development of bacterial and viral infections, resulting in increased mortality. Newborns often exhibit decreased production of Th1-polarizing cytokines and are biased toward Th2-type responses. Studies aimed at understanding the plasticity of the immune response in the neonatal and early infant periods or that seek to improve neonatal innate immune function with adjuvants or special formulations are crucial for preventing the infectious disease burden in this susceptible group. Considerable studies focused on identifying potential immunomodulatory therapies have been performed in murine models. This article highlights the strategies used in the emerging field of immunomodulation in bacterial and viral pathogens, focusing on preclinical studies carried out in animal models with particular emphasis on neonatal-specific immune deficits.

  14. Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?

    PubMed

    Svanes, Øistein; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Johannessen, Ane; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Bråtveit, Magne; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarin; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jögi, Rain; Macsali, Ferenc; Norbäck, Dan; Omenaas, Ernst Reidar; Real, Francisco Gómez; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Wieslander, Gunilla; Zock, Jan-Paul; Aasen, Tor; Dratva, Julia; Svanes, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking's detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure. In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning's unhealthy effects. The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent´s educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection <5 years, born during winter months, maternal age at birth >35 years) was investigated. Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2-1.8]) and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3-2.2]) were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: ≤1 year 0.9 [0.7-1.3]; 1-4 years 1.5 [1.1-2.0]; ≥4 years 1.6 [1.2-2.1]). The association of wheeze with cleaning activity ≥4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5-2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96-1.8]; pinteraction 0.035). Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life.

  15. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David S; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-01-10

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe.

  16. The early life of a fly glial cell.

    PubMed

    Altenhein, Benjamin; Cattenoz, Pierre B; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, glia have key regulatory roles in neural development and function. Typically, they control the response to developmental and/or pathological signals, thereby affecting neural proliferation, remodeling, survival, and regeneration. Such complex biology depends on the plastic features of glial cells, but also on the presence of different classes of glial cells, hence the importance of understanding the cellular and the molecular mechanisms underlying their development. The fly community has made major breakthroughs by characterizing the bases of gliogenesis and here we describe the glial lineages as well as the glial promoting factor active in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:67-84. doi: 10.1002/wdev.200 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prenatal and early-life predictors of atopy and allergic disease in Canadian children: results of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study.

    PubMed

    Batool, T; Reece, P L; Schulze, K M; Morrison, K M; Atkinson, S A; Anand, S S; Teo, K K; Denburg, J A; Cyr, M M

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental exposures play a key role in the development of atopy and allergic disease. The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life Study is a general, population-based Canadian birth cohort that prospectively evaluated prenatal and early-life traits and their association with atopy and/or allergic disease. The study population included 901 babies, 857 mothers and 530 fathers. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors were evaluated through questionnaires collected during the antenatal period and at 1 year. The end points of atopy and allergic diseases in infants were evaluated through questionnaires and skin prick testing. Key outcomes included atopy (24.5%), food allergy (17.5%), cow's milk allergy (4.8%), wheezing (18.6%) and eczema (16%). The association between infant antibiotic exposure [odds ratio (OR): 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.88] and increased atopy was noted in the multivariate analysis, whereas prenatal maternal exposure to dogs (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) and acetaminophen (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92) was associated with decreased atopy. This population-based birth cohort in Canada demonstrated high rates of atopy, food allergy, wheezing and eczema. Several previously reported and some novel prenatal and postnatal exposures were associated with atopy and allergic diseases at 1 year of age.

  18. Evidence for early life in Earth's oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Matthew S; Papineau, Dominic; Grenne, Tor; Slack, John F; Rittner, Martin; Pirajno, Franco; O'Neil, Jonathan; Little, Crispin T S

    2017-03-01

    Although it is not known when or where life on Earth began, some of the earliest habitable environments may have been submarine-hydrothermal vents. Here we describe putative fossilized microorganisms that are at least 3,770 million and possibly 4,280 million years old in ferruginous sedimentary rocks, interpreted as seafloor-hydrothermal vent-related precipitates, from the Nuvvuagittuq belt in Quebec, Canada. These structures occur as micrometre-scale haematite tubes and filaments with morphologies and mineral assemblages similar to those of filamentous microorganisms from modern hydrothermal vent precipitates and analogous microfossils in younger rocks. The Nuvvuagittuq rocks contain isotopically light carbon in carbonate and carbonaceous material, which occurs as graphitic inclusions in diagenetic carbonate rosettes, apatite blades intergrown among carbonate rosettes and magnetite-haematite granules, and is associated with carbonate in direct contact with the putative microfossils. Collectively, these observations are consistent with an oxidized biomass and provide evidence for biological activity in submarine-hydrothermal environments more than 3,770 million years ago.

  19. Continuing Effects of Early Enrichment in Adult Life: The Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Sunar, Diane; Bekman, Sevda; Baydar, Nazli; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Long-term studies of early intervention, spanning over decades, are scarce in the United States and nonexistent in the rest of the world. The Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP) is the only non-U.S. example to date. This paper reports a new follow-up assessment of the long-term outcomes of TEEP, an intervention carried out in 1983-1985 with…

  20. Onset and establishment of diazotrophs and other bacterial associates in the early life history stages of the coral Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Lema, Kimberley A; Bourne, David G; Willis, Bette L

    2014-10-01

    Early establishment of coral-microbial symbioses is fundamental to the fitness of corals, but comparatively little is known about the onset and succession of bacterial communities in their early life history stages. In this study, bacterial associates of the coral Acropora millepora were characterized throughout the first year of life, from larvae and 1-week-old juveniles reared in laboratory conditions in the absence of the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium to field-outplanted juveniles with established Symbiodinium symbioses, and sampled at 2 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Using an amplicon pyrosequencing approach, the diversity of both nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of bacterial communities overall was assessed through analysis of nifH and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. The consistent presence of sequences affiliated with diazotrophs of the order Rhizobiales (23-58% of retrieved nifH sequences; 2-12% of 16S rRNA sequences), across all samples from larvae to 12-month-old coral juveniles, highlights the likely functional importance of this nitrogen-fixing order to the coral holobiont. Dominance of Roseobacter-affiliated sequences (>55% of retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) in larvae and 1-week-old juveniles, and the consistent presence of sequences related to Oceanospirillales and Altermonadales throughout all early life history stages, signifies their potential importance as coral associates. Increased diversity of bacterial communities once juveniles were transferred to the field, particularly of Cyanobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, demonstrates horizontal (environmental) uptake of coral-associated bacterial communities. Although overall bacterial communities were dynamic, bacteria with likely important functional roles remain stable throughout early life stages of Acropora millepora.

  1. Causes and consequences of early-life health.

    PubMed

    Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We examine the consequences of child health for economic and health outcomes in adulthood, using height as a marker of childhood health. After reviewing previous evidence, we present a conceptual framework that highlights data limitations and methodological problems that complicate the study of this topic. We then present estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes--including schooling, employment, earnings, health, and cognitive ability--measured in five data sets from early to late adulthood. These results indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Height is also positively associated with better economic, health, and cognitive outcomes. These associations are only partially explained by the higher average educational attainment of taller individuals. We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults survey to document the associations between health, cognitive development, and growth in childhood. Even among children with the same mother, taller siblings score better on cognitive tests and progress through school more quickly. Part of the differences found between siblings arises from differences in their birth weights and lengths attributable to mother's behaviors while pregnant. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood.

  2. Early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace

    2017-02-01

    A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls.

  3. Telomere length in early childhood: Early life risk factors and association with carotid intima-media thickness in later childhood.

    PubMed

    Skilton, Michael R; Nakhla, Shirley; Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; Toelle, Brett G; Leeder, Stephen R; Jones, Graham; Marks, Guy B; Celermajer, David S

    2016-07-01

    Reduced telomere length is a measure of biological aging that is predictive of cardiac events in adults, and has been mechanistically implicated in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. We sought to describe the early life factors associated with leukocyte telomere length in early childhood, and to determine whether telomere length measured during early childhood is associated with arterial wall thickening later in childhood. A longitudinal birth cohort recruited antenatally in Sydney from 1997 to 1999. Leukocyte telomere length was measured in 331 children at age 3.6 years (SD 1.0); of whom 268 children without diabetes had carotid intima-media thickness assessed by ultrasound at age 8 years. Male sex, younger paternal age and higher maternal body mass index were associated with shorter telomere length in early childhood, which in turn was associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness at age 8 years (standardised β = -0.159, P = 0.01). There was a graded association across quartiles of telomere length (Ptrend = 0.001) with the highest odds of elevated intima-media thickness (>75th percentile) being in children with the shortest telomeres (odds ratio 4.00 (95% confidence interval 1.58 to 10.14) relative to those with the longest telomeres, P = 0.003). This association remained after adjustment for early life risk factors (Ptrend = 0.001). Reduced telomere length in early childhood is independently associated with arterial wall thickness in later childhood, suggesting that reduced telomere length during early childhood may be a marker of vascular disease risk. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  4. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  5. Appetitive traits and food intake patterns in early life1

    PubMed Central

    Syrad, Hayley; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H

    2016-01-01

    Background: High food responsiveness (FR) and low satiety responsiveness (SR) are 2 appetitive traits that have been associated longitudinally with risk of excessive weight gain; however, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the associations between these traits and eating patterns in daily life in young children. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that higher FR is independently associated with a higher meal frequency and that lower SR is associated with a larger meal size. Design: Data were from 1102 families (2203 children) from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Appetite was assessed with the use of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire when the children were 16 mo old (mean ± SD: 15.73 ± 1.08 mo old), and meal frequency (eating occasions per day) and meal size (kilojoules per eating occasion) were determined from 3-d diet diaries completed by parents when the children were 21 mo old (mean ± SD: 20.65 ± 1.10 mo old). Complex samples general linear models were used to explore cross-sectional associations between appetitive traits and meal variables. Results: After adjustment for the covariates gestational age, birth weight, sex, difference in age at diet-diary completion, and appetite measurement, higher FR was associated with more-frequent meals (B ± SE: 0.13 ± 0.04; P = 0.001) but not with meal size (P = 0.41), and lower SR was associated with a larger meal size (B ± SE: −47.61 ± 8.79; P < 0.001) but not with meal frequency (P = 0.15). Conclusions: FR and SR predict different eating variables with more food-responsive children eating more frequently, whereas less–satiety-responsive children eat more food on each eating occasion. Different strategies may be required to reduce the potential effects of FR and SR on weight gain. PMID:26675767

  6. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination

  7. Nutrition in early life and the fulfillment of intellectual potential.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, E; Gorman, K S; Engle, P L; Rivera, J A; Martorell, R

    1995-04-01

    The effects of early supplementary feeding on cognition are investigated using data collected during two periods in four Guatemalan villages. The first was the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) longitudinal study from 1969 to 1977 and the second was a cross-sectional follow-up of former participants carried out in 1988-1989. The principal objective of these studies was to assess the differential effect of two dietary supplements, Atole containing 163 kcal/682 kJ and 11.5 g protein per cup or 180 mL and Fresco containing 59 kcal/247 kJ and 0 g protein per cup, that were given to mothers, infants and young children. Performance was assessed on a battery of psychoeducational and information processing tests that were administered during adolescence. Consistent differences between groups were observed on psychoeducational tests. Subjects receiving Atole scored significantly higher on tests of knowledge, numeracy, reading and vocabulary than those given Fresco. Atole ingestion also was associated with faster reaction time in information processing tasks. In addition, there were significant interactions between type of dietary supplement and socioeconomic status (SES) of subjects. In Atole villages, there were no differences in performance between subjects in the lowest and highest SES categories. On the other hand, performance in Fresco villages was best in the highest compared with the lowest SES group. After close scrutiny of alternative hypotheses, it is concluded that dietary changes produced by supplementation provide the strongest explanation for the test performance differences observed in the follow-up between subjects exposed to Atole and those exposed to Fresco supplementation.

  8. Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Nussey, Daniel H

    2014-10-07

    The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence. There is now growing support for such trade-offs in wild vertebrates, but these exclusively come from females. Here, we test this prediction in male red deer (Cervus elaphus) using detailed longitudinal data collected over a 40-year field study. We show that males which had larger harems and thereby allocated more resources to reproduction during early adulthood experienced higher rates of senescence in both harem size and rut duration. Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life. Overall, we demonstrate that sexual competition shapes male reproductive senescence in wild red deer populations and provide rare empirical support for the disposable soma theory of ageing in males of polygynous vertebrate species.

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results generally provided support for the theoretical model although the relationships of neighborhood disadvantage to stressful life events and adjustment were weaker than expected. Additional research is needed to corroborate these results and determine why neighborhood disadvantage may have different relationships to adjustment for Mexican American early adolescents than for others. PMID:20711521

  10. How colonization by microbiota in early life shapes the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Gensollen, Thomas; Iyer, Shankar S.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial colonization of mucosal tissues during infancy plays an instrumental role in the development and education of the host mammalian immune system. These early-life events can have long-standing consequences: facilitating tolerance to environmental exposures or contributing to the development of disease in later life, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, and asthma. Recent studies have begun to define a critical period during early development in which disruption of optimal host-commensal interactions can lead to persistent and in some cases irreversible defects in the development and training of specific immune subsets. Here, we discuss the role of early-life education of the immune system during this “window of opportunity,” when microbial colonization has a potentially critical impact on human health and disease. PMID:27126036

  11. Early-life enteric infections: relation between chronic systemic inflammation and poor cognition in children

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301

  12. Growth in early life and the development of obesity by age 9 years: are there critical periods and a role for an early life stressor?

    PubMed

    Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Rumbold, A R; Davies, C E; de Stavola, B; Pitcher, J B; Davies, M J; Moore, V M

    2013-04-01

    Rapid growth, possibly occurring in critical periods in early life, may be important for the development of obesity. It is unknown whether this is influenced by postnatal exposures such as age-relevant sources of stress. Frequent house moves may be one such stressor. We aimed to examine if there is a period of growth in early life critical for the development of child obesity by age 9 years and assess the role of house moves in modifying any relationships between early life growth and obesity at age 9 years. Prospective Australian birth cohort study. In all, 392 children with serial body size measurements from birth to age 9 years. Standardized body mass index (z-BMI) was available for six time points (spanning birth to 3½ years), and the total number of house moves between birth and 3½ years. The outcomes considered were z-BMI and % body fat (%BF) at age 9 years. Linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of serial measurements of z-BMI and number of house moves on the outcomes. Life-course plots showed that z-BMI at 3½ years was a statistically significant predictor of z-BMI at 9 years (β=0.80; standard error (s.e.), 0.04), whereas z-BMI at 9 months (β=-1.13; s.e., 0.40) and 3½ years (β=4.82; s.e., 0.42) were significant predictors of %BF at age 9 years. There were statistically significant interactions between the number of house moves and change in z-BMI between 9 and 12 months, such that ≥ 3 house moves in early life amplified the detrimental effects of earlier rapid growth on both body size and composition at age 9 years. In the absence of evidence for a single critical period, efforts to prevent overweight and obesity are required throughout childhood. In addition, modifiable postnatal stressors may exacerbate effects of early growth on obesity in later childhood.

  13. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  14. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  15. Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Lindsay M.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1 hour each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this early life chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to early life CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that early life CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers, and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24005186

  16. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-08-21

    Study aims were to examine: (i) how physical and sexual victimisation in early life are associated with alcohol's harm from others; and (ii) whether respondents' current drinking is a mediator of the association between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others among men and women. Data were from national computer-assisted telephone interviews, using the landline sample (3335 men and 3520 women ages ≥18) from the 2010 US National Alcohol Survey. Harms from someone else's drinking included family/marital problems, financial troubles, assault and vandalism in the past 12 months. Victimisation was measured with severe physical abuse or sexual assault before age 18. Severe physical or sexual victimisation before age 18 was reported by 3.4% of men and 8.1% of women. Significantly more men (5.2%) than women (2.4%) reported assault by other drinkers, and significantly more women reported family/marital (5.3%) and financial problems (2.8%) than did men (2.6 and 1% respectively). Severe early life victimisation was robustly associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing past-year harms from other drinkers for both men and women. Men's drinking partially mediated associations between early life victimisation and recent assaults and vandalism by other drinkers. Early life victimisation may increase risk of harms from someone else's drinking. Health services and interventions that screen for histories of victimisation may help decrease risk of later harms from others' drinking. Reductions in drinking among men with histories of victimisation also could help reduce their exposure to such harms. [Kaplan LM, Greenfield TK, Karriker-Jaffe KJ. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational

  18. Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

  19. Life course effects of early parental loss among very old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Colleen L; Barer, Barbara M

    2002-03-01

    To analyze the life course effects of the early loss of one or both parents on very old Black Americans. Open-ended, semistructured interviews were used with a sample of 109 respondents aged 85 years and older. Correlations identified significant associations, and qualitative data illustrate life course trajectories of selected respondents. Those who lost a parent through death or desertion were less integrated into family and friendship groups in late life, and they had fewer social resources in general. Qualitative data describe three outcomes in the sample: those who grew up with both parents present, those who lost a parent but still reported a contented childhood, and those with disrupted families and negative effects. The respondents' open-ended commentary about their past lives and their current situation enhances understanding of connections between early life events and adaptation in old age.

  20. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K; Gartner, Stephanie R; Field, Catherine J; Chan, Catherine B; Willing, Benjamin P

    2017-02-02

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation.

  1. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  2. Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

  3. Birth place of life on the Hadean Earth and early evolution of life on a tightrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    The surface environment of the Hadean Earth is the key to the beginning of life. For the emergence of life, primordial Earth has to evolve with the following conditions. 1) Primordial Earth was formed without an atmosphere and ocean components where ultra-reductive materials such as Fe3P were formed. 2) At about 4.4Ga, atmosphere and ocean components were delivered to the Earth through heavy bombardment of asteroid bodies. 3) Direct reaction between komatiite and primordial atmosphere, associated with pseudo-plate tectonics, fixed atmospheric CO2 into the crust, which resulted in decreased density of atmospheric CO2; because of this, a primordial ocean appeared, and the Earth did not become a burning planet like Venus. 4) The primordial ocean was too toxic because of high salinity, ultra acidity, and high concentrations of heavy metal elements. 5) It was impossible to bear life in such a toxic ocean. However, the mass of the primordial ocean was small, e.g. only 3-5km depth, which enabled a landmass to appear on Hadean Earth. The surface environment was highly diversified with numerous lakes and river systems interacting with the landmass (i.e., primordial continent), providing varied and dynamic conditions (ultra-reductive to acidic environment) where prebiotic chemical evolution progressed. 6) On the other hand, plate tectonics started once the primordial ocean was formed. Due to the chemical reaction between the rocks and ocean, the toxic ocean gradually neutralized. Considering these tight conditions towards the emergence of life, the birth of life progressed on the tightrope of the Hadean Earth.

  4. A Review of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and the Early-Life Predictors of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Spence, Alison C; Laws, Rachel; Hesketh, Kylie D; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-09-01

    A range of important early-life predictors of later obesity have been identified. Children of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have a steeper weight gain trajectory from birth with a strong socioeconomic gradient in child and adult obesity prevalence. An assessment of the association between SEP and the early-life predictors of obesity has been lacking. The review involved a two-stage process: Part 1, using previously published systematic reviews, we developed a list of the potentially modifiable determinants of obesity observable in the pre-natal, peri-natal or post-natal (pre-school) periods; and part 2, conducting a literature review of evidence for socioeconomic patterning in the determinants identified in part 1. Strong evidence was found for an inverse relationship between SEP and (1) pre-natal risk factors (pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), diabetes and pre-pregnancy diet), (2) antenatal/peri natal risk factors (smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight) and (3) early-life nutrition (including breastfeeding initiation and duration, early introduction of solids, maternal and infant diet quality, and some aspects of the home food environment), and television viewing in young children. Less strong evidence (because of a lack of studies for some factors) was found for paternal BMI, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, child sleep duration, high birth weight and lack of physical activity in young children. A strong socioeconomic gradient exists for the majority of the early-life predictors of obesity suggesting that the die is cast very early in life (even pre-conception). Lifestyle interventions targeting disadvantaged women at or before child-bearing age may therefore be particularly important in reducing inequality. Given the likely challenges of reaching this target population, it may be that during pregnancy and their child's early years are more feasible windows for engagement.

  5. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  6. Consequences of Early Life Programing by Genetic and Environmental Influences: A Synthesis Regarding Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christian L; DiVall, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, causing rapid weight gain with the risk for adult disease and premature onset of puberty. Environmental factors can cause modifications to the genome, so-called epigenetic changes, to affect gene expression and subsequently modify phenotypic expression of genomic information. Epigenetic modifications, which occur in children born small for gestational age, are thought to underlie part of the metabolic programming that subsequently effects both somatic and pubertal development. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Antimicrobial Proteins and Peptides in Early Life: Ontogeny and Translational Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, Anna J.; Khara, Jasmeet; Wright, Victoria J.; Levy, Ofer; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-01-01

    While developing adaptive immune responses, young infants are especially vulnerable to serious infections, including sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs) are key effectors that function as broad-spectrum anti-infectives. This review seeks to summarize the clinically relevant functional qualities of APPs and the increasing clinical trial evidence for their use to combat serious infections in infancy. Levels of APPs are relatively low in early life, especially in infants born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW). There are several rationales for the potential clinical utility of APPs in the prevention and treatment of infections in infants: (a) APPs may be most helpful in those with reduced levels; (b) during sepsis microbial products signal via pattern recognition receptors causing potentially harmful inflammation that APPs may counteract; and (c) in the era of antibiotic resistance, development of new anti-infective strategies is essential. Evidence supports the potential clinical utility of exogenous APPs to reduce infection-related morbidity in infancy. Further studies should characterize the ontogeny of antimicrobial activity in mucosal and systemic compartments, and examine the efficacy of exogenous-APP formulations to inform translational development of APPs for infant groups. PMID:27588020

  8. Precedents of perceived social support: personality, early life experiences and gender.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Watanabe, Kyoko; Takara, Nobue; Hiyama, Kazutoshi; Yasumiya, Rie; Fujihara, Shigeki

    2002-04-01

    The perception of social support may be a trait-like construct stemming from the current personality and early environment as well as a summation of the actual support perceived. A total of 220 community individuals were examined for the effects of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) items and early life experience at home and outside on the number of sources of perceived social support and satisfaction with that support. High extraversion and low neuroticism scores of the EPQ were correlated with the availability of support only in women, while high maternal care and low maternal overprotection in childhood were correlated with the satisfaction with support only in men. Availability of support was also correlated with some types of early life events. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their links to personality and early environment, and may be, to some extent, explainable in terms of them.

  9. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages.

  10. The relationship between early-life environment, the epigenome and the microbiota.

    PubMed

    Majnik, Amber V; Lane, Robert H

    2015-10-01

    Children exposed to early-life adversity carry a greater risk of poor health and disease into adulthood. This increased disease risk is shadowed by changes in the epigenome. Epigenetics can change gene expression to modify disease risk; unfortunately, how epigenetics are changed by the environment is unclear. It is known that the environment modifies the microbiota, and recent data indicate that the microbiota and the epigenome interact and respond to each other. Specifically, the microbiome may alter the epigenome through the production of metabolites. Investigating the relationship between the microbiome and the epigenome may provide novel understanding of the impact of early-life environment on long-term health.

  11. Environmental conditions during early life determine the consequences of inbreeding in Agrostemma githago (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Goodrich, S H; Beans, C M; Roach, D A

    2013-03-01

    In an inbred population, selection may reduce the frequency of deleterious recessive alleles through a process known as purging. Empirical studies suggest, however, that the efficacy of purging in natural populations is highly variable. This variation may be due, in part, to variation in the expression of inbreeding depression available for selection to act on. This experiment investigates the roles of life stage and early-life environment in determining the expression of inbreeding depression in Agrostemma githago. Four population-level crosses ('self', 'within', 'near' and 'far') were conducted on 20 maternal plants from a focal population. Siblings were planted into one of three early environmental treatments with varying stress levels. Within the focal population, evidence for purging of deleterious recessive alleles, as well as for variation in the expression of inbreeding depression across the life cycle was examined. In addition, the effect of early environment on the expression of inbreeding depression and the interaction with cross-type was measured. We find that deleterious recessive alleles have not been effectively purged from our focal population, the expression of inbreeding depression decreases over the course of the life cycle, and a stressful early environment reduces the variance in inbreeding depression expressed later in life, but does not consistently influence the relative fitness of inbred versus outcrossed individuals.

  12. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. PMID:28273874

  13. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  14. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  16. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic’s health effects. Conclusions As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic’s relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. PMID:23859881

  17. Imperfect past and present progressive: beak color reflects early-life and adult exposure to antigen

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Madeleine F.; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary sexual traits may convey information about individual condition. We assessed the capacity for immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) during the prenatal and early postnatal stages to impact beak color development and expression in captive zebra finches. In addition, we tested whether adult immune challenge impacted beak color, and if early-life experience was influential. Immune challenge with KLH early in life slowed development of red beak coloration, and males challenged with KLH as nestlings had reduced red coloration as adults. Following adult KLH challenge, males exhibited a decline in beak redness. Birds challenged with KLH during development produced more anti-KLH antibodies after adult challenge. There was a significant interaction between young treatment and anti-KLH antibody production; for males not challenged with KLH early in life, individuals that mounted a weaker antibody response lost more red coloration after challenge than males mounting a stronger antibody response. Based on models of avian vision, these differences in beak coloration should be detectable to the finches. In contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of early-life or adult challenge with LPS on any aspects of beak coloration. These results provide evidence that beak color reflects developmental and current conditions, and that the signal is linked to critical physiological processes. PMID:27656084

  18. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-09-01

    The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the

  19. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  20. Retrospective life course data from European countries on how early life experiences determine health in old age and possible mid-life mediators.

    PubMed

    Pakpahan, Eduwin; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kröger, Hannes

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research paper entitled "The long arm of childhood circumstances on health in old age: Evidence from SHARELIFE" (E. Pakpahan, R. Hoffmann, H. Kröger, 2016) [1]. It presents the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and health from childhood until old age in thirteen European countries. In order to capture the characteristics of longitudinal data, which resembles life course data, we divide the data into three schematic periods: childhood (up to 15 years old), adulthood (30 to 60 years old), and old age (61 to 90 years old). This data set contains respondents' life histories, ranging from childhood conditions (such as housing and health) to detailed questions on education, adult SES (working history, income, and wealth) and old age health. The data can be used not only to understand on how early life experiences determine health in old age, but also to recognise the importance of possible mid-life mediators.

  1. Immunological characterization of the early human fracture hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, T; Strehl, C; Schmidt-Bleek, K; Lang, A; Huscher, D; Burmester, G R; Schmidmaier, G; Perka, C; Duda, G N; Buttgereit, F

    2016-12-01

    The initial inflammatory phase of fracture healing is of great importance for the clinical outcome. We aimed to develop a detailed time-dependent analysis of the initial fracture hematoma. We analyzed the composition of immune cell subpopulations by flow cytometry and the concentration of cytokines and chemokines by bioplex in 42 samples from human fractures of long bones <72 h post-trauma. The early human fracture hematoma is characterized by maturation of granulocytes and migration of monocytes/macrophages and hematopoietic stem cells. Both T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells proliferate within the fracture hematoma and/or migrate to the fracture site. Humoral immunity characteristics comprise high concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ and TNFα, but also elevated concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-10. Furthermore, we found that cells of the fracture hematoma represent a source for key chemokines. Even under the bioenergetically restricted conditions that exist in the initial fracture hematoma, immune cells are not only present, but also survive, mature, function and migrate. They secrete a cytokine/chemokine cocktail that contributes to the onset of regeneration. We hypothesize that this specific microenvironment of the initial fracture hematoma is among the crucial factors that determine fracture healing.

  2. Early-spring aerosol characterization across multiple Arctic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibakov, Konstantin; O'Neill, Norm; Ivanescu, Liviu; Perro, Chris; Ritter, Christoph; Herber, Andreas; Duck, Tom J.; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Schrems, Otto

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic region is characterized by complex interactions between aerosols, clouds and precipitation. Ground-based observations of atmospheric optical properties are usually comprised of photometric aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements and lidar extinction and backscatter profiles. The night-time AODs obtained with star- and moonphotometry have been extremely limited in the Arctic region. The first part of the paper is based on the synchronous starphotometry and lidar measurements obtained at Eureka (Canada, 80°N, 86°W) and Ny Alesund (Spitsbergen, 79°N, 12°E) in late winter-early spring periods of 2011 and 2012. We present several examples of process-level events as well as the winter to spring climatological dynamics of cloud-screened optical depths. The particular cases include aerosol, thin-cloud, ice crystals and polar stratospheric cloud events. An integral part of the process-level analysis, which ultimately informs the seasonal analysis, is the synergistic interpretation of the spectral, temporal and spatial information content of the passive and active data. In the second part of the paper we present the preliminary results obtained from the intercomparison field campaign at Barrow (Alaska, 71°N,156°W) that took place in spring 2013. The instrumentation suit included high-spectral resolution lidar, a starphotometer and a moonphotometer.

  3. Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2009-07-01

    Variations among individuals in phenotypic quality and fitness often confound analyses of life-history strategies assessed at the population level. We used detailed long-term data from three populations of large herbivores with generation times ranging from four to nine years to quantify heterogeneity in individual quality among females, and to assess its influence on mean annual reproductive success over the lifetime (MRS). We also determined how environmental conditions in early life shaped individual quality and tested A. Lomnicki's hypothesis that variance in individual quality should increase when environmental conditions deteriorate. Using multivariate analyses (PCA), we identified one (in sheep and deer) or two (in goats) covariations among life-history traits (longevity, success in the last breeding opportunity, adult mass, and social rank) as indexes of individual quality that positively influenced MRS of females. Individual quality was reduced by unfavorable weather, low resource availability, and high population density in the year of birth. Early-life conditions accounted for 35-55% of variation in individual quality. In roe deer, we found greater variance in individual quality for cohorts born under unfavorable conditions as opposed to favorable ones, but the opposite was found in bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneity in female quality can originate from environmental conditions in early life and can markedly influence the fitness of females in species located at different positions along the slow-fast continuum of life-history strategies.

  4. Neuropathic Pain Is Constitutively Suppressed in Early Life by Anti-Inflammatory Neuroimmune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Rebecca; Berta, Temugin; Old, Elizabeth; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can trigger neuropathic pain in adults but not in infants; indeed, for unknown reasons, neuropathic pain is rare before adolescence. We show here that the absence of neuropathic pain response in infant male rats and mice following nerve injury is due to an active, constitutive immune suppression of dorsal horn pain activity. In contrast to adult nerve injury, which triggers a proinflammatory immune response in the spinal dorsal horn, infant nerve injury triggers an anti-inflammatory immune response, characterized by significant increases in IL-4 and IL-10. This immediate anti-inflammatory response can also be evoked by direct C-fiber nerve stimulation in infant, but not adult, mice. Blockade of the anti-inflammatory activity with intrathecal anti-IL10 unmasks neuropathic pain behavior in infant nerve injured mice, showing that pain hypersensitivity in young mice is actively suppressed by a dominant anti-inflammatory neuroimmune response. As infant nerve injured mice reach adolescence (postnatal day 25–30), the dorsal horn immune profile switches from an anti-inflammatory to a proinflammatory response characterized by significant increases in TNF and BDNF, and this is accompanied by a late onset neuropathic pain behavior and increased dorsal horn cell sensitivity to cutaneous mechanical and cold stimuli. These findings show that neuropathic pain following early life nerve injury is not absent but suppressed by neuroimmune activity and that “latent” pain can still emerge at adolescence, when the neuroimmune profile changes. The data may explain why neuropathic pain is rare in young children and also why it can emerge, for no observable reason, in adolescent patients. PMID:25589741

  5. Influence of early life stress on intra- and extra-amygdaloid causal connectivity.

    PubMed

    Grant, Merida M; Wood, Kimberly; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Wheelock, Muriah; White, David; Thomas, Jasmyne; Knight, David C; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2015-06-01

    Animal models of early life stress (ELS) are characterized by augmented amygdala response to threat and altered amygdala-dependent behaviors. These models indicate the amygdala is a heterogeneous structure with well-differentiated subnuclei. The most well characterized of these being basolateral (BLA) and central nucleus (CeA). Parallel human imaging findings relative to ELS also reveal enhanced amygdala reactivity and disrupted connectivity but the influence of ELS on amygdala subregion connectivity and modulation of emotion is unclear. Here we employed cytoarchitectonic probability maps of amygdala subregions and Granger causality methods to evaluate task-based intra-amygdaloid and extra-amygdaloid connectivity with the network underlying implicit regulation of emotion in response to unconditioned auditory threat in healthy controls with ELS (N=20) and without a history of ELS (N=14). Groups were determined by response to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and threat response determined by unpleasantness ratings. Non-ELS demonstrated narrowly defined BLA-driven intra-amygdaloid paths and concise orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-CeA-driven extra-amygdaloid connectivity. In contrast, ELS was associated with extensive and robust CeA-facilitated intra- and extra-amygdaloid paths. Non-ELS findings paralleled the known anatomical organization and functional relationships for both intra- and extra-amygdaloid connectivity, while ELS demonstrated atypical intra- and extra-amygdaloid CeA-dominant paths with compensatory modulation of emotion. Specifically, negative causal paths from OFC/BA32 to BLA predicted decreased threat response among non-ELS, while a unique within-amygdala path predicted modulation of threat among ELS. These findings are consistent with compensatory mechanisms of emotion regulation following ELS among resilient persons originating both within the amygdala complex as well as subsequent extra-amygdaloid communication.

  6. Neuropathic pain is constitutively suppressed in early life by anti-inflammatory neuroimmune regulation.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Rebecca; Berta, Temugin; Old, Elizabeth; Ji, Ru-Rong; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2015-01-14

    Peripheral nerve injury can trigger neuropathic pain in adults but not in infants; indeed, for unknown reasons, neuropathic pain is rare before adolescence. We show here that the absence of neuropathic pain response in infant male rats and mice following nerve injury is due to an active, constitutive immune suppression of dorsal horn pain activity. In contrast to adult nerve injury, which triggers a proinflammatory immune response in the spinal dorsal horn, infant nerve injury triggers an anti-inflammatory immune response, characterized by significant increases in IL-4 and IL-10. This immediate anti-inflammatory response can also be evoked by direct C-fiber nerve stimulation in infant, but not adult, mice. Blockade of the anti-inflammatory activity with intrathecal anti-IL10 unmasks neuropathic pain behavior in infant nerve injured mice, showing that pain hypersensitivity in young mice is actively suppressed by a dominant anti-inflammatory neuroimmune response. As infant nerve injured mice reach adolescence (postnatal day 25-30), the dorsal horn immune profile switches from an anti-inflammatory to a proinflammatory response characterized by significant increases in TNF and BDNF, and this is accompanied by a late onset neuropathic pain behavior and increased dorsal horn cell sensitivity to cutaneous mechanical and cold stimuli. These findings show that neuropathic pain following early life nerve injury is not absent but suppressed by neuroimmune activity and that "latent" pain can still emerge at adolescence, when the neuroimmune profile changes. The data may explain why neuropathic pain is rare in young children and also why it can emerge, for no observable reason, in adolescent patients.

  7. Concept for Determining the Life of Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Nondestructive Characterization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, M.; Ellingson, B.; Spohnholtz, T.; Koenig, J.

    2001-01-01

    An idea is put forth for a nondestructive characterization (NDC) generated algorithm-N curve to replace a S-N curve. A scenario for NDC life determination has been proposed. There are many challenges for the NDC life determination and prediction, but it could yield a grand payoff. The justification for NDC life determination and prediction is documented.

  8. Immediate and delayed life history effects caused by food deprivation early in life in a short-lived lizard.

    PubMed

    Mugabo, M; Marquis, O; Perret, S; LE Galliard, J F

    2010-09-01

    Detailed studies of the mechanisms driving life history effects of food availability are of prime importance to understand the evolution of phenotypic plasticity and the capacity of organisms to produce better adapted phenotypes. Food availability may influence life history trajectories through three nonexclusive mechanisms: (i) immediate and long-lasting effects on individual quality, and indirect delayed effects on (ii) intracohort and (iii) intercohort interactions. Using the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara), we tested whether a food deprivation during the two-first months of life influence life history (growth, survival, reproduction) and performance traits (immunocompetence, locomotor performances) until adulthood. We investigated the underlying mechanisms and their possible interactions by manipulating jointly food availability in a birth cohort and in cohorts of older conspecifics. Food deprivation had direct immediate negative effects on growth but positive long-lasting effects on immunocompetence. Food deprivation had also indirect delayed effects on growth, body size, early survival and reproduction mediated by an interaction between its direct effects on individual quality and its delayed effects on the intensity of intercohort social interactions combined with density dependence on body size. These results demonstrate that interactions between direct and socially mediated effects of past environments influence life history evolution in size-structured and stage-structured populations.

  9. Identification, Characterization, and Exploration of Environments for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    A bibliography (18 references) listing the publications during the current grant period of The Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, part of the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute is presented. The publications, from the Period of Performance September 1, 2000 to February 28, 2002, primarily cover Mars and its potential for life, as well as extreme environments and primitive life forms on Earth. One of the publications covers Europa and the Galileo spacecraft.

  10. Early Life Stress and Chronic Variable Stress in Adulthood Interact to Influence Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Candace R.; Staudinger, Kelsey; Tomek, Seven E.; Hernandez, Raymundo; Manning, Tawny; Olive, M. Foster

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress interacts with adult stress to differentially modulate neural systems and vulnerability to various psychiatric illnesses. However, the effects of early life stress and adult stress on addictive behaviors have not been sufficiently investigated. We examined the effects of early life stress in the form of prolonged maternal separation followed in early adulthood by either 10 days of chronic variable stress or no stress on methamphetamine self-administration, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement. We observed that chronic variable stress in adulthood reduced methamphetamine self-administration in rats with a history of early life stress. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting interactions between and early life and early adulthood stressors on adult behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26176409

  11. Early life stress and chronic variable stress in adulthood interact to influence methamphetamine self-administration in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Candace R; Staudinger, Kelsey; Tomek, Seven E; Hernandez, Raymundo; Manning, Tawny; Olive, M Foster

    2016-04-01

    Early life stress interacts with adult stress to differentially modulate neural systems and vulnerability to various psychiatric illnesses. However, the effects of early life stress and adult stress on addictive behaviors have not been sufficiently investigated. We examined the effects of early life stress in the form of prolonged maternal separation, followed in early adulthood by either 10 days of chronic variable stress or no stress, on methamphetamine self-administration, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement. We observed that chronic variable stress in adulthood reduced methamphetamine self-administration in rats with a history of early life stress. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting interactions between early life and early adulthood stressors on adult behavioral phenotypes.

  12. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site

  13. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Høst, Arne; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Halken, Susanne

    2017-10-05

    Sensitization to both inhalant and food allergens has been shown to be risk factors for development of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis (RC). However, few studies have addressed the role of transient or persistent IgE sensitization to specific allergens in early life for later development of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the association between transient and persistent sensitization in early-life and the development of asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years. The DARC cohort is a prospective non-interventional birth cohort study comprising 562 children. For the purpose of this study, we examined a subgroup of the original cohort with specific IgE measured at, at least 3 of 4 follow-ups between 3 and 18 months of age (n=366). Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between transient and persistent early-life sensitization to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen's egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early-life Social Adversity and Developmental Processes in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A; Carp, Sarah B

    2015-01-01

    Most primate species produce offspring that are altricial and highly dependent upon caregivers. As a consequence, a host of developmental trajectories can be dramatically altered by variation in early experiences. We review the impact of early social experiences (in both experimental models and natural contexts) on developmental profiles in three species of nonhuman primates: marmosets, squirrel monkeys, and macaques. Graded exposure to early-life social adversity (ELSA) produces short- to long-term effects on multiple developmental outcomes, including affect, social behavior, cognitive and attentional processes, and in the neural substrates that underlie these sociobehavioral traits. PMID:26858971

  16. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  17. Influence of light exposure during early life on the age of onset of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Andreassen, Ole A; Angelopoulos, Elias; Ardau, Raffaella; Baethge, Christopher; Bauer, Rita; Baune, Bernhard T; Bellivier, Frank; Belmaker, Robert H; Berk, Michael; Bjella, Thomas D; Bossini, Letizia; Bersudsky, Yuly; Wo Cheung, Eric Yat; Conell, Jörn; Del Zompo, Maria; Dodd, Seetal; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Frye, Mark A; Fountoulakis, Kostas N; Garneau-Fournier, Jade; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Gottlieb, John F; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Iacovides, Apostolos; Isometsä, Erkki T; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kliwicki, Sebastian; König, Barbara; Krogh, Rikke; Kunz, Mauricio; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; MacQueen, Glenda; Manchia, Mirko; Marsh, Wendy; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Melle, Ingrid; Monteith, Scott; Morken, Gunnar; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nery, Fabiano G; O'Donovan, Claire; Osher, Yamima; Pfennig, Andrea; Quiroz, Danilo; Ramesar, Raj; Rasgon, Natalie; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela; Severus, Emanuel; Simhandl, Christian; Stein, Dan J; Strejilevich, Sergio; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Suominen, Kirsi; Tagata, Hiromi; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Torrent, Carla; Vieta, Eduard; Viswanath, Biju; Wanchoo, Mihir J; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Environmental conditions early in life may imprint the circadian system and influence response to environmental signals later in life. We previously determined that a large springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location was associated with a younger age of onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. This study investigated whether the hours of daylight at the birth location affected this association. Data collected previously at 36 collection sites from 23 countries were available for 3896 patients with bipolar I disorder, born between latitudes of 1.4 N and 70.7 N, and 1.2 S and 41.3 S. Hours of daylight variables for the birth location were added to a base model to assess the relation between the age of onset and solar insolation. More hours of daylight at the birth location during early life was associated with an older age of onset, suggesting reduced vulnerability to the future circadian challenge of the springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location. Addition of the minimum of the average monthly hours of daylight during the first 3 months of life improved the base model, with a significant positive relationship to age of onset. Coefficients for all other variables remained stable, significant and consistent with the base model. Light exposure during early life may have important consequences for those who are susceptible to bipolar disorder, especially at latitudes with little natural light in winter. This study indirectly supports the concept that early life exposure to light may affect the long term adaptability to respond to a circadian challenge later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism.

  19. Early-life origins of chronic respiratory diseases: understanding and promoting healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Silvia; Scheltema, Nienke; Bont, Louis; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions. ©ERS 2014.

  20. Work-Life Balance, Burnout, and Satisfaction of Early Career Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Starmer, Amy J; Frintner, Mary Pat; Freed, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Data describing factors associated with work-life balance, burnout, and career and life satisfaction for early career pediatricians are limited. We sought to identify personal and work factors related to these outcomes. We analyzed 2013 survey data of pediatricians who graduated residency between 2002 and 2004. Dependent variables included: (1) balance between personal and professional commitments, (2) current burnout in work, (3) career satisfaction, and (4) life satisfaction. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations of personal and work characteristics with each of the 4 dependent variables. A total of 93% of participants completed the survey (n = 840). A majority reported career (83%) and life (71%) satisfaction. Fewer reported current appropriate work-life balance (43%) or burnout (30%). In multivariable modeling, excellent/very good health, having support from physician colleagues, and adequate resources for patient care were all found to be associated with a lower prevalence of burnout and a higher likelihood of work-life balance and career and life satisfaction. Having children, race, and clinical specialty were not found to be significantly associated with any of the 4 outcome measures. Female gender was associated with a lower likelihood of balance and career satisfaction but did not have an association with burnout or life satisfaction. Burnout and struggles with work-life balance are common; dissatisfaction with life and career are a concern for some early career pediatricians. Efforts to minimize these outcomes should focus on encouragement of modifiable factors, including health supervision, peer support, and ensuring sufficient patient care resources. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  2. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  3. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  4. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  5. Individuals' Life Structures in the Early Adulthood Period Based on Levinson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktu, Yahya; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Early adulthood is one of the important milestones considered within lifelong development in the relevant literature. Adulthood is examined through various theories; however, universality of many of these is still being discussed. One of these theories is Levinson's theory of life structure. Thus, the current research aims to examine the extent to…

  6. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  7. The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an import